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Encyclopedia > B vitamins

The B vitamins are eight water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. Historically, the B vitamins were once thought to be a single vitamin, referred to as Vitamin B (much like how people refer to Vitamin C or Vitamin D). Later research showed that they are chemically distinct vitamins that often coexist in the same foods. Supplements containing all eight B vitamins are generally referred to as a vitamin B complex. Individual B vitamin supplements are referred to by the specific name of each vitamin (e.g. B1, B2, B3). Retinol (Vitamin A) For the record label, see Vitamin Records Vitamins are nutrients required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in the body. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hook from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. POOP Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... A few of the metabolic pathways in a cell. ... For other uses, see Vitamin C (disambiguation). ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ...

Contents

List of B vitamins

For the similarly-spelled nucleic acid, see Thymine Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is one of the B vitamins. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5, is a water-soluble vitamin required to sustain life. ... Pyridoxine Vitamin B6 pyridoxine is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Main article: vitamin B6 Pyridoxine is one of the compounds that can be called vitamin B6, along with Pyridoxal and Pyridoxamine. ... Vitamin H redirects here. ... Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ...

B vitamins deficiency

Several named vitamin deficiency diseases may result from the lack of sufficient B-vitamins.

Deficiencies of other B vitamins result in symptoms that are not part of a named deficiency disease. Italic textBold textBold textBold textBold textBold text Beriberi is a nervous system ailment caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency; its symptoms include weight loss, emotional disturbances, impaired sensory perception (Wernickes encephalopathy), weakness and pain in the limbs, and periods of irregular heart rate. ... The Human Nervous System The nervous system of a human coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... Wernickes encephalopathy is a severe irreversible syndrome characterised by loss of short-term memory. ... A cardiac arrhythmia, also called cardiac dysrhythmia, is a disturbance in the regular rhythm of the heartbeat. ... Edema (American English) or oedema (British English), formerly known as dropsy or hydropsy, is swelling of any organ or tissue due to accumulation of excess lymph fluid, without an increase of the number of cells in the affected tissue. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Korsakoffs syndrome (Korsakoffs psychosis, amnesic-confabulatory syndrome), is a degenerative brain disorder caused by the lack of thiamine (vitamin B1) in the brain. ... Amnesia or amnæsia (from Greek ) (see spelling differences) is a condition in which memory is disturbed. ... Look up confabulation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Riboflavin deficiency is seen in association with: protein and energy malnutrition alcoholism The clinical features include: dry mucus membranes, affecting: mouth eyes genitalia normochromic, normocytic anaemia Treatment with riboflavin, 6 mg per day. ... A condition where there are deep cracks and splits at the corners of the mouth. ... Glossitis is an abnormality of the tongue that results from inflammation. ... Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a skin disorder affecting the scalp, face and trunk causing scaly, flaky, itchy, red skin. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In some male mammals, the scrotum is a protuberance of skin and muscle containing the testicles. ... Parts of a vulva The external genital organs of the female are collectively known as the vulva (also sometimes called the pudenda). ... Sagittal section of nose mouth, pharynx, and larynx. ... Also see Pharyngitis Sore Throat is a legendary British noisecore band, credited among others with inventing the genre Sore Throat formed in 1987 as a Crust Punk/ hardcore punk and grindcore act. ... Hyperaemia (AmE hyperemia) is the medical condition in which blood congests in a part of the body. ... The pharynx is the part of the digestive system of many animals immediately behind the mouth and in front of the esophagus. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... Tryptophan is an amino acid and essential in human nutrition. ... Pellagra is a vitamin deficiency disease caused by dietary lack of niacin (vitamin B3) and protein, especially proteins containing the essential amino acid tryptophan. ... Dermatitis is a blanket term literally meaning inflammation of the skin. It is usually used to refer to eczema, which is also known as Dermatitis eczema. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Weakness can mean: The opposite of strength Weakness (medical) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a generally unpleasant condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a... For other uses, see Dementia (disambiguation). ...

  • Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) deficiency can result in acne and Paresthesia, although it is uncommon.
  • Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) deficiency may lead to anemia, depression, dermatitis, high blood pressure (hypertension), water retention, and elevated levels of homocysteine.
  • Vitamin B7 deficiency does not typically cause symptoms in adults but may lead to impaired growth and neurological disorders in infants.
  • Vitamin B9 (Folic acid) deficiency results in elevated levels of homocysteine. Deficiency in pregnant women can lead to birth defects. Supplementation is often recommended during pregnancy. Researchers have shown that folic acid might also slow the insidious effects of age on the brain.
  • Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) deficiency causes pernicious anemia, memory loss and other cognitive decline. It is most likely to occur among elderly people as absorption through the gut declines with age. In extreme (fortunately rare) cases, paralysis can result.

Paresthesia or paraesthesia (in British English) is a sensation of tingling, pricking, or numbness of a persons skin with no apparent long-term physical effect, more generally known as the feeling of pins and needles or of a limb being asleep. // Transient paresthesia is the temporary sensation of tingling... Anemia (AmE) or anaemia (BrE), from the Greek () meaning without blood, is a deficiency of red blood cells (RBCs) and/or hemoglobin. ... Clinical depression (also called major depressive disorder, or unipolar depression when compared to bipolar disorder) is a state of intense sadness, melancholia or despair that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Homocysteine is a chemical compound with the formula HSCH2CH2CH(NH2)CO2H. It is a homologue of the naturally-occurring amino acid cysteine, differing in that its side-chain contains an additional methylene (-CH2-) group before the thiol (-SH) group. ... Homocysteine is a chemical compound with the formula HSCH2CH2CH(NH2)CO2H. It is a homologue of the naturally-occurring amino acid cysteine, differing in that its side-chain contains an additional methylene (-CH2-) group before the thiol (-SH) group. ... I think this is cool Pernicious anemia is loosely used to mean a state of anemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency. ...

Related nutrients

Many of the following substances have been referred to as vitamins because they were believed to be vitamins at one time, and they are relevant to vitamin nomenclature in that the numbers that were assigned to them form "gaps" in the series of B-vitamin names. Some of them, though not essential to humans, are essential in the diets of other organisms; others have no known nutritional value. While they are non-"essential" in that they may be synthesized by the body from other starting materials, they have dietary significance. See also Orthomolecular medicine. Orthomolecular medicine and optimum nutrition are controversial medical and health approaches[1] that posit that many diseases and abnormalities result from various chemical imbalances or deficiencies and can be prevented, treated, or sometimes cured by achieving optimal levels of naturally occurring chemical substances, such as vitamins, dietary minerals, enzymes, antioxidants...

  • Vitamin B4: Adenine, a nucleobase.
  • Vitamin B7: "Vitamin I" of Centanni E. (1935) — also called 'Enteral factor' is a water and alcohol soluble rice-bran factor which prevents digestive disturbance in pigeons. It governs the anatomical and functional integrity of the intestinal tract. Later found in yeast. Possible candidates for this substance are inositol, niacin (nicotinic acid), and biotin. Carnitine was also claimed to be a candidate but is not soluble in alcohol.[citation needed]
  • Vitamin B8: adenosine monophosphate
  • Vitamin B10: para-aminobenzoic acid, or PABA
  • Vitamin B11: Pteryl-hepta-glutamic acid – Chick growth factor, which is a form of Folic acid. Later found to be one of five folates necessary for humans; (L-carnitine) is called Vitamin B11 in France[citation needed].
  • Vitamin B13: Orotic acid.
  • Vitamin B14: cell proliferant, anti-anemia, rat growth, and antitumor pterin phosphate named by Earl R. Norris (biochemist of folic acid fame). Isolated from human urine at 0.33ppm (later in blood), but later abandoned by him as further evidence did not comfirm this. He also claimed this was not Xanthopterin.
  • Vitamin B15 6-O-(dimethylaminoacetyl)-D-gluconic acid (Pangamic acid)
  • Vitamin B16 (dimethylgycine) – also known as DMG. (However Lipoic acid was discovered and named a B-Vitamin after B15 and before B17)
  • Vitamin B17 (Amygdalin or laetrile) – A toxic substance that can be extracted from apricot kernels. Proponents claim that it is effective in cancer treatment and prevention.
  • Vitamin B18
  • Vitamin B19
  • Vitamin B20 (Carnitine) –
  • Vitamin B21
  • Vitamin B22 – often claimed as an ingredient of Aloe vera extracts but also in many other foods. Claimed by one source to be Vitamin B12b-δ.
  • Vitamin Bh – another name for Biotin
  • Vitamin Bm ("mouse factor") – also used to designate Inositol
  • Vitamin Bp (Choline) –
  • Vitamin Bt (L-carnitine) –
  • Vitamin Bv – a type of B6 but not Pyridoxine
  • Vitamin Bw – a type of Biotin but not d-Biotin
  • Vitamin Bx – another name for PABA (para-Aminobenzoic acid)
  • Lipoic acid

Note: B16, B17, B18, B19, B20, B21 & B22 do not appear to be animal factors but are claimed by naturopaths as human therapedic factors. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Adenine Guanine Thymine Cytosine ... Inositol, (of which the most prominent naturally-ocurring form is myo-inositol, cis-1,2,3,5-trans-4,6-cyclohexanehexol), is a carbocyclic polyol that plays an important role as the structural basis for a number of secondary messengers in eukaryotic cells, including inositol phosphates, phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylinositol... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Vitamin H redirects here. ... Adenosine monophosphate, also known as 5-adenylic acid and abbreviated AMP, is a nucleotide that is found in RNA. It is an ester of phosphoric acid with the nucleoside adenosine. ... 4-Aminobenzoic acid, para-aminobenzoic acid, or simply PABA, is an organic compound with molecular formula C7H7NO2. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Chemical structure of Amygdalin Amygdalin (from Greek: , almond), C20H27NO11, is a glycoside isolated from bitter almonds by H. E. Robiquet and A. F. Boutron-Charlard in 1830, and subsequently investigated by Liebig and Wöhler, and others. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Species See Species For other uses, see Aloe (disambiguation). ... Vitamin H redirects here. ... Choline is an organic compound, classified as an essential nutrient and usually grouped within the Vitamin B complex. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Para-Aminobenzoic acid (PABA) is a chemical used in sunscreen that is an essential nutrient for some bacteria. ...


Health benefits

The B vitamins often work together to deliver a number of health benefits to the body. B vitamins have been shown to:

Together, they also help combat the symptoms and causes of stress, depression, and cardiovascular disease. A few of the metabolic pathways in a cell. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... The Human Nervous System The nervous system of a human coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... The term cell growth is used in two different ways in biology. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen from the lungs or gills to body tissues via the blood. ... Anemia (AmE) or anaemia (BrE), from the Greek () meaning without blood, is a deficiency of red blood cells (RBCs) and/or hemoglobin. ... In medical terms, stress is a physical or psychological stimulus that can produce mental or physiological reactions that may lead to illness. ... Clinical depression (also called major depressive disorder, or unipolar depression when compared to bipolar disorder) is a state of intense sadness, melancholia or despair that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart cardivascular is verrry bad do not contract this disease and/or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ...


All B vitamins are water soluble, and are dispersed throughout the body. They must be replenished daily, since any excess is excreted in the urine.[citation needed] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Vitamin B sources

Vitamin B comes from a number of natural sources, including potatoes, bananas, lentils, chilli peppers, tempeh, liver, turkey, and tuna. Nutritional yeast (or brewer's yeast), molasses are especially good sources of Vitamin B. Marmite and the iconic Australian spread Vegemite bills itself as "one of the world's richest known sources of vitamin B". As might be expected, due to its high content of brewer's yeast, beer is a good source of B vitamins,[1] although this may not be true of filtered beers.[2]However, the alcohol in beer impairs the body's ability to activate vitamins. In fact, beer is sometimes referred to as "liquid bread".[3] Binomial name Solanum tuberosum L. The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a perennial plant of the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family, commonly grown for its starchy tuber. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Lens culinaris. ... The chile pepper (also chili or chilli; from Spanish chile) is the fruit of the plant Capsicum from the nightshade family (Solanaceae). ... A piece of uncooked tempeh. ... The liver is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... A shoal of skipjack tuna Tuna are several species of ocean-dwelling fish in the family Scombridae, mostly in the genus Thunnus. ... Nutritional yeast, similar to brewers yeast, is a nutritional supplement popular with vegans and the health conscious who use it as an ingredient in recipes or simply as a condiment. ... Brewers yeast (also known as brewers yeast or brewing yeast) can mean any live yeast used in brewing. ... Molasses or treacle is a thick syrup by-product from the processing of the sugarcane or sugar beet into sugar. ... A jar of the British version of Marmite Marmite is a British savoury spread made from yeast extract, a by-product of beer brewing. ... Vegemite on toast. ... Beer in the glass Schlenkerla Rauchbier direct from the cask Beer is the worlds oldest[1] and most popular[2] alcoholic beverage. ...


Another popular means of increasing one's Vitamin B intake is through the use of dietary supplements purchased at supermarkets, health centers, or natural food stores. A dietary supplement is intended to supply nutrients, (vitamins, minerals, fatty acids or amino acids) that are missing or not consumed in sufficient quantity in a persons diet. ...


B vitamins are also commonly added to energy drinks. Energy drinks are beverages which contain legal stimulants, vitamins, and minerals, including caffeine, guarana, taurine, various forms of ginseng, maltodextrin, carnitine, creatine, and ginkgo biloba. ...


References

  • Linda Clark's "Know your Nutrition ": ISBN 0-87983-401-3
  1. ^ Glaser, Gregg. "Beer and Your Health", July 2002. Retrieved on 2007-01-05. 
  2. ^ Harden, A and Zylva, S S (1924-07-21). "Investigation of Barley, Malt and Beer for Vitamins B and C" (PDF). Lister Institute. Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  3. ^ World Grains Summit - 2006 Meeting Abstract

2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ... July 21 is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • How B Vitamins Work

  Results from FactBites:
 
B vitamins - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1078 words)
Vitamin B is a complex of eight water soluble vitamins, active in cell metabolism.
Since later research has shown it is in fact a complex of chemically distinct vitamins that happen to often coexist in the same foods, the name has gradually declined in use, being replaced by the generic term "the B vitamins", the vitamin B complex, or by the specific names of each vitamin.
As might be expected due to its high content of brewer's yeast, beer is a good source of B vitamins [4], [5], although this may not be true of filtered beers [6], [7]; in fact, beer is sometimes referred to as "liquid bread" [8].
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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