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Encyclopedia > Bábís
The room where The Báb declared His mission on 23 May 1844 in His house in Shiraz. Image provided in the press materials web site off the US Bahai National Center website at www.usbnc.org. Resized for wikipedia. - no restrictions on use. This image has been released...
The room where The Báb declared His mission on 23 May 1844 in His house in Shiraz. Image provided in the press materials web site off the US Bahai National Center website at www.usbnc.org. Resized for wikipedia. - no restrictions on use. This image has been released... Enlarge
The room where The Báb declared His mission on May 23 is the 143rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (144th in leap years). There are 222 days remaining. Events 1430 - Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army to relieve Compiègne 1498 - Girolamo Savonarola is executed on the orders of... May 23, Events January 15 - University of Notre Dame receives its charter from Indiana. February 27 - The Haiti. February 28 - A gun on USS Princeton explodes while the boat is on a Potomac River cruise, killing two United States Cabinet members and several others. May 23 - Persian Prophet The Báb announces... 1844 in His house in Shiraz.

The Bábís (in Persian (فارسی), also known as Farsi (local name), Parsi (older local name, but still used by some speakers), Tajik (a Central Asian dialect) or Dari (an Afghan dialect), is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan. It has official-language status in the first... Persian بابی ها Bâbihâ) are members of a religious movement that flourished in Persian art is conscious of a great past, and monumental in many respects. Richard Frye. Example of a modern Persian Miniature by a contemporary artist. Persia is the historical and alternative name for the state of Iran in the European languages. The name was used in the West due to... Persia from Events January 15 - University of Notre Dame receives its charter from Indiana. February 27 - The Haiti. February 28 - A gun on USS Princeton explodes while the boat is on a Potomac River cruise, killing two United States Cabinet members and several others. May 23 - Persian Prophet The Báb announces... 1844. Its founder was 'Ali Muhammad of Geography Shiraz (شیراز in Persian) is a city in southwest Iran with 1,050,000 inhabitants (1996 census). Its elevation is 1486 metres above sea level amidst the Zagros Mountains, and it is the capital of Fars Province. It used to be the capital of Persia... Shiraz ( Events March 4 - James Monroe succeeds James Madison as the President of the United States of America April – Earthquake in Palermo, Italy April 3 – Princess Caraboo appears in Almondsbury in Gloucestershire, England May - The General Convention of the Episcopal Church founded General Theological Seminary while meeting in New... 1817- Events January 4 - The first American ice-skating club is formed (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). January 29 - Henry Clay introduces the Compromise of 1850 to the U.S. Congress February 28 - University of Utah opens in Salt Lake City, Utah March 7 - United States Senator Daniel Webster gives his Seventh of March... 1850), who took the title Shrine of the Báb at night from above in Haifa Israel Siyyid Mírzá Alí-Muhammad (میرزا علی‌محمد in Persian) ( October 20, 1819 - July 9, 1850), later to become known as the Bá... Báb – meaning "Gate" – from a well-known Shi'i theological term. The implication was that 'Ali Muhammad was an avenue through which continuing divine revelation could flow — a controversial and in fact dangerous position, as his Death Penalty World Map Color Key: Blue: Abolished for all crimes Green: Abolished for crimes not committed in exceptional circumstances (such as crimes committed in time of war) Orange: Abolitionist in Practice Red: Legal Form of Punishment Criminal law Execution is the act of putting a person to death, with... execution shows.

Contents

Antecedents

Within Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. (The largest sect, the Sunni Muslims, make up... Shiite Islam ( Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen?) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. Etymology In Arabic, Islām means submission and is described as a Dīn, meaning way of life... Islam exists a large group known as Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia are members of the group of Shias who believe in twelve Imams. The Twelvers are the largest Shia school of thought, predominant in Iran. Alternate names The Twelvers are also known by other names, each connoting some aspect of the faith. Shia, when this term... Twelver Islam who regard the twelfth Imam is an Arabic word meaning Leader. The ruler of a country might be called the Imam, for example. The term, however, has important connotations in the Islamic tradition. Prayer leader The common everyday use of the word is for a person leading Muslim congregational prayers. In this meaning Imam... Imám as the last of the Imáms. They contend that the twelfth Imám is in "occultation" and that he will eventually begin again communicating with his loyal followers, as he did during the period of his "minor occultation" (Ghaybat al-Sughra, Anno Domini (Latin: In the year of the Lord), or more completely Anno Domini Nostri Jesu Christi (in the year of our Lord Jesus Christ), commonly abbreviated AD or A.D., is the designation used to number years in the dominant Christian Era in the world today. This is the... AD Events March 13 - The bones of Saint Nicephorus are interred in the Church of the Apostles, Constantinople. Ingólfur Arnarson arrives as first permanent viking settler in Iceland, settling in Reykjavík (probable date). The Danes invade Mercia. Births King Constantine II of Scotland Deaths January 1 - Hasan al-Askari... 874- Events Births Brian Boru, high king of Ireland Abul-Wafa, iranian mathematician Deaths ar-Radi (Caliph of Baghdad) Athelstan, who was succeeded by his half-brother, Edmund Categories: 940 ... 940). It was in this sense, and not, as has been often asserted, in the sense of "Gate of God" or "Gate of Religion," that the title Báb was understood. However, though his claim was at first understood by some of the public at the time to be merely a reference to the Gate of the Hidden Imám of Muhammad, which he publicly disclaimed. He later proclaimed himself, in the presence of the Heir to the Throne of Persia and other notables, to be the The Muslim faith has a tradition that at some future time in the latter days a reformer will come into the world to revive Islam and establish it as the dominant faith. The Orthodox view is that the same Jesus of Nazareth will return to do this. One Sunni Muslim... Promised One or Qá'im to Shí'ih Muslims.


In the 1830 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). Events February 3 - The previously autonomous state of Greece gains full independence from the Ottoman Empire as the final result of the Greek War of Independence. Negotiations for the borders between the two states continue until 1832, under... 1830's in Persia, Siyyid Kázim of Categories: Iran geography stubs | Cities in Iran ... Rasht was the leader of the Shaykhis, a sect of Shiite Islam. The Shayhkis were a group expecting the eminent appearance of the Qá'im of the House of Muhammad, also called the The Mahdi (or Mehdi), in Islamic eschatology, is a man who will come at the end of the times. The exact nature of the Mahdi differs between Shia Muslims and Sunni Muslims. The Mahdi in Sunni traditions The exact nature of the Mahdi is not completely clear, but according to... Mahdi or ( This article is about religious concept of Messiah. For the musical work by Handel, see Messiah (Handel). For the BBC television drama series, see Messiah (television). In Judaism, the Messiah (מָשִׁיחַ Anointed one, Standard Hebrew Mašíaḥ, Tiberian Hebrew Mā... Messiah). At Siyyid Kázim's death in Events February 6 - The first United States The Virginia Minstrels opens (Bowery Amphitheatre in New York City). February 11 - Giuseppe Verdis opera I Lombardi premieres in Milan May 18 - The Disruption of the Church of Scotland took place in Edinburgh May 22 - The first major wagon train headed for... 1843, he had councelled his followers to leave their homes to seek the Lord of the Age whose advent would soon break on the world.


Origin

On May 23 is the 143rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (144th in leap years). There are 222 days remaining. Events 1430 - Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army to relieve Compiègne 1498 - Girolamo Savonarola is executed on the orders of... May 23, Events January 15 - University of Notre Dame receives its charter from Indiana. February 27 - The Haiti. February 28 - A gun on USS Princeton explodes while the boat is on a Potomac River cruise, killing two United States Cabinet members and several others. May 23 - Persian Prophet The Báb announces... 1844 Mullá Husayn of Bushruyih in Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. The name Khorasan is Persian and is made up of parts which mean where the sun arrives from. The name was given to the eastern province of... Khorasan, a prominent disciple of Siyyid Kázim entered Geography Shiraz (شیراز in Persian) is a city in southwest Iran with 1,050,000 inhabitants (1996 census). Its elevation is 1486 metres above sea level amidst the Zagros Mountains, and it is the capital of Fars Province. It used to be the capital of Persia... Shiraz on the search for the Qaim that Siyyid Kázim had set him on. He encountered Mirza Ali Muhammad, who invited him to his home, and showed him hospitality. Mullá Husayn had been given a test to apply to any claiming the station of Báb, that the one he found would reveal, without prompting, a commentary on the Sura Yusuf (Joseph) is the 12th sura of the Quran. It has 111 ayat. It is a Makkan sura. External links Tafsir Ibn Kathir Categories: Stub | Sura ... Surah of Joseph from the The Quran ( Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; its literal meaning is the recitation and is often called Al Quran Al Karim: The Noble Quran, also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book... Qur'an. That night Shrine of the Báb at night from above in Haifa Israel Siyyid Mírzá Alí-Muhammad (میرزا علی‌محمد in Persian) ( October 20, 1819 - July 9, 1850), later to become known as the Bá... Mirza Ali Muhammad fulfilled the prophecy to Mullá Husayn, and ordered him to wait until 17 others had independently recognized the station of the Báb before they could begin teaching others about the new revelation. The Báb's first eighteen followers were called the "Letters of the Living", and were charged with spreading the movement.


After his revelation then, Mirza Ali Muhammed soon assumed the title of the Báb. Within a few years the movement spread all over Iran, causing controversy.


Uprisings, massacres and conferences

The history of the Bábís, though covering a comparatively short period, is so full of incident and the particulars now available are so numerous, that the following account purports to be only the briefest sketch. The Báb himself was in captivity first at Geography Shiraz (شیراز in Persian) is a city in southwest Iran with 1,050,000 inhabitants (1996 census). Its elevation is 1486 metres above sea level amidst the Zagros Mountains, and it is the capital of Fars Province. It used to be the capital of Persia... Shiraz, then at Region of the old Armenia c. 300-800. A branch of the family Amatuni ruled it, as vassals of the family Ardzruni Maku is a city in the West Azarbaijan province of Iran. That province is situated in the northwestern part of Iran. The region of Maku was a part... Maku, and lastly at Chihriq, during the greater part of the six years ( May is the fifth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. May begins (astrologically) with the sun in the sign of Taurus and ends in the sign of Gemini. Astronomically speaking, the sun begins in the constellation... May Events January 15 - University of Notre Dame receives its charter from Indiana. February 27 - The Haiti. February 28 - A gun on USS Princeton explodes while the boat is on a Potomac River cruise, killing two United States Cabinet members and several others. May 23 - Persian Prophet The Báb announces... 1844 until July is the seventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. July begins (astrologically) with the sun in the sign of Cancer and ends in the sign of Leo. Astronomically speaking, the sun begins in the constellation... July Events January 4 - The first American ice-skating club is formed (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). January 29 - Henry Clay introduces the Compromise of 1850 to the U.S. Congress February 28 - University of Utah opens in Salt Lake City, Utah March 7 - United States Senator Daniel Webster gives his Seventh of March... 1850) of his brief career, but an active propaganda was carried on by his disciples, which resulted in several serious revolts against the government, especially after the death of Mohammad Shah (1810 - 1848) was the Qajar king of Persia between 1835 and 1848. External link Mohammad Shahs Portrait Categories: Stub | 1810 births | 1848 deaths | Monarchs of Persia ... Mohammad Shah Qajar in September is the ninth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four Gregorian months with the length of 30 days. September begins (astrologically) with the sun in the sign of Virgo and ends in the sign of Libra. Astronomically speaking, the sun begins in the constellation... September 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). Events Monument for the leaders of the 1848 Matale rebellion, Sri Lanka The Revolution of 1848 (qv.), a series of widespread but failed struggles for more liberal governments, from Brazil to Hungary. January 24 - California gold... 1848. Of these risings the first ( December is the twelfth and last month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. December begins (astrologically) with the sun in the sign of Sagittarius and ends in the sign of Capricorn. Astronomically speaking, the sun begins in... December 1848– July is the seventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. July begins (astrologically) with the sun in the sign of Cancer and ends in the sign of Leo. Astronomically speaking, the sun begins in the constellation... July Events January 23 - Elizabeth Blackwell is awarded her MD by the Medical Institute of Geneva, New York, thus becoming the United States first woman doctor January 31 - Corn Laws abolished in the United Kingdom February 14 - In New York City, James Knox Polk becomes the first President of the United... 1849) took place in Mázandarán, at the ruined shrine of Shaykh Tabarsi, near Badasht, where the Bábís, led by Mullâ Muhammad `Ali of Bârfurfish and Mullá Husayn of Bushruyih (two of the "Letters of the Living"), defied the shah's troops for seven months before they were finally subdued and put to death.


The revolt at the fortress of 'Ali Mardan Khan in External links Official website of Zanjan Governorship Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... Zanjan in the north-west of Persia, headed by Mullâ Muhammad `Ali Zanjáni, also lasted seven or eight months ( May is the fifth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. May begins (astrologically) with the sun in the sign of Taurus and ends in the sign of Gemini. Astronomically speaking, the sun begins in the constellation... May Events January 4 - The first American ice-skating club is formed (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). January 29 - Henry Clay introduces the Compromise of 1850 to the U.S. Congress February 28 - University of Utah opens in Salt Lake City, Utah March 7 - United States Senator Daniel Webster gives his Seventh of March... 1850 December is the twelfth and last month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. December begins (astrologically) with the sun in the sign of Sagittarius and ends in the sign of Capricorn. Astronomically speaking, the sun begins in... December 1850), while a serious but less protracted struggle was waged against the government at Nayriz in Fars by Aga Sayyid Yahyá of Nayriz. All of these resulted in Bábí massacres; the number of these is a matter of disagreement between Bahá'í authors, who give a figure of 20,000, and academic critics including Denis MacEoin, who say it is too large by a whole order of magnitude. Supporters paint their struggle as basically defensive in nature; Shi'i writers on the other hand point to this period as proof of the subversive nature of Bábísm (and thus of Known in India as the Lotus Temple, the Bahai House of Worship attracts an average of three and a half million visitors a year. The Baháí Faith is a monotheistic religion whose members follow the teachings of Baháulláh, founder and prophet of... Bahá'í Faith after it).


Also in 1848, a group of Bábí leaders met at Badasht to deliberate the relationship of their movement to Islam. A radical wing led by Qurratu'l-'Ayn, also called Táhirih, argued that Bábísm superseded the provisions of Islam; the more conservative (and ultimately unsuccessful) wing, led by Muhammad Quddus, argued the opposite.


After the martyrdom of the Báb

The revolts in Zanjan and Nayriz were in progress when in Events January 4 - The first American ice-skating club is formed (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). January 29 - Henry Clay introduces the Compromise of 1850 to the U.S. Congress February 28 - University of Utah opens in Salt Lake City, Utah March 7 - United States Senator Daniel Webster gives his Seventh of March... 1850 the Báb, with one of his devoted disciples, was brought from his prison at Chihriq to Tabriz and publicly shot in front of the citadel. The body, after being exposed for some days, was recovered by the Bábís and conveyed to a shrine near Tehran (also spelled Teheran) (تهران in Persian), population 8,000,000 (metropolitan: 10,000,000), is the capital of Iran and one of the major world cities. Tehran is a metropolis of 10 million situated at the foot of the towering Alborz range. More than half... Tehran, whence it was ultimately removed to Haifa (Hebrew חיפה; Arabic حيفا Ḥayfā) is the third-largest city in Israel, with a population close to 300,000. Areas and towns around it are deemed to be in the Haifa District, of which it is also a part. It is... Haifa, where it is now enshrined.


For the next two years comparatively little was heard of the Bábís, but on August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. Events 700-1899 778 - The Battle of Roncevaux Pass, in which Roland is killed 927 - The Saracens conquered and destroyed Taranto 1309 - The city of Rhodes surrenders to the... August 15, 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). Events January 14 - President Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte proclaims a new constitution for the French Second Republic. January 17 - United Kingdom recognizes independence of the Transvaal Devils Island penal colony opens February 11 - First British public toilet for... 1852 three of them, acting on their own initiative, attempted to assassinate Nasser-al-Din Shah Qajar (sometimes called Nassereddin) (died 1896) was the Shah of Persia from 1848 to 1896. He was in Tabriz when he heard of his fathers death in 1848, and he ascended to the Peacock Throne with the help of Amir Kabir. He tried to bring... Nasser-al-Din Shah as he was returning from the chase to his palace at Niyávarfin. The attempt failed, but was the cause of a fresh persecution, and on the August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining, as the final day of August. Events 1000-1899 1056 - Byzantine Empress Theodora died suddenly without children to succeed the throne, ending the Macedonian dynasty 1864 - American Civil War... August 31 1852 some thirty Bábís, including the beautiful and talented poetess Qurratu'l-Ayn, were put to death in Tehran with atrocious cruelty. Another of the victims of that day was Hâjji Mirza Jân of Tabatabaei House, early 1800s , Iran. A fine example of traditional Persian architecture. View up toward ceiling of one of Kashans many houses. Built by Ostad Ali Maryam in the 1800s. Kashan is a city in the province of Isfahan, Iran. The name of the city comes from the word... Kashan, the author of the oldest history of the movement from the Bábí point of view. Only one complete manuscript of his invaluable work (obtained by Joseph Arthur Comte de Gobineau (July 14, 1816 _ October 13, 1882) was a French aristocrat who became famous for developing the theory of the Aryan master race in his book An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853-1855). Gobineau was a successful diplomat whose career in... Count Gobineau in Persian art is conscious of a great past, and monumental in many respects. Richard Frye. Example of a modern Persian Miniature by a contemporary artist. Persia is the historical and alternative name for the state of Iran in the European languages. The name was used in the West due to... Persia) exists in any public library: the Bibliothèque nationale at The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. Paris is the capital city of France, as well as the capital of the Île-de-France région, whose territory encompasses Paris and its suburbs. The city of Paris proper is also a dé... Paris. The so-called "New History" (of which an English translation was published at Cambridge in 1893 by E. G. Browne) is based on Mirza Jani's work, but many important passages which did not accord with later Bábi doctrine or policy have been suppressed or modified, while some additions have been made.


Background to Babi Radicalism and Opposition by Clergy and State

A brief chronology provides a background to the opposition of the Shi'a clergy and the Qajar authorities:


1844: Ali Muhammad declares his mission to Mulla Husayn; he claims to be the Bab of the Imam; the first disciples (Letters of the Living) start missionary work throughout Persia.


1845: Messianic expectations are high at the start of AH 1261 (10 January); crowds gather in Karbala in response to the Bab's call; the Bab's emissary in Karbala is convicted and the Bab cancels his visit to the city; he is later arrested in Shiraz.


1846: The Bab escapes to Isfahan where he is protected by its sympathetic governor.


1847: The Bab is offered an audience with Muhammad Shah in Teheran but at the last moment was transferred to Maku fortress as a prisoner.


1848: The Bab in Maku informs his disciples of his higher claims; he is transferred to Chihriq fortress; he announced his higher claims (as Mahdi) to followers at Badasht and later publicly at the Tabriz tribunal of ulama, presided over by crown prince Nasiri'd-Din, who was to become Shah three months later at the age of seventeen; the Bab was publicly ridiculed and bastinadoed; Mullah Husayn and companions set off to free the Bab, have a conflict with a mob outside Barfurush and fortify the nearby shrine of Shaykh Tabarsi;


1849: Babis at Tabarsi are massacred after a long conflict with government troops.


1850: Fighting and massacre of Babis in Nayriz; conflict in Zanjan; the Bab is executed in Tabriz.


1851: Babi fighters massacred in Zanjan.


1852: Attempted assassination of Nasiri'd-Din Shah followed by a general persecution of Babis; most Babi leaders are killed.


Despite his early arrests, the Bab was hopeful of enlisting the support of Muhammad Shah, but he was opposed by the Shah's chief minister, Hajji Mirza Aqazi. While in captivity at Maku and Chihriq, the Bab continued to write to the Shah, but the letters were increasingly condemnatory.


While the Qayyumu'l-Asma called on Babis to prepare to "conquer the countries and their people for the pure faith of God" and prepare for the "day of slaughter", this jihad was never called. Furthermore, the Bab wrote that he avoided travelling to Karbala in 1845 to prevent conflict and sedition. Nonetheless, missionary activity and challenges of opponents to divine judgement (mubahala) provoked opposition from ulama and their followers. Some Babis expected a final jihad and carried weapons openly.


A turning point for Babis in Persia was the murder of Muhammad Taqi Baraghani in Qazvin. He had earlier instigated the arrest and bastinado of leading Babis in the town. Babis denied involvement in the murder, but the incident led to Babis being labelled as violent opponents of the ulama and heightened clerical opposition to the movement.


Despite the opposition of the ulama, the civil authorities were initially indifferent and did little to hinder the expansion of the Babi cause. But the situation was transformed when the Bab announced at his 1848 Tabriz trial that he was the Mahdi. The claim to Mahdihood challenged the entire religious. social and political order: only the Mahdi has the right to independent authority and no secular government has legitimacy without his permission. The Bab's higher claims to be the Imam Mahdi, the promised Qa'im (He who will arise), the inaugurator of the Resurrection, and the abrogator of Islamic holy law had the effect of radicalizing the Babi movement and greatly increased Babi fervour. The Bab's higher claims therefore changed Babism from a sect within Shi'a Islam into a revolutionary movement that implicitly challenged the authority of both the state and the ulama. Both government and clergy henceforth jointly opposed Babism.


Succession

The Báb was succeeded on his death by Mirza Yahya Nuri Subh-i Azal (1831 - Apr 29, 1912) was a Persian religious leader. He was a disciple of the Bábs, and before the Bábs martyrdom in 1850, Mirza Yahya was named as his successor in the leadership of the Babis, and was also appointed... Mirza Yahya of Nur (at that time in his early 20s), who escaped to A street map of Baghdad Average temperature (red) and precipitations (blue) in Baghdad Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq and the Baghdad Province. It is the second largest city in Southwest Asia after Tehran, with the 2003 population estimated at 5,772,000. Situated on... Baghdad, and, under the title of Subh-i Azal (the Dawn of Eternity), became the pontiff of the sect. He lived, however, in great seclusion, leaving the direction of affairs almost entirely in the hands of his elder half brother, Bahá'u'lláh.


Mírzá Husayn-'Alí, entitled Bahá'u'lláh ("the Glory of God")', who thus gradually became the most conspicuous and most influential member of the Bábís, though in the Kitáb-i-Íqán, one of the most important polemical works of the Bábísm, and now the Bahá'ís, composed in 1858 is a common year starting on Friday. Events January 14 - Felice Orsini and his accomplices fail to assassinate Napoleon III in Paris but their bombs kill 156 bystanders. Because of the involvement of French émigrés living in Britain, there is a brief anti-British feeling in France but... 1858- 1859 is a common year starting on Saturday. Events January January 2 - Erastus Beadle publishes The Dime Book of Practical Etiquette. January 24 - Wallachia and Moldavia are united under Alexander John Cuza under the name Romania (see December 1, 1918 for the final unification, Transylvania and other regions were still... 1859, he still implicitly recognized the supremacy of Subh-i Azal. In 1863 is a common year starting on Thursday. Events January January 1 - Abraham Lincoln delivers the Emancipation Proclamation during the second year of the American Civil War. January 1 - The first claim under the Homestead Act is made for a farm in Nebraska January 8 - Ground is broken in Sacramento... 1863, however, Bahá'u'lláh declared himself to be man yuzhirullah ("He Whom God Shall Make Manifest") – a This article is about religious concept of Messiah. For the musical work by Handel, see Messiah (Handel). For the BBC television drama series, see Messiah (television). In Judaism, the Messiah (מָשִׁיחַ Anointed one, Standard Hebrew Mašíaḥ, Tiberian Hebrew Mā... messianic figure within Bábí tradition of whose advent the works of the Báb are filled – and called on all the Bábís to recognize his claim. Most of those living in exile within the The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October... Ottoman Empire accepted the claims of Bahá'u'lláh, and accordingly they became known as Bahá'ís. The Known in India as the Lotus Temple, the Bahai House of Worship attracts an average of three and a half million visitors a year. The Baháí Faith is a monotheistic religion whose members follow the teachings of Baháulláh, founder and prophet of... Bahá'í Faith, which see itself as a separate and independent religion from the Bábi movement, and founded by Bahá'u'lláh, however recognizes the station of the Báb as a messenger of God, equal to that of Bahá'u'lláh; Bahá'ís see the Bábí movement as a part of their own sacred history.


While the majority responded to Bahá'u'lláh's claim, Subh-i Azal and some of his faithful adherents refused. After that date the Bábís divided into two – the Azalis and the Bahá'ís – of which the former steadily lost and the latter gained ground, so that in 1908 there were probably from half a million to a million of the latter, and at most only a hundred or two of the former. In 1863 is a common year starting on Thursday. Events January January 1 - Abraham Lincoln delivers the Emancipation Proclamation during the second year of the American Civil War. January 1 - The first claim under the Homestead Act is made for a farm in Nebraska January 8 - Ground is broken in Sacramento... 1863 the Bábís were, at the instance of the Persian government, removed from A street map of Baghdad Average temperature (red) and precipitations (blue) in Baghdad Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq and the Baghdad Province. It is the second largest city in Southwest Asia after Tehran, with the 2003 population estimated at 5,772,000. Situated on... Baghdad to Map of Constantinople. Constantinople (Roman name: Constantinopolis; Modern Greek: Konstantinoupoli or Κωνσταντινούπολη) is the former name of the city of Istanbul in todays Turkey. Today, Constantinople is the area between the Golden Horn and... Constantinople, whence they were shortly afterwards transferred to Edirne is a city in (Thrace), the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. Variations on the name of the city, founded as Hadrianopolis, include Adrianople, Edreneh, and Odrin. Conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1362, the city served as the Ottoman capital from 1365... Adrianople. In 1868 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). Events January 3 - Meiji Emperor declares Meiji Restoration, his own restoration to full power, against the supporters of the Tokugawa Shogunate. January 10 - Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu declares emperors declaration illegal and attacks Kyoto. Pro-Emperor forces drive... 1868 Bahá'u'lláh and his followers were exiled to This article is about the unit of measure known as the acre. For other definitions, see Acre (disambiguation). An acre is a measure of land area in Imperial units or U.S. customary units. It is equal to 43 560 square feet, or 4840 square yards. The precise meaning... Acre in The Syrian Arab Republic is a country in the Middle East, bordering (from south to north) on Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Iraq and Turkey. The borders with Israel and Turkey are subject to dispute, pending the resolution of outstanding conflicts over possession of the Golan Heights and the region of Iskenderun... Syria (now Acca, The State of Israel (Hebrew: מדינת ישראל, translit.: Medinat Yisrael; Arabic: دولة اسرائيل, translit.: Daulat Israil) is a country in the Middle East on the eastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea... Israel), and Subh-i Azal with his few adherents to Famagusta or Gazimağusa is a city on the east coast of Cyprus. Lala Mustapha Paşa Mosque The town was known as Arsinoe (after Arsinoe of Egypt) in antiquity, then Ammochostos (meaning hidden in sand) which is how it is today referred to in Greek. The same... Famagusta in Cyprus (in Greek Kypros Κύπρος and in Turkish Kıbrıs) is an island in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, 113 kilometres (70 miles) south of Turkey and around 120 km west of the Syrian coast. National motto: None National anthem: Ύμν... Cyprus.


Subh-i Azal died in Famagusta or Gazimağusa is a city on the east coast of Cyprus. Lala Mustapha Paşa Mosque The town was known as Arsinoe (after Arsinoe of Egypt) in antiquity, then Ammochostos (meaning hidden in sand) which is how it is today referred to in Greek. The same... Famagusta, Cyprus (in Greek Kypros Κύπρος and in Turkish Kıbrıs) is an island in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, 113 kilometres (70 miles) south of Turkey and around 120 km west of the Syrian coast. National motto: None National anthem: Ύμν... Cyprus in 1912 is a leap year starting on Monday. Events January-March January 1 - Establishment of Republic of China. January 6 - New Mexico is admitted as the 47th U.S. state. January 17 - British polar explorer Robert Falcon Scott and a team of four begin the second expedition to reach the... 1912, and his followers are usually called Azalis or Bayanis and their populations are likely to be quite low. Beginning in 2002, a new web presence of Bayanis was begun, but their connection to the original community is unclear.


Bahá'u'lláh died at Acre on May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (137th in leap years). There are 229 days remaining. Events 1204 - Baldwin IX, Count of Flanders is crowned first Emperor of the Latin Empire. 1527 - The Florentines drive out the Medici for a second time and Florence... May 16, 1892 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). Events January-June January 1 - Ellis Island begins accepting immigrants to the United States. January 14 - Death of Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence, second in line heir to the throne of the United Kingdom of Great Britain... 1892. In Bahá'u'lláh's Will and Testament he appointed his son Abdul Baha `Abdul-Bahá Abbas ( May 23, 1844 - November 28, 1921) also known as Abbas Effendi, was the son of Baháulláh, the Prophet and Founder of the Baháí Faith. `Abdul-Bahá was appointed by his Father to succeed... `Abdu'l-Bahá, (the servant of Bahá), his successor, but another of his four sons, Mírzá Muhammad 'Alí, put forward a rival claim. This caused a fresh and bitter schism, but 'Abdu'l-Bahá steadily gained ground, and there could be little doubt as to his eventual success. See the Known in India as the Lotus Temple, the Bahai House of Worship attracts an average of three and a half million visitors a year. The Baháí Faith is a monotheistic religion whose members follow the teachings of Baháulláh, founder and prophet of... Bahá'í Faith for further history.


Writings

The Báb's writings include the Qayyum al-Asma ("Reality of the Names", a commentary on the Qur'anic Sura Yusuf (Joseph) is the 12th sura of the Quran. It has 111 ayat. It is a Makkan sura. External links Tafsir Ibn Kathir Categories: Stub | Sura ... Sura of Joseph), and the Arabic and The Persian Bayan (بیان in Persian) is one of the principal scriptural writings of the Báb. Although he started it, it was left unfinished at his death. Continuation of the writing of the scripture was entrusted to his successor Mirza Yahya Nuri also known as Subh... Persian Bayan ("Exposition", which the Bábis saw as superseding the The Quran ( Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; its literal meaning is the recitation and is often called Al Quran Al Karim: The Noble Quran, also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book... Qur'an). The latter has been translated into French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. In 1999 French was the 11th most spoken language in the world being spoken by about 77 million people (called Francophones) as a mother tongue, and... French; only portions exist in The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. It is the third most common first language (native speakers), with around 402 million people in 2002. English has lingua franca status in many parts of the world, due to the military, economic, scientific, political and cultural influence... English.


Much academic research has focused on the Bábís including Abbas Amanat, Resurrection and Renewal; Denis MacEion, Rituals in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions; (t.k.).


References

  • Peter Smith, the Babi and Baha'i Religions - from messianic Shi'ism to a world religion; Cambridge University Press (1987); ISBN 0-521-30128-9
  • Abbas Amanat, Resurrection and Renewal - the Making of the Babi Movement in Iran 1844-1850; Cornell University Press (1989); ISBN 0-8014-2098-9
  • Bayani community online http://www.bayanic.com
This article is related to: Known in India as the Lotus Temple, the Bahai House of Worship attracts an average of three and a half million visitors a year. The Baháí Faith is a monotheistic religion whose members follow the teachings of Baháulláh, founder and prophet of... The Bahá'í Faith edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Bahai&action=edit)
Central Figures: Shrine of the Báb at night from above in Haifa Israel Siyyid Mírzá Alí-Muhammad (میرزا علی‌محمد in Persian) ( October 20, 1819 - July 9, 1850), later to become known as the Bá... The Báb Bahá'u'lláh Abdul Baha `Abdul-Bahá Abbas ( May 23, 1844 - November 28, 1921) also known as Abbas Effendi, was the son of Baháulláh, the Prophet and Founder of the Baháí Faith. `Abdul-Bahá was appointed by his Father to succeed... `Abdu'l-Bahá Shoghi Effendi (1897-1957) The Guardians Resting Place in London Shoghi Effendi Rabbani was the Guardian of the Baháí Faith. He was appointed to that station in the Will and Testament of `Abdul-Bahá. Shoghi Effendi was the eldest grandson of Abdul-Bahá. He was born on... Shoghi Effendi
Institutions: Seat of The Universal House of Justice The Universal House of Justice is the name used by Baháulláh for the elected supreme institution of the Baháí Faith, The nine-member institution administers the affairs of the Baháí community. This body is elected every five years. History In... Universal House of Justice, There are currently seven Baháí Houses of Worship around the world, although Baháí communities own many properties where they plan for Houses of Worship to be constructed as the Baháí community grows and develops. Most Baháí meetings occur in individuals homes, local... Bahá'í House of Worship
Individuals: Táhirih, List of Bahá'ís
Holy Cities Haifa (Hebrew חיפה; Arabic حيفا Ḥayfā) is the third-largest city in Israel, with a population close to 300,000. Areas and towns around it are deemed to be in the Haifa District, of which it is also a part. It is... Haifa, Geography Shiraz (شیراز in Persian) is a city in southwest Iran with 1,050,000 inhabitants (1996 census). Its elevation is 1486 metres above sea level amidst the Zagros Mountains, and it is the capital of Fars Province. It used to be the capital of Persia... Shiraz, A street map of Baghdad Average temperature (red) and precipitations (blue) in Baghdad Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq and the Baghdad Province. It is the second largest city in Southwest Asia after Tehran, with the 2003 population estimated at 5,772,000. Situated on... Baghdad
Topics: Kitáb-i-Íqán, Kitáb-i-Aqdas, Baháulláh, in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, prescribes the obligatory prayers; designates the time and period of fasting; prohibits congregational prayer except for the dead; and fixes the Qiblih as his tomb, Bahjí, in Akká. The concept has existed in other religions. Jews face Jerusalem, more specifically... Qiblih, Bahá'í calendar

This article incorporates text from the The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. (Proprietary interest is typically represented by a copyright or patent.) Such works and inventions are considered part of... public domain The Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) in many ways represents the sum of knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century. The edition is still often regarded as the greatest edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, with many articles being up to 10 times the length of... 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica.


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