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BP plc
Type Public (LSE: BP, NYSE: BP
Founded 1908 (as the Anglo-Persian Oil Company)
1954 (as The British Petroleum Company)
Headquarters Flag of the United Kingdom London, England, UK
Key people Donald Alexander Smith (founding chairman)
Tony Hayward (current CEO)
Byron Grote, CFO
Industry Oil and Natural Gas, Alternative fuel
Products BP petroleum and derived products
BP service stations
Air BP Aviation Fuels
Castrol motor oil
ARCO gas stations
am/pm convenience stores
Aral service stations
Revenue $274.316 Billion USD (2006)
Operating income $35.158 Billion USD (2006)
Net income $22.286 Billion USD (2006)
Employees 115,000 (2006)
Slogan Beyond petroleum.
Website www.bp.com

BP plc (LSE: BP), NYSE: BP, TYO: 5051), formerly known as British Petroleum, is a British energy company / multinational oil company ("oil major") with headquarters in London, England, UK. The company is amongst the largest private sector energy corporations in the world, and one of the six "supermajors" (vertically integrated private sector oil exploration, natural gas, and petroleum product marketing companies). Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... BP may stand for: Before Present, in social sciences such as history, archeology, climatology, et al. ... Image File history File links BP_Logo. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Source by Greyworld, in the new LSE building Paternoster Square. ... New York Stock Exchange (June 2003) The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is one of the largest stock exchanges in the world. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) was founded in 1909 following the discovery of a large oil field in Masjed Soleiman, Iran. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Donald Alexander Smith Donald Alexander Smith (August 6, 1820 – January 21, 1914) was a Scottish born Canadian fur trader, financier, railroad baron and politician. ... Dr Anthony Hayward CCMI (born 1957) is the Chief Executive of oil and energy company BP Group, taking over from John Browne, Baron Browne of Madingley on 1 May 2007. ... Byron E. Grote (born 1948 or 1949) is currently the chief financial officer of BP. He has been with the company since 1987 following their aquisition of Standard Oil of Ohio where he had worked since 1979. ... “CFO” redirects here. ... This is a list of petroleum companies. ... The definition of alternative fuel varies according to the context of its usage. ... A self-service Air BP fueling station at the Kalamazoo-Battle Creek International Airport Air BP is BPs line of aviation fuels. ... Castrol is a brand of industrial and automotive lubricants which is applied to a large range of oil products for most lubrication applications. ... An ARCO gas station in Los Angeles ARCO (an acronym for Atlantic Richfield Company) is an American oil company that was formed by the merger of East Coast-based Atlantic Refining and California-based Richfield Petroleum in 1966. ... ampm is a convenience store chain with branches located in Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and Japan. ... The Aral corporate logo Aral is a brand of automobile fuels and gas stations, present in Germany, Luxembourg and the Czech Republic. ... Look up revenue in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... “USD” redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT), also known as operating income and operating profit, is a term used to describe a companys earnings. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... “USD” redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Net income is equal to the income that a firm has after subtracting costs and expenses from the total revenue. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... “USD” redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about work. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up slogan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... PLC may stand for: Palestinian Legislative Council, law-making body of the Palestinian Authority Parti Libéral du Canada, the term in French for the Liberal Party of Canada Partido Liberal Constitucionalista (or Constitutional Liberal Party), a major political party in Nicaragua Phospholipase C Platoon Leaders Class Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth... The Source by Greyworld, in the new LSE building Paternoster Square. ... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ... The Tokyo Stock Exchange ), or TSE, is one of the largest stock exchange markets in the world by monetary volume located in Tokyo, Japan, second only to the New York Stock Exchange. ... A multinational corporation (MNC) is a corporation or enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries. ... Oil major is a generic term applied to the worlds largest energy companies. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The private sector of a nations economy consists of all that is outside the state. ... The term supermajor illustrates the six largest energy companies, as seen in popular financial mediums around the world. ... It has been suggested that Vertical expansion be merged into this article or section. ... The private sector of a nations economy consists of all that is outside the state. ... Oil exploration is the search by petroleum geologists for hydrocarbon deposits beneath the Earths surface. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ...

Contents

Origins and history

Activity in 1909 - 1979

In May 1901, William Knox D'Arcy was granted a concession by the Shah of Iran to search for oil which he found in May 1908. This was the first commercially significant find in the Middle East. On 14 April 1909, the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) was incorporated to exploit this. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... The entrepreneur William Knox DArcy (October 11, 1849 - May 1, 1917) was one of the main founders of the oil and petrochemical industry in Persia (Iran). ... One of the worlds longest-lasting monarchies, the Iranian monarchy went through many transformations over the centuries, from the days of Persia to the creation of what is now modern day Iran. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... The Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) was founded in 1909 following the discovery of a large oil field in Masjed Soleiman, Iran. ...


After World War II, AIOC and the Iranian government initially resisted nationalist pressure to revise AIOC's concession terms still further in Iran's favour. But in March 1951, the pro-western Prime Minister Ali Razmara was assassinated. The Iranian Majlis (parliament) elected a nationalist, Mohammed Mossadeq, as prime minister. In April, the Majlis nationalised the oil industry by unanimous vote. The British government contested the nationalisation at the International Court of Justice at The Hague, but its complaint was dismissed. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Major General Razmara // Biography Sepahbod Haj Ali Razmara (1901 – March 7, 1951) was a military leader and Prime Minister of Iran. ... Majlis (مجلس) is an Arabic term used to describe various types of formal legislative assemblies in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries. ... Mohammed Mossadegh (Persian: محمد مصدق‎) (May 19, 1882 - March 4, 1967) was prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 98. ...


The British government decided that the only way to regain its control of Iranian oil (which it regarded as a vital national interest), was to remove Mossadeq from office. It aimed to replace him with a more friendly regime led by the Shah, Mohammed Reza Pahlavi. Its problem was that it lacked the means to do so without American support. But it was clear the U.S. government would never support a coup d'état designed only to protect Britain's commercial interests. So the British played on America's then paranoia about the Communist "threat" by producing bogus "evidence" that Mossadeq was scheming to bring Iran into the Soviet sphere of influence. In early 1953, incoming U.S. President Eisenhower authorised the CIA to overthrow the Iranian government. The CIA conspiracy, involving the Shah and the Iranian military, became known by its codename, "Operation Ajax". His Majesty Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (اعلیحضرت محمدرضا شاه پهلوی; October 26, 1919 – July 27, 1980) also knows as Aryamehr, was the last Shah of Iran, ruling from 1941 until... // A coup dÉtat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, often through illegal means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... Soldiers surround the Parliament building in Tehran on August 19, 1953. ...


On August 19, 1953, Mossadeq was forced from office by a military coup. He was replaced by pro-Western general Fazlollah Zahedi. The Shah, who had left the country briefly to await the outcome of the coup, returned to Iran. He abolished the democratic Constitution and assumed autocratic powers. The AIOC became The British Petroleum Company in 1954 , and resumed operations in Iran. However, it was not allowed to monopolise Iranian oil as before. It was limited to a 40% share in a new international consortium. is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Muhammad Fazlollah Zahedi (1897-1963) was an Iranian general and politician. ...


BP continued to operate in Iran until the Islamic Revolution in 1979. The new regime of Ayatollah Khomeini confiscated all of BP's assets in Iran without compensation, finally closing BP's controversial 70-year presence in Iran. However, due to its huge investments outside Iran, especially in the North Sea and Alaska, the company's status as an oil major survived its Iranian disaster.[1][2] edit See Also: Persian Empire History of Iran and Greater Iran (also referred to as the Iranian Cultural Continent by the Encyclopedia Iranica)—- consisting areas from Euphrates in the west to Indus River and Syr Darya in the east and from Caucasus, Caspian sea and Aral Sea in the north... Ayatollah redirects here. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Official language(s) None[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ...


1960s and 1970s

The BP logo used from 1989 to 2002.
The BP logo used from 1989 to 2002.

From the late 1960s the company expanded beyond the Middle East to the USA (Prudhoe Bay, Alaska) and the North Sea. Both of these fields came on stream in the mid-1970s. In 1969, BP acquired the Valdez oil terminal, Alaska, from the Chugach for $1. Some natives contend that this was an illegal transfer. Image File history File links BP_old_logo. ... Image File history File links BP_old_logo. ... Prudhoe Bay is a census-designated place located in North Slope Borough, Alaska. ... Official language(s) None[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... The Valdez Oil Terminal is an oil port in Valdez, Alaska, at the southern end of the Alaska Pipeline. ... Official language(s) None[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ... Chugach (pronounced CHOO-gatch) is the name of a native Alaskan culture and group of people in the region of the Kenai Peninsula and Prince William Sound. ... “USD” redirects here. ...


In the mid-1970s, BP acquired Standard Oil of Ohio or Sohio, a breakoff of the former Standard Oil that had been broken up after anti-trust litigation. Standard Oil of Ohio or Sohio was an American oil company that was acquired by British Petroleum, now part of BP. It was one of the successor companies to Standard Oil after the antitrust breakup in 1911. ...


1980s and 1990s

P.I. Walters (later Sir Peter Walters) was BP's chairman from 1981 to 1989. This was the era of the Thatcher government's privatisation strategy. The British government sold its entire holding in BP in several tranches in 1984-7. The sale process was marked by a controversial attempt by the Kuwait Investment Office, the investment arm of the Kuwait government, to acquire control of BP. This was ultimately blocked by the strong opposition of the British government. In 1987, British Petroleum negotiated the acquisition of Britoil and those shares of Standard Oil of Ohio (Sohio) through CEO Charlie Spahr not already owned. Margaret Thatcher was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990. ... Privatization (sometimes privatisation, denationalization, or — especially in India — disinvestment) is the process of transferring property, from public ownership to private ownership. ... Britoil was originally a privatised British oil company formed from the nationalised corporation BNOC (British National Oil Corporation) in the early 1980s. ... Standard Oil of Ohio or Sohio was an American oil company that was acquired by British Petroleum, now part of BP. It was one of the successor companies to Standard Oil after the antitrust breakup in 1911. ... The current version of this article or section is written in an informal style and with a personally invested tone. ...


Walters was replaced by Sir Robert Horton in 1989. Horton carried out a major corporate downsizing exercise, making over 1,000 head office bureaucrats redundant. He moved head office from its long-time Thames-side site at Vauxhall to the City of London. Sir Robert Horton is a UK businessman born on 18 August 1939. ... Vauxhall is an inner city area of south London in the London Borough of Lambeth. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state United Kingdom Constituent country England Region Greater London Status sui generis, City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor John Stuttard  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - City  1. ...


Lord Browne of Madingley, who had been on the board as managing director since 1991, was appointed group chief executive in 1995. Browne was responsible for three major acquisitions, Amoco, ARCO and Castrol (see below). This turned BP into the second-largest oil company in the world. For other notable people called John Browne, see John Browne (disambiguation). ... The American Oil Company, or Amoco, was a global chemical and oil company, founded in Baltimore in 1910 and incorporated in 1922 by Louis Blaustein and his son Jacob, but now part of BP. The firms early innovations include the gasoline tanker truck and the drive-through filling station. ... An ARCO gas station in Los Angeles ARCO (an acronym for Atlantic Richfield Company) is an American oil company that was formed by the merger of East Coast-based Atlantic Refining and California-based Richfield Petroleum in 1966. ... Castrol is a brand of industrial and automotive lubricants which is applied to a large range of oil products for most lubrication applications. ...


Recent years

Chief Scientist of BP, Steven Koonin (top right, with laptop), speaks about the energy scene in the boardroom in 2005.
Chief Scientist of BP, Steven Koonin (top right, with laptop), speaks about the energy scene in the boardroom in 2005.

British Petroleum merged with Amoco (Formerly Standard Oil of Indiana), in December 1998, becoming BPAmoco until 2000, when it was renamed BP and adopted the tagline "Beyond Petroleum," which remains in use today. It states that BP was never meant to be an abbreviation of its tagline. Most Amoco gas stations in the United States have changed the look and name to the bp brand. In many states, however, BP is selling Amoco branded gasoline, as it was rated the #1 petroleum brand by consumers 16 years in a row (the name of the service station itself is still BP) and Amoco has one of the highest brand loyalty for gasoline in the US with only Chevron and Shell having such high rates as BP/Amoco. In 2000, British Petroleum acquired Arco (Atlantic Richfield Co.) and Burmah Castrol plc. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to the patterns of everyday speech. ... Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 439 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 439 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The American Oil Company, or Amoco, was a global chemical and oil company, founded in Baltimore in 1910 and incorporated in 1922 by Louis Blaustein and his son Jacob, but now part of BP. The firms early innovations include the gasoline tanker truck and the drive-through filling station. ... Modern gas station A filling station, gas station or petrol station is a facility that sells fuel for road motor vehicles – usually petrol (US: gas/gasoline), diesel fuel and LPG. The term gas station is mostly particular to the United States of America and Canada, where petrol is known... Chevron Corporation (NYSE: CVX) is one of the worlds largest global energy companies. ... A Shell petrol station sign in the UK The Royal Dutch/Shell Group of Companies (called Shell Oil in North America), has its headquarters split between the Shell Centre in London, United Kingdom and The Hague, Netherlands. ... An ARCO gas station in Los Angeles ARCO (an acronym for Atlantic Richfield Company) is an American oil company that was formed by the merger of East Coast-based Atlantic Refining and California-based Richfield Petroleum in 1966. ... Castrol is a brand of industrial and automotive lubricants which is applied to a large range of oil products for most lubrication applications. ...


In April of 2004, BP decided to move most of its petrochemical businesses into a separate entity called Innovene within the BP Group. Their intention was to sell the new company possibly via an Initial Public Offering (IPO) in the US, and in fact they filed their IPO plans for Innovene with the New York Stock Exchange on September 12, 2005. However, on October 7, 2005, BP announced that they had agreed to sell Innovene to INEOS, a privately held UK chemical company for the sum of $9 billion, thereby scrapping their plans for the IPO. “IPO” redirects here. ... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ineos is a privately owned British chemicals company. ...


On March 23, 2005, an explosion occurred at BP's Texas City Refinery in Texas City, Texas. It is the third largest refinery in the United States and one of the largest in the world, processing 433,000 barrels of crude oil per day and accounting for 3% of that nation's gasoline supply. Over 100 were injured, and 15 were confirmed dead, including employees of the Fluor Corporation as well as BP. BP has since accepted that its employees contributed to the accident. Level indicators failed, leading to overfilling of a heater, and light hydrocarbons spread throughout the area. An unidentified ignition source set off the explosion. [3] is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... BPs Texas City Refinery in Texas City, Texas is the second-largest oil refinery in the state and the third-largest in the United States. ... Texas City is a city in Galveston County in the U.S. state of Texas within the Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown metropolitan area. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Fluor Corporation NYSE: FLR,is one of the worlds largest publicly owned engineering, procurement, construction, and maintenance services organizations. ...


According to some private BP-branded gasoline center operators in the Metro Atlanta area, BP plans to leave the Southern Market in the next few years. All corporate-owned BP stations, typically known as "BP Connect" will be sold to local jobbers.[citation needed] A jobber is a person or company that purchases quantities of refined fuel from refining companies (e. ...


In March of 2006, one of BP's pipelines in the North Slope of Alaska ruptured, causing a major environmental hazard. [4]


BP has recently started to move its oil exploration activities away from the North Sea and Alaska and is looking into the former Soviet Union for its future reserves.[3] On July 19, 2006, BP announced that it would close the last 12 out of 57 oil wells in Alaska, mostly in Prudhoe Bay, that had been leaking. The wells were leaking insulating agent called Arctic pack, consisting of crude oil and diesel fuel, between the wells and ice.[4] Prudhoe Bay is a census-designated place located in North Slope Borough, Alaska. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... This article is about the fuel. ...


On 12 January 2007, it was announced that Lord Browne would retire at the end of July 2007. The new Chief Executive will be the current head of exploration and production, Tony Hayward. It had been expected that Lord Browne would retire in February 2008 when he reached the age of 60, the standard retirement age at BP. Browne resigned abruptly from BP on 1 May 2007, following the lifting of a legal injunction preventing Associated Newspapers from publishing details about his private life. Hayward succeeded Browne with immediate effect. is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Dr Anthony Hayward CCMI (born 1957) is the Chief Executive of oil and energy company BP Group, taking over from John Browne, Baron Browne of Madingley on 1 May 2007. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Associated Newspapers is a subsidiary of Daily Mail and General Trust and publishes five major UK newspaper titles; Daily Mail Mail on Sunday Evening Standard Ireland on Sunday Metro External links ANP Home ...


As of February 11, 2007 BP announced that they would spend 8 billion dollars over ten years to research other methods of fuel.


In Russia, BP owns 50% of TNK-BP with the other half owned by three Russian billionaires. TNK-BP accounts for a fifth of BP's global reserves, a quarter of BP's production, and nearly a tenth of its global profits.[5]


Corporate controversies

Prudhoe Bay shutdown

Solar panel made by BP Solar

As of August 7, 2006, BP has begun to shutdown oil operations in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, due to corrosion in the pipeline. BP had spilled over one million litres of oil in Alaska's North Slope.[6] This corrosion is caused by sediment collecting in the bottom of the pipe, protecting corrosive bacteria from chemicals sent through the pipeline to fight this bacteria. Prudhoe Bay produces about 2.6% of the United States demand for gasoline. It was initially estimated that the shutdown would cause a reduction of 400,000 barrels per day and reaction to that scenario was a contributing factor pushing the price of oil to over $77(USD) per barrel.[7]To, date 1,513 barrels of liquids, about 5,200 cubic yards of soiled snow and 328 cubic yards of soiled gravel have been recovered. There are estimates that about 5,000 barrels of oil were released from the pipeline. After further analysis and approval from the DOT, only the eastern portion of the field was shut down which resulted in a reduction of 200,000 barrels per day until work began to bring the eastern field to full production on Oct 2.[8] In May 2007, the company announced yet a further shutdown of the Prudhoe Bay pipeline owing to leaks of water at a separation plant. Their action was interpreted as another example of fallout from a decision to cut maintenance of the pipeline and associated facilities. solar panel by BP solar at a german autobahn bridge. ... solar panel by BP solar at a german autobahn bridge. ... A photovoltaic module is composed of individual PV cells. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Prudhoe Bay is a census-designated place located in North Slope Borough, Alaska. ...


Lake Michigan Plant Expansion

In July 2007, the Chicago Tribune reported that BP will be permitted to pollute Lake Michigan with an average of 1,584 pounds of ammonia and 4,925 pounds of sludge -- every day -- from its Whiting, Indiana oil plant outside of Chicago. The increase in ammonia and solids is due to a plant expansion that will allow it to accept Canadian crude oil as opposed to Middle Eastern crude. The output of the refinery is well below the maximum permitted under federal guidelines. With this action, the state of Indiana and EPA authorities allowed BP to be exempted from following all provisions of the federal Clean Water Act, and more specifically, the "antibacksliding" provisions within the act designed to prevent a company from ever increasing its water pollution levels, regardless of other limits or factors. [9] // The Chicago Tribune is a major daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois and owned by the Tribune Company. ... --67. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Whiting is a city in Lake County, Indiana, United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq mi (94,321 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 270 miles (435 km)  - % water 1. ... The Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. Â§ 1251, et seq. ...


On August 17, 2007, the Chicago Sun-Times urged readers to boycott BP gas stations: "At this point, the only clear message BP is sending is that it wants to have its cake and eat it too. BP executives want their company to be known as the greenest -- as suggested by its logo, meant to resemble a sunflower and show its commitment to the environment. But they also want to dump in our lakes. They can't have it both ways...That's why we have to help them decide which road they'll choose by hitting their pocketbooks -- at least until Sept. 1 when they'll return to Chicago to give Emanuel and Sen. Dick Durbin (D-Ill.) an update on their plans."[10] The Chicago Sun-Times is an American daily newspaper published in Chicago. ...


Recently, BP has announced it will put the plant expansion under review. Bob Malone, BP America President, cited both environmental and financial concerns when announcing that they may seek alternatives to the controversial Whiting expansion. It is unclear what impact this will have on the stated policy of making the United States less dependent on foreign oil.


Environmental record

BP was named one of the "ten worst corporations" in both 2001 and 2006 based on its environmental and human rights records.[11][12] In 1991 BP was cited as the most polluting company in the US based on EPA toxic release data. Greenpeace International named BP one of Scotland's two largest polluters in 1992. Since branding itself an environmentally sound corporation in 1997, BP has been charged with burning polluted gases at its Ohio refinery (for which it was fined $1.7 million), and in in July 2000 BP paid a $10 million fine to the EPA for its management of it's US refineries. [13]According to PIRG research, between January 1997 and March 1998, BP was responsible for 104 oil spills. [14] If one combines BP's own emissions with the emissions of the products it sells, then BP's emissions are greater than those of Central America, Canada or Britain. [15]


BP Solar is a leading producer of solar panels since its purchase of Lucas Energy Systems in 1980 and Solarex (as part of its acquisition of Amoco) in 2000. BP Solar had a 20% world market share in photovoltaic panels in 2004 when it had a capacity to produce 90 MW/year of panels. It has over 30 years experience operating in over 160 countries with manufacturing facilities in the U.S., Spain, India and Australia and has more than 2000 employees worldwide. BP has been involved in solar power since 1973 and its subsidiary, BP Solar, is now one of the worlds largest solar power companies with production facilities in the United States, Spain, India and Australia, employing a workforce of over 2,000 people worldwide. ... A photovoltaic module is composed of individual PV cells. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ...

A Gulf gasoline station in Louisville, KY using the previous BP prototype. BP purchased all Gulf stations in the southeastern United States in the 1980's after Chevron, Inc. was forced to divest the stations by the United States Justice Department.
A Gulf gasoline station in Louisville, KY using the previous BP prototype. BP purchased all Gulf stations in the southeastern United States in the 1980's after Chevron, Inc. was forced to divest the stations by the United States Justice Department.

BP/Amoco was a member of the Global Climate Coalition an industry organisation established to promote global warming skepticism but withdrew in 1997, saying "the time to consider the policy dimensions of climate change is not when the link between greenhouse gases and climate change is conclusively proven, but when the possibility cannot be discounted and is taken seriously by the society of which we are part. We in BP have reached that point."[16]. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Global Climate Coalition was a group of mainly United States businesses opposing immediate action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. ... The global warming controversy is a long-running dispute about human effects - past, present and future - on climate. ...


In February 2002 BP's chief executive, Lord Browne of Madingley, renounced the practice of corporate campaign contributions, noting: "That's why we've decided, as a global policy, that from now on we will make no political contributions from corporate funds anywhere in the world." [5] Chief Executive may refer to: Chief Executive of Hong Kong Chief Executive of Macau Chief Executive Officer This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


In March 2002 Lord Browne of Madingley declared in a speech that global warming was real and that urgent action was needed, saying that "Companies composed of highly skilled and trained people can't live in denial of mounting evidence gathered by hundreds of the most reputable scientists in the world.".[6] In 2005 BP was considering testing carbon sequestration in one of its North Sea oil fields, by pumping carbon dioxide into them (and thereby also increasing yields).[7] Global mean surface temperatures 1850 to 2006 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades and the projected... Carbon sequestration from a fossil-fuel power station A carbon dioxide sink or CO2 sink is a carbon reservoir that is increasing in size, and is the opposite of a carbon source. The main sinks are the oceans and growing vegetation. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


In 2004, BP began marketing low-sulfur diesel fuel for industrial use. BP intends to create a network of hydrogen fueling stations in the state of California. General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... This article is about the fuel. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


Accusations of Greenwashing

British Petroleum changed its name to BP in 2000, and introduced a new corporate slogan: “Beyond Petroleum.” It replaced its “Green Shield” logo with the helios symbol, a green and yellow sunflower pattern similar to the emblem of the Green Party of Canada. These changes were intended to highlight the company’s interest in alternative and environmentally friendly fuels. When, in July of 2006, BP admitted, only after journalists became aware of the spill, that it was facing criminal charges for allowing 270,000 gallons of crude oil to spread into the Alaskan tundra, environmental advocates pointed to the relative lack of press coverage about the spill as evidence that BP had successfully "greenwashed" its image while maintaining environmentally unsound practices.[17] [18] For other uses, see Helios (disambiguation). ... The Green Party of Canada is a Canadian federal political party founded in 1983. ...


Texas City Refinery Disaster

One of BP's largest refineries in the USA exploded in 2005 causing 15 deaths. The fall-out from the accident continues to cloud BP's corporate image because of the mismanagement at the plant. There have been several investigations of the disaster, the most recent being that from the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board. It was preceded by the Baker report and BP's own internal investigation. BPs Texas City Refinery in Texas City, Texas is the second-largest oil refinery in the state and the third-largest in the United States. ... The U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board, also know as the Chemical Safety Board or CSB, is a U.S. federal agency charged with investigating industrial chemical accidents. ...


Essentially, a large column filled with gasoline overflowed to form a vapour cloud, which ignited. The explosion caused all the casualties and substantial damage to the rest of the plant. The incident came as the culmination of a series of less serious accidents at the refinery, and the engineering problems were not addressed by the management. Maintenance and safety at the plant had been cut as a cost-saving measure, the responsibility ultimately resting with executives in London. The disaster indirectly helped (with several other factors) bring about the premature resignation of Lord Browne, and will continue to affect the company for some time to come.


West Papua

BP has come under heavy criticism from human rights groups, especially the Free West Papua campaign for developing a massive natural gas project in the region. This project will fund the Indonesian occupation of West Papua and has not been agreed by the West Papuan people. Furthermore BP have gone into business with the Indonesian regime without criticising the occupation (which has killed more than 100 000 people). Comparisons have been drawn between BP's presence in West Papua, Shell's presence in Nigeria and Total's presence in Burma. A leaflet published by the Free West Papua campaign used the letters "BP" as initials for "bleeding papua". Map showing West New Guinea region The region of West New Guinea is the western half of the island of New Guinea or Papua, and has also been known as Irian Jaya or West Papua. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ...


Other problems

However, BP's image has been tarnished somewhat by its involvement with the controversial Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline, criticized for human rights abuses, environmental and safety concerns[citation needed]. The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline (sometimes abbreviated as BTC pipeline) transports crude petroleum 1,776 km from the Azeri-Chirag-Guneshli oil field in the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. ... A human rights abuse is abuse of people in a way that violates any fundamental human rights. ...


BP has also been criticized for the increase in fuel prices in the UK. On April 25 2005 Lord Browne stated in an interview with the BBC that he fully expected petrol prices to stay above £1 per litre. [8] BP has also been involved in bringing lawsuits against biofuel and biodiesel producers and sellers in France and other countries.[citation needed]


In July 2006, a group of Colombian farmers won a multi million pound settlement from BP after the British oil and gas company was accused of benefiting from a regime of terror carried out by Colombian government paramilitaries to protect a 450-mile pipeline.[9] For other uses, see Fear (disambiguation). ... A paramilitary is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ...

BP "Helios" fueling station in Los Angeles
BP "Helios" fueling station in Los Angeles

BP has started a scheme for car owners to purchase carbon offsets called Target Neutral. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 525 pixelsFull resolution (1547 × 1016 pixel, file size: 956 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): BP Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 525 pixelsFull resolution (1547 × 1016 pixel, file size: 956 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): BP Metadata This file contains additional... Until recently, most carbon offsets were commonly done by planting trees. ... Target Neutral is a scheme set up by BP to help individual car owners participate in the mitigation of global warming. ...


As of February 11, 2007 BP announced that they would spend $8 billion over ten years to research alternative methods of fuel, including natural gas, hydrogen, solar, and wind. A $500 million grant offered to the University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, to create an "Energy Biosciences Institute"[19] has recently come under attack, over concerns about the global impacts of the research and privatization of public universities[20]. is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ...


In March 2007, BP unveiled its Helios fuel station on Olympic Boulevard in Los Angeles.[21] The station has radical architecture for a fuel station, and is a "living lab" for green technologies. [22] However, although there are solar panels on the roof, as of July 2007 they are not yet operational. [23] Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ...


BP was accused by the US Justice Department in 2006 of manipulating propane prices by buying large stocks of the gas, and is still under investigation.[citation needed] The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the law and to ensure fair and impartial administration of justice for all Americans. ... Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid that is transportable. ...


BP retail brands

BP gasoline station in Zanesville, Ohio using previous BP prototype.

This is BP's flagship retail brand name with BP Connect Service stations being operated around the UK, Europe, USA, Australia, New Zealand, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and other parts of the world. BP Connect sites feature the Wild Bean Cafe which offers cafe style coffee made by the staff and a selection of hot food as well as freshly baked muffins and sandwiches. The food offered in Wild Bean Cafe varies from each site. BP Connect sites usually offer table and chair seating and often an Internet kiosk. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (2097 × 1393 pixel, file size: 500 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) BP service station in Zanesville, Ohio. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (2097 × 1393 pixel, file size: 500 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) BP service station in Zanesville, Ohio. ... UK: The first BP Connects were opened in the UK in 2000, the first being a new-build in Raunds, Northamptonshire. ...

  • BP Express

This was the flagship BP brand prior to the introduction of BP Connect in 2000. There are still some BP Express sites operating around the world but most have been either upgraded to Connect or changed to an alternative brand. BP Express offers a bakery service but doesn't have the selection of food offered in the Wild Bean Cafe and usually coffee is only available through a self service machine.

  • BP Shop

Commonly used on smaller sites mainly independently owned sites. Products vary in each BP Shop but usually a selection of convenience store style food and automotive products.

  • BP 2go

A franchise brand used for independently operated sites in New Zealand. BP 2go sites mainly operate in towns and outer suburbs in New Zealand. BP 2go offers similar bakery food to BP Connect but in a pre-packaged form. Some BP Express sites around New Zealand that were considered too small to be upgraded to BP Connect were given the option to change to BP 2go others were downgraded to BP Shop. Staff at BP 2go sites wear a different style of uniform to the rest of the BP branded sites.


Bibliography

  • The history of the British Petroleum Company
    • Vol. I:R.W.Ferrier, The Developing Years 1901-1932, Cambridge University Press, 1982
    • Vol. II: James H. Bamberg, The Anglo-Iranian Years, 1928-1954, Cambridge University Press, 1994
    • Vol. III: James H. Bamberg, British Petroleum and Global Oil, 1950-1975: The Challenge of Nationalism, Cambridge University Press, 2000

See also

The Shell Guides were a 20th century series of guidebooks on the British Isles. ... This article describes the archipelago in north-Western Europe. ... -1... This is a list of oil and gas fields operated by BP. // All fields in British territory are operated as part of the BPs North Sea Strategic Performance Unit from their office in Dyce, Aberdeen. ... BPs Texas City Refinery in Texas City, Texas is the second-largest oil refinery in the state and the third-largest in the United States. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Cite error 8; No text given.
  2. ^ As Sir Peter Walters, Chairman 1981 - 1990, stated, "To be in the oil industry is to be involved in politics at the highest level" (Cadman Lecture, 31 October 1989 (BP 109206))
  3. ^ Penny Shares Online : BP(BP.) (2006-07-10). Retrieved on 2006-07-10.
  4. ^ Mark Tran. "BP shuts leaking Alaskan wells", "Guardian Unlimited", 2006-07-19. 
  5. ^ "BP Set to Leave Russia Gas Project" by Guy Chazan and Gregory White, Wall Street Journal, 2007-06-22 p. A3.
  6. ^ http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/03/0320_060320_alaska_oil.html
  7. ^ "Alaska oil shutdown hikes prices", CNN, 7 August 2006. Retrieved on 2006-08-08. 
  8. ^ "Alaska Update", BP, 2 October 2006. 
  9. ^ http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/chi-pollute_15jul15,1,2304440.story?coll=chi-newsnationworld-hed/
  10. ^ Boycott BP
  11. ^ http://www.multinationalmonitor.org/mm2006/112006/mokhiber.html
  12. ^ http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2001/01/fotc33.html
  13. ^ http://www.uow.edu.au/arts/sts/sbeder/bp.html
  14. ^ http://savethearctic.com/arctic.asp?id2=3865&id3=arctic&
  15. ^ http://www.corporatewatch.org/?lid=289#greenwash
  16. ^ "Global Climate Coalition", Sourcewatch. 
  17. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Columnists/Column/0,,1796114,00.html
  18. ^ http://edinburghnews.scotsman.com/business.cfm?id=2148262005
  19. ^ http://www.ebiweb.org/
  20. ^ http://www.stopbp-berkeley.org/
  21. ^ [1]
  22. ^ [2]
  23. ^ http://www.redding.com/news/2007/feb/22/bp-unveils-green-gas-station/

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Guardian Unlimited is a British website owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • BP Company Website
  • BP's Corporate History
  • Arco Brand Website
  • BP Solar
  • Company Details
  • BP stock quote
  • Can BP come clean?
  • US Chemical Safety Board
  • BP Accident Investigation Report
  • Baker Panel Report
  • BP Propane scandal
  • Shareholder revolt over Browne leaving settlement
  • Herald Tribune report on sudden resignation of Lord Browne
  • Shutdown of pipeline at Prudhoe Bay
  • Manzoni leaves company
  • Commercials, and other stuff at BP

  Results from FactBites:
 
BP: Information from Answers.com (2409 words)
BP plc (LSE: BP, NYSE: BP, TYO: 5051), originally British Petroleum, is a British energy company with headquarters in London, one of four vertically integrated private sector oil, natural gas, and petrol (gasoline) "supermajors" in the world.
BP Solar is the world-leading producer of solar panels through a series of acquisitions in the solar power industry.
BP was criticized for the maintenance practices on the damaged pipeline, which was last inspected for corrosion in 1992.
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