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Encyclopedia > BBC World Service
BBC World Service
Type Radio network
Country Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
Availability    International
Owner BBC
Key people Nigel Chapman (Director)
Launch date 19 December 1932
Website bbcworldservice.com
BBC Portal

The BBC World Service is one of the most widely recognised international broadcasters, transmitting in 33 languages to many parts of the world through multiple technologies. The English language service broadcasts 24 hours a day. In May 2007 the BBC reported that the World Service's average weekly audience had reached 183 million people, beating the previous record of 163 million listeners set the previous year.[1] The World Service is funded by grant-in-aid through the Foreign and Commonwealth Office by the British Government [2] — unlike the BBC's domestic radio and television services, which are primarily funded by a compulsory licence fee levied on every household in the United Kingdom using a television. Image File history File links BBC_World_Service. ... A radio network is a network system which distributes programming to multiple stations simultaneously, or slightly delayed, for the purpose of extending total coverage beyond the limits of a single broadcast signal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... International broadcasting is broadcasting deliberately aimed at a foreign, rather than a domestic, audience. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A grant-in-aid is funding granted by government, the use of which is subject to parliamentary oversight, to finance all or some part of the costs of another organization. ... The Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Whitehall, seen from St. ... A logo of Her Majestys Government. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... This article is about a licence that is required to own or operate a television or radio. ...


The current head of the World Service is Nigel Chapman.

Contents

History

The BBC began as the BBC Empire Service in 1932 as a shortwave service.[3] Its broadcasts were aimed principally at English speakers in the outposts of the British Empire, or as George V put it in the first-ever Royal Christmas Message, the "men and women, so cut off by the snow, the desert, or the sea, that only voices out of the air can reach them."[4] // March 1 - Both NBC and CBS go to Hopewell, New Jersey to provide live coverage of the Lindbergh kidnapping. ... Shortwaves can be heard using a cheap world band receiver. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... The Royal Christmas Message (currently coined The Queens Christmas Message) is broadcast by the Sovereign of the Commonwealth Realms to the Commonwealth at Christmas. ...


Initial hopes for the service were low. Lord Reith said in the opening programme: "Don't expect too much in the early days; the programmes will neither be very interesting nor very good."[5] This address was read out five times as it was broadcast live to different parts of the world. Sir John Charles Walsham Reith, 1st Baron Reith KT GCVO GBE CB TD PC (20 July 1889–16 June 1971) was a Scottish broadcasting executive who established the tradition of independent public service broadcasting in the United Kingdom. ...


On 3 January 1938 the first foreign language service, Arabic, was launched. German programmes commenced shortly before the start of the Second World War and by the end of 1942 broadcasts were being made in all major European languages. Arabic redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The World Service gained a special position[citation needed] in world broadcasting during the Second World War as it broadcast news to a wide range of audiences. The German Service, created on 29 March, 1938 and discontinued in 1999, played an important part in the propaganda war against Nazi Germany.[6] For other uses, see News (disambiguation). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...

Bush House, home to the World Service.
Bush House, home to the World Service.

The service has been located at Bush House since a landmine damaged the studios at original home Broadcasting House on 8 December 1940. The European Service was first to relocate, followed by the rest of the Overseas Service in 1958. As part of a larger changes in terms of the use of BBC properties, it is planned[attribution needed] that the World Service will return to Broadcasting House in 2008 when the BBC's lease on Bush House expires and new facilities at Broadcasting House become available. Download high resolution version (480x640, 63 KB)Image of Bush House in London, taken by Matt Biddulph from Picture Diary. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 63 KB)Image of Bush House in London, taken by Matt Biddulph from Picture Diary. ... The portico of Bush House Bush House is a building between Aldwych and The Strand in London. ... The portico of Bush House Bush House is a building between Aldwych and The Strand in London. ... For other uses, see Broadcasting House (disambiguation). ...


In August 1985, the service went off the air for the first time ever. Workers were striking in protest at the British government's decision to ban a documentary featuring an interview with Martin McGuinness of Sinn Féin. The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... James Martin Pacelli McGuinness MP MLA (Irish: ;[1] born in Derry on 23 May 1950) is the Deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ...


As part of a restructuring process, ten foreign language services were closed down in March 2006 to create enough financial services to fund a new BBC Arabic Television service for the Middle East. Polish was one of those that closed.[7] BBC Arabic Television will be a news and information television channel broadcast to the Middle East by the BBC. The service was announced in October 2005 and is due to start broadcasting in Autumn 2007. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Aim

According to the World Service, its aim is to "be the world's best-known and most-respected voice in international broadcasting, thereby bringing benefit to Britain".[8]


The UK Government spent £225 million on the World Service in 2005. This spending of the British taxpayers' money by the Government was justified by Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher in 1985. According to Hansard, the journal of the British Parliament, in an answer to a question in the House of Commons Mrs. Thatcher said: "The World Service earns every penny we put into it, by promoting our world-view and policy, It has done so in the past and will continue to do so in the future".[citation needed] The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... GBP redirects here. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ... Hansard is the traditional name for the printed transcripts of parliamentary debates in the Westminster system of government. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin...


The BBC is a Crown Corporation of the British Government, but operates independently of the government. There is no direct control of the BBC by the British Government. The World Service does, however, promote the British point of view and foreign policy. Examples of this are the coverage of the Suez Crisis in July 1956, its coverage of the Falklands War from April to June 1982, and its coverage of the handover of Britain's former colony of Hong Kong in 1997.[citation needed] In Commonwealth countries a Crown corporation is a state-controlled company or enterprise (a public corporation). ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Combatants Argentina United Kingdom Commanders President Leopoldo Galtieri Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo Brigade-General Mario Menéndez Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward Major-General Jeremy Moore Casualties 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner 75 fixed...


The BBC World Service is widely respected in parts of the world where the media is not free.[citation needed] With the BBC’s powerful transmitters broadcasting in the local language, the BBC World Service can be the only source of reliable news not manipulated by the local government. This is the strategy that the BBC adopted successfully during the Cold War, becoming a widely respected broadcaster behind the Iron Curtain throughout the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. However, former Soviet dissidents such as Vladimir Bukovsky, Russian opposition's presidential candidate to replace Vladimir Putin, and KGB defector Oleg Gordievsky have criticized the BBC Russian service for soft-pedaling the death of Alexander Litvinenko. An article in The Economist suggested that the BBC's desire to continue to use local transmitters in the Russian Federation may be cause.[9]. In its 2007 Foreign & Commonwealth Office Annual Report, the House of Commons' Foreign Affairs Committee concluded about the BBC Russian Service's joint project with Bolshoe Radio: "the development of a partnership with the international arm of a Russian state broadcasting network puts the BBC World Service’s reputation for editorial independence at risk." [10]. In communications and information processing, a transmitter (sometimes abbreviated XMTR) is an object (source) which sends information to an observer (receiver). ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Vladimir Bukovsky early photo Vladimir Konstantinovich Bukovsky (Russian: ; b. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of the Russian Federation. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... A defector is a person who gives up allegiance to one political entity in exchange for allegiance to another. ... Oleg Antonovich Gordievsky (born 10 October 1938 in Moscow, Russia), was a Colonel of the KGB and KGB Resident-designate (rezidentura) and bureau chief in London, who defected to the United Kingdom. ... Alexander Valterovich Litvinenko (Russian: ) (30 August 1962[1][2] – 23 November 2006) was a lieutenant-colonel in the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation, alleged agent of MI6[3] , and later a Russian dissident and writer. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ...


The World Service, through "Learning English", a constituent part of its large website, devotes significant resources to helping people learn English. A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... ESL redirects here. ...


Statistics and languages

The following audience estimates are from research conducted in 2004 by independent market research agencies[specify] on behalf of the BBC:

Language 2004 2006
English 39 million 44 million
Persian 20.4 million 22 million
Hindi 16.1 million 21 million
Urdu 10.4 million 12 million
Arabic 12.4 million 16 million

In Africa and the Middle East the service broadcasts to 66 million listeners, of which 18.7 million are in English. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Hindi, and Sanskrit influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ... Arabic redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Besides English, the BBC World Service currently broadcasts in Albanian, Arabic, Azeri, Bengali, Burmese, Caribbean English, Cantonese, French, Hausa, Hindi,[11] Indonesian, Kinyarwanda/Kirundi, Kyrgyz, Macedonian, Mandarin, Nepali, Pashto, Persian, Portuguese for Africa and Brazil, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Sinhala, Somali, Spanish, Swahili, Tamil, Turkish, Ukrainian, Urdu, Uzbek, and Vietnamese. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The Azerbaijani language, also called Azeri, Azari, Azeri Turkish, or Azerbaijani Turkish, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan. ... Bangla redirects here. ... Caribbean English is a broad term for the dialects of the English language spoken in the Caribbean, most countries on the Caribbean coast of Central America, and Guyana. ... This article is about all of the Cantonese (Yue) dialects. ... Hausa is the Chadic language with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by about 24 million people, and as a second language by about 15 million more. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... Kinyarwanda is the chief spoken language in Rwanda. ... Kirundi (also written Rundi) is a Bantu language (D62 in Guthries classification) spoken by some 6 million people in Burundi and adjacent parts of Tanzania and Congo-Kinshasa, as well as in Uganda. ... Kyrgyz or Kirghiz (Kyrgyz tili, Кыргыз тили, قىرعىز ٴتىلى) is a Turkic language, and, together with Russian, an official language of Kyrgyzstan. ... This article is on all of the Northern and Southwestern Chinese dialects. ... Nepali (Khaskura) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and some parts of India and Myanmar (Burma). ... Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pathan, Pushto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, Pushtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the western provinces of Pakistan. ... Farsi redirects here. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Sinhalese or Sinhala (සිංහල, ISO 15919: , IPA: [], earlier referred to as Singhalese) is the mother tongue of the Sinhalese, the largest ethnic group of Sri Lanka. ... This article is about the language. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ...


The German broadcasts were stopped in March 1999 after 60 years, as research showed that the majority of German listeners tuned in to the English version. Broadcasts in Dutch, Finnish, French for Europe, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese and Malay were stopped for similar reasons. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ...


On 25 October 2005 it was announced that the Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Greek, Hungarian, Kazakh, Polish,[12] Slovak, Slovene and Thai language radio services would end by March 2006 in order to finance the launch of an Arabic and Persian language TV news channel in 2007. is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants[2], natively , , ‎; pronounced ) is a Turkic language closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak. ... Thai (, transcription: phasa thai, transliteration: ; IPA: ), is the national and official language of Thailand and the mother tongue of the Thai people, Thailands dominant ethnic group. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Farsi redirects here. ...


Transmission

Traditionally, the BBC World Service relied on shortwave, because of its ability to overcome barriers of censorship, distance and spectrum scarcity. To this end, the BBC has maintained a worldwide network of shortwave relay stations since the 1940s, mainly in (former) British colonies. Over the decades, some of these stations have acquired increasingly powerful mediumwave and FM outlets as well. A special use of such cross-border broadcasts has been emergency messages to British subjects abroad, such as the advice to evacuate Jordan during the Black September incidents of September 1970. These facilities were privatised in 1997 and are operated as part of a wider network by VT Communications (formerly Merlin), which also brokers time for dozens of other sites. It is common for BBC programmes to air on traditionally Voice of America or ORF transmitters, while their programming is relayed by a station physically located in the UK. ALLISS antenna as viewed underneath A shortwave relay station typically consists of a transmitter building (or transmitter hall) and one or more HRS type antennas. ... Mediumwave radio transmissions serves as the most common band for broadcasting. ... The abbreviations FM, Fm, and fm may refer to: Electrical engineering Frequency modulation (FM) and its most common applications: FM broadcasting, used primarily to broadcast music and speech at VHF frequencies FM synthesis, a sound-generation technique popularized by early digital synthesizers Science Femtometre (fm), an SI measure of length... In British nationality law, the term British subject has at different times had different meanings. ... Combatants PLO Jordan Commanders Yasser Arafat King Hussein Casualties 7,000-8,000 killed[1] This article, Black September in Jordan, describes the events surrounding September, 1970 in Jordan. ... VT Communications is a part of VT Group plc. ... Voice of America logo Voice of America (VOA), is the official external radio and television broadcasting service of the United States federal government. ... ORF may refer to: Österreichischer Rundfunk, Austrias national public-service broadcaster An open reading frame The IATA airport code for Norfolk International Airport in Norfolk, Virginia An acronym for Open Relay Filter, which is an email anti-spam function. ...


Since the 1980s, satellite distribution has made it possible for local stations to relay BBC programming, typically news bulletins but also educational, drama, and sports programming. The World Service is available as a free (basic) channel on a large number of satellite and cable systems. Both a live stream and an archive of previous programmes (now including podcasts) are available on the Internet. This is the list of broadcast satellites — radio and television networks and backhauls, and for DBS. Listings are from west to east (increasing longitude) by orbital position, starting and ending with the International Date Line. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Streaming media is multimedia that is constantly received by, and normally displayed to, the end-user while it is being delivered by the provider. ... Podcasting is a way of publishing sound files to the Internet, allowing users to subscribe to a feed and receive new audio files automatically. ...


Africa

The BBC World Service has a large audience in English-speaking Africa, and is on the losing end of a long-standing battle with Radio France Internationale in French-speaking Africa. Broadcasts have traditionally come from the UK, Cyprus (see Europe), the large former BBC Atlantic Relay Station on Ascension Island, and the smaller Lesotho Relay Station and Indian Ocean Relay Station on Seychelles. A large part of the English schedule is taken up by specialist programming from and for Africa. In the 1990s, the BBC added FM facilities in many African capitals. Radio France Internationale logo Radio France Internationale (RFI) was created in 1975 as part of Radio France by the Government of France to serve as a broadcast vehicle for French Equatorial Africa. ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Capital Georgetown Largest city Georgetown Official languages English Government Dependency of St. ...


Americas

BBC shortwave broadcasts to this region were traditionally enhanced by the Atlantic Relation Station and the Caribbean Relay Company, a station in Antigua run jointly with Deutsche Welle. In addition, an exchange agreement with Radio Canada International gave access to their station in New Brunswick. However, "changing listening habits" led the World Service to end shortwave radio transmission directed to North America and Australasia on July 1, 2001.[13][14] A shortwave listener coalition formed to oppose the change.[15] Currently, both XM Radio and Sirius Satellite Radio rebroadcast the World Service over commercial satellite radio to Canada and the United States,[16] and public radio stations often carry World Service news broadcasts over AM and FM radio, often through Public Radio International (PRI). In addition, the BBC and PRI also co-produce the program The World with WGBH Radio Boston. This article is about the German international broadcaster. ... Radio Canada International (RCI) is the international broadcasting service of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Shortwaves can be heard using a cheap world band receiver. ... A coalition is an alliance among entities, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest. ... “XM” redirects here. ... Sirius Satellite Radio NASDAQ: SIRI is one of two satellite radio (SDARS) services operating in the United States and Canada, along with XM Satellite Radio. ... // A satellite radio or subscription radio (SR) is a digital radio signal that is broadcast by a communications satellite, which covers a much wider geographical range than terrestrial radio signals. ... Public broadcasting (also known as public service broadcasting or PSB) is the dominant form of broadcasting around the world, where radio, television, and potentially other electronic media outlets receive funding from the public. ... AM broadcasting is radio broadcasting using Amplitude Modulation. ... FM broadcasting is a broadcast technology invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong that uses frequency modulation (FM) to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. ... Public Radio International (PRI) is a Minneapolis-based American public radio organization, with locations in Boston, New York, and London. ... The World is a news radio program produced by the BBC World Service of the United Kingdom, and Public Radio International and WGBH of the United States. ... WGBH is an established public television and public radio broadcast service located in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ...


The BBC continues to broadcast to the Caribbean, Central America and South America in several languages, including a specialist Caribbean news service in English. It is also possible to receive the Caribbean and Western African shortwave radio broadcasts from eastern North America, but the BBC does not guarantee reception in this area.[17] It has recently ended its eccentric specialist programming to the Falkland Islands but continues to provide a stream of World Service programming to the Falkland Islands Broadcasting Service.[18] West Indies redirects here. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ...


Asia

The World Service's largest audiences have been in Asia for several decades, especially the Middle East, Near East and South Asia. Transmission facilities in the UK and Cyprus have been supplemented by the former BBC Eastern Relay Station in Oman and the Far Eastern Relay Station in Singapore. The East Asian Relay Station moved from Hong Kong to Thailand when the former British colony reverted to Chinese sovereignty in 1997. Together, these facilities give the BBC World Service have given an easily-accessible signal in regions where shortwave listening has traditionally been popular. The English shortwave frequencies of 6195, 9740, 15360 and 17760 kHz are widely known. The largest audiences are in English, Hindi, Urdu, Bengali and other major languages of South Asia, where BBC broadcasters are household names. The Farsi service is essentially the national broadcaster of Afghanistan, along with its Iranian audience. The World Service is available up to eighteen hours in English across Asia, and in Arabic for the Middle East. With the addition of relays in Afghanistan and Iraq (following the British invasions of these countries) these services have access to most of the Middle and Near East, at least in the evening. In Hong Kong and Singapore, the BBC World Service in English is essentially treated as a domestic broadcaster, easily available through long-term agreements with RTHK and MediaCorp. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Inhabitants of the Near East, late nineteenth century. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Bangla redirects here. ... Farsi may refer to: The name of the the Persian language among native speakers Farsi Island, an Iranian island in the Persian Gulf The Jafari Shia Tajiks of Central Asia Salman al-Farsi, one of the prophet Muhammads companions Al-Farisi (1260-1320), Persian mathematician and physicist Jalaleddin Farsi... Television Programs RTHK produces public affairs television programs which are broadcast by Hong Kongs three commercial television channels, TVB, ATV and Cable TV. These programmes include Hong Kong Connection (鏗鏘集), A Week in Politics (議事論事), Media Watch (傳媒春秋) and Police Magazine... // MediaCorp (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a conglomeration group of commercial media companies in Singapore specializing largely in television and radio broadcasting, and to a lesser extent, in periodicals and newspaper publishing and filmmaking. ...


By contrast, there are isolated pockets of severe difficulty. Iran, Iraq and Myanmar have all jammed the BBC in the past, and powerful broadcasts in Mandarin are still made unlistenable by the People's Republic of China. Japan and Korea have little tradition of World Service listening, although during the 1970s to 1980s, shortwave listening used to be popular in Japan. In those two countries, the BBC World Service had been only available via shortwave and the Internet. As of September 2007, a satellite transmission (subscription required) became available by Skylife (Channel 791) in South Korea. Radio jamming is the (usually deliberate) transmission of radio signals that disrupt communications by decreasing the signal to noise ratio. ... Mandarin may mean: Mandarin (linguistics), a group of dialects of spoken Chinese, or more specifically, its standardized version, Standard Mandarin Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China, Vietnam and Korea, and in the United Kingdom and Canada, by analogy, any government bureaucrat Mandarin Airlines, a subsidiary of China Airlines Mandarin... This article is about the Korean civilization. ...


Europe

Formerly BBC shortwave transmitters are located in the United Kingdom at Rampisham, Woofferton and Skelton). The former BBC East Mediterranean Relay Station is in Cyprus. The World Service uses a mediumwave transmitter at Orford Ness to provide English-language coverage to Europe, including on the frequency 648 kHz (which can be heard in the south-east of England). A second channel traditionally broadcast in various Central European languages, but in 2005 it began regular English-language transmissions via the DRM format.[19] This is a digital shortwave technology that VT expects to become the standard for cross-border transmissions in developed countries. Rampisham is a village in west Dorset, England, situated in a steep valley ten miles north west of Dorchester. ... The Woofferton transmitting station is a short-wave broadcasting site at Woofferton, south of Ludlow, Shropshire, England. ... The Skelton transmitter is a radio transmitter site at Grid reference NY433376 near Skelton, Cumbria about 8 km north west of Penrith, run by VT Communications. ... Orford Ness, described by a BBC documentary as half wilderness, half military junkyard, is a peninsula on the Suffolk coast in Great Britain, linked to the mainland at Aldeburgh and stretching along the coast to Orford. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Frequency (disambiguation). ... A kilohertz (kHz) is a unit of frequency equal to 1,000 hertz (1,000 cycles per second). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) is a set of digital audio broadcasting technologies designed to work over the bands currently used for AM broadcast, particularly shortwave. ...


In the 1990s, the BBC purchased and constructed large mediumwave and FM networks in the former Soviet bloc, particularly the Czech and Slovak Republics (where it was a national network) and Russia. It had built up a strong audience during the Cold War, whilst economic restructuring made it difficult for these governments to refuse Western investment. Many of these facilities have now returned to domestic control, as economic and political conditions have changed.


Pacific

Shortwave relays from Singapore (see Asia, above) continue, but historic relays via ABC and Radio New Zealand International were wound down in the late 1990s. The World Service is available as part of the subscription Digital Air package (available from Foxtel and Austar) in Australia. ABC NewsRadio and various community stations also broadcast many programmes. It is also available free-to-air via satellite service Optus Aurora. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... Radio New Zealand International (RNZI) is the official international broadcasting station of New Zealand. ... The subscription business model is a business model that has long been used by magazines and record clubs, but the application of this model is spreading. ... Foxtel is a subscription television company in Australia, formed through a joint venture between Telstra and News Corporation. ... An Austar Remote Austar is an Australian telecommunications company. ... ABC NewsRadio is an Australian Broadcasting Corporation radio service devoted to delivering parliamentary proceedings, including Question Time, live and 24-hour news updates and information when parliament is not in session. ... For other uses, see Community (disambiguation). ... Free-to-air is a phrase used to describe television and radio broadcasts which are available without subscription and without decryption (pay-TV). ... For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). ... Optus Aurora is a satellite delivery service for rural and regional Australians. ...


In Sydney, Australia you can pick up a transmission of the service at 152.025 MHz This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ...


UK

The BBC World Service does not receive funding for broadcasts to the UK, and reliable mediumwave reception has traditionally only been possible in southeast England (see Europe, above). However, since the introduction of digital broadcasting, the World Service's output has recently been made more widely available in the UK — the service is now carried on DAB, Freeview, Virgin Media and Sky Digital. After the British domestic radio station BBC Radio 4 ceases broadcasting at 1am British time, the World Service is broadcast on all its frequencies overnight, including 198 kHz longwave which can be heard in parts of continental Europe. Digital broadcasting is the practice of using digital data rather than analog waveforms to carry broadcasts over television channels or assigned radio frequency bands. ... Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), also known as Eureka 147, is a technology for broadcasting of audio using digital radio transmission. ... This article is about the United Kingdom digital terrestrial television service. ... Virgin Media Inc. ... For a wider corporate history and profile, see British Sky Broadcasting. ... old Radio 4 logo BBC Radio 4 is a UK domestic radio station which broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Western European Time (WET, UTC+0) is the time zone covering parts of western and northwestern Europe, including the following countries and regions: Canary Islands, since 1946 (rest of Spain is CET, i. ... Sine waves of various frequencies; the lower waves have higher frequencies than those above. ... A kilohertz (kHz) is a unit of frequency equal to 1,000 hertz (1,000 cycles per second). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Although shortwave transmissions for Western Europe have been significantly reduced for many years, shortwave reception of 6195 and 9410 kHz is still possible for a few hours a day in the UK (sometimes, with high strength of signals). In a very few cases, 15400 kHz from the relay station in Ascension Island becomes listenable. In southeastern England, including London, 648 kHz medium-wave is also available.


Interval signals

The interval signal of the BBC World Service in English is the Bow Bells, a recording made in 1926. Introduced as a symbol of hope during the Second World War, it is still used preceding many (though not all) English language broadcasts today. Though for a few years in the 1970s, Oranges and Lemons was used as the interval, the Bow Bells were soon reintroduced. An interval signal is a characteristic sound or musical phrase used in international broadcasting and by some domestic broadcasters. ... St Mary-le-Bow Church, built 1671-80, one of Wrens City Churches built after the Great Fire of London St Mary_le_Bow is a historic church in the City of London, off Cheapside. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Oranges and Lemons is an English nursery rhyme which refers to the bells of several churches, all within or close to the City of London. ...


January 1941 saw the beginning of the Morse code letter "V" as an interval signal. The interval signal had several variations including timpani, the first four notes of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony (which coincide with the letter "V"), and electronic tones which are still in use today for some Western European services. 1922 Chart of the Morse Code Letters and Numerals Morse code is a method for transmitting telegraphic information, using standardized sequences of short and long elements to represent the letters, numerals, punctuation and special characters of a message. ... Look up V, v in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A timpanist in the United States Air Forces in Europe Band. ... The coversheet to Beethovens 5th Symphony. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ...


The World Service's classic signature tune Lillibullero is broadcast just before the top of many hours, followed by the Greenwich Time Signal (five short and one long pips) and the hourly news. Modern trailers featuring a variety of international broadcasting centres sometimes replace Lillibullero entirely on themed weeks. Until fairly recently, the hourly sequence was preceded by the announcement "This is London" — it is now followed by a more promotional "Wherever you are, you are with the BBC" or "With world news every half hour, this is the BBC". In recent months, Lillibullero has been shortened by extra trailers. It has been suggested (by World Service staff) that the reduction in the use of Lillibullero is firstly because of its background as a Protestant marching song in Northern Ireland and secondly as, in modern branding terms, it is somewhat out of step with a modern, global news organisation. The theme music of a radio or television program is a piece that is written specifically for that show and usually played during the title sequence and/or end credits. ... Lillibullero is a march that sets the words of a satirical ballad generally said to be by Lord Thomas Wharton to music attributed to Henry Purcell. ... Graph of the six pips The Greenwich Time Signal (abbreviated GTS) or BBC pips is a time code heard on some BBC radio stations at the start of the hour, most notably on Radio 4 and the World Service. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The adjective global and adverb globally imply that the verb or noun to which they are applied applies to the entire Earth and all of its species and regions. ...


However when asked why the BBC chose this Protestant ascendancy tune, they would usually respond that (i) the decision was made by the transmission engineers, who found it particularly audible through short wave mush, and anyway they (the BBC) knew it as a tune for the old English song "There was an old woman tossed up in a blanket, 20 times as high as the moon". Engineering is the application of scientific and technical knowledge to solve human problems. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


In other languages, the interval signal is three notes, pitched B-B-C. The exception is the non-English services to Europe, which have an interval signal of four notes, B-B-B-E, in the rhythm of the Morse code letter "V". GMT is announced on the hour on the English service, e. g. "13 hours Greenwich Mean Time" is said at 1300 GMT. 0000 GMT is announced as "midnight Greenwich Mean Time". Sometimes, however, "Greenwich Mean Time" is abbreviated to GMT when the hour is announced. For alternate meanings of GMT, see GMT (disambiguation). ... GMT redirects here. ...


News

The core feature of much World Service scheduling is the news. This is almost always transmitted at one minute past the hour, where there is a five minute long bulletin, and on the half hour where there is a two minute summary. Sometimes these bulletins are separated from the programmes being transmitted, whilst at other times they are integral to the programme (such as with World Briefing, Newshour or The World Today). Look up scheduling in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Newshour is the flagship news and current affairs radio programme of the BBC World Service. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


BBC breaking news policy

BBC policy for breaking news[20] has a priority list. With domestic news, the correspondent first records a "generic minute" summary (for use by all stations and channels) and then priority is to report on Radio 5 Live, then on BBC News 24 and onto any other programmes that are on air. For foreign news, first a "generic minute" is recorded, then reports are to World Service radio, then the reporter talks to any other programmes that are on air. Look up policy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A journalist is a person who practices journalism. ... For the Bobby Womack album, see Communication (1972 album). ... BBC Radio Five Live is the BBCs radio service providing live BBC News, phone-ins, and sports commentaries. ... BBC News 24 is the BBCs 24 hour rolling news television channel in the United Kingdom. ... For the American magazine, see Foreign Policy. ... This article is about journalistic reporters. ...


Range of languages

History of BBC World Service Language Broadcasting Services (sorted by language)[21][22][23]

Language Start Date Close Date Restart Date
Afrikaans 14 May 1939 8 September 1957 -
Albanian 12 November 1940 20 January 1967 20 February 1993
Arabic 3 January 1938 - -
Azeri 30 November 1994 BBC Azeri - -
Belgian French & Flemish 28 September 1940 30 March 1952 -
Bengali 10 November 1941 BBC Bengali - -
Bulgarian 7 February 1940 23 December 2005 -
Burmese 2 September 1940 BBC Burmese in English. - -
Croatian 29 September 1991 31 January 2006 -
Chinese-Cantonese 5 May 1941 - -
Chinese-Hokkien 1 October 1942 7 February 1948 -
Chinese-Mandarin 5 May 1941 - -
Czech 31 December 1939 28 February 2006 -
Danish 9 April 1940 10 August 1957 -
Dutch 11 April 1940 10 August 1957 -
Dutch for Indonesia 28 August 1944 2 April 1945, 13 May 1951 25 May 1946
English 25 December 1936 BBC English - -
English (Caribbean) 25 December 1976 BBC Caribbean - -
Finnish 18 March 1940 31 March 1997 -
French for Africa 20 June 1960 BBC French - -
French for Canada 2 November 1942 8 May 1980 -
French for Europe 27 September 1938 31 March 1995 -
French for South-East Asia 28 August 1944 3 April 1955 -
German 27 September 1938 30 March 1999 -
German for Austria 29 March 1943 15 September 1957 -
Greek[24] 30 September 1939 31 December 2005 -
Greek for Cyprus 16 September 1940 3 June 1951 -
Gujarati 1 March 1942 3 September 1944 -
Hausa 13 March 1957 - -
Hebrew 30 October 1949 28 October 1968 -
Hindi 11 May 1940 BBC Hindi - -
Hungarian 5 September 1939 31 December 2005 -
Icelandic 1 December 1940 26 June 1944 -
Italian 27 September 1938 31 December 1981 -
Indonesian 30 October 1949 BBC Indonesian - -
Japanese 4 July 1943 31 March 1991 -
Kazakh 1 April 1995 16 December 2005 -
Kinyarwanda 8 September 1994 BBC KinyarwandaPartly in English - -
Kyrgyz 1 April 1995 BBC Kyrgyz - -
Luxembourgish 29 May 1943 30 May 1952 -
Macedonia 6 January 1996 BBC Macedonian - -
Malay 2 May 1941 31 March 1991 -
Maltese 10 August 1940 31 December 1981 -
Marathi 1 March 1942 3 September 1944, 25 December 1958 31 December 1944
Nepali 7 June 1969 - -
Norwegian 9 April 1940 10 August 1957 -
Pashto 15 August 1981 - -
Persian 28 December 1940 - -
Polish 7 August 1939 23 December 2005 -
Portuguese for Africa 4 June 1939 - -
Portuguese-Brasil 14 March 1938 BBC Portugese - -
Portuguese for Europe 4 June 1939 10 August 1957 -
Romanian 15 September 1939 BBC Romanian - -
Russian language (BBC Russian Service) 7 October 1942 26 May 1943 24 March 1946
Serbian 29 September 1991 BBC Serbian - -
Sinhala 10 March 1942 30 March 1976 11 March 1990
Slovak 31 December 1941 31 December 2005 -
Slovenian 22 April 1941 23 December 2005 -
Somali 18 July 1957 - -
Spanish for the Americas 14 March 1938 - -
Swahili 27 June 1957 - -
Swedish 1941 4 March 1961 -
Tamil 3 May 1941 - -
Thai 27 April 1941 5 March 1960, 13 January 2006 3 June 1962
Turkish 20 November 1939 BBC Turkish - -
Ukrainian 1 June 1992 - -
Urdu 3 April 1949 - -
Uzbek 30 November 1994 BBC Uzbek - -
Vietnamese 6 February 1952 - -
Welsh (to Patagonia) 1945 1946 -
Yugoslav (Serbo-Croatian) 15 September 1939 28 September 1991 -

Afrikaans is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in South Africa and Namibia. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Arabic redirects here. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Belgian French is primarily spoken in the French Community of Belgium, highlighted in red. ... The term Flemish language can designate: the official language of Flanders, which is Dutch with only very small variations; any of the regional dialects of Dutch spoken in Belgium; these are more different from Dutch than the official language of Flanders; one of these dialects, the West Flemish. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bangla redirects here. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about all of the Cantonese (Yue) dialects. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Mǐn N n (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name B ; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is on all of the Northern and Southwestern Chinese dialects. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Caribbean English is a broad term for the dialects of the English language spoken in the Caribbean, most countries on the Caribbean coast of Central America, and Guyana. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Francophone Africa. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... French is the mother tongue of about 6. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... South East Asian French can refer to any number of French Dialects spoken in the region known as Southeast Asia, especially the areas that were once part of French Indochina. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Austrian German is any variety of the German language spoken in Austria. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the modern Greek dialect of Cyprus. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gujarati (ગુજરાતી GujÇŽrātÄ«; also known as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, and Guujaratee[3]) is an Indo-Aryan language descending from Sanskrit, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hausa is the Chadic language with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by about 24 million people, and as a second language by about 15 million more. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Hebrew redirects here. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants[2], natively , , ‎; pronounced ) is a Turkic language closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kinyarwanda is the chief spoken language in Rwanda. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Kyrgyz or Kirghiz (Kyrgyz tili, Кыргыз тили, قىرعىز ٴتىلى) is a Turkic language, and, together with Russian, an official language of Kyrgyzstan. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Luxembourgish or Luxembourgian (in French, Luxembourgeois; in German, Luxemburgisch; in Luxembourgish Lëtzebuergesch) is a West Germanic language spoken in Luxembourg. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Marathi (मराठी ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western India. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nepali (Khaskura) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and some parts of India and Myanmar (Burma). ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Pashto (‎, IPA: also known as Pakhto, Pushto, Pukhto ‎, Pashtoe, Pashtu, Pushtu or Pushtoo) is a language spoken by Pashtuns living in Afghanistan and western Pakistan. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Farsi redirects here. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... African Portuguese (Português Africano in Portuguese) is a term for the varieties of Portuguese spoken in Africa. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil in Portuguese) is a group of dialects of Portuguese written and spoken by virtually all the 190 million inhabitants of Brazil and by a couple of million Brazilian emigrants, mainly in the United States, United Kingdom, Portugal, Canada, Japan, and Paraguay. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Russian ( , transliteration: , IPA: ) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. ... The BBC Russian Service (Rus: Ру́сская слу́жба Би-би-си́) is part of the BBC World Services foreign language output, one of 33 languages it provides. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... a resource to look at current viewpoints Categories: Indo-Aryan languages | Languages of Sri Lanka | Wikipedia cleanup | Language stubs ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the language. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... This article is about the day. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Hindi, and Sanskrit influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Patagonia, as most commonly defined (in orange). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...

See also

BBC World Service Television was the name given to the BBCs international satellite television channels between 1991 and 1995. ... The BBC Russian Service (Rus: Ру́сская слу́жба Би-би-си́) is part of the BBC World Services foreign language output, one of 33 languages it provides. ... BBC Arabic was launched on 1938 and is the first foreign language service of the BBC World Service. ...

References

  1. ^ BBC's global news audiences reach record 233m. BBC.
  2. ^ BBC World Service (BBCWS), The UK's Voice around the World. BBC.
  3. ^ Analysis: BBC's voice in Europe Jan Repa, BBC News Online: 25 October 2005
  4. ^ Historic moments from the 1930s: 1932 - The Empire Service is founded, from the BBC World Service website
  5. ^ Recording on World Service 75th Anniversary DVD
  6. ^ The authoritative source on the BBC's German Service is Carl Brinitzer's book "Hier spricht London". Brinitzer, a German lawyer from Hamburg living in exile in London, was a founding member.
  7. ^ BBC East Europe voices silenced BBC News Online: 21 December 2005
  8. ^ "Annual Review 2004/2005", BBC News, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-05-22. 
  9. ^ The BBC's alleged kowtow. Economist.com Jul 19th 2007. http://www.economist.com/world/europe/displaystory.cfm?story_id=9500528
  10. ^ 2007 Foreign & Commonwealth Office Annual Report, the House of Commons' Foreign Affairs Committee, November 2007 http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm/cmfaff.htm
  11. ^ BBCHindi.com BBC Hindi.com
  12. ^ BBC East Europe voices silenced BBC News Online: 21 December 2005
  13. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/foi/docs/annual_reports_and_reviews/annual_report_and_accounts/BBC_Annual_Reports_and_Accounts.htm#page54
  14. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/faq/news/story/2005/08/050810_nzandswpacific.shtml
  15. ^ http://www.savebbc.org/press/6_june_2001.html
  16. ^ XM Satellite Radio (1999-07-26). BBC WORLD SERVICE AND XM ANNOUNCE PROGRAMMING ALLIANCE. Press release. Retrieved on 2007-10-17.
  17. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/schedules/010119_namerica.shtml
  18. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/pressoffice/pressreleases/stories/2006/02_february/23/falklands.shtml
  19. ^ BBC Launches DRM Service In Europe. BBC World Service (2005-09-07). Retrieved on 2006-11-15.
  20. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/bbctrust/assets/files/pdf/review_report_research/impartiality_business/f2_news_submission.txt. Retrieved on 2007-06-19.
  21. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/history/audio.shtml
  22. ^ History of International Broadcasting (IEEE), Volume I.
  23. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/languages/
  24. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/greek/

BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “XM” redirects here. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE (pronounced as eye-triple-ee) is an international non-profit, professional organization incorporated in the State of New York, United States. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
BBC World Service - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1770 words)
Unlike the BBC's main radio and television services, which are primarily funded by a licence fee, the World Service is funded by the British Government through the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.
This is the strategy that the BBC adopted successfully, to become a widely respected broadcaster in the Third World and during the Cold War amongst the former countries of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.
The interval signal of the BBC World Service in English is the Bow Bells, a recording made in 1926 (though only in use from the early 1940s), though this isn't used on all frequencies - some are silent until the start of broadcasts.
BBC World Service (373 words)
Unlike the BBC's main radio and television services, which are primarily funded by a licence fee, the World Service is funded by the British Government, although it remains politically neutral.
The interval signal of the BBC World Service in English is the sound of the Bow Bells[?] of London.
In many countries in the world the world service is relied on as the only source of reliable news not manipulated by the local government.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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