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Encyclopedia > Béla Bartók

Béla Viktor János Bartók (March 25, 1881September 26, 1945) was a composer, pianist and collector of East European folk music. Bartók was one of the founders of the field of ethnomusicology, the study of folk music and the music of non-Western cultures. March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... 1881 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 96 days remaining. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... A pianist is a person who plays the piano. ... World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... Folk music, in the original sense of the term, is music by and of the people. ... Ethnomusicology (from the Greek ethnos = nation and mousike = music), formerly comparative musicology, is the study of music in its cultural context, cultural musicology. ...

Béla Bartók
Béla Bartók
Contents

6.1 Orchestral music
6.2 Choral music
6.3 Chamber music
6.4 Piano
6.5 Music for the stage
Bela Bartok File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Childhood and early years

Bartók grew up in the Greater Hungary of the Austro-Hungarian Empire which was partitioned by the Treaty of Trianon after World War I. His birthplace, Nagyszentmiklós (Great St Nicholas), became Sânnicolau Mare, Romania. After his father died in 1888, Béla's mother, Paula, took her family to live in Vinogradiv (Hungarian: Nagyszöllös, now in Ukraine), and then to Prešporok (Hungarian: Pozsony, now Bratislava) in her native Slovakia. When Czechoslovakia was created in 1918 Béla and his mother found themselves on opposite sides of a border. The Kingdom of Hungary is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ... 1888 is a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... Bratislava is the capital of Slovakia and the countrys largest city, with a population of some 430,000. ... 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Early musical career

He later studied piano under István Thoman and composition under János Koessler at the Royal Academy of Music in Budapest. There he met Zoltán Kodály and together they collected folk music from the region. This was to have a major impact on his style. Previously, Bartók's idea of Hungarian folk music was derived from the gypsy melodies to be found in the works of Franz Liszt, and in 1903 Bartók had written a large orchestral work, Kossuth, which honored Lajos Kossuth, hero of the Hungarian revolution of 1848, incorporated such gypsy melodies. This article is about the modern musical instrument. ... Budapest (pronounced or ), the capital city of Hungary and the countrys principal political, industrial, commercial and transportation centre, has more than 1. ... Zoltán Kodály Zoltán Kodály (December 16, 1882 – March 6, 1967) was a Hungarian composer, ethnomusicologist, educator, linguist and philosopher. ... Franz Liszt (Hungarian; Liszt Ferenc) (October 22, 1811 – July 31, 1886) was a Hungarian virtuoso pianist and composer. ... 1903 has the latest occurring solstices and equinoxes for 400 years, because the Gregorian calendar hasnt had a leap year for seven years or a century leap year since 1600. ... Orchestra at City Hall (Edmonton). ... Lajos (Louis) Kossuth (September 19, 1802 - March 20, 1894), was a Hungarian lawyer, journalist, one of the most significant politicians, and for a time was regent. ... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Emergence and influences on Bartók's music

Upon discovering Magyar peasant folk song, not the gypsy music of Liszt, which Bartók regarded as true Hungarian folk music, he began to incorporate folk songs into his own compositions and write original folk-like tunes, as well as frequently using folksy rhythmic figures. Magyar may refer to: The Magyar language The Magyar people This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


It was the music of Richard Strauss, whom he met at the Budapest premiere of Also sprach Zarathustra in 1902, that had most influence. This new style emerged over the next few years. Bartók was building a career for himself as a pianist, when in 1907, he landed a job as piano professor at the Royal Academy. This allowed him to stay in Hungary rather than having to tour Europe as a pianist, and also allowed him to collect more folk songs, notably in Transylvania. Meanwhile his music was beginning to be influenced by this activity and by the music of Claude Debussy that Kodály had brought back from Paris. His large scale orchestral works were still in the manner of Johannes Brahms or Richard Strauss, but he wrote a number of small piano pieces which show his growing interest in folk music. Probably the first piece to show clear signs of this new interest is the String Quartet No. 1 (1908), which has several folk-like elements in it. Richard Strauss (June 11, 1864 – September 8, 1949) was a German composer of the late Romantic era, particularly noted for his tone poems and operas. ... Also sprach Zarathustra (English: Thus Spake Zarathustra) is a book started in 1885 by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche; it is arguably one of the most famous books in philosophy. ... 1902 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1907 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Transylvania (Romanian: Transilvania or Ardeal, Hungarian: Erdély, German: Siebenbürgen, Serbian: Transilvanija, Turkish: Erdel, Slovak: Sedmohradsko or Transylvánia, Polish: Siedmiogród) forms the western and central parts of Romania. ... Claude Debussy (Achille-) Claude Debussy (August 22, 1862 – March 25, 1918) was a composer of impressionistic European classical music. ... Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of romantic music, who predominantly lived in Vienna, Austria. ... The String Quartet No. ... 1908 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Middle years and career

In 1909, Bartók married Márta Ziegler. Their son, Béla Jr., was born in 1910. 1909 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1910 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1911, Bartók wrote what was to be his only opera, Bluebeard's Castle, dedicated to his wife, Márta. He entered it for a prize awarded by the Hungarian Fine Arts Commission, but they said it was unplayable, and rejected it out of hand. The opera remained unperformed until 1918, when Bartók was pressured by the government to remove the name of the librettist, Béla Balázs, from the program on account of his political views. Bartók refused, and eventually withdrew the work. For the rest of his life, Bartók did not feel greatly attached to the government or institutions of Hungary, although his love affair with its folk music continued. 1911 is a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... The foyer of Charles Garniers Opéra, Paris, opened 1875 Opera is an art form consisting of a dramatic stage performance set to music. ... A Kékszakállú herceg vára, (commonly referred to by its English name, Bluebeards Castle) is a one-act opera by Hungarian composer Béla Bartók. ... Béla Balázs (August 4, 1884, Szeged – May 17, 1949, Budapest), born Herbert Bauer, was a Hungarian-Jewish film critic, aesthete, writer and poet. ...


After his disappointment over the Fine Arts Commission prize, Bartók wrote very little for two or three years, preferring to concentrate on folk music collecting and arranging (in Central Europe, the Balkans, Algeria, and Turkey). However, the outbreak of World War I forced him to stop these expeditions, and he returned to composing, writing the ballet The Wooden Prince in 191416 and the String Quartet No. 2 in 191517. It was The Wooden Prince which gave him some degree of international fame. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... A performance of The Nutcracker ballet Ballet is the name given to a specific dance form and technique. ... 1914 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1916 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) Events January-February January 1 -The first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled. ... The String Quartet No. ... 1915 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Bartók subsequently worked on another ballet, The Miraculous Mandarin, influenced by Igor Stravinsky, Arnold Schoenberg, as well as Richard Strauss, following this up with his two violin sonatas which are harmonically and structurally some of the most complex pieces he wrote. He wrote his third and fourth string quartets, regarded as some of the finest string quartets ever written, in 192728, after which his harmonic language began to become simpler. The String Quartet No. 5 (1934) is somewhat more traditional from this point of view. Bartók wrote his sixth and last string quartet in 1939. Igor Fyodorovitch Stravinsky (Russian: ) (June 17, 1882 – April 6, 1971) was Russian-American composer of modern classical music. ... Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 For the American music critic and journalist, see Harold Charles Schonberg. ... The violin is a stringed musical instrument that has four strings tuned a perfect fifth apart. ... Sonata (From Latin and Italian sonare, to sound), in music, sonata literally means a piece played as opposed to cantata (Latin cantare, to sing), a piece sung. ... The String Quartet No. ... The String Quartet No. ... The resident string quartet of the Library of Congress in 1963 A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string instruments—usually two violins, a viola and cello—or a piece written to be performed by such a group. ... 1927 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1928 was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The String Quartet No. ... 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The String Quartet No. ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The Miraculous Mandarin was started in 1918, but not performed until 1926 because of its sexual content: a sordid modern story of prostitution, robbery, and murder. 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1926 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Bartók divorced Márta in 1923, and married a piano student, Ditta Pásztory. His second son, Péter, was born in 1924. For Péter's music lessons Bartók began composing a six-volume collection of graded piano pieces, Mikrokosmos, which is popular with piano students today. It was to be the last piece he wrote in Europe. 1923 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Béla Bartóks composition for piano Mikrokosmos (Sz. ...


World War II and later career

In 1940, after the outbreak of World War II, and the European political situation worsened, Bartók was increasingly tempted to flee Hungary. 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (over 11 miles) into the air. ...


Bartók was strongly opposed to the Nazis. After they came into power in Germany, he refused to concertize there and switched away from his German publisher. His liberal views (as evident in the opera Bluebeard's Castle and the ballet The Miraculous Mandarin) caused him a great deal of trouble from right-wingers in Hungary. A Kékszakállú herceg vára, (commonly referred to by its English name, Bluebeards Castle) is a one-act opera by Hungarian composer Béla Bartók. ...


Having first sent his manuscripts out of the country, Bartók reluctantly moved to the USA with Ditta Pásztory. Péter Bartók joined them in 1942 and later enlisted in the United States Navy. Béla Bartók, Jr. remained in Hungary. 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ...


Bartók did not feel comfortable in the USA, and found it very difficult to write. As well, he was not very well known in America and there was little interest in his music. He and his wife Ditta would give concerts; and for a while, they had a research grant to work on a collection of Yugoslav folk songs, but their finances were precarious, as was Bartók's health. Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all south Slavic languages) is a term used for three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ...


His last work might well have been the String Quartet No. 6, were it not for Serge Koussevitsky commissioning him to write the Concerto for Orchestra, which became Bartók's most popular work and which was to ease his financial burdens. He was also commissioned by Yehudi Menuhin to write Sonata for Solo Violin. This seemed to reawaken his interest in composing, and he went on to write his Piano Concerto No. 3, an airy and almost neo-classical work, and begin work on his Viola Concerto. Sergei Aleksandrovich Koussevitzky (July 26, 1874 – June 4, 1951), better known as Serge, was a Russian-born conductor. ... The Concerto for Orchestra is one of Béla Bartóks best known pieces, and usually regarded as one of his best. ... Fritz Kreisler (sitting) with Yehudi Menuhin Yehudi Menuhin, Baron Menuhin, OM, KBE (April 22, 1916 – March 12, 1999) was an American-born violinist, violist, and conductor who spent most of his performing career in the United Kingdom. ... Béla Bartóks Concerto for Piano and Orchestra No. ... The viola concerto is a concerto contrasting a viola with another body, usually a full or string orchestra but sometimes smaller. ...


Béla Bartók died in New York City from leukemia. He left the viola concerto unfinished at his death; it was later completed by his pupil, Tibor Serly. Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the largest city and largest metropolitan area, by population, in the United States. ... Leukemia (leukaemia in Commonwealth English) is a group of blood diseases characterized by malignancies (cancer) of the blood-forming tissues. ... Tibór Sérly (1901-1978) was a Hungarian violist, violinist and composer. ...


He was interred in the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York, but after the fall of Hungarian communism in 1988, his remains were transferred to Budapest, Hungary for a state funeral on July 7, 1988 with interment in Budapest's Farkasreti Cemetery. Founded in 1903, the non-sectarian Ferncliff Cemetery and Mausoleum is located on Secor Road in the hamlet of Hartsdale, Westchester County, New York, about 25 miles north of New York City. ... Hartsdale is an unincorporated census-designated place (CDP) located in the town of Greenburgh, Westchester County, New York. ... This article is about communism as a form of society built around a gift economy, as an ideology that advocates that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... 1988 is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... See Budapest (band) for the British melancholic post-grunge band. ... A state funeral is a public funeral ceremony held to honor heads of state or other important people of national significance. ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... 1988 is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Selected works

Orchestral music

A piano concerto is a concerto for solo piano and orchestra. ... A violin concerto is a concerto for solo violin and orchestra. ... The viola concerto is a concerto contrasting a viola with another body, usually a full or string orchestra but sometimes smaller. ... The Concerto for Orchestra is one of Béla Bartóks best known pieces, and usually regarded as one of his best. ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Choral music

  • Cantata Profana (1930)
  • From Olden Times (1935)

1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... 1935 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Chamber music

Percussion instruments are played by being struck, shaken, rubbed or scraped. ... Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta is a piece of classical music by Béla Bartók. ... The resident string quartet of the Library of Congress in 1963 A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string instruments—usually two violins, a viola and cello—or a piece written to be performed by such a group. ... A violin sonata is a musical composition for solo violin, often (but not always) accompanied by a piano or other keyboard instrument, or by figured bass in the Baroque. ...

Piano

1911 is a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... 1915 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1915 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1926 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Béla Bartóks composition for piano Mikrokosmos (Sz. ... 1926 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Music for the stage

A Kékszakállú herceg vára, (commonly referred to by its English name, Bluebeards Castle) is a one-act opera by Hungarian composer Béla Bartók. ... The foyer of Charles Garniers Opéra, Paris, opened 1875 Opera is an art form consisting of a dramatic stage performance set to music. ... A performance of The Nutcracker ballet Ballet is the name given to a specific dance form and technique. ...

Media

Opus 4B, 1st movement ( info)
Opus 4B, 2nd movement ( info)
Out of Doors Suite, 1st movement ( info)
Out of Doors Suite, 2nd movement ( info)
Problems listening to the files? Media help (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Media_help).


File links The following pages link to this file: Apollo 8 Accordion Antonio Vivaldi Aramaic language Symphony No. ... Bartok - Op. ... Bartok - Op. ... Bartok - Out-of-Doors Suite-1. ... Bartok - Out-of-Doors Suite2. ...


External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about:
Béla Bartók
  • Bartok at Naxos (http://www.naxos.com/composer/btm.asp?fullname=Bartok,%20Bela)
  • Bartók Béla Memorial House, Budapest (http://www.bartokmuseum.hu/)
  • Piano Society – Bartók (http://www.pianosociety.com/index.php?id=108) – A short biography and some recordings.

 
 

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