FACTOID # 23: Wisconsin has more metal fabricators per capita than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Aztec" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Aztec
Aztec Empire
Capital Tenochtitlan
Official language Nahuatl
Government
Head of Nation
High councillor
Electing council
Approving Council
Tributary Empire
Hueyi Tlatoani (non-hereditary autocrat)
Cihuacóatl
Oligarchs (military, religious, nobility)
80+ calpulli leaders (elder)
Dissolution
Population 1520
1521
est. ~20,000,000
The Aztec world
Aztec society

Nahuatl language
Aztec calendar
Aztec religion
Aztec mythology
Human sacrifice in Aztec culture Look up aztec in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Aztecempirelocation. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Tenochtitlan, looking east. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... For the Spanish language as spoken in Mexico, see Mexican Spanish. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Russian prince Taking Tribute, by Nicholas Roerich, 1908 (Moscow). ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... Huey Tlatoani (Nahuatl great speaker, also spelt Uei Tlatoani or Hueyi Tlahtoani; plural Huey Tlatoque) was the Nahuatl title used for the emperor of the Mexica (Aztec). ... An autocrat is generally speaking any ruler with absolute power; the term is now usually used in a negative sense (cf. ... The cihuacoatl (Nahuatl for female serpent, pronounced ) was a rulership position within the Aztec system of government. ... Oligarch may refer to one of the folowing. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... Calpulli is the Nahuatl term for a group of families (or a single large family) that usually had a particular function in the Pre-Columbian society (such as priests, warriors, etc. ... The term Elder (or its equivalent in another language) is used in several different countries and organizations to indicate a position of authority. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... // Aztec society traditionally was divided into two classes; the macehualli (people) or peasantry and the pilli or nobility. ... Nahuatl ( [1] is a term applied to a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan [2] branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, indigenous to central Mexico. ... The sun stone also called the Aztec calendar on display at the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City. ... Aztec religion was a Mesoamerican religion combining elements of polytheism, shamanism and animism within a framework of astronomy and calendrics. ... The Aztec civilization recognized a polytheistic mythology, which contained the many gods (over 100) and supernatural creatures from their religious beliefs. ... Human sacrifice was an aspect of historical Aztec culture/religion, although the extent of the practice is debated by scholars. ...

Aztec history

Aztlán
Aztec codices
Aztec warfare
Aztec Triple Alliance
Spanish conquest of Mexico
Siege of Tenochtitlan
La Noche Triste
Hernán Cortés The Aztecs were a Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. ... For other uses, see Aztlán (disambiguation). ... Detail of first page from the Boturini Codex, depicting the departure from Aztlán. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The Aztec Triple Alliance, also known as The Aztec Empire, was an alliance of three Aztec city-states: Tenochtitlán; Texcoco; and Tlacopán. ... Aztec empire The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of America. ... Combatants Spain Tlaxcallān Aztec Empire Commanders Hernán Cortés Pedro de Alvarado Cuitláhuac Cuauhtémoc Strength 86 cavalry 900 infantry 80,000 natives 100,000- 300,000 warriors[1] Casualties 20,000 natives dead 100,000 dead 100,000 civilian dead The Siege of Tenochtitlan ended in... Hernán Cortés Hernán Cortés, marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who conquered Mexico for Spain. ... Hernán(do) Cortés Pizarro, 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ...

Hueyi Tlatoani

Acamapichtli (13761395)
Huitzilíhuitl (13951417)
Chimalpopoca (14171427)
Itzcóatl (14271440)
Moctezuma I (14401469)
Axayacatl (14691481)
Tízoc (14811486)
Ahuitzotl (14861502)
Moctezuma II (15021520)
Cuitláhuac (1520)
Cuauhtémoc (15201521) Huey Tlatoani (Nahuatl great speaker, also spelt Uei Tlatoani or Hueyi Tlahtoani; plural Huey Tlatoque) was the Nahuatl title used for the emperor of the Mexica (Aztec). ... For other persons named Acamapichtli, see Acamapichtli (disambiguation). ... // Events March – The treaty between England and France is extended until April of 1377. ... Events End of reign of Hungary by Capet-Anjou family. ... Huitzilíhuitl (died circa 1417) was the second Tlatoani, or Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan. ... Events End of reign of Hungary by Capet-Anjou family. ... Events Antipope Benedict XIII is deposed, and Pope Martin V is elected. ... Chimalpopoca (died circa 1427) was the third Tlatoani, or Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlán. ... Events Antipope Benedict XIII is deposed, and Pope Martin V is elected. ... Events Lincoln College, a constituent college of the University of Oxford, is founded. ... Itzcoatl (Obsidian Serpent in Nahuatl) was the fourth tlatoani (emperor) of the Aztecs, ruling from 1427 (or 1428) to 1440, the period when the Mexica (as the Aztecs called themselves) threw off the domination of the Tepanecs and laid the foundations for the eventual Aztec Empire. ... Events Lincoln College, a constituent college of the University of Oxford, is founded. ... For alternative meanings, see number 1440. ... Moctezuma Ilhuicamina, or Moctezuma I (also known as Montezuma I) (the surname meaning solitary one who shoots an arrow into the sky) was born to Huitzilihuitl, the second Aztec Emperor. ... For alternative meanings, see number 1440. ... Events July 26 - Battle of Edgecote Moor October 17 - Prince Ferdinand of Aragon wed princess Isabella of Castile. ... Axayacatl (pron. ... Events July 26 - Battle of Edgecote Moor October 17 - Prince Ferdinand of Aragon wed princess Isabella of Castile. ... Year 1481 was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ... Tízoc was the Aztec ruler (Tlatoani) of the city of Tenochtitlán. ... Year 1481 was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ... Events Tízoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan dies. ... Auítzotl (sometimes rendered as Ahuitzotl) was the Aztec ruler of the city of Tenochtitlán. ... Events Tízoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan dies. ... 1502 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Moctezuma or Montezuma II, also known as Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin (c. ... 1502 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1520 (MDXX) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Cuitláhuac was the Aztec ruler (Tlatoani) of the city of Tenochtitlán from June to October 1520. ... Year 1520 (MDXX) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... For other uses, see Cuauhtémoc (disambiguation). ... Year 1520 (MDXX) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ...

Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political and military dominance over large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the Late post-Classic period in Mesoamerican chronology. Nahuatl ( [1] is a term applied to a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan [2] branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, indigenous to central Mexico. ... This article is about the culture area. ... Mesoamerican chronology The chronology of Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica is usually divided into the following eras: Paleo-Indian Period c. ...


Often the term "Aztec" refers exclusively to the people of Tenochtitlan, situated on an island in Lake Texcoco, who called themselves Mexica Tenochca or Colhua-Mexica. Lake Texcoco is a lake in Mexico. ...


Sometimes it also includes the inhabitants of Tenochtitlan's two principal allied city-states, the Acolhuas of Texcoco and the Tepanecs of Tlacopan, who together with the Mexica formed the Aztec Triple Alliance which has also become known as the "Aztec Empire". In other contexts it may refer to all the various city states and their peoples, who shared large parts of their ethnic history as well as many important cultural traits with the Mexica, Acolhua and Tepanecs, and who like them, also spoke the Nahuatl language. In this meaning it is possible to talk about an Aztec civilization including all the particular cultural patterns common for the Nahuatl speaking peoples of the late postclassic period in Mesoamerica. The Acolhua are a Mesoamerican people who arrived in the Valley of Mexico in or around the year 1200 CE.[1] The Acolhua were a sister culture of the Aztecs (or Mexica) as well as the Tepanec, Chalca, Xochimilca and others. ... This article is about the pre-Columbian city-state. ... The Tepanec are a Mesoamerican people who arrived in the Valley of Mexico in the late 12th or early 13th centuries. ... Tlacopan means florid plant on flat ground or also named Tacuba was one of the mesoamericans kingdoms of the prehispanic age Triple Alianza (together with Tenochtitlan and Texcoco). ... The Aztec Triple Alliance, also known as The Aztec Empire, was an alliance of three Aztec city-states: Tenochtitlán; Texcoco; and Tlacopán. ... The altepetl, in Pre-Columbian and conquest-era Aztec society, was the local, ethnically-based political entity. ...


From the 13th century the Valley of Mexico was the nucleus of Aztec civilization: here the capital of the Aztec Triple Alliance, the city of Tenochtitlan, was built upon raised islets in Lake Texcoco. The Triple Alliance formed its tributary empire expanding its political hegemony far beyond the Valley of Mexico, conquering other city states throughout Mesoamerica. The Valley of Mexico is a highlands plateau in central Mexico roughly coterminous with the present-day Distrito Federal and the eastern half of Estado de Mexico. ... Tenochtitlan, looking east. ... Lake Texcoco is a lake in Mexico. ...


At its pinnacle Aztec culture had rich and complex mythological and religious traditions, as well as reaching remarkable architectural and artistic accomplishments. A particularly striking element of Aztec culture to many was the practice of human sacrifice. The Aztec civilization recognized a polytheistic mythology, which contained the many gods (over 100) and supernatural creatures from their religious beliefs. ... Aztec religion was a Mesoamerican religion combining elements of polytheism, shamanism and animism within a framework of astronomy and calendrics. ... Human sacrifice was an aspect of historical Aztec culture/religion, although the extent of the practice is debated by scholars. ...


In 1521, in what is probably the most widely known episode in the Spanish colonization of the Americas, Hernán Cortés, along with a large number of Nahuatl speaking indigenous allies, conquered Tenochtitlan and defeated the Aztec Triple Alliance under the leadership of Hueyi Tlatoani Moctezuma II; In the series of events often referred to as "The Fall of the Aztec Empire". Subsequently the Spanish founded the new settlement of Mexico City on the site of the ruined Aztec capital. The Spanish colonization of the Americas was Spains conquest, settlement, and rule over much of the western hemisphere from 1492-1898. ... Hernán(do) Cortés Pizarro, 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... Huey Tlatoani (Nahuatl great speaker, also spelt Uei Tlatoani or Hueyi Tlahtoani; plural Huey Tlatoque) was the Nahuatl title used for the emperor of the Mexica (Aztec). ... Moctezuma or Montezuma II, also known as Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin (c. ... Aztec empire The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of America. ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ...


Aztec culture and history is primarily known:

Contents

For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... The Great Pyramid or Templo Mayor was the main temple of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan (modern Mexico City). ... Detail of first page from the Boturini Codex, depicting the departure from Aztlán. ... Hernán(do) Cortés Pizarro, 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... Bernal Díaz del Castillo (1492 or 1493 - 1581) was a conquistador, who wrote an eyewitness account of the conquest of Mexico under Hernán Cortés. ... Page 51 of Book IX from the Florentine Codex. ... Franciscans is the common name used to designate a variety of mendicant religious orders of men or women tracing their origin to Francis of Assisi and following the Rule of St. ... Bernardino de Sahagún Bernardino de Sahagún (1499 – October 23, 1590), was a Franciscan missionary to the Aztec (Nahua) people of Mexico, best known as the compiler of the Florentine Codex, also known as Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España (General History of the Things of...

Nomenclature

Sculpture commemorating the moment when Aztecs found the sign from the god Huitzilopochtli.
Sculpture commemorating the moment when Aztecs found the sign from the god Huitzilopochtli.

According to the mythico-historical Aubin codex, seven Nahua tribes lived in Aztlán under the rule of a powerful elite. The seven tribes fled Aztlán, to seek new lands. The Mexicas were the last group to leave. The Aubin Codex relates that after leaving Aztlán, their god Huitzilopochtli ordered his people to never identify themselves as Azteca, the name of their former masters. Instead they should henceforth call themselves Mexìcâ. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2580x1932, 1627 KB) Summary Mexican sculpture remembering the moments when aztecs found the sign for Tenochtitlan foundation place. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2580x1932, 1627 KB) Summary Mexican sculpture remembering the moments when aztecs found the sign for Tenochtitlan foundation place. ... // Huitzilopochtli, as depicted in the Codex Telleriano-Remensis. ... Detail of first page from the Boturini Codex, depicting the departure from Aztlán. ... For other uses, see Aztlán (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aztlán (disambiguation). ... // Huitzilopochtli, as depicted in the Codex Telleriano-Remensis. ...


The word "Aztec" was not originally an endonym for any ethnic group, but achieved wide use as an exonym first in the English language and later in Spanish from the 19th century on. Some modern day scholars use the word "Aztec" to refer to the Nahuatl speaking peoples of Mexico before the Spanish conquest in 1519 and the word "Nahua" to refer to the same peoples after the conquest.[1] Because no people ever referred to itself as "Aztecs", and because the peoples to whom the word is popularly used to refer never saw themselves as a unified ethnic group, many scholars now prefer to refer to particular ethnic groups individually e.g. the "Mexica", "Acolhua" or "Tepaneca" rather than subsuming them under a single term such as "Aztec". It has been suggested that Ethnonym be merged into this article or section. ... An exonym is a name for a place or people that is created by people outside of that place and is different from the name used in the native language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


The Spanish conquistadores referred to them as "Mexicas" or "Culua-Mexicas". In Mexico, archaeologists and museums use the term Mexicas. The wider population in and outside Mexico generally speaks of Aztecs. In this article, the term "Mexica" is used to refer to the Mexica people up until the time of the formation of the Triple Alliance. After this, the term "Aztecs" is used to refer to the three peoples who made up the Triple Alliance, or in the wider context to all the Nahuatl speaking peoples as bearers of "Aztec culture". A Conquistador (Spanish: []) (English: Conqueror) was a Spanish soldier, explorer and adventurer who took part in the gradual invasion and conquering of much of the Americas and Asia Pacific, bringing them under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 19th centuries. ... The Aztec Triple Alliance, also known as The Aztec Empire, was an alliance of three Aztec city-states: Tenochtitlán; Texcoco; and Tlacopán. ...


Mexica

See also: Toponymy of Mexico.

Mexìcâ (IPA: [meʃiʔkaʔ]) is a term of uncertain origin. Very different etymologies are proposed: the old Nahuatl word for the moon, the name of their leader Mexitli, or a type of weed that grows in Lake Texcoco. Mexican scholar Miguel León-Portilla suggests that it is derived from mexictli, "navel of the moon", from Nahuatl metztli (moon) and xictli (navel).[2] Alternatively, mexictli could mean "navel of the maguey" using the Nahuatl metl and the locative "co". Image of Mexico-Tenochtitlan from the Mendoza codex The toponymy of Mexico entails the origin, history, and use of the name Mexico, which dates back to 14th century Mesoamerica. ... For the Spanish language as spoken in Mexico, see Mexican Spanish. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... Mexitli was a legendary great leader and war god of the Aztecs (before they became known as the Mexica, possibly in his honour). ... Lake Texcoco is a lake in Mexico. ... Miguel León-Portilla (born in Mexico City, 22 February 1926) is a Mexican anthropologist and historian, and the prime authority on Nahuatl thought and literature. ... ...


According to a Mexica legend, it was Huitzilopochtli, the war deity and patron of the Mexica who gave them their name. The most probable interpretation is that the name comes from Mexitl or Mexi a secret name for the deity.[3] // Huitzilopochtli, as depicted in the Codex Telleriano-Remensis. ... In Aztec mythology, Mextli (or Mexitl) was a god of war and storms and was born fully armed as a warrior. ...


Aztec

In Nahuatl, the native language of the Mexicas, Aztecatl means "someone who comes from Aztlán". In 1810 Alexander von Humboldt originated the modern usage of "Aztec" as a collective term applied to all the people linked by trade, custom, religion, and language to the Mexica state and the Triple Alliance. In 1843, with the publication of the work of William H. Prescott, it was adopted by most of the world, including 19th century Mexican scholars who saw it as a way to distinguish present-day Mexicans from pre-conquest Mexicans. This usage has been the subject of debate in more recent years, and the term "Mexica" is becoming more common.[4] For other uses, see Aztlán (disambiguation). ... An 1859 portrait of Alexander von Humboldt by the artist Julius Schrader, showing Mount Chimborazo in the background. ... The Aztec Triple Alliance, also known as The Aztec Empire, was an alliance of three Aztec city-states: Tenochtitlán; Texcoco; and Tlacopán. ... William Hickling Prescott (May 4, 1796 - January 29, 1859) was a historian. ...


Nahuatl (nahuatl/nawatlahtolli) Classical Nahuatl (also known as Aztec, and simply Nahuatl) is a term used to describe the variants of the Nahuatl language. The majority of the speakers live in Central Mexico in the states of Estado de Mexico El Distrito Federal, Puebla, Tlaxcala, Morelos, Guerrero, Veracruz, Michoacán and Hidalgo. Other variants of the language "Nahuatl" were spoken by many of the central Mexican city-states under the domination of the Aztec Empire. Nahuatl was originally written with a pictographic script which was not a full writing system but instead served as a mnemonic to remind readers of texts they had learned orally. Nahuatl ( [1] is a term applied to a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan [2] branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, indigenous to central Mexico. ... The State of México (often abbreviated to Edomex from Estado de México in Spanish) is a state in the center of the nation of Mexico. ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... The Mexican state of Puebla is located in the center of the country, to the east of Mexico City. ... For other uses, see Tlaxcala (disambiguation). ... Morelos is one of the constituent states of Mexico. ... Guerrero is a state in the United Mexican States. ... Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 212 Largest City Veracruz Government  - Governor Fidel Herrera Beltrán (PRI)  - Federal Deputies PRI: 6 PAN: 11 PRD: 2 Convergencia: 2  - Federal Senators PRD: 1 PAN: 1 Convergencia: 1 Area Ranked 11th  - Total 71,699 km² (27,683. ... Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 113 Government  - Governor Lazaro Cardenas Batel (PRD)  - Federal Deputies PRD: 8 PAN: 4  - Federal Senators Jesús Garibay García (PRD) Silvano Aureoles Conejo (PRD) Marko A. Cortés (PAN) Area Ranked 16th  - Total 59,928 km² (23,138. ... Hidalgo is a state in central Mexico, with an area of 20,502 km². In 2000 the state had a population of some 2,231,000 people. ...


History

Main article: History of the Aztecs

The Aztecs were a Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. ...

Migrational Period

The Nahua peoples began to migrate into Mesoamerica from northern Mexico in the 6th century. They populated central Mexico dislocating speakers of Oto-Manguean languages as they spread their political influence south. As the former nomadic hunter-gatherer peoples mixed with the complex civilizations of Mesoamerica, adopting religious and cultural practices the foundation for later Aztec culture was laid. During the Postclassic period they rose to power at such sites as Tula, Hidalgo. In the 12th century the Nahua power center was in Azcapotzalco, from where the Tepanecs dominated the valley of Mexico. Around this time the Mexica tribe arrived in central Mexico. Oto-Manguean languages (also Otomanguean) are a large family comprised of several families of Native American languages. ... Tula is a town of about 10,000 in Hidalgo State, central Mexico, some 57 miles to the north north-west of Mexico City. ... Azcapotzalco (Place of the ants in Nahuatl) is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Mexicos Federal District is divided. ...


Rise of the Triple Alliance

The Valley of Mexico at the time of the Spanish Conquest.

The true origin of the Mexicas is uncertain. According to their legends, the Mexica tribe place of origin was Aztlán. It is generally thought that Aztlán was somewhere to the north of the Valley of Mexico; some experts have placed it as far north as Southwestern United States. Others however suggest it is a mythical place, since Aztlán can be translated as "the place of the origin". The mythical story of these travels is recorded in a number of codices from the Spanish colonial era, most prominently the Aubin Codex and the Boturini Codex. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1330x1794, 1169 KB) Summary Map created by Madman based on several sources, most prominently those listed below. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1330x1794, 1169 KB) Summary Map created by Madman based on several sources, most prominently those listed below. ... The Valley of Mexico is a highlands plateau in central Mexico roughly coterminous with the present-day Distrito Federal and the eastern half of Estado de Mexico. ... Aztec empire The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of America. ... For other uses, see Aztlán (disambiguation). ... The Valley of Mexico is a highlands plateau in central Mexico roughly coterminous with the present-day Distrito Federal and the eastern half of Estado de Mexico. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Depiction of the departure from Aztlán, from the Boturini Codex. ... Detail of first page from the Boturini Codex, depicting the departure from Aztlán. ...


Based on these codices as well as other histories, it appears that the Mexicas arrived at Chapultepec in or around the year 1248.[5] Chapultepec Park with Polanco at the right, as seen from Torre Mayor observation deck. ...


At the time of their arrival, the Valley of Mexico had many city-states, the most powerful of which were Culhuacan to the south and Azcapotzalco to the west. The Tepanecs of Azcapotzalco soon expelled the Mexicas from Chapultepec. In 1299, Culhuacan ruler Cocoxtli gave them permission to settle in the empty barrens of Tizapan, where they were eventually assimilated into Culhuacan culture. The Valley of Mexico is a highlands plateau in central Mexico roughly coterminous with the present-day Distrito Federal and the eastern half of Estado de Mexico. ... Culhuacan or Colhuacan was one of the Nahuatl-speaking pre-Columbian city-states of the Valley of Mexico. ... Azcapotzalco (Place of the ants in Nahuatl) is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Mexicos Federal District is divided. ... The Tepanec are a Mesoamerican people who arrived in the Valley of Mexico in the late 12th or early 13th centuries. ...


In 1323, the Mexicas were shown a vision of an eagle perched on a prickly pear cactus, clutching a snake in its talons. This vision indicated that this was the location where they were to build their home. In any event, the Mexicas eventually arrived on a small swampy island in Lake Texcoco where they founded the town of Tenochtitlan in 1325. In 1376, the Mexicas elected their first Huey Tlatoani, Acamapichtli, who was living in Texcoco at the time. Tenochtitlan, looking east. ... Hueyi Tlatoani (Nahuatl great speaker, also spelt Uei Tlatoani or Huey Tlahtoani; plural Hueyi Tlatoque) was the Nahuatl title used for the emperor of the Mexica (Aztec). ... For other persons named Acamapichtli, see Acamapichtli (disambiguation). ... Texcoco was a major site and city-state in the central Mexican plateau region of Mesoamerica during the Late Postclassic period of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican chronology. ...


For the next 50 years, until 1427, the Mexica were a tributary of Azcapotzalco, which had become a regional power, perhaps the most powerful since the Toltecs, centuries earlier. Maxtla, son of Tezozomoc, assassinated Chimalpopoca, the Mexica ruler. In an effort to defeat Maxtla, Chimalpopoca's successor, Itzcoatl, allied with the exiled ruler of Texcoco, Nezahualcoyotl. This coalition became the foundation of the Aztec Triple Alliance. The Atlantes – columns in the form of Toltec warriors in Tula. ... Maxtla was a Tepanec ruler of Azcapotzalco from 1426 to his death in 1428. ... Tezozomoc was a Tepanec leader who ruled the city-state of Azcapotzalco from 1371 to 1426. ... Chimalpopoca (died circa 1427) was the third Tlatoani, or Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlán. ... Itzcóatl was the leader of the Tenochcas or Aztec from 1427/1428 to 1440. ... Texcoco was a major site and city-state in the central Mexican plateau region of Mesoamerica during the Late Postclassic period of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican chronology. ... This article is about the Texcocan philosopher-king. ... The Aztec Triple Alliance, also known as The Aztec Empire, was an alliance of three Aztec city-states: Tenochtitlán; Texcoco; and Tlacopán. ...

Jaguar warrior, from the Codex Magliabechiano
Jaguar warrior, from the Codex Magliabechiano

The Triple Alliance of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan would, in the next 100 years, come to dominate the Valley of Mexico and extend its power to both the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific shore. Over this period, Tenochtitlan gradually became the dominant power in the alliance. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (601x705, 33 KB) Summary Aztek jaguar warrior, from the Codex Magliabechiano Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Jaguar warrior ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (601x705, 33 KB) Summary Aztek jaguar warrior, from the Codex Magliabechiano Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Jaguar warrior ... Detail of first page from the Boturini Codex, depicting the departure from Aztlán. ... Tlacopan means florid plant on flat ground or also named Tacuba was one of the mesoamericans kingdoms of the prehispanic age Triple Alianza (together with Tenochtitlan and Texcoco). ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... Pacific redirects here. ...


Two of the primary architects of the Aztec empire were the half-brothers Tlacaelel and Moctezuma I, nephews of Itzcoatl. Moctezuma I succeeded Itzcoatl as Hueyi Tlatoani in 1440. Although he was also offered the opportunity to be tlatoani, Tlacaelel preferred to operate as the power behind the throne. Tlacaelel reformed the Aztec state and religion. According to some sources, he ordered the burning of most of the extant Aztec books claiming that they contained lies. He thereupon rewrote the history of the Aztec people, thus creating a common awareness of history for the Aztecs. This rewriting led directly to the curriculum taught to scholars and promoted the belief that the Aztecs were always a powerful and mythic nation; forgetting forever a possible true history of modest origins. One component of this reform was the institution of ritual war (the flower wars) as a way to have trained warriors, and created the necessity of constant sacrifices to keep the Sun moving. Tlacaelel (1397 - 1487) was the nephew of Itzcoatl (1427 - 1440) and brother of Moctezuma I (1440 - 1469), the first and second Mexica emperors. ... Moctezuma Ilhuicamina, or Moctezuma I (also known as Montezuma I) (the surname meaning solitary one who shoots an arrow into the sky) was born to Huitzilihuitl, the second Aztec Emperor. ... A flower war (or more correctly, flowery war) from the Nahuatl xochiyaoyotl; was, among the Aztec, a planned war in which the objective was not to kill enemies or conquer territory, but rather to capture as many prisoners as possible, who would then be sacrificed in religious ceremonies and maybe...


Spanish conquest

The empire reached its height during Ahuitzotl's reign, 1486 until 1502. His successor, Motecuzōma Xocoyotzin (better known as Montezuma or Moctezuma II), had been Hueyi Tlatoani for 17 years when Hernán Cortés and the Spaniards landed on the Gulf Coast in the spring of 1519. Aztec empire The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of America. ... Auítzotl (sometimes rendered as Ahuitzotl) was the Aztec ruler of the city of Tenochtitlán. ... Moctezuma or Montezuma II, also known as Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin (c. ... Hernán(do) Cortés Pizarro, 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ...


Despite some early battles between the two, Cortés allied himself with the Aztecs’ long-time enemy, the Confederacy of Tlaxcala, and arrived at the gates of Tenochtitlan on November 8, 1519. Picture from the History of Tlaxcala showing Cortés meeting with the Tlaxcallan messengers. ... Tenochtitlan, looking east. ...


The Spaniards and their Tlaxcallan allies became increasingly dangerous and unwelcome guests in the capital city. In June, 1520, hostilities broke out, culminating in the massacre in the Main Temple and the death of Montezuma. The Spaniards fled the town on July 1, an episode later characterized as La Noche Triste (the Sad Night). They and their native allies returned in the spring of 1521 to lay siege to Tenochtitlan, a battle that ended that August 13 with the destruction of the city. During this period the now crumbling empire went through a rapid line of ruler succession. After the death of Moctezuma II, the empire fell into the hands of severely weakened emperors, such as Cuitláhuac, before eventually being ruled by puppet rulers, such as Andrés de Tapia Motelchiuh, installed by the Spanish. The Spanish people or Spaniards are an ethnic group native to Spain, in southwestern Europe, who are primarily descended from the autochthonous pre-Indo-European Euskaldunak, Latin, Visigothic, Celtic and Moorish peoples. ... Picture from the History of Tlaxcala showing Cortés meeting with the Tlaxcallan messengers. ... The massacre in the Main Temple of the Aztec capital Tenochtitlán is an episode in the Spanish conquest of Mexico which occurred on May 10, 1520. ... Hernán Cortés Hernán Cortés, marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who conquered Mexico for Spain. ... Combatants Spain Tlaxcallān Aztec Empire Commanders Hernán Cortés Pedro de Alvarado Cuitláhuac Cuauhtémoc Strength 86 cavalry 900 infantry 80,000 natives 100,000- 300,000 warriors[1] Casualties 20,000 natives dead 100,000 dead 100,000 civilian dead The Siege of Tenochtitlan ended in... Moctezuma or Montezuma II, also known as Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin (c. ... Cuitláhuac was the Aztec ruler (Tlatoani) of the city of Tenochtitlán from June to October 1520. ... Don Andrés de Tapia Motelchiuhtzin Huitznahuatlailótlac, was a nominal ruler of Tenochtitlan under Spanish rule (1525-1530). ...


Despite the decline of the Aztec empire, most of the Mesoamerican cultures were intact after the fall of Tenochtitlan. Indeed, the freedom from Aztec domination may have been considered a positive development by most of the other cultures. The upper classes of the Aztec empire were considered noblemen by the Spaniards and generally treated as such initially. All this changed rapidly and the native population were soon forbidden to study by law, and had the status of minors[citation needed]. The term minor (from Latin smaller, lesser) has several meanings: Minor is a legal term for a young person, see Minor (law). ...


The Tlaxcalans remained loyal to their Spanish friends and were allowed to come on other conquests with Cortés and his men.


Colonial period population decline

The Aztec Empire, on the eve of the Spanish Conquest.
The Aztec Empire, on the eve of the Spanish Conquest.

In 1520-1521, an outbreak of smallpox swept through the population of Tenochtitlan and was decisive in the fall of the city. It is estimated that between 10% and 50% of the population fell victim to this epidemic. Natives of North America. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1222x922, 432 KB) // Description This map represents the core states, the tributary states, and the allied states of the Aztec Empire as it stood shortly before the Spanish conquest of Mexico. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1222x922, 432 KB) // Description This map represents the core states, the tributary states, and the allied states of the Aztec Empire as it stood shortly before the Spanish conquest of Mexico. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Combatants Spain Tlaxcallān Aztec Empire Commanders Hernán Cortés Pedro de Alvarado Cuitláhuac Cuauhtémoc Strength 86 cavalry 900 infantry 80,000 natives 100,000- 300,000 warriors[1] Casualties 20,000 natives dead 100,000 dead 100,000 civilian dead The Siege of Tenochtitlan ended in...


Subsequently, the Valley of Mexico was hit with two more epidemics, smallpox (1545-1548) and typhus (1576-1581). The Spaniards, to consolidate the diminishing population, merged the survivors from small towns in the Valley of Mexico into bigger ones. This broke the power of the upper classes, but did not dissolve the coherence of the indigenous society in greater Mexico. For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ...


The population before the time of the conquest is unknown and hotly contested,[6] but disease is known to have ravaged the region; thus, the indigenous population of the Valley of Mexico is estimated to have declined by more than 80% in the course of about 60 years.[7]


Cultural patterns

Government

The Aztec Empire was an example of an empire that ruled by indirect means. Like most European empires, it was ethnically very diverse, but unlike most European empires, it was more a system of tribute than a single system of government. In the theoretical framework of imperial systems posited by Alexander J. Motyl[8] the Aztec empire was an informal or hegemonic empire because it did not exert supreme authority over the conquered lands, it merely expected tributes to be paid. It was also a discontinuous empire because not all dominated territories were connected, for example the southern peripheral zones of Xoconochco were not in direct contact with the center. The hegemonic nature of the Aztec empire can be seen in the fact that generally local rulers were restored to their positions once their city-state was conquered and the Aztecs did not interfere in local affairs as long as the tribute payments were made.[9] This article is about the political and historical term. ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ...


Although the Aztec form of government is often referred to as an empire, in fact most areas within the empire were organized as city-states, known as altepetl in Nahuatl. These were small polities ruled by a king (tlatoani) from a legitimate dynasty. The Early Aztec period was a time of growth and competition among altepetl. Even after the empire was formed (1428) and began its program of expansion through conquest, the altepetl remained the dominant form of organization at the local level. The efficient role of the altepetl as a regional political unit was largely responsible for the success of the empire's hegemonic form of control.[10] The altepetl, in Pre-Columbian and conquest-era Aztec society, was the local, ethnically-based political entity. ...


Tribute and trade

Several pages from the Codex Mendoza list tributary towns along with the goods they supplied, which included not only luxuries such as feathers, adorned suits, and greenstone beads, but more practical goods such as cloth, firewood, and food. Tribute was usually paid twice or four times a year at differing times.[11] The first page of Codex Mendoza. ... Las Limas Monument 1, Olmec, from the 1st millennium BCE, made of greenstone. ...


Archaeological excavations in the Aztec-ruled provinces show that incorporation into the empire had both costs and benefits for provincial peoples. On the positive side, the empire promoted commerce and trade, and exotic goods from obsidian to bronze managed to reach the houses of both commoners and nobles. Trade partners included the enemy Tarascan, a source of bronze tools and jewelry. On the negative side, imperial tribute imposed a burden on commoner households, who had to increase their work to pay their share of tribute. Nobles, on the other hand, often made out well under imperial rule because of the indirect nature of imperial organization. The empire had to rely on local kings and nobles and offered them privileges for their help in maintaining order and keeping the tribute flowing.[12] The Tarascan state was a state in precolumbian Mesoamerica roughly covering the geographic area of the present day mexican state of Michoacan. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ...


Economy

The Aztec economy was an example of a commercial economy. Several types of money were in regular use. Small purchases were made with cacao beans, which had to be imported from lowland areas. In Aztec marketplaces, a small rabbit was worth 30 beans, a turkey egg cost 3 beans, and a tamale cost a single bean. For larger purchases, standardized lengths of cotton cloth called quachtli were used. There were different grades of quachtli, ranging in value from 65 to 300 cacao beans. One source stated that 20 quachtli could support a commoner for one year in Tenochtitlan. A man could also sell his own daughter as a sexual slave or future religious sacrifice, generally for around 500 to 700 beans. A small gold statue (approximately 0.62 kg / 1.37 lb) cost 250 beans. Money was used primarily in the many periodic markets that were held in each town. A typical town would have a weekly market (every 5 days), while larger cities held markets every day. Cortés reported that the central market of Tlatelolco, Tenochtitlan's sister city, was visited by 60,000 people daily. Some sellers in the markets were petty vendors; farmers might sell some of their produce, potters sold their vessels, and so on. Other vendors were professional merchants who traveled from market to market seeking profits. The pochteca were specialized merchants organized into exclusive guilds. They made lengthy expeditions to all parts of Mesoamerica, and they served as the judges and supervisors of the Tlatelolco market. Although the economy of Aztec Mexico was commercialized (in its use of money, markets, and merchants), it was not "a capitalist economy because land and labor were not commodities for sale."[13]


Transportation

The main contribution of the Aztec rule was a system of communications between the conquered cities. In Mesoamerica, without draft animals for transport (nor, as a result, wheeled vehicles), the roads were designed for travel on foot. Usually these roads were maintained through tribute, and travelers had places to rest and eat and even latrines to use at regular intervals, roughly every 10 or 15 km. Couriers (paynani) were constantly travelling along those ways, keeping the Aztecs informed of events, and helping to monitor the integrity of the roads. Due to the steady surveillance, even women could travel alone, a fact that amazed the Spaniards, as that was not at all possible in Europe since the time of the Romans. This article is about the culture area. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


After the conquest those roads were no longer subject to maintenance and were lost in time.


Mythology and religion

Main articles: Aztec religion and Aztec mythology
The Coat of Arms of Mexico, from Aztec mythology
The Coat of Arms of Mexico, from Aztec mythology

The Mexica made reference to at least two manifestations of the supernatural: tēōtl and tēixiptla. Tēōtl, which the Spaniards and European scholars routinely mistranslated as "god" or "demon", referred rather to an impersonal force that permeated the world. Tēixiptla, by contrast, denoted the physical representations ("idols", statues and figurines) of the tēōtl as well as the human cultic activity surrounding this physical representation. The Mexica "gods" themselves had no existence as distinct entities apart from these tēixiptla representations of tēōtl (Boone 1989). Aztec religion was a Mesoamerican religion combining elements of polytheism, shamanism and animism within a framework of astronomy and calendrics. ... The Aztec civilization recognized a polytheistic mythology, which contained the many gods (over 100) and supernatural creatures from their religious beliefs. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Coat of Arms of Mexico has been an important symbol of Mexican politics and culture for centuries. ...


Veneration of Huitzilopochtli, the personification of the sun and of war, was central to the religious, social and political practices of the Mexicas.[14] Huitzilopochtli attained this central position after the founding of Tenochtitlan and the formation of the Mexica city-state society in the 14th century. Prior to this, Huitzilopochtli was associated primarily with hunting, presumably one of the important subsistence activities of the itinerant bands that would eventually become the Mexica. // Huitzilopochtli, as depicted in the Codex Telleriano-Remensis. ...


According to myth, Huitzilopochtli directed the wanderers to found a city on the site where they would see an eagle devouring a snake perched on a fruit-bearing nopal cactus. (It was said that Huitzilopochtli killed his nephew, Cópil, and threw his heart on the lake. Huitzilopochtli honoured Cópil by causing a cactus to grow over Cópil's heart.) Legend has it that this is the site on which the Mexicas built their capital city of Tenochtitlan. This legendary vision is pictured on the Coat of Arms of Mexico. Genera Several, see text. ... A nopales merchant at his stand in the Merced market of Mexico City Nopals are a vegetable made from the young stem segments of prickly pear, carefully peeled to remove the spines. ... The Coat of Arms of Mexico has been an important symbol of Mexican politics and culture for centuries. ...


According to their own history, when the Mexicas arrived in the Anahuac valley (Valley of Mexico) around Lake Texcoco, the groups living there considered them uncivilized. The Mexicas borrowed much of their culture from the ancient Toltec whom they seem to have at least partially confused with the more ancient civilization of Teotihuacan. To the Mexicas, the Toltecs were the originators of all culture; "Toltecayōtl" was a synonym for culture. Mexica legends identify the Toltecs and the cult of Quetzalcoatl with the mythical city of Tollan, which they also identified with the more ancient Teotihuacan. For the city in Mexico, see Anáhuac, Nuevo León. ... The Valley of Mexico is a highlands plateau in central Mexico roughly coterminous with the present-day Distrito Federal and the eastern half of Estado de Mexico. ... The Atlantes – columns in the form of Toltec warriors in Tula. ... Teotihuacan was the largest Pre-Columbian known city in the Americas, and the name Teotihuacan is used to refer to the civilization this city dominated, which at its greatest extent included most of Mesoamerica. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Tollan or Tolan or Tolán is the name used for the capital city of two empires of Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica; first for Teotihuacan, and later for the Toltec capital of Tula. ...


Human sacrifice

Human sacrifice as shown in the Codex Magliabechiano.
Human sacrifice as shown in the Codex Magliabechiano.

For most people today, and for the European Catholics who first met the Aztecs, human sacrifice was the most striking feature of Aztec civilization. While human sacrifice was practiced throughout Mesoamerica, the Aztecs, if their own accounts are to be believed, brought this practice to an unprecedented level. For example, for the reconsecration of Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan in 1487, the Aztecs reported that they sacrificed 84,400 prisoners over the course of four days, reportedly by Ahuitzotl, the Great Speaker himself. Aztec human sacrifice, from Codex Mendoza, a postcortesian document, made by request of Viceroy Mendoza, but rendered by native scribes (tlacuilos) File links The following pages link to this file: Aztec Categories: Author died more than 100 years ago public domain images ... Aztec human sacrifice, from Codex Mendoza, a postcortesian document, made by request of Viceroy Mendoza, but rendered by native scribes (tlacuilos) File links The following pages link to this file: Aztec Categories: Author died more than 100 years ago public domain images ... Detail of first page from the Boturini Codex, depicting the departure from Aztlán. ... Human sacrifice was an aspect of historical Aztec culture/religion, although the extent of the practice is debated by scholars. ... Human sacrifice is the act of killing a human being for the purposes of making an offering to a deity or other, normally supernatural, power. ... The Great Pyramid or Templo Mayor was the main temple of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan (modern Mexico City). ... Auítzotl (sometimes rendered as Ahuitzotl) was the Aztec ruler of the city of Tenochtitlán. ...


However, most experts consider these numbers to be overstated. For example, the sheer logistics associated with sacrificing 84,000 victims would be overwhelming, 2,000 being a more likely figure. A similar consensus has developed on reports of cannibalism among the Aztecs. Cannibal redirects here. ...


In the writings of Bernardino de Sahagún, Aztec "anonymous informants" defended the practice of human sacrifice by asserting that it was not very different from the European way of waging warfare: Europeans killed the warriors in battle, Aztecs killed the warriors after the battle. Bernardino de Sahagún Bernardino de Sahagún (1499 – October 23, 1590), was a Franciscan missionary to the Aztec (Nahua) people of Mexico, best known as the compiler of the Florentine Codex, also known as Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España (General History of the Things of...


Accounts by the Tlaxcaltecas, the primary enemy of the Aztecs at the time of the Spanish Conquest, show that at least some of them considered it an honor to be sacrificed. In one legend, the warrior Tlahuicole was freed by the Aztecs but eventually returned of his own volition to die in ritual sacrifice. Tlaxcala also practiced the human sacrifice of captured Aztec warriors. Picture from the History of Tlaxcala showing Cortés meeting with the Tlaxcallan messengers. ...


Social structures

Main articles: Aztec society and Aztec slavery

// Aztec society traditionally was divided into two classes; the macehualli (people) or peasantry and the pilli or nobility. ... In the structure of the Aztec society, Slaves or tlacotin (distinct from war captives) also constituted an important class. ...

Class structure

A painting from Codex Mendoza showing elder Aztecs being given intoxicants.
A painting from Codex Mendoza showing elder Aztecs being given intoxicants.

The highest class were the pīpiltin or nobility.[15] Originally this status was not hereditary, although the sons of pillis had access to better resources and education, so it was easier for them to become pillis. Later the class system took on hereditary aspects. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1368x1482, 196 KB) Summary Page depicting use of intoxicants by elder Aztecs. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1368x1482, 196 KB) Summary Page depicting use of intoxicants by elder Aztecs. ... The first page of Codex Mendoza. ...


The second class were the mācehualtin, originally peasants. Eduardo Noguera[16] estimates that in later stages only 20% of the population was dedicated to agriculture and food production. The other 80% of society were warriors, artisans and traders. Eventually, most of the mācehuallis were dedicated to arts and crafts. Their works were an important source of income for the city.[17]


Slaves or tlacotin also constituted an important class. Aztecs could become slaves because of debts, as a criminal punishment or as war captives. A slave could have possessions and even own other slaves. However, upon becoming a slave, all of the slave's animals and excess money would go to his purchaser. Slaves could buy their liberty, and slaves could be set free if they had children with or were married to their masters. Typically, upon the death of the master, slaves who had performed outstanding services were freed. The rest of the slaves were passed on as part of an inheritance. Slave redirects here. ...


Traveling merchants called pochtecah were a small, but important class as they not only facilitated commerce, but also communicated vital information across the empire and beyond its borders. They were often employed as spies. A pochteca was a traveling merchant in the Aztec Empire. ...


Cuisine

Main article: Aztec cuisine

The Aztec staple foods included maize, beans and squash to which were often added chilis and tomatoes, all prominent parts of the Mexican diet to this day. They harvested acocils, a small and abundant shrimp of Lake Texcoco, as well as Spirulina algae, which was made into a sort of cake rich in flavonoids. Although Mesoamerican diet was largely vegetarian the Aztecs consumed insects such as grasshoppers (chapulines), maguey worm, ants, larvae, etc. Insects have a higher protein content than meat, and even now they are considered a delicacy in some parts of Mexico. The only domesticated animals known to the Aztecs were dogs and turkeys which were also both consumed. Wild game was also a part of the Aztec diet. Aztec elites are known to have consumed human flesh in certain ceremonial contexts but it is dubious that it ever formed an important part of their diet. The most important staple of Aztec cuisine was maize (corn), a crop that was so important to Aztec society that it played a central part in their mythology. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... This article is on the plant. ... Species - hubbard squash, buttercup squash - cushaw squash - butternut squash - most pumpkins, acorn squash, summer squash References: ITIS 22365 2002-11-06 Hortus Third Squashes are four species of the genus Cucurbita, also called pumpkins and marrows depending on variety or the nationality of the speaker. ... Acocil comes from the nahuatl language and is written acotzilli Acocil is a fresh water crustacea is like a shrimp with two species (Cambarellus montezumae and Cambarellus zempoalensis), it resembles like a little crayfish or a small lobster and was considered in the past and persists as a delicious food. ... Species About 35. ... Molecular structure of the flavone backbone (2-phenyl-1,4-benzopyrone) The term flavonoid refers to a class of plant secondary metabolites. ... Chapulines, or grasshoppers, are considered a delicacy by many Mexicans. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Common nicknames Xolo Country of origin Mexico Classification Breed Standards (external links) FCI, UKC Notes The AKC foundation stock service (FSS) is a registration service for breeds not yet recognised by the AKC. A Xoloitzcuintli or Xoloitzcuintle (the initial x is pronounced as an sh), also known as Tepeizeuintli or...


Aztecs also used maguey extensively; from it they obtained food, sweetening additives (aguamiel–"honey water"), fibers for ropes and clothing, and drink (pulque, a fermented beverage with an alcoholic content roughly equivalent to beer, used mainly in ceremonial contexts). Binomial name Agave americana L. The Century Plant or Maguey (Agave americana) is an agave originally from Mexico but cultivated worldwide. ... Pulque, or octli, is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of the maguey, and is a traditional native beverage of Mesoamerica. ...


Cacao beans were used as money and also to make xocolatl, a frothy and bitter beverage, lacking the sweetness of modern chocolate drinks. The Aztecs also kept beehives and harvested honey. For the town in French Guiana, see Cacao, French Guiana. ...


A study by Ortiz de Montellano[18] shows a mean life expectancy of 37 (±3) years for the population of Mesoamerica. After the Spanish conquest, some foods were outlawed, particularly amaranth because of its central role in religious rituals. There was less diversity of food which led to chronic malnutrition in the general population. For other uses, see Amaranth (disambiguation). ...


Recreation

As with all Mesoamerican cultures, the Aztecs played a variant of the Mesoamerican ballgame, named tlachtli or ollamaliztli in Nahuatl. The game was played with a ball of solid rubber, called an olli, whence derives the Spanish word for rubber, hule. The players hit the ball with their hips, knees, and elbows and had to pass the ball through a stone ring to automatically win. The Aztec variant of the Mesoamerican ballgame is the only one to be described in postcolonial sources, and not much is known about how other Mesoamerican peoples played the game. Ballcourt at Monte Alban Ballcourt at Uaxactun The Mesoamerican ballgame[1] was a sport with ritual associations played for over 3000 years by the peoples of Mesoamerica in Pre-Columbian times. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Aztecs also enjoyed board games, like patolli and totoloque. Bernal Diaz records that Cortés and Moctezuma II played totoloque together. Patolli is one of the oldest games in pre-Hispanic Latin America. ...


Education

Representation of Aztec education.

Until the age of fourteen, the education of children was in the hands of their parents, but supervised by the authorities of their calpōlli. Part of this education involved learning a collection of sayings, called huēhuetlàtolli ("sayings of the old"), that embodied the Aztecs' ideals. Judged by their language, most of the huēhuetlatolli seemed to have evolved over several centuries, predating the Aztecs and most likely adopted from other Nahua cultures. File links The following pages link to this file: Aztec Categories: Author died more than 100 years ago public domain images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Aztec Categories: Author died more than 100 years ago public domain images ...


At 15, all boys and girls went to school. The Mexica, one of the Aztec groups, were one of the first people in the world to have mandatory education for nearly all children, regardless of gender, rank, or station. There were two types of schools: the telpochcalli, for practical and military studies, and the calmecac, for advanced learning in writing, astronomy, statesmanship, theology, and other areas. The two institutions seem to be common to the Nahua people, leading some experts to suggest that they are older than the Aztec culture. In the Aztec empire, children of nobility would attend special schools, called Calmecacs, where they would receive very rigorous religious and military training that would prepare them to be future leaders. ...


Aztec teachers (tlatimine) propounded a spartan regime of education with the purpose of forming a stoical people.


Girls were educated in the crafts of home and child raising. They were not taught to read or write. All women were taught to be involved in religion; there are paintings of women presiding over religious ceremonies, but there are no references to female priests.


Arts

This ornament features a turquoise mosaic on a carved wooden base, with red and white shells used for the mouths. Probably worn across the chest, this ornament measures 20 cm by 43 cm (8 in by 17 in). It was likely created by Mixtec artisans from an Aztec tributary state. 1400-1521, from the British Museum [1].
This ornament features a turquoise mosaic on a carved wooden base, with red and white shells used for the mouths. Probably worn across the chest, this ornament measures 20 cm by 43 cm (8 in by 17 in). It was likely created by Mixtec artisans from an Aztec tributary state. 1400-1521, from the British Museum [1].

Song and poetry were highly regarded; there were presentations and poetry contests at most of the Aztec festivals. There were also dramatic presentations that included players, musicians and acrobats. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 2436 KB) Summary An aztec turquoise serpent chest ornament. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 2436 KB) Summary An aztec turquoise serpent chest ornament. ... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ...


Poetry was the only occupation worthy of an Aztec warrior in times of peace. A remarkable amount of this poetry survives, having been collected during the era of the conquest. In some cases poetry is attributed to individual authors, such as Netzahualcoyotl, tlatoani of Texcoco, and Cuacuatzin, Lord of Tepechpan, but whether these attributions reflect actual authorship is a matter of opinion. Miguel León-Portilla, a well-respected Aztec scholar of Mexico, has stated that it is in this poetry where we can find the real thought of the Aztecs, independent of "official" Aztec ideology.[19] This article is about the Aztec poet king. ... Cuaucuauhtzin was an Aztec lord, of Tepechpan, born around the year 1410. ... Miguel León-Portilla (born in Mexico City, 22 February 1926) is a Mexican anthropologist and historian, and the prime authority on Nahuatl thought and literature. ...


It is also important to note that the Spanish classified many aspects of the Aztec/Nahuatl culture according to the lexicon and organizational categories with which they would distinguish in Europe. In the same way that the second letter of Cortez made a mention of "mesquitas", or in English, "mosques", when trying to convey his impression of Aztec architecture, early colonists and missionaries divided the principal bodies of nahuatl literature as "poetry" and "prose". "Poetry" was in xochitl in cuicatl a dual term meaning "the flower and the song" and was divided into different genres. Yaocuicatl was devoted to war and the god(s) of war, Teocuicatl to the gods and creation myths and to adoration of said figures, xochicuicatl to flowers (a symbol of poetry itself and indicative of the highly metaphorical nature of a poetry that often utilized duality to convey multiple layers of meaning). "Prose" was tlahtolli, also with its different categories and divisions (Garganigo et. al).

Turquoise mask. Mixtec-Aztec. 1400-1521.
Turquoise mask. Mixtec-Aztec. 1400-1521.

The most important collection of these poems is Romances de los señores de la Nueva España, collected (Tezcoco 1582), probably by Juan Bautista de Pomar.[20] Bautista de Pomar was the great-grandson of Netzahualcoyotl. He spoke Nahuatl, but was raised a Christian and wrote in Latin characters. (See also: "Is It You?", a short poem attributed to Netzahualcoyotl, and "Lament on the Fall of Tenochtitlan", a short poem contained within the "Unos Anales Históricos de la Nación Mexicana" manuscript.) Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2472x3176, 847 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2472x3176, 847 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Juan Bautista de Pomar (died 1590) was an historian and writer interested in pre-Columbian Aztec matters after Mexico had been conquered by Spain. ... Unos Anales Históricos de la Nación Mexicana (Some Historical Annals of the Mexican Nation) is a manuscript written in language, using Latin characters, by anonymous Aztec authors in 1528 in Tlatelolco, only seven years after the fall of the Aztec Empire. ...


The Aztec people also enjoyed a type of dramatic presentation, a kind of theatre. Some plays were comical with music and acrobats, others were staged dramas of their gods. After the conquest, the first Christian churches had open chapels reserved for these kinds of representations. Plays in Nahuatl, written by converted Indians, were an important instrument for the conversion to Christianity, and are still found today in the form of traditional pastorelas, which are played during Christmas to show the Adoration of Baby Jesus, and other Biblical passages.


City-building and architecture

Tenochtitlan, looking east. From the mural painting at the National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico City. Painted in 1930 by Dr. Atl.
Tenochtitlan, looking east. From the mural painting at the National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico City. Painted in 1930 by Dr. Atl.

The capital city of the Aztec empire was Tenochtitlan, now the site of modern-day Mexico City. Built on a series of islets in Lake Texcoco, the city plan was based on a symmetrical layout that was divided into four city sections called campans. The city was interlaced with canals which were useful for transportation. Map of Tenochtitlan, Mural painting from the National Museum of Mexico City. ... Map of Tenochtitlan, Mural painting from the National Museum of Mexico City. ... Plan of Tenochtitlán by Dr. Atl Gerald Murillo (a Mexican painter who signed his work Dr. Atl) was born on October 3, 1875, in Guadalajara, Jalisco. ... Tenochtitlan, looking east. ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... Lake Texcoco is a lake in Mexico. ...


Tenochtitlan was built according to a fixed plan and centered on the ritual precinct, where the Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan rose 60 m above the city. Houses were made of wood and loam, roofs were made of reed,[21] although pyramids, temples and palaces were generally made of stone. The Great Pyramid or Templo Mayor was the main temple of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan (modern Mexico City). ...


Around the island, chinampa beds were used to grow foodstuffs as well as, over time, to increase the size of the island. Chinampas, misnamed "floating gardens", were long raised plant beds set upon the shallow lake bottom. They were a very efficient agricultural system and could provide up to seven crops a year. On the basis of current chinampa yields, it has been estimated that 1 hectare of chinampa would feed 20 individuals and 9,000 hectares of chinampas could feed 180,000.[22] Chinampas is an Aztec term referring to a method of ancient Mesoamerican agriculture through floating gardens—small, rectangle-shaped areas of fertile arable land used for agriculture in the Xochimilco region of the Basin of Mexico. ...


Anthropologist Eduardo Noguera estimates the population at 200,000 based in the house count and merging the population of Tlatelolco (once an independent city, but later became a suburb of Tenochtitlan). If one includes the surrounding islets and shores surrounding Lake Texcoco, estimates range from 300,000 to 700,000 inhabitants.[22]


Relationship to other Mesoamerican cultures

Aztecs admired Mixtec craftsmanship so much that they imported artisans to Tenochtitlan and requested work to be done in certain Mixtec styles. The Aztecs also admired the Mixtec codices, so some of them were made to order by Mixteca for the Aztecs. In the later days, high society Aztec women started to wear Mixtec clothing, specifically the quexquemetl. It was worn over their traditional huipil, and much coveted by the women who could not afford such imported goods.


The situation was analogous in many ways to the Phoenician culture which imported and duplicated art from other cultures that they encountered. For this reason, archeologists often have trouble identifying which artifacts are genuinely Phoenician and which are imported or copied from other cultures. Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ...


Archaeologists usually do not have a problem differentiating between Mixtec and Aztec artifacts. However, the Mixtec made some products for "export" and that makes classification more problematic. In addition, the production of craft was an important part of the Mexica economy, and they also made pieces for "export".


Legacy

Most modern day Mexicans (and people of Mexican descent in other countries) are mestizos, of mixed indigenous and European Spanish ancestry. During the 16th century the racial composition of Mexico began to change from one that featured distinct indigenous (Mexicas and members of the many other Mexican indigenous groups) and immigrant (mostly Spanish) populations, to the population composed primarily of mestizos that is found in modern day Mexico.


The Nahuatl language is today spoken by 1.5 million people, mostly in mountainous areas in the states of central Mexico. Local dialects of Spanish, Mexican Spanish generally, and the Spanish language worldwide have all been influenced, in varying degrees, by Nahuatl. Some Nahuatl words (most notably chocolate and tomato) have been borrowed through Spanish into other languages around the world. Nahuatl ( [1] is a term applied to a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan [2] branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, indigenous to central Mexico. ...


Mexico City was built on the ruins of Tenochtitlan, making it one of the oldest living cities of America. Many of its districts and natural landmarks retain their original Nahuatl names. Many other cities and towns in Mexico and Central America have also retained their Nahuatl names (whether or not they were originally Mexica or even Nahuatl-speaking towns). A number of town names are hybrids of Nahuatl and Spanish. Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ...


Mexican cuisine continues to be based on and flavored by agricultural products contributed by the Mexicas/Aztecs and Mesoamerica, most of which retain some form of their original Nahuatl names. The cuisine has also become a popular part of the cuisine of the United States and other countries around the world, typically altered to suit various national tastes. Not to be confused with Tex-Mex, which is often referred to as Mexican food in the U.S. Mexican food is a style of food that originated in Mexico. ...


The modern Mexican flag bears the emblem of the Mexica migration legend.


Mexico's premier religious icon, the Virgin of Guadalupe has certain similarities to the Mexica earth mother goddess Tonantzin. Our Lady of Guadalupe (reproduction) San Juan Bautista, Coyoacán, DF Our Lady of Guadalupe is an aspect of the Virgin Mary, who, according to legend, appeared to Saint Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin, an Aztec convert to Catholicism, in the current borough of Gustavo A. Madero, in Mexico City in 1531. ...


For the 1986 FIFA World Cup Adidas designed the official match ball to show in its "triades" Aztec architectural and mural designs [2]. The 1986 FIFA World Cup, the 13th staging of the FIFA World Cup, was held in Mexico from May 31 to June 29. ...


Modern views of the Aztec culture

Laurette Séjourné, a French anthropologist, wrote about Aztec and Mesoamerican spirituality. Her depiction of the Aztecs as a spiritual people was so compelling that new religions have been formed based on her writings. Some parts of her work have been adopted by esoteric groups, searching for occult teachings of the pre-Columbian religions. Séjourné never endorsed any of these groups.[citation needed] Laurette Séjourné (1911–May 25, 2003) was an archeologist and ethnologist. ...


Miguel León-Portilla also idealizes the Aztec culture, especially in his early writings.[citation needed] Miguel León-Portilla (born in Mexico City, 22 February 1926) is a Mexican anthropologist and historian, and the prime authority on Nahuatl thought and literature. ...


Others, such as Antonio Velazco, have transformed the writings by Sejourné and León-Portilla into a religious movement. Antonio Velasco Piña has written three books, Tlacaelel, El Azteca entre los Aztecas, La mujer dormida debe dar a luz, and Regina. When mixed with the currents of Neopaganism, these books resulted in a new religious movement called "Mexicanista". This movement called for a return to the spirituality of the Aztecs. It is argued that, with this return, Mexico will become the next center of power. This religious movement mixes Mesoamerican cults with Hindu esoterism. The Mexicanista movement reached the peak of its popularity in the 1990s. This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ...


Discussion of primary sources

A painting of Tlaloc, as shown on page 20R of Codex Rios.
A painting of Tlaloc, as shown on page 20R of Codex Rios.

Each of the historical sources has its own unique problems. None of the sources is free from bias and every source must be viewed with some skepticism until cross-checked against other contemporary sources or the archaeological records. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (654x761, 90 KB) Summary This is a detail from page 20, reverse, of Codex Rios. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (654x761, 90 KB) Summary This is a detail from page 20, reverse, of Codex Rios. ... Tlaloc, as shown in the late 16th century Codex Rios. ... A painting of Tláloc, as shown on page 20R of Codex Rios. ...


Aztec codices

There are few extant Aztec codices created before the conquest and these are largely ritual texts. Post-conquest codices, like Codex Mendoza or Codex Rios, were painted by Aztec tlacuilos (codex creators), but under the control of Spanish authorities. The possibility of Spanish influence poses potential problems for those studying the post-conquest codices. Detail of first page from the Boturini Codex, depicting the departure from Aztlán. ... The first page of Codex Mendoza. ... A painting of Tláloc, as shown on page 20R of Codex Rios. ...


The conquistadors

The accounts of the conquistadors are those of men confronted with a new civilization, which they tried to interpret according to their own culture. Cortés was the most educated, and his letters to Charles V are a valuable firsthand account. Unfortunately, one of his letters is lost and replaced by a posterior text and the others were censored prior their publication. In any case, Cortés was not writing a dispassionate account, but letters justifying his actions and to some extent exaggerating his successes and downplaying his failures. For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ...


Bernal Díaz del Castillo accompanied Cortes, but he wrote decades after the fact, he never learned the native languages, and he did not take notes. His account is colorful, but his work is considered erratic and exaggerated. Bernal Díaz del Castillo (1492 or 1493 - 1581) was a conquistador, who wrote an eyewitness account of the conquest of Mexico under Hernán Cortés. ...


Although Francisco López de Gómara was Cortes' chaplain, friend, and confidant, he never visited the New World so his account is based on hearsay. Francisco López de Gómara (1511?-1566?) was a Spanish historian at Seville, who is particularly noted for his works in which he described the early 16th century expedition undertaken by Hernándo Cortés in the Spanish conquest of the New World. ...


Priests and scholars

The accounts of the first priests and scholars, while reflecting their faith and their culture, are important sources. Fathers Diego Durán, Motolinia, and Mendieta wrote with their own religion in mind, Father Duran wrote trying to prove that the Aztec were one of the lost tribes of Israel. Bartolomé de las Casas wrote instead from an apologetic point of view. There are also authors that tried to make a synthesis of the pre-Hispanic cultures, like "Oviedo y Herrera", Jose de Acosta, and Pedro Mártir de Anghera. Diego Durán (c. ... Fray Toribio de Benavente ( ? Benavente, Spain- 1568, Mexico City) also known as Motolinia was a Franciscan missionary and among the first 12 clerics to arrive in New Spain in May 1524. ... Bartolomé de las Casas This article is about a Spanish priest in the 16th century. ...


Perhaps the most important source about the Aztec are the manuscripts of Bernardino de Sahagún, who worked with the surviving Aztec wise men. He taught Aztec tlacuilos to write the original Nahuatl accounts using the Latin alphabet. Because of fear of the Spanish authorities, he maintained the anonymity of his informants, and wrote a heavily censored version in Spanish. Unfortunately the Nahuatl original was not fully translated until the 20th century, thus realising the extent of the censorship of the Spanish version. The original Nahuatl manuscript is known as the Florentine Codex. Bernardino de Sahagún Bernardino de Sahagún (1499 – October 23, 1590), was a Franciscan missionary to the Aztec (Nahua) people of Mexico, best known as the compiler of the Florentine Codex, also known as Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España (General History of the Things of... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... Page 51 of Book IX from the Florentine Codex. ...


Native authors

Other important sources are the work of Indian and mestizo authors, descendants of the upper classes. These authors include Don Fernando Alvarado Tezozómoc, Chimalpahin Cuauhtlehuanitzin, Juan Bautista de Pomar, and Fernando de Alva Cortés Ixtlilxochitl. Ixtlixochitl, for example, wrote a history of Texcoco from a Christian point of view. His account of Netzahualcoyotl, an ancestor of Ixtlilxochitl's, has a strong resemblance to the story of King Solomon and portrays Netzahualcoyotl as a monotheist and a critic of human sacrifice. Fernando Alvarado Tezozomoc was a Mexican historian and descendent of the pre-Columbian lineage that ruled the Aztec empire. ... Chimalpain Quauhtlehuanitzin (born 1579) was an Aztec noble and historian. ... Juan Bautista de Pomar (died 1590) was an historian and writer interested in pre-Columbian Aztec matters after Mexico had been conquered by Spain. ... Fernando de Alva Cortés Ixtlilxochitl (1568?-1648). ... This article is about the Aztec poet king. ...


Diego Muñoz Camargo (1521 - c. 1612), a Tlaxcalan mestizo, wrote the History of Tlaxcala six decades after the Spanish conquest. Some parts of his work have a strong Tlaxcala bias. Diego Muñoz Camargo (1521 - c. ... Mestizo is a Spanish term that was formerly used in the Spanish Empire to designate people of mixed European (Spaniard) and Amerindian ancestry living in the region of Latin America. ... Hernan Cortés and La Malinche in the city of Tlatelolco, in a drawing from the History of Tlaxcala History of Tlaxcala is an illustrated codex written by and under the supervision of Diego Muñoz Camargo in the years leading up to 1585. ...


Notes

  1. ^ For example Smith (2001) following Lockhart (1994)
  2. ^ Nombre del Estado de México Gobierno del Estado de México
  3. ^ AGUILAR-MORENO M (2006) Handbook to Life in the Aztec World Facts of Life, Inc: New York, USA, p. 19
  4. ^ Miguel Leon Portilla (2000). "Aztecas, disquisiciones sobre un gentilicio". Estudios de la cultura nahuatl.  }
  5. ^ Smith, (1984) p. 173.
  6. ^ By one series of estimates, the population before the time of the conquest is estimated at 19 million; by 1550, the estimated population was 4 million and by 1581 less than two million[citation needed]
  7. ^ Silent Killers of the New World
  8. ^ Motyl, Alexander J. [2001]. Imperial Ends: The Decay, Collapse, and Revival of Empires. New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 13, 19-21, 32-36. ISBN 0-231-12110-5. 
  9. ^ Berdan, et al. (1996), Aztec Imperial Strategies. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC
  10. ^ Smith, Michael E.(2000), Aztec City-States. In A Comparative Study of Thirty City-State Cultures, edited by Mogens Herman Hansen, pp. 581-595. The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, Copenhagen.
  11. ^ The Codex Mendoza, edited by F. Berdan and P. Anawalt, University of California Press, 1992
  12. ^ Smith, Life in the Provinces of the Aztec empire, Scientific American, September 1997
  13. ^ (Smith, The Aztecs, 2nd edition, chapter 5)
  14. ^ The name Huitzil-opochtli is often translated as "Hummingbird to the Left-Side" or "Hummingbird to the South." However, Nahuatl grammar rules indicate that "Hummingbird" is a modifier of "Left." With this consideration, the name of this figure may be glossed as "The Hummingbird Left-Side," likely referring to the resplendent "left side" of the Sun, seen as it crosses the sky from East to West.
  15. ^ singular form pilli
  16. ^ Annals of Anthropology, UNAM, Vol. xi, 1974, p. 56
  17. ^ Sanders, William T., Settlement Patterns in Central Mexico. Handbook of Middle American Indians, 1971, vol. 3, p. 3-44.
  18. ^ Medicina, Nutrición y Salud Aztecas, 1997
  19. ^ León-Portilla, Broken Spears.
  20. ^ This volume was later translated into Spanish by Ángel María Garibay K., teacher of León-Portilla, and it exists in English translation by John Bierhorst
  21. ^ "Azteken". Winkler Prins encyclopedia (8th ed.). (1975). }
  22. ^ a b Eduardo Noguera (1974). "Sitios de Ocupacion de la periferia de Tenochtitlan". Anales de Antropologia,UNAM (XI ed.).  }

Mogens Herman Hansen (b. ... Fray Ángel María Garibay K.(intana) (June 18, 1892– October 19, 1967) was a Mexican Roman Catholic priest, philologist, linguist, historian, and scholar of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures, specifically of the Nahua peoples of the central Mexican highlands. ... The winkler prince is an encyclopedia, founded by the Dutch writer Anthony Winkler Prins. ...

References

Modern works, available in English

  • Berdan, Frances F. (2004) The Aztecs of Central Mexico: An Imperial Society. 2nd ed. Thomson-Wadsworth, Belmont, CA. ISBN 0534627285.
  • Berdan, Frances F., Richard E. Blanton, Elizabeth H. Boone, Mary G. Hodge, Michael E. Smith and Emily Umberger (1996). Aztec Imperial Strategies. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC. ISBN 0884022110.
  • Boone, Elizabeth H. (1989). "Incarnations of the Aztec Supernatural: The Image of Huitzilopochtli in Mexico and Europe." Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Ser., Vol. 79, No. 2., pp. i-iv+1-107. ISBN 0871697920.
  • Boone, Elizabeth H. (2000) Stories in Red and Black: Pictorial Histories of the Aztecs and Mixtecs. University of Texas Press, Austin. ISBN 0292708769.
  • Carrasco, Davíd (1999) City of Sacrifice: The Aztec Empire and the Role of Violence in Civilization. Beacon Press, Boston. ISBN 0807046426.
  • Carrasco, Pedro (1999) The Tenochca Empire of Ancient Mexico: The Triple Alliance of Tenochtitlan, Tetzcoco, and Tlacopan. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0806131446.
  • Clendinnen, Inga (1991) Aztecs: An Interpretation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. ASIN B000PRYFBS. ISBN 0521485851 (1995 paperback).
  • Davies, Nigel (1973) The Aztecs: A History. Macmillan. ISBN 0333124049.
  • Duran, Fray Diego (1994). The History of the Indies of New Spain. Translated by Doris Heyden. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0806126493.
  • Gillespie, Susan D. (1989) The Aztec Kings: The Construction of Rulership in Mexica History'. University of Arizona Press, Tucson. ISBN 0816510954.
  • Graulich, Michel (1997) Myths of Ancient Mexico. Translated by Bernard R. Ortiz de Montellano and Thelma Ortiz de Montellano. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. ISBN 0806129107.
  • Gruzinski, Serge (1992). The Aztecs: The Rise and Fall of an Empire. New York: Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 0810928213.
  • Guggenheim Museum (editor) (2004) The Aztec Empire (Curated by Felipe Solís). Guggenheim Museum, New York.
  • Hassig, Ross (1988) Aztec Warfare: Imperial Expansion and Political Control. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. ASIN B000M4NNJE. ISBN 0806127732 (1995 paperback).
  • Lanyon, Anna (1999). Malinche's Conquest. Melbourne, Australia: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1864487801.
  • León-Portilla, Miguel (Ed.) [1959] (1992). The Broken Spears: The Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico, Ángel María Garibay K. (Nahuatl-Spanish trans.), Lysander Kemp (Spanish-English trans.), Alberto Beltran (illus.), Expanded and updated edition, Boston: Beacon Press. ISBN 0-8070-5501-8. 
  • León-Portilla, Miguel (1963) Aztec Thought and Culture: A Study of the Ancient Náhuatl Mind. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. ASIN B000GPAF1I. ISBN-10: 0806122951 (1990 paperback).
  • López Luján, Leonardo (2005) The Offerings of the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan. Revised ed. Translated by Bernard R. Ortiz de Montellano and Thelma Ortiz de Montellano. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. ISBN 0826329586.
  • Matos Moctezuma, Eduardo (1988) The Great Temple of the Aztecs. Thames and Hudson, New York. ISBN 050039024X.
  • Matos Moctezuma, Eduardo and Felipe R. Solís Olguín (editors) (2003) Aztecs. Royal Academy of Arts, London. ISBN 1903973139.
  • Ortiz de Montellano, Bernard R. (1990) Aztec Medicine, Health, and Nutrition. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick. ISBN 0813515629.
  • Restall, Matthew (2003). Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195160770.
  • Smith, Michael E. (1984); "The Aztlan Migrations of Nahuatl Chronicles: Myth or History?", in Ethnohistory 31(3): 153 - 186.PDF (3.15 MiB)
  • Smith, Michael E. (2003) The Aztecs. 2nd ed. Blackwell Publishers, Oxford.
  • Smith, Michael E, "Life in the Provinces of the Aztec Empire", Scientific American.PDF (538 KiB)
  • Soustelle, Jacques (1961) The Daily life of the Aztecs, London, WI. ASIN B000M1NS06. ISBN 0486424855 (2002 paperback).
  • Thomas, Hugh (1994). Conquest: Montezuma, Cortes, and the Fall of Old Mexico. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0671705180.
  • Townsend, Richard F. (2000) The Aztecs. revised ed. Thames and Hudson, New York. ISBN 0500281327.

Miguel León-Portilla (born in Mexico City, 22 February 1926) is a Mexican anthropologist and historian, and the prime authority on Nahuatl thought and literature. ... Fray Ángel María Garibay K.(intana) (June 18, 1892– October 19, 1967) was a Mexican Roman Catholic priest, philologist, linguist, historian, and scholar of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures, specifically of the Nahua peoples of the central Mexican highlands. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

Primary sources, available in English

  • Berdan, Frances F. and Patricia Reiff Anawalt (1997) The Essential Codex Mendoza. University of California Press, Berkeley. ISBN 0520204549.
  • Cortés, Hernan (1987) Letters from Mexico. New Ed. edition. Translated by Anthony Pagden. Yale University Press, New Haven. ISBN 0300037244.
  • Díaz del Castillo, Bernal (1963) The Conquest of New Spain. Translated by J. M. Cohen. Penguin, New York. ISBN 0140441239.
  • Díaz, Gisele and Alan Rogers (1993) The Codex Borgia: A Full-Color Restoration of the Ancient Mexican Manuscript. Dover Publications, New York. ISBN 0486275698.
  • Durán, Fray Diego (1971) Book of the Gods and Rites and The Ancient Calendar. Translated by Fernando Horcasitas and Doris Heyden. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. ASIN B000M4OVSG. ISBN 0806112018 (1977 Ed. edition).
  • Durán, Fray Diego (1994) The History of the Indies of New Spain. Translated by Doris Heyden. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. ISBN 0806126493.
  • Garganigo et al., (2008) Huellas de las Literaturas Hispanoamerica. 3 edition. Prentice Hall, New Jersey. (Note, this source in Spanish). ISBN 0131958461.
  • Zorita, Alonso de (1963) Life and Labor in Ancient Mexico: The Brief and Summary Relation of the Lords of New Spain. Translated by Benjamin Keen. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick. ASIN B000INWUNE. ISBN 0806126795 (1994 paperback).

The first page of Codex Mendoza. ... Hernán(do) Cortés Pizarro, 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... Bernal D az del Castillo (1492 or 1493 - 1581) was a conquistador, who wrote an eyewitness account of the conquest of Mexico under Hern n Cort s. ... Divine being Quetzalcoatl in human form, using the symbols of Ehecatl, from the Codex Borgia. ... Diego Durán (c. ... Diego Durán (c. ...

See also

Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... For the a general view of Inca civilisation, people and culture, see Incas. ... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... A Conquistador (Spanish: []) (English: Conqueror) was a Spanish soldier, explorer and adventurer who took part in the gradual invasion and conquering of much of the Americas and Asia Pacific, bringing them under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 19th centuries. ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ...

External links

The University of Minnesota Duluth (UMD) is a regional branch of the University of Minnesota System located in Duluth, Minnesota, USA. As Duluths public research university, UMD offers 12 bachelors degrees in 75 majors, graduate programs in 20 fields, a two-year program at the School of Medicine... The University of Guadalajara (UdeG) is a public university based in Guadalajara, Jalisco. ... This article is about the oldest and largest campus of the University of Minnesota. ... Internet Archive headquarters is in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco. ... Not to be confused with University of the State of New York. ... For other uses, see Albany. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... old Radio 4 logo BBC Radio 4 is a UK domestic radio station which broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history. ... In Our Time is a discussion programme hosted by Melvyn Bragg on BBC Radio 4 in the United Kingdom. ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents. ... Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde National Park White House Ruins, Canyon de Chelly National Monument Ancient Pueblo People or Ancestral Puebloans were a prehistoric Native American culture centered around the present-day Four Corners area of the Southwest United States, noted for their distinctive pottery and dwelling construction styles. ... --24. ... The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American culture that flourished in what is now the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States from approximately 800 to 1500 A.D., varying regionally. ... It has been suggested that Huastecs be merged into this article or section. ... // Overview Izapa was a very large pre-Columbian site located in Chiapas, Mexico, often placed in the Late Formative period. ... Jade mask found in Tomb 7, Monte Alban, c. ... Monument 1, one of the four Olmec colossal heads at La Venta. ... The Pipil are an indigenous people who live in western El Salvador. ... The Tarascan state was a state in precolumbian Mesoamerica roughly covering the geographic area of the present day mexican state of Michoacan. ... Teotihuacán[1] was, at its height in the first half of the 1st millennium CE, the largest pre-Columbian city in the Americas. ... The Atlantes – columns in the form of Toltec warriors in Tula. ... The Totonac people resided in the eastern coastal and mountainous regions of Mexico at the time of the Spanish arrival in 1519. ... Extent of the Zapotec civilization The Zapotec civilization was an indigenous pre-Columbian civilization that flourished in the Valley of Oaxaca of southern Mesoamerica. ... The Norte Chico civilization (also Caral or Caral-Supe civilization) was a complex Pre-Columbian society that included as many as 30 major population centers in what is now the Norte Chico region of north-central coastal Peru. ... The Chavín were an early civilization that existed in present-day Peru. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Late Intermediate Period Cultures Chimu Piece - Imperial Epoch, 1300 A.D. to 1532 A.D.Larco Museum Collection Chimor (also Kingdom of Chimor) was the political grouping of the Chimú culture that ruled the northern coast of Peru, beginning around 850 AD and ending around 1470 AD. Chimor was the... The Chachapoyas, also called the Warriors of the Clouds, were an Andean people living in the cloud forests of the Amazonas region of present-day Peru. ... Middle Horizon The Huari (or Wari) was a Middle Horizon civilization that flourished in the Andes in the south of modern day Peru, from about 500 to 1200 A.D. The capital city of the same name is located near the modern city of Ayacucho, Peru. ... The Moche civilization (alternately, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc. ... Late Intermediate Period Cultures The Nazca culture flourished in the Nazca region between 300 BC and 800 AD. They created the famous Nazca lines and built an impressive system of underground aqueducts that still function today. ... Tairona figure pendants Monument in Santa Marta depicting Taironas. ... Area of the Middle Horizon The Gate of the Sun Tiwanaku (Spanish spellings: Tiahuanaco and Tiahuanacu) is an important Pre-Columbian archaeological site in Bolivia. ... Mapuche test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Mapuche (Mapudungun; Che, People + Mapu, of the Land) are the original Amerindian inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. ... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... For the a general view of Inca civilisation, people and culture, see Incas. ... For the political organization and administration of the Inca territory, see Kingdom of Cusco and Inca Empire. ... Nahuatl ( [1] is a term applied to a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan [2] branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, indigenous to central Mexico. ... “Maya language” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... Aztec or Nahuatl writing is a pictographic pre-Columbian writing system used in central Mexico by the Nahua peoples. ... Maya glyphs in stucco at the Museo de sitio in Palenque, Mexico The Maya script, commonly known as Maya hieroglyphs, was the writing system of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization of Mesoamerica, presently the only deciphered script of the Mesoamerican writing systems. ... Inca Quipu. ... Aztec religion was a Mesoamerican religion combining elements of polytheism, shamanism and animism within a framework of astronomy and calendrics. ... The indigenous religious beliefs and practices of the ancient and modern Maya vary greatly over space and time, but certain common features can be discerned, all of which are consistent with other Mesoamerican religions. ... The Sun Temple complex at Písac. ... The Aztec civilization recognized a polytheistic mythology, which contained the many gods (over 100) and supernatural creatures from their religious beliefs. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Inca mythology includes a number of stories and legends that are mythological and helps explain or symbolizes Inca beliefs. ... The sun stone also called the Aztec calendar on display at the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City. ... The Maya calendar is a system of distinct calendars and almanacs used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and by some modern Maya communities in highland Guatemala. ... // Aztec society traditionally was divided into two classes; the macehualli (people) or peasantry and the pilli or nobility. ... It has been suggested that Maya women be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Women and clothing in Incan Society be merged into this article or section. ... Chinampas is an Aztec term referring to a method of ancient Mesoamerican agriculture through floating gardens—small, rectangle-shaped areas of fertile arable land used for agriculture in the Xochimilco region of the Basin of Mexico. ... As unique and spectacular as any Greek or Roman architecture, Maya architecture spans many thousands of years. ... View of Machu Picchu Incan architecture is the most significant pre-Columbian architecture in South America. ... Major highways of the Inca Empire Among the many roads and trails constructed in pre-Columbian South America, the Inca road system (El Camino Inca) of Peru was the most extensive. ... This section needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... The Aztecs were a Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. ... The Inca Empire was an empire centered in what is now Peru from AD 1438 to AD 1533. ... Moctezuma Ilhuicamina, or Moctezuma I (also known as Montezuma I) (the surname meaning solitary one who shoots an arrow into the sky) was born to Huitzilihuitl, the second Aztec Emperor. ... Moctezuma or Montezuma II, also known as Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin (c. ... Cuitláhuac was the Aztec ruler (Tlatoani) of the city of Tenochtitlán from June to October 1520. ... For other uses, see Cuauhtémoc (disambiguation). ... Pacal II, also known as Pacal the Great (the most recent work gives his full name as Kinich Janaab Pakal[1] (26 March 603 - 31 August 683), was ruler of the Maya polity of Palenque. ... Tecún Umán was the last king of the Quiché people, in the highlands of what is now Guatemala. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Inca emperors ... Pachacuti as drawn by Guaman Poma Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (or Pachacutec; Quechua Pachakutiq, literally world-turner, i. ... Lifetime portrait of Atahuallpa, the last sovereign Inca emperor Atahualpa or Atawallpa (c. ... Aztec empire The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of America. ... Hernán(do) Cortés Pizarro, 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... The Spanish Conquest of Yucatán was the campaign undertaken by the Spanish conquistadores against the Late Postclassic Maya states and polities, particularly in the northern and central Yucatán Peninsula but also involving the Maya polities of the Guatemalan highlands region. ... Francisco de Montejo (c. ... // The Maya civilization thrived throughout much of Guatemala and the surrounding region for close to 2000 years before the Spanish arrived in the early 16th century. ... Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras (Badajoz, c. ... The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire was a process through which a group of Spaniards led by Francisco Pizarro succeeded in toppling the Inca Empire in the early 16th-century. ... Francisco Pizarro Francisco Pizarro González should not be confused with another Francisco Pizarro who joined Hernán Cortés to conquer the Aztecs. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... Natives of North America. ... Pre-Columbian art is the art of Central and South America in the time prior to the arrival of European colonizers in the 16th century. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Aztec Religion (959 words)
Aztecs beliefs were based in their perception of nature, its time space, and cycles.
The two gods to whom the two most important temples in the Aztec world were dedicated were Huitzlopochtli (the supreme deity of the Aztecs associated with sun and fire) and Tatloc, the rain god, that among other things was associated with fertility.
According to the one Aztec myth, one god sacrificed himself into a fire so that he could become the sun; however once he had become the sun, he did not reappear until he was nourished with the blood of all the other gods.
Aztec - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6244 words)
Classical Nahuatl (also known as Aztec, and simply Nahuatl) is a term used to describe the variants of the Nahuatl language that were spoken in the Valley of Mexico -- and used throughout central Mexico as a lingua france -- at the time of the Spanish conquest of Mexico.
In the writings of Bernardino de Sahagún, Aztec "anonymous informants" defended the practice of human sacrifice by asserting that it was not very different from the European way of waging warfare: Europeans killed the warriors in battle, Aztecs killed the warriors after the battle.
The Aztec staple foods included maize, beans and squash to which were often added chilis and tomatoes, all prominent parts of the Mexican diet to this day.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m