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Encyclopedia > Azerbaijanis
Azeris
Total population: 20-30 million
Significant populations in: Azerbaijan:
   7,800,000

Iran:
   18,000,000
Turkey:
   530,000
Russia:
   350,000
Georgia:
   340,000
Other:
   30,000
Shah Ismail I Medieval European rendering by an unknown Venetian artist. ... Image File history File links 132_610_taghiyev. ... Image File history File links Lala_Shevket_Hajiyeva. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (621x1043, 96 KB) en: Teimour Radjabov – Azerbaijani ()grandmaster. ... For the movie, see The Other. ...

Language: Azerbaijani
Religion: Shia Islam
Related ethnic groups: Turks - Khalaj - Qashqai - Salchuq - Afshar

Azerbaijanis are a people numbering more than 35 million worldwide. The majority, around 20-30 million (estimates vary), live in Iran. The rest, around 8 million, live in Republic of Azerbaijan. There are also sizeable communities in Turkey, Georgia, Russia, USA, Canada, and Germany. The overwhelming majority are Shi'a Muslims. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Khalaj is a language spoken primarily in Iran and Afghanistan. ... Qashqai (also spelled Ghashghai, Qashqay, Kashgai and Qashqai). ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ...

Contents


Origins

Much has been debated about the ethnic, cultural and linguistic origin of the Azerbaijani (or Azeri) people. It is difficult to disentangle national pride and ambition, imperial or political propaganda and good science. Ultimately, the 'debate' over the origins of the Azerbaijani people has to do with historic claims over their territory as well as 20th century notions of nationalism. The debate basically involves whether or not the Azeris are of a Turkic background ultimately from Central Asia or are an Iranian people who simply changed their language following Turkic invasions or are indigenous to the Caucasus. Thus, determining whether a Turkic, Iranic, or Caucasian background defines the Azeris also has much to do with historical views of Azeri neighbors as well. This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Iranian peoples are peoples who speak an Iranian language and/or belong to the Iranian stock. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ...


Having said this, a fair number of historians consider the nation of Azerbaijanis to be the descendents of ancient Iranian peoples such as the Medes and/or Scythians. Other historians believe that the Azeris are largely descended from various groups of Turkic tribes, in particular the Oghuz Turks, but also, other Ural-Altaic invaders including the Huns, Gokturks, Khazars, Barsils, Kurtugurs, Saragurs, Kipchaks and others. Still others believe that the Azeris may simply be native to the Caucasus and are actually the descendents of the Albanians of the Caucasus, whose language may have been akin to the Udi language, which is part of the Northeast Caucasian family of languages that includes Abkhazian among others. Adherants to this view believe that the earlier inhabitants of what is today Azerbaijan mingled with and absorbed various Iranic and Turkic peoples over time, as the population was Turkified in the linguistic sense and adopted many Persian cultural elements including Zoroastrianism and the Shia sect of Islam. The Iranian peoples are the ethno-linguistic descendants of the Iranian branch of the ancient Indo-Iranian Aryans. ... The Medes were an Iranian people, who lived in the western and north-western portion of present-day Iran. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... The Oghuz Turks (also with various alternate spellings, including Oguz, OÄŸuz, Ouz, Okuz, Oufoi, Guozz and Ghuzz) are regarded as one of the major branches of Turkic peoples. ... The Ural-Altaic language family is a grouping of languages which was once widely accepted by linguists, but has since become contoversial. ... The Huns were a group of Central Asian nomadic tribes, who appeared in Europe in the 4th century. ... The Gokturks or Kokturks (Gök-Turks or Kök-Turks, with the meaning Celestial Turks), known as Tujue (突厥 tu2 jue2) in medieval Chinese sources, established the first known Turkic state around 552, after the Huns, under the leadership of Bumin/Tuman Khan/Khaghan (died 552) and his sons, and... The site of the Khazar fortress at Sarkel. ... Kipchaks (also Kypchaks, Qipchaqs) are an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. Their language was also known as Kipchak. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Caucasian Albania (or Aghbania) was an ancient state that covered what is now southern Dagestan and most of todays Azerbaijan of the Caucasus. ... The Udi language is a member of the Northeast Caucasian language family. ... The Northeast Caucasian languages, also called East Caucasian, Caspian, or Dagestan, are a family of languages spoken mostly in Dagestan, Northern Azerbaijan and Georgia. ... Abkhaz or Abkhazian can refer to: The Abkhaz people The Abkhaz language Of or pertaining to Abkhazia This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Assimilation is the process of integration whereby immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into a generally larger community. ... Zoroastrianism was once the official religion of Sassanid (Sassanian) Persia, and played an important role in the Achaemenid as well as Parthian empires in Persia. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Islām is described as a dÄ«n, meaning way of life and/or guidance. Six articles of belief There are six basic beliefs shared by all Muslims: 1. ...


Turkic background examined

Turkic invaders have been coming to Azerbaijan for centuries, but it remains unclear if all or most settled and remained in Azerbaijan (as opposed to other parts of the Caucasus and Southwest Asia) or simply came and went over the ages, until one group, the Oghuz remained in large enough numbers to alter the region. Morphological factors of the Azeri people in isolated rural areas appears quite similar to some nearby Turkic peoples, especially with regards to the Turkmen and Turks of Turkey. Southwest Asia (PDF) Southwest Asia (often confused with the Middle East) is the southwestern portion of Asia. ... Turkic peoples are Northern and Central Eurasian peoples who speak languages belonging to the Turkic family, and who, in varying degrees, share certain cultural and historical traits. ...


According to Caucasus Albanian historian Moses Kalankaytuk, in the period between 191-200 CE, hordes of Barsil and Khazar Turks crossed the Kura river into what is today known as Azerbaijan. Caucasian Albania (or Aghbania) was an ancient state that covered what is now southern Dagestan and most of todays Azerbaijan of the Caucasus. ... The Common Era (CE), also known as the Christian Era and sometimes the Current Era, is the period of measured time beginning with the year 1 until the present. ...


Other noted historians include Tabari, who describes in detail various incursions into Azerbaijan by Ural-Altaic tribes (Huns and Khazars) in the 4th and 5th centuries CE. Tabari also states that by the mid-6th century, there was a significant Turkish presence in Azerbaijan and other adjacent regions. Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari (Arabic الطبري, AD 838-AD 923), Iranian Sunni historian and theologian, was born in Amol, Tabaristan (south of the Caspian Sea). ...


Caucasus Albanian historian Kalankatly also states that in the year 629, the army of the Gokturks as well as a series Khazar Turkic tribes entered Azerbaijan and declared the land to be the "eternal possession" of the Turks.


Byzantine sources of the mid-6th century refer to the "settlement of Khazar Turks" in the left bank of the Kura river, and Moisey Khaghankatli, another Caucasus Albanian historian from pre-Islamic Azerbaijan, makes reference to a "Hun state" on the left bank of the Kura River in the 7th century.


According to Professor Peter B. Golden, "In the course of the seventh century, the two major tribal unions emerged in Azerbaijan under the Turk banner: the Khazars and the Bulgars...the Khazars formed the bulk of the Turk forces used by the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius (610-640) in his counter-offensive against the Sasanids (rulers) in Azerbaijan"


A pre-Islamic Turkic presence in Azerbaijan is evident in literature after the Islamic conquest of the region, in an era that was famous for its historical, geographical and scientific analyzations of the world by Muslim scholars. According to the 7th century work of Ubeid ibn Shariyya al-Jurhumi, the Muslim Caliph Mueviyyen (661-680) was told that Azerbaijan "has long been a land of Turks. Having gathered over there, they have mixed with one another and become integrated."


It must also be noted that the famous "Book of Dede Korkut" which is the epic of the Oghuz Turks (considered by Azeris to be their primary ancestors) was written in central-Asia in the 6th and 7th centuries.


What should be noted is that the demographics and social conditions are difficult to ascertain under 'Turkic' rule. Many question remain difficult to answer including whether or not the Turkic tribes replaced the peoples who lived in Azerbaijan before their arrival or simply mixed with them?


Possible Iranian origins

Whereas life for rural Azeris closely resembles that of many of their Turkic neighbors, in large cities such as Tabriz, Urmia and Ardabil, due to ethnic and cultural interaction, many Azeris resemble the Iranian ethnic groups. Other qualities that link the Azeris to the Iranians include the word Azerbaijan which is believe to have been derived from Persian and means Protected by Fire. Alternatively, the name is believed to have come from Atropates, an Iranic leader who ruled Azerbaijan during the period of Alexander the Great's defeat of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. Tabriz City Hall, built in 1895, by Arfaol molk, with the aid of German engineers. ... The Iranian peoples are the ethno-linguistic descendants of the Iranian branch of the ancient Indo-Iranian Aryans. ... Atropates (in Greek Aτρoπατης; in Old Persian Atarepata), called Atrapes by Diodorus1, a Persian satrap, apparently of Media, had the command of the Medes, together with the Cadusii, Albani, and Sacesinae, at the battle of Gaugamela, 331 BC. After the death of king Darius III Codomannus (330 BC), he... Alexander the Great fighting the Persian king Darius (Pompeii mosaic, from a 3rd century BC original Greek painting, now lost). ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon...


From a historical perspective, according to the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica "the people of the Mada (Mata), the Medes, appear in history first in 836 B.C., when the Assyrian conqueror Shalmaneser II in his wars against the tribes of the Zagros received the tribute of the Amadai... Herodotus gives a list of six Median tribes among them, the Paraetaceni...names in the Assyrian inscriptions prove that the tribes in the Zagros and the northern parts of Media [Azerbaijan] were Iranian but an aboriginal population...perhaps connected with the numerous tribes of the Caucasus (northern Azerbaijan, Albania)...Gelae, Tapuri, Cadusii, Amardi, Utii and other tribes in northern Media (Azerbaijan) and on the shores of the Caspian were not Iranians. With them Polybius, Strabo and Pliny mention the Anariaci, whom they consider as a particular tribe; but in reality their name, the Non-Aryans, is the comprehensive designation of all these small tribes..." 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt — look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelt with æ, the ae-ligature) is the oldest English-language general encyclopedia, first published in 1768–1771 as From the late 18th century to the... The Medes were an Iranian people, who lived in the western and north-western portion of present-day Iran. ...


A Caucasian background rediscovered

Many modern Azeris, not unlike the Turks of Turkey, have, during their journey into discovering their roots, come across forgotten possible ancestors. As many modern Turkish historians looked to the possibilty that groups such as the Hittites may have contributed significantly to the modern Turks, many Azeris have also looked to ancient peoples in order to better under their own background. In the case of the Azeris, there is some evidence that, in-spite of repeated invasions and migrations, an aboriginal element survived and thrived in what is today Azerbaijan even as the language and religions changed over time. Academic Audrey L. Alstadt notes in her book, The Azerbaijani Turks: Power and Identity under Russian Rule, that many modern Azeris regard both the Oghuz Turks and the Albanians of the Caucasus as their ancestors, in particular as there is no political rivalry with either an extinct language group or the Oghuz who have undoubtedly bequeathed their language to the Azeris.[1] Regardless, considerable information has been learned about the Caucasian Albanians, including their language and history in the region as well as their conversion to Christianity. In addition, some believe that the Udi language, which is a Caucasian language is a remnant of the ancient Albanians who were assimilated into various invading cultures over time. Lastly, ethnic animosity and rivalry with many of their neighbors has possibly prevented the modern Azeris from examining possible ties to their immediate neighbors. What remains difficult to determine is the overall number of Turkic invaders which may not have been enough to alter the population dramatically in the genetic sense. Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire “Hittites” is the conventional English-language term for an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language and established a kingdom centered in Hattusa (Hittite Hattushash) where today is the village of Boğazköy in north-central Turkey... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Caucasian Albania (or Aghbania) was an ancient state that covered what is now southern Dagestan and most of todays Azerbaijan of the Caucasus. ... The history of Christianity is difficult to extricate from that of the European West (and several other culture-regions) in general. ... The term Caucasian languages is loosely used to refer to a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than 7 million people in the Caucasus region of Eastern Europe, between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. ...


Genetic evidence

The population of Azerbaijan is undoubtedly diverse, but there appear to be distinct traits that have been discovered through genetic testing that may reveal much about the background of the modern Azerbaijanis. Recent genetic tests have revealed that the Azeris cluster moreso with other peoples of the Caucasus than with any other regional groupings.[2] This is not the end of the diversity found amongst the Azeris as the peoples of the Caucasus also show a great deal of similarity with the Iranian peoples as well, but to a degree that is somewhat reduced in comparison to their relationship with fellow Caucasian peoples, but greater than their relationship with Europeans north of the Caucasus.[3][4] In addition, in-spite of their Turkic linguistic background, the Azeris, like the Turks of Turkey, do not share most of their genetic background with Central Asian populations, although there is evidence of genetic admixture derived from Central Asian Turkic groups, in particular the Turkmen found across the Caspian Sea, that is higher than that of their neighbors including the Georgians, Armenians, and Persians. The preliminary conclusion from this testing shows the Azeris to be a mixed population with relationships, in order of greatest similarity, with the Caucasus, Iranian peoples, Turkic peoples, and Europeans. A wider sampling will be required in the future to determine whether or not these findings are universal amongst all Azeris. Genetic testing allows the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseases, and can also be used to determine a persons ancestry. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... The Iranian peoples are the ethno-linguistic descendants of the Iranian branch of the ancient Indo-Iranian Aryans. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... The modern Turks (also: Turks of Turkey or Anatolian Turks) are an amalgamation of a wide variety of peoples including indigenous Anatolians and migrants from the Caucasus, the Balkans, the Levant, Central Asia and various other places. ... Central Asia is a region of Asia. ... Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea is a landlocked endorheic sea between Asia and Europe (European Russia). ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ...


Language

Main article: Azerbaijani language

The Azerbaijanis speak Azerbaijani (sometimes called Azerbaijani Turkish or Azeri), a Turkic language which is mutually intelligible with Turkish, with minor variations in accent. Some other Turkic languages include Turkmen (see also Turkic peoples), Yakut and Uzbek. The standard Azerbaijani language developed from the 10th century onwards. The Azerbaijani language, also called Azeri, Azari, Azeri Turkish, or Azerbaijani Turkish, is the official language of Republic of Azerbaijan. ... The Turkic languages are a group of related languages that are spoken by a variety of peoples distributed across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China with estimated 100-130 million native speakers. ... Turkic peoples are Northern and Central Eurasian peoples who speak languages belonging to the Turkic family, and who, in varying degrees, share certain cultural and historical traits. ... The Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Саха́ (Яку́тия); Yakut: Саха Республиката) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ...


Prior to the 10th century, there were various Turkish dialects spoken across the region.


The modern written language of the Azerbaijanis developed from the 10th to the 13th centuries, after the Oghuz Turkic migrations and the decline of the Oghuz Yabgu state in Central Asia. This is the timespan that is called Azerbaijan's cultural and linguistic "golden age." As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ...


Demographics

There are about total 23 to 40 million Azerbaijanis in the world, but census figures are incomplete.


Since early 20th century successive Iraninan governments, have avoided publishing any statistics on ethnics groups. This policy presents dificulty in providing any statistics on distribution and size of ethnicity in Iran. The population size of Turkic speaking ethnic groups, are estimated to be much higher in Iran than official publications. The Turkic languages are a group of related languages that are spoken by a variety of peoples distributed across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China with estimated 100-130 million native speakers. ...


Here is the population size of Azeri speakers in Azerbaijan and Iran, according to two major source. Their estimation differs from 23,4 to 30 million within two main countries. This total does not include the Azeri speakers in Iraq, Afghanistan, Turkey, Georgia, Dagestan and other smaller pockets within the Middle East and Russian Federation. Ethnologue adds 864,000 for the speakers out of Iran and Republics of Azerbaijan The Republic of Dagestan (Russian: ), older spelling Daghestan, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ...

Source Total Population | % Azeri | Number of Speakers
(Where given)
CIA Facts Book on Azerbaijan 7,911,974 %90.6 7,168,248
CIA Facts Book on Iran 68,017,860 %24 16,324,286
__________
Total 23,492,534
Ethnologue on Azerbaijan 6,069,453
Ethnologue on Iran 23,500,000
__________
Total 29,569,453


Regions where Azerbaijani is spoken by significant group of people:

  • Azerbaijani (North Dialect)1

Azerbaijan, and southern Dagestan, along the Caspian coast in the southern Caucasus Mountains. Also spoken in Armenia, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia (Asia), Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. The Republic of Dagestan (Russian: ), older spelling Daghestan, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... For Caspian Sea, go to: Caspian Sea CASPIAN Consumers Against Supermarket Privacy Invasion and Numbering (CASPIAN) is a national grass-roots consumer group dedicated to fighting supermarket loyalty or frequent shopper cards. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ...

  • Azerbaijani (South Dialect) 2

East Azerbaijan and West Azerbaijan, Ardebil, Zanjan, and part of Markazi provinces. Many in districts of Tehran. Some Azerbaijani-speaking groups are in Fars Province and other parts of Iran. Also spoken in Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Jordan, Syria, Turkey (Asia), USA. East Azarbaijan province enjoys some of Irans most favorable climatic conditions. ... West Azarbaijan (آذربایجان غربی in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Ardabil (in persian: اردبیل other name: Ardebil ancient name: Artavil ) a historical city in north-western Iran. ... Zanjan Province ... Map of Iran and surrounding lands, showing location of Tehran Tehran is a metropolis of 14 million situated at the foot of the towering Alborz range. ... Fars, which is historically known as Persis in European languages, is one of the largest provinces in Iran, covering almost 10 per cent of the country. ...


It is estimated that there are 16 t0 23 million Azerbaijanis in Iran , 8 million in the Republic of Azerbaijan, 600,000 to 2.16 million in Russia, possibly over one million in the US, between 50 and 500 thousand in each of Ukraine and Germany, more than 800 thousand in Turkey, 400 thousand in Georgia, and 78.3 thousand to 200 thousand in Kazakhstan. The United Kingdom, Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan also have some populations of Azerbaijanis living there. Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: United States Wikinews has news related to this article: United States United States government CIA World Factbook Entry for United States House. ...


More than 90% of Azerbaijanis are Shia Muslims Turks, but there are also Sunni Muslims, Jews, Zoroastrians, Christians and Bahá'ís. In recent years there have been many conversions to Sunni Islam. Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... As a noun, Christian is an appellation and moniker deriving from the appellation Christ, which many people associate exclusively with Jesus of Nazareth. ... ...


References

  • A Genetic Landscape Reshaped by Recent Events: Y-Chromosomal Insights into Central Asia, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 71:466-482, 2002
  • Where West Meets East: The Complex mtDNA Landscape of the Southwest and Central Asian Corridor, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 74:827-845, 2004
  • Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Variation in the Caucasus, Annals of Human Genetics, Volume 68, Page 205, May 2004

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Azerbaijani language, alphabets and pronunciation (601 words)
Azerbaijani is a Turkic language with about 8 million speakers in Azerbaijan, 32 million speakers in north-western Iran, and a further 6 million speakers in Georgia and Russian Dagestan.
The Arabic script was introduced to the Azerbaijan region in the 7th century and continued to be used to write Azerbaijani until the 1920s.
None of these was ideal for writing Azerbaijani and various reforms were proposed, particularly during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Azerbaijani (1055 words)
Northern Azerbaijani is spoken in the Republic of Azerbaijan, and Southern Azerbaijani is spoken in Iran.
Azerbaijani nouns are marked for number (singular and plural).
Azerbaijani is considered a Category II language in terms of difficulty for English speakers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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