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Encyclopedia > Báb
Shrine of the Bab in Haifa Israel at night viewed from above looking down Ben Gurion Avenue Photo distributed for public use by the Bahai World Center, re-sized from a photo on the press materials page at http://www.bahaiworldnews.org/terraces/photos.en.html This image has...
Shrine of the Bab in Haifa Israel at night viewed from above looking down Ben Gurion Avenue Photo distributed for public use by the Bahai World Center, re-sized from a photo on the press materials page at http://www.bahaiworldnews.org/terraces/photos.en.html This image has... Enlarge
Shrine of the Báb at night from above in Haifa Israel

Siyyid Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad (میرزا علی‌محمد in Persian (فارسی), also known as Farsi (local name), Parsi (older local name, but still used by some speakers), Tajik (a Central Asian dialect) or Dari (an Afghan dialect), is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan. It has official-language status in the first... Persian) ( October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 72 days remaining. Events 1700-1899 1740 - Maria Theresa takes the throne of Austria. France, Prussia, Bavaria and Saxony refuse to honour the Pragmatic Sanction and the War of the Austrian Succession... October 20, Events January 17 - Simón Bolívar proclaims the Republic of Gran Colombia January 29 - Sir Singapore February 6 - Formal treaty between Sultan Hussein of Johor and the British Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles originates Singapore February 15 - The United States House of Representatives agrees to Tallmadge Amendment to bar slaves... 1819 - July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 175 days remaining. Events 455 - Roman military commander Avitus is proclaimed emperor of the western Roman Empire. 1357 5:31 AM - Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor assisted laying the foundation stone of... July 9, Events January 4 - The first American ice-skating club is formed (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). January 29 - Henry Clay introduces the Compromise of 1850 to the U.S. Congress February 28 - University of Utah opens in Salt Lake City, Utah March 7 - United States Senator Daniel Webster gives his Seventh of March... 1850), later to become known as the Báb ("باب" meaning "Gate" in Persian (فارسی), also known as Farsi (local name), Parsi (older local name, but still used by some speakers), Tajik (a Central Asian dialect) or Dari (an Afghan dialect), is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan. It has official-language status in the first... Persian and Arabic is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. It is spoken throughout the Arab world and is widely known throughout the Islamic world. Arabic has been a literary language for over 1500 years, and is the liturgical language of Islam. The expression Arabic may refer either to... Arabic;) was seen by Bábís (and is seen by modern Known in India as the Lotus Temple, the Bahai House of Worship attracts an average of three and a half million visitors a year. The Baháí Faith is a monotheistic religion whose members follow the teachings of Baháulláh, founder and prophet of... Bahá'ís) to be an independent Manifestation of the Cause of This article focuses on the monotheistic concept of a singular God. See deity or goddesses for details on divine entities in specific religions and mythologies. The term God designates a universal Supreme Being. There are countless variant definitions of God, however. For example: Many religious and philosophic systems consider God... God, or In numerous religions, including Abrahamic religions, Jah religions, Sikhism, and many forms of Paganism, a prophet is an intermediary with a deity, particularly someone who speaks for the deity or interprets the deitys will or mind. A prophet usually operates through some means of divination, channeling, or extra-sensory... Prophet on par with (See also Exodus) Moses or Móshe (מֹשֶׁה Drawn, Standard Hebrew Móše, Tiberian Hebrew Mōšeh, Arabic موسى), son of Amram and his wife, Jochebed, a Levite. Legendary Hebrew liberator, leader, lawgiver, prophet, and historian. If... Moses, This article is about the figure known by both Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ. For other usages, see Jesus (disambiguation). This 11th-century portrait is one of many images of Jesus in which a halo with a cross is used. Jesus of Nazareth (b. about 6–4 BC... Jesus, or Muhammad is a common male name for Muslims. For other prominent Muhammads, see Muhammad (disambiguation) Muhammad  listen? ( Arabic محمد, also transliterated Mohammad, Mohammed, Muhammed, and formerly Mahomet, following the Latin) is revered by Muslims as the final prophet of God. According to his traditional Muslim biographies... Muhammad (though his claim was at first understood by some of the public at the time to be merely a reference to the Gate of the Muhammad al-Mahdi (868 - ?) is the twelfth and final Imam of the Shia. His given name was Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn Ali. When Hasan al Askari died, his estate was divided between his brother Ja‘far and his mother according to the Islamic Law for one who... Hidden Imám of Muhammad, which he publicly disclaimed, later boldly proclaiming himself, in the presence of the Heir to the Throne of Persian art is conscious of a great past, and monumental in many respects. Richard Frye. Example of a modern Persian Miniature by a contemporary artist. Persia is the historical and alternative name for the state of Iran in the European languages. The name was used in the West due to... Persia and other notables, to be the The Mahdi (or Mehdi), in Islamic eschatology, is a man who will come at the end of the times. The exact nature of the Mahdi differs between Shia Muslims and Sunni Muslims. The Mahdi in Sunni traditions The exact nature of the Mahdi is not completely clear, but according to... Promised One or Qá'im to Shí'ih A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. The word Muslim means one who submits and implies complete submission to the will of God ( Allah). Muslims believe that nature is itself Islamic, since it follows natural laws placed by God. Thus, a Muslim strives to surrender to God... Muslims). The Báb founded the Bábí religion (sometimes refered to as the Bayani religion) which Known in India as the Lotus Temple, the Bahai House of Worship attracts an average of three and a half million visitors a year. The Baháí Faith is a monotheistic religion whose members follow the teachings of Baháulláh, founder and prophet of... Bahá'í Faith claimed would become, in the days of Bahá'u'lláh and afterwards, the forerunning religion to theirs. His titles included, among others, the "Herald of the Faith" and the "Point of the Bayan".

Contents

The Báb's Life

Early life

Born on October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 72 days remaining. Events 1700-1899 1740 - Maria Theresa takes the throne of Austria. France, Prussia, Bavaria and Saxony refuse to honour the Pragmatic Sanction and the War of the Austrian Succession... October 20, Events January 17 - Simón Bolívar proclaims the Republic of Gran Colombia January 29 - Sir Singapore February 6 - Formal treaty between Sultan Hussein of Johor and the British Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles originates Singapore February 15 - The United States House of Representatives agrees to Tallmadge Amendment to bar slaves... 1819, in Geography Shiraz (شیراز in Persian) is a city in southwest Iran with 1,050,000 inhabitants (1996 census). Its elevation is 1486 metres above sea level amidst the Zagros Mountains, and it is the capital of Fars Province. It used to be the capital of Persia... Shiraz to a well-known merchant of the city of Shiraz, his father died soon after his birth and the boy was raised by his uncle Hájí Mirzá Siyyid 'Ali, who was also a Merchants function as professional traders, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves. Merchants can be categorised into two types: A wholesale merchant operates in the chain between producer and retail merchant. Some wholesale merchants only organise the movement of goods rather than move the goods themselves. A retail... merchant. As a child he learned to read and write and was sent with other children to a teacher of Religion, sometimes used interchangeably with faith, is commonly defined as belief concerning the supernatural, sacred, or divine, and the practices and institutions associated with such belief. In its broadest sense some have defined it as the sum total of answers given to explain humankinds relationship with the universe. Religion... religion. During these lessons the little boy showed uncommon wisdom and quickly attracted attention, since not only did he ask very difficult questions, but he answered them himself. He did this so well that his teacher was dumbfounded. Upon reaching manhood, he joined his uncle in the family business, a trading house, and became a merchant. His integrity and piety won the esteem of the other merchants with whom he came in contact. He was also known for his generosity to the poor. In Events February 21 - John J. Greenough patents the sewing machine. March 5 - Over 500 Mexican troops led by Rafael Vasquez invade Texas briefly occupy San Antonio and then head back to the Rio Grande. This is the first such invasion since the Texas Revolution. March 30 - Anesthesia is used for... 1842 He married Khadíjih-Bagum and they had one son, Ahmad, who died in infancy.


Proclamation

The house where the Báb declared his mission This work is copyrighted. The individual who uploaded this work and first used it in an article, and subsequent persons who place it into articles assert that this qualifies as fair use of the material under United States copyright law. File...
The house where the Báb declared his mission This work is copyrighted. The individual who uploaded this work and first used it in an article, and subsequent persons who place it into articles assert that this qualifies as fair use of the material under United States copyright law. File... Enlarge
View of the upper room of the Báb´s house in Shiraz where he declared his mission

In the 1830 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). Events February 3 - The previously autonomous state of Greece gains full independence from the Ottoman Empire as the final result of the Greek War of Independence. Negotiations for the borders between the two states continue until 1832, under... 1830's in Persian art is conscious of a great past, and monumental in many respects. Richard Frye. Example of a modern Persian Miniature by a contemporary artist. Persia is the historical and alternative name for the state of Iran in the European languages. The name was used in the West due to... Persia, Siyyid Kázim of Categories: Iran geography stubs | Cities in Iran ... Rasht was the leader of the Shaykhis, a sect of Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. (The largest sect, the Sunni Muslims, make up... Shiite Islam. The Shayhkis were expecting the eminent appearance of the Qá'im of the House of Muhammad, also called the The Mahdi (or Mehdi), in Islamic eschatology, is a man who will come at the end of the times. The exact nature of the Mahdi differs between Shia Muslims and Sunni Muslims. The Mahdi in Sunni traditions The exact nature of the Mahdi is not completely clear, but according to... Mahdi.


At Siyyid Kázim's death in Events February 6 - The first United States The Virginia Minstrels opens (Bowery Amphitheatre in New York City). February 11 - Giuseppe Verdis opera I Lombardi premieres in Milan May 18 - The Disruption of the Church of Scotland took place in Edinburgh May 22 - The first major wagon train headed for... 1843, he had counselled his followers to leave their homes to seek the Lord of the Age whose advent would soon break on the world. One of these followers called Mullá Husayn travelled to Geography Shiraz (شیراز in Persian) is a city in southwest Iran with 1,050,000 inhabitants (1996 census). Its elevation is 1486 metres above sea level amidst the Zagros Mountains, and it is the capital of Fars Province. It used to be the capital of Persia... Shiraz.


On his arrival on May 23 is the 143rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (144th in leap years). There are 222 days remaining. Events 1430 - Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army to relieve Compiègne 1498 - Girolamo Savonarola is executed on the orders of... May 23, Events January 15 - University of Notre Dame receives its charter from Indiana. February 27 - The Haiti. February 28 - A gun on USS Princeton explodes while the boat is on a Potomac River cruise, killing two United States Cabinet members and several others. May 23 - Persian Prophet The Báb announces... 1844, Mullá Husayn was approached by a young man wearing a green The Turban (Arabic عمامة; ‘imamah, Persian dulband) is a headdress, of obscure Oriental origin, consisting of a long scarf wound round the head or an inner hat. Early Persians wore a conical cap sometimes encircled by bands of cloth, which may be considered one of... turban (an indication that the wearer was a descendent of the Prophet Muhammad). The stranger, the Báb, invited Mullá Husayn to his home. After being asked by the Báb of what he was doing in Shiraz, Mulla Husayn replied that he was searching for the Promised One. The Báb then asked how would the Promised One be recognized, to which Mulla Husayn replied "He is of a pure lineage, is of illustrious descent, is endowed with innate knowledge and is free from bodily deficiency". To the shock of Mulla Husayn, the Báb declared "Behold, all these signs are manifest in me.".


Mullá Husayn had one more sign by which to identify the Promised One. He had been told by Siyyid Kázim that the Promised One would write a commentary on the Sura Yusuf (Joseph) is the 12th sura of the Quran. It has 111 ayat. It is a Makkan sura. External links Tafsir Ibn Kathir Categories: Stub | Sura ... Surah of Joseph (a chapter in the The Quran ( Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; its literal meaning is the recitation and is often called Al Quran Al Karim: The Noble Quran, also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book... Qur'an) without being asked. The Báb fulfilled this requirement as well, writing the commentary after making his declaration. The Báb then declared ‘O Thou who art the first to believe in Me!‘ and took the title the Báb.


Mullá Husayn became the Báb's first DISCiPLE, Miles Gordon Technologys first product, was a floppy disk interface for the Sinclair ZX Spectrum home computer. Like Sinclairs own Interface 1, the DISCiPLE was a wedge-shaped unit fitting under the Spectrum. It was designed as a super-interface, providing all the facilities a Spectrum owner... disciple. Within a very short time, seventeen other disciples of Siyyid Kázim had independently recognized the Báb as a Manifestation of God, among them was one woman, a poetess, who later received the name of Táhirih (the Pure). These eighteen disciples were later to be known as the Letters of the Living


To these first eighteen disciples the Báb gave the task of spreading the new Faith throughout the land.


Travels and Imprisonment

After the first eighteen Letters of the Living had independently recognized the Báb, the Báb and the eighteenth Letter of the Living, Quddús, left on a pilgrimmage to Mecca or Makkah (in full: Makkah al-Mukkaramah; Arabic مكة المكرمة) is revered as the holiest site of Islam, and a pilgrimage to it is required of all Muslims who can afford to go. The term Mecca has into common usage metaphorically... Mecca and This article is about the Saudi city of Medina. For other uses, see Medina (disambiguation). Medina (Arabic: مدينة رسول الله or المدينه, Madinat Rasul Allah, or al-Madina; alternatively transliterated into English as Madinah... Medina, the sacred cities of Islam ( Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen?) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. Etymology In Arabic, Islām means submission and is described as a Dīn, meaning way of life... Islam. In Mecca, the Báb wrote to the The Sharif of Mecca — sometimes the Sheriff of Makkah, with many other variant spellings — was the traditional steward of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina, ruling over the two cities and the surrounding region. The sharif was charged with protecting the cities and ensuring the Hadj was... Sharif of Mecca explaining his mission. After their pilgrammage, the Báb and Quddús, returned to Bushehr or Bushire (بوشهر), pop. 132,824 (Iran, facing the Persian Gulf, and the chief seaport of the country. It is the administrative centre of Bushehr province. Location is 28° 59’ N, 50° 49’ E, about 400 km south of Tehran. The local climate... Bushehr, Persia.


After some time, due to opposition from the Islamic clergy (according to Bahá'ís), the Governor of Shiraz ordered the Báb's arrest. The Báb, upon hearing of the arrest order, left Bushehr towards Shiraz and presented himself to the authorities. The Báb was placed under house arrest at the home of his uncle. The Báb was released when a plague broke out in Shiraz.


After his release in Events January 5 - The United States House of Representatives votes to stop sharing the Oregon Territory with the United Kingdom February 5 - The Oregon Spectator becomes the first newspaper on the United States. February 10 - Many Mormons begin their migration west from Nauvoo, Illinois to Great Salt Lake led by... 1846, the Báb departed for Isfahan, Inner Courtyard of Medresseh-I Shah Husein Isfahan, Medresseh-I Shah Husein Mosque Entrance Isfahan or Esfahan (historically also rendered as Ispahan, anciently known as Aspadana; اصفهان in Persian) (population in 2000: 2,540,000), located about 340 km south of Tehran is the... Isfahan. During the Báb's stay in Isfahan, crowds of people came to see him every day. Due to pressure from the clergy of the province, the Shah Mohammad Shah (1810 - 1848) was the Qajar king of Persia between 1835 and 1848. External link Mohammad Shahs Portrait Categories: Stub | 1810 births | 1848 deaths | Monarchs of Persia ... Mohammad Shah Qajar ordered the Báb to Tehran (also spelled Teheran) (تهران in Persian), population 8,000,000 (metropolitan: 10,000,000), is the capital of Iran and one of the major world cities. Tehran is a metropolis of 10 million situated at the foot of the towering Alborz range. More than half... Tehran. Before the Báb could meet the Shah, the Shah's prime-minister sent the Báb to Tabriz City Hall, built in 1895, by Arfaol molk, with the aid of German engineers. Tabriz (in Persian تبریز) is a city in Iran, with a population of over 1.5 million people. Tabriz is situated north of the volcanic cone of Sahand south of... Tabriz in the north of the country, where he was confined and was not allowed to see any visitors.


The Báb was then transferred to the fortress of Region of the old Armenia c. 300-800. A branch of the family Amatuni ruled it, as vassals of the family Ardzruni Maku is a city in the West Azarbaijan province of Iran. That province is situated in the northwestern part of Iran. The region of Maku was a part... Maku in the province of The Iranian Azerbaijan or Iranian Azarbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان ایران; Āzarbāyjān-e Irān) is a region in the northwest of Iran, approximately consisting of the provinces of Ardabil, East Azarbaijan, and West... Azarbaijan. During his time in Maku, the Báb wrote his most important work, the The Persian Bayan (بیان in Persian) is one of the principal scriptural writings of the Báb. Although he started it, it was left unfinished at his death. Continuation of the writing of the scripture was entrusted to his successor Mirza Yahya Nuri also known as Subh... Persian Bayan, which he never finished before his death. Due to the Báb's growing popularity in Maku the prime minister transferred the Báb to the fortress of Chihriq. Once again, the Báb's popularity grew in Chihriq, and thus the prime-minister ordered the Báb back to Tabriz where the government would hold a meeting with the religious authorities to examine the Báb.


At the meeting, when the officials asked the Báb who he claims to be, the Báb responded that he was the Promised One who the people of Islam were waiting for. He was then ordered back to the fortress of Chihriq.


Execution and Martyrdom

In Events January 4 - The first American ice-skating club is formed (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). January 29 - Henry Clay introduces the Compromise of 1850 to the U.S. Congress February 28 - University of Utah opens in Salt Lake City, Utah March 7 - United States Senator Daniel Webster gives his Seventh of March... 1850 a new prime-minister ordered the execution of the Báb; he was brought to Tabriz, where he would be killed by a Execution by firing squad is a method of capital punishment, especially in times of war. A firing squad is a group of people (usually soldiers) who are ordered to shoot at the condemned person simultaneously. No single member of the firing squad can save the condemned persons life by... firing squad. The night before his execution, as he was being conducted to his cell, a young man, Anís (sometimes called Mulla Muhammad Ali), threw himself at the feet of the Báb, wanting to be killed with the Báb. He was immediately arrested and placed in the same cell as the Báb.


On the morning of July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 175 days remaining. Events 455 - Roman military commander Avitus is proclaimed emperor of the western Roman Empire. 1357 5:31 AM - Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor assisted laying the foundation stone of... July 9, Events January 4 - The first American ice-skating club is formed (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). January 29 - Henry Clay introduces the Compromise of 1850 to the U.S. Congress February 28 - University of Utah opens in Salt Lake City, Utah March 7 - United States Senator Daniel Webster gives his Seventh of March... 1850, the Báb was taken to a courtyard filled with nearly ten thousand people wishing to watch his execution. The Báb and Anís were suspended on a wall and the firing squad prepared to shoot.


Discrepant accounts of events

A range of descriptions of the execution of the Báb is available. What seems clear is that a first volley missed the Báb but somehow the rope tying him was cut and he was nowhere to be seen. Once he was found a short while later, a second volley killed him.


Bábi view, later adopted by Bahá'ís

Here is an account which is in line with common Known in India as the Lotus Temple, the Bahai House of Worship attracts an average of three and a half million visitors a year. The Baháí Faith is a monotheistic religion whose members follow the teachings of Baháulláh, founder and prophet of... Bahá'í view and paraphrased from "Release the Sun", by William Sears, a Hand of the Cause of God:

The firing squad was made up of 750 The Armenians are a nation or ethnic group, originating in the Caucasus and eastern Asia Minor. A large concentration remain there, especially in Armenia, but almost as many are scattered elsewhere throughout the world. History Until modern times, the history of the Armenians is the history of Armenia, a name... Armenian soldiers, split into three rows and was under the command of Sam Khan. Sam Khan had become increasingly affected by his Prisoner and spoke with him privately telling Him that he was a Christian and had no ill-will against Him. Sam Khan said "If Your Cause be the Cause of Truth then enable me to free myself from the obligation to shed your blood." The Bab replied, "Follow your instructions and if your intention be sincere, the Almighty is surely able to relieve you of your perplexity."
The Bab and a young companion were suspended from a nail by ropes for execution by a firing squad of three ranks of 250 rifles each; a total of 750 rifles. Sam Khan, unable to avoid his duty, gave the order to fire. When the smoke cleared, the crowd of 10,000 persons was amazed to find the Bab's companion standing, alive and unhurt, the ropes severed by the bullets. The Bab was nowhere to be seen. He was found, back in His cell, finishing His business with His secretary. The Bab then said to the guard, "I have finished My conversation. You may now proceed to fulfill your duty." The guard, remembering the rebuke he had received earlier, resigned his post, shaken to the core and cut himself off from the enemies of the Bab.
Sam Khan, likewise removed himself and his regiment from this duty declaring, "I refuse ever again to associate myself and my regiment with any act which involves the least injury to the Bab." A colonel of the bodyguard then volunteered to carry out the execution. The Bab was again taken to the execution ground and suspended as before. Again the rifles fired. This time the bodies of the Bab and His companion were shattered by the blast. The bodies were thrown at the edge of a moat outside the city and guarded so that none of His followers could claim His remains. Two days after the execution His followers were able to recover the bodies, hid them in a specially made wooden case, and kept them in a place of safety.[1] (http://www.lvbahai.org/bab.htm)

There are claims that these events were witnessed by western journalists. Provided below is one source that is apparently attributed to Sir Justin Shiel, Queen Victoria's Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary in Tehran and written to Lord Palmerston, the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs July 22, 1850. This can be found in its original form as document F.O. 60/152/88 in the archives of the Foreign Office at the Public Records Office in London.

"The founder of the sect has been executed at Tabreez. He was killed by a volley of musketry, and his death was on the point of giving his religion a lustre which would have largely increased his proselytes. When the smoke and dust cleared away after the volley, Bab was not to be seen, and the populace proclaimed that he had ascended to the skies. The balls had broken the ropes by which he was bound but he was dragged [not literally, of course] from the recess where after some search he was discovered and shot. He death, according to the belief of his disciples, will make no difference as Bab must always exist." [Quoted in Ferraby, 1975]

Shoghi Effendi (1897-1957) The Guardians Resting Place in London Shoghi Effendi Rabbani was the Guardian of the Baháí Faith. He was appointed to that station in the Will and Testament of `Abdul-Bahá. Shoghi Effendi was the eldest grandson of Abdul-Bahá. He was born on... Shoghi Effendi also prints a large selection of western quotes in his book God Passes By (p55) however most are unsourced and cannot be confirmed.


Maulana

A non-Bahá'í account is recorded by the Ahmadi Muslims, or Ahmadiyya, are followers of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. They comprise two subsects, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community and the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement (Ahmadiyya Anjuman Ishaat-i-Islaman). There are at least ten million Ahmadi throughout the world, with some counts being more than ten times that high [1]. At... Ahmadi author Muhammad Ali Maulana in his book "History and Doctrines of the Babi Movement" (see external links):

Mulla Muhammad Ali was the only man who was executed along with him. It happened, however that when the smoke of musket fire cleared, Mirza Ali Muhammad [the Báb] was not there. The bullet[s] instead of hitting him hit the rope with which he was hung and Mirza Ali Muhammad fled to a closet from which he was brought again. Mirza Jani [an early Babi historian] is sure that the escape was due to the fact that he was not yet willing to be killed and therefore could not be killed, but willing or unwilling he had to submit to the same process a second time, and this time was killed. [Maulana, 1933]

After the execution

For many years after his death, the remains of the Báb were secretly transferred from place to place until they were brought to their final resting place at the Shrine of the Báb on the side of Mount Carmel is a coastal mountain in Israel overlooking the Mediterranean Sea. The city of Haifa is partially on Mount Carmel, and so are a few smaller towns such as Nesher, Tirat Hakarmel. History Mount Carmel is mentioned in the Bible. On Mount Carmel transpired the miracles attending the competition... Mount Carmel in Haifa (Hebrew חיפה; Arabic حيفا Ḥayfā) is the third-largest city in Israel, with a population close to 300,000. Areas and towns around it are deemed to be in the Haifa District, of which it is also a part. It is... Haifa, Israel on the ninth terrace of the Bahá'í Gardens.


The Báb named Mirza Yahya Nuri Subh-i Azal (1831 - Apr 29, 1912) was a Persian religious leader. He was a disciple of the Bábs, and before the Bábs martyrdom in 1850, Mirza Yahya was named as his successor in the leadership of the Babis, and was also appointed... Subh-i-Azal, to succeed him as head of the Bábís. He also entrusted to finish his unfinished work the Persian Bayan.


Bahá'í view on the succesorship

Bahá'ís view Subh-i-Azal's leadership largely as a nominal head. This is explained below:

Mirza Yahya [Subh-i-Azal] came into prominence not because he possessed any outstanding qualities, but rather through his close link with Bahá'u'lláh. In order to divert the attention of the enemies of the Faith from the person of Bahá'u'lláh, Who had emerged as a focal point among the early believers, the Báb wholeheartedly approved the suggestion of nominating the youthful and relatively unknown Mirza Yahya as the chief of the Bábí community. This suggestion had come from Bahá'u'lláh and only two others were aware of the plan, namely, Bahá'u'lláh's faithful brother Mirza Musa (Aqay-i-Kalim) and a certain Mulla Abdu'l-Karim-i-Qazvini who had been entrusted by the Báb, shortly before His martyrdom, with the task of delivering His pen-case, seals and writings to Bahá'u'lláh; he was subsequently martyred in Tihran at the time of Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment in the Siyah-Chal.
The advantages of this nomination were obvious and, as this system operated for some time, those who were endowed with insight and wisdom were able to see that Mirza Yahya was only a figure-head, and that it was the guiding hand of Bahá'u'lláh alone that was unobtrusively directing the affairs of the Bábí community after the martyrdom of the Báb.[Taherzadeh, 1987]

This view is supported by the Báb's long time secretary Mulla Abdu'l-Karim-i-Qazvini, believed to be the only other person who participated in the conspiracy. John Wallbridge writes:

In Qum, shortly before the Bab's martyrdom, he received a coffer from the Bab containing the last of his writings and his pen-case, seals, rings, and the famous pentacle tablet containing 350 derivatives of the word Baha. He left the same day for Tehran, explaining that the Bab's accompanying letter ordered him to deliver it to Baha'u'llah. (Mulla `Abdu'l-Karim Qazvini (Mirza Ahmad Katib) by John Wallbridge) [2]  (http://www.h-net.msu.edu/~bahai/notes/qazvini9.htm)

Qazvini himself wrote in a letter in 1851 describing the urgency that the friends do nothing to call attention to Baha'u'llah during his period of messianic secrecy:

May they never seek a proof from him, my good sir! For in a former time, in view of their perception of the command of God given to those who had attained the ocean of resignation and submission to the beloved Aqa Sayyid Husayn, the conceal matter should have been concealed--the matter that God has safeguarded until now, hiding it in his invisible gift. Nevertheless, it has become public, contrary to the intention, because of persons going back and forth from that place. Virtually the only news that was received was this disclosure! For that reason, the trusted ones of God are saddened and concealed. Indeed, that thing was almost revealed, which is beyond what existence can endure. Rather, it became visible, which was contrary to the intent. It will become manifest from the dwellers in the house of love. They hurried to send letters [or books: al-kutub] and repeatedly, among the means of disclosure. Then, this haste in that . . . [3]  (http://www.h-net.msu.edu/~bahai/trans/vol1/qazvini/qazvini1.htm) (translation by Juan Cole)

It is impossible to overstate the symbolism of the Báb sending to Báhá'u'llah not only all of his remaining writings, but his seals and his pens, literally handing over the instruments of revelation, along with the pentacle tablet written in his own hand confirming Baha'u'llah's station.


The Báb's Will & Testament, which was unambiguously directed to Subh-i-Azal, makes it clear that he would not be the One promised by the Báb:

"We order you to obey Him Whom God Shall Make Manifest. He will verily appear amongst this people with a sublime reign in the final resurrection. Verily we are all servants and kneel down before Him. He shall carry out whatever He wishes, with permission from His Lord. He shall not be questioned for his actions. However all others are responsible for everything they do." [verses 27-29]

A Contrary Point of View of Bahá'u'llah's Claim

 A contrary point of view is that the Báb's writings refers to Subh-i-Azal as "the One", "the Way" and "the Great Truth". Moreover, the Báb's writing do not refer to Bahá'u'lláh by name leading at least one author to state that Bahá'u'lláh was not considered an important person by the Báb. Bahá'u'lláh did however receive tablets from the Báb which addressed him at the brother of Azal, but most significantly the pentacle tablet. 
"....This is a letter from God, the Guardian, the Self-Subsisting, to God, the Guardian, the Self-Subsisting.... This is a letter from Ali before Nabil, the Reminder of God for the worlds, to him whose name is equivalent to the name of the One, the Reminder of God for the worlds.... That, O thou, name of the One, guard what has been revealed in the Bayan and enjoin the same, for thou art surely the way, the great truth." (Quoted from the "History and Doctrines of the Babi Movement" who quotes Browne's "Introduction to Nuqtatul Qaf".)"

Summary

Bahá'u'llah came out far more successful in his claim following doctrinal and occasionally violent conflict. The vast majority of the Báb's followers abandoned Subh-i-Azal either to join the Bahá'ís or to become inactive.


Writings

Excerpts from the following and other writings are printed in the only English language compilation of the Báb's writings, Selections from the Writings of the Báb

  • The Persian Bayan (بیان in Persian) is one of the principal scriptural writings of the Báb. Although he started it, it was left unfinished at his death. Continuation of the writing of the scripture was entrusted to his successor Mirza Yahya Nuri also known as Subh... Persian Bayan
  • Kitáb-i-Asmá (The Book of Names)
  • Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih (The Seven Proofs).
  • Arabic Bayan
  • Qayyúmu'l-Asmá (Commentry on the Súrih of Joseph)

References

Official Bahá'í resouces

  • Effendi, Shoghi (1974). God Passes By. Bahá'í Publishing Trust, Wilmette, Illinois 60091. ISBN 0-87743-020-9. Available online here (http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/se/GPB/).
  • Ferraby, John (1975). All Things Made New: A Comprehensive Outline of the Baha'i Faith. Baha'i Distribution Service. ISBN 8186953019.
  • Taherzadeh, Adib (1987). The Revelation of Baha'u'llah. G. Ronald. ISBN 0853980527.
  • Effendi, Shoghi (1932). Dawn Breakers - Nabil's Narrative. Baha'i Publishing Trust. ISBN 0900125225. available online here (http://www.bahai-library.com/books/dawnbreakers)

Other resources

External links

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