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Encyclopedia > Azerbaijani people
Azerbaijanis
Azərbaycanlılar, Azərilər
آذربایجانلیلار ,آذریلر
Total population

approx. 20.5 to 33 million Demographics of Azerbaijan, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... Azeri (foaled 1998 in Versailles, Kentucky) is a thoroughbred racehorse. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Regions with significant populations
Flag of Iran Iran 12 to 20.1 million [1][2][3][4]
Flag of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 8,060,635 [5][6]
Flag of Turkey Turkey 800,000 [7]
Flag of Russia Russia 622,000 [8]
Flag of Georgia (country) Georgia 284,761 [9]
Flag of Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 80,000 [10]
Flag of Germany Germany 55,000
Flag of Ukraine Ukraine 46,000 [11]
Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands 17,000 [12]
Flag of the United States United States 5,553 [13]
Flag of Canada Canada 3,465 [14]
Flag of Austria Austria 1,000 [15]
Flag of Australia Australia 290 [16]
Flag of Denmark Denmark 116 [17]
other regions 30,000
Languages
Azerbaijani
Religion
Predominantly Shiite Muslims; some adherents of Sunni Islam, Christianity, Bahá'í Faith, Zoroastrianism or other faiths.
Part of the series on
Azerbaijanis
Azərbaycanlılar
آذربایجانلیلار

Azerbaijani culture
Architecture · Art · Cinema · Cuisine ·
Dance · Dress · Literature · Music ·
Religion · Media · Sport Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kazakhstan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Architecture of Azerbaijan refers to the architecture development in Azerbaijan. ... Azeri cuisine has over 30 kinds of soups, including those prepared from sour milk. ... The Azerbaijani language is a language of the Oghuz branch of Turkic languages mutually intelligible with the Turkish of Turkey, Turkmenistan, Iran, the Balkans and the Middle East. ... Music of Azerbaijan includes various arrays of styles that reflect influences from the musics of the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Iran. ...

By country or region
Iran · Azerbaijan. Georgia · Russia
Turkey · Armenia The Azeri community in Armenia has historically been present on these lands in large numbers but has been virtually non-existent since 1988–1991, when the overwhelming majority of Azeris fled the country as a result of the Nagorno-Karabakh War and the ongoing conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan. ...

Religion
Shia Islam · Sunni Islam · Christianity ·
Bahá'í Faith · Zoroastrianism Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ...

Languages and dialects
Azerbaijani

v  d  e

The Azerbaijanis[18][19] are an ethnic group mainly in the Republic of Azerbaijan and northwestern Iran. Commonly referred to as Azeris (Azeri: آذریلر Azәrilәr) or Āzarīs (Persian: آذری ), they also live in a wider area from the Caucasus to the Iranian plateau. The Azeris are typically Muslim and have a mixed cultural heritage of Turkic, Iranian, and Caucasian elements. The Azerbaijani language, also called Azeri, Azari, Azeri Turkish, or Azerbaijani Turkish, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Topographic map of the Iranian plateau connecting to Anatolia in the west and Hindu Kush and Himalaya in the east Iranian plateau is both a geographical area of South or West Asia, home of ancient civilizations[1], and a geological area of Eurasia north of the great folded mountain belts... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... For the term Caucasian referring to all white people, see Caucasian race. ...


Despite living on both sides of an international border, the Azeris have lived in unity as Iranians from the beginning of civilization until the 19th century, and have close ethnic and culturies ties with each other and other Iranians.[20] However, northerners and southerners differ due to nearly two centuries of separate social evolution in Russian/Soviet-influenced Azerbaijan and Iranian Azarbaijan. The Azerbaijani language unifies Azeris and is mutually intelligible with Turkmen and Turkish (including the dialects spoken by the Iraqi Turkmen and by the Qashqai). All of these languages are traced to the Turkic Oghuz, who moved into the Caucasus from Central Asia in the 11th century. Following the Russian-Persian Wars of the 18th and 19th centuries,Persian territories in the Caucasus (some merely under nominal control) were ceded to the Russian Empire.[21] This included parts of the current Republic of Azerbaijan. The treaties of Gulistan in 1813 and Turkmenchay in 1828 finalized the border between Russia and Persia (today known as Iran). CCCP redirects here. ... This article is about the region in Iran; for other uses, see Azerbaijan (disambiguation). ... The Azerbaijani language, also called Azeri, Azari, Azeri Turkish, or Azerbaijani Turkish, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan. ... The Iraqi Turkmen (also spelled Turkomen, Turcoman, and Turkman) (Turkish:Irak Türkmenleri) are a distinct Turkic ethnic group living in Iraq, notably in the cities of Arbil, Tal Afar, Kirkuk, and Mosul. ... For the language, see Qashqai language. ... A Seljuk Prince. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... The Russo-Persian Wars were wars fought between the Russian Empire and Persia in 18-20th centuries. ... Flag Map of Iran under the Qajar dynasty in the 19th century. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Russia-Persia borders before and after the treaty The Treaty of Gulistan (Russian: Гюлистанский договор; Persian: عهدنامه گلستان) was a peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia on October 24, 1813 in the village of Gulistan in Karabakh as a result of the first Russo-Persian War. ... Russia-Persia borders before and after the treaty The Treaty of Turkmenchay (Russian: Туркманчайский договор; Persian: عهدنامه ترکمنچای) was a treaty negotiated in Turkmenchay by which the Persian Empire, more commonly known today as Iran, recognized Russian suzerainty over the Erivan khanate, Nakhchivan khanate and the remainder of the Talysh khanate, establishing the Aras... Persia redirects here. ...


As a result of this separate existence, the Azeris in the Republic of Azerbaijan tend to be less conscious of their historical and religious heritage as Iranians and Muslims as compared to those in Iranian Azerbaijan. Since Azerbaijan's independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, there has been renewed interest in religion and cross-border ethnic ties [22] Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan) is a country in the Caucasus, in the crossroads of Europe and Southwest Asia, with an east coast on the Caspian Sea. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Iranian Azerbaijan or Iranian Azarbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان ایران; Ä€zārbāijān-e Irān), (Azeri: اذربایجان, c. ...

Contents

History

Main articles: History of Azerbaijan and History of Iran

Azerbaijan is believed to be named after Atropates, a Median satrap (governor) who ruled in Atropatene (modern Iranian Azarbaijan).[23] Atropates is derived from Old Persian roots meaning "protected by fire."[24] Azerbaijan has seen a host of inhabitants and invaders, including Caucasians, Medes, Scythians, Persians, Armenians, Greeks, Romans, Khazars, Arabs, Oghuz, Seljuks, Mongols, and Russians. Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... edit Geographical extent of Iranian influence in the 1st century BCE. The Parthian Empire (mostly Western Iranian) is shown in red, other areas, dominated by Scythia (mostly Eastern Iranian), in orange. ... Atropates (Greek Aτρoπάτης, from Old Persian Aturpat protected by fire[1]) was a Mede nobleman who served Darius III, then Alexander the Great, and eventually founded an independent kingdom and dynasty that was named after him. ... Median Empire, ca. ... Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Azerbaijan or Azerbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan, Azərbeycan) is a country in the Caucaus region, adjacent to the Caspian Sea. ... This article is about the region in Iran; for other uses, see Azerbaijan (disambiguation). ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Caucasian Albania (or Aghbania) was an ancient kingdom that covered what is now southern Dagestan and most of present-day Azerbaijan. ... Median Empire, ca. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... Persia redirects here. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... A Seljuk Prince. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Mongol dominions, ca. ...


In the 11th century A.D. with Seljukid conquests, Oghuz Turkic tribes started moving across the Iranian plateau into the Caucasus and Anatolia. The influx of the Oghuz and other Turkmen tribes was further accentuated by the Mongol invasions,[25]. Here they divided into Ottomans, who were Sunni and settled, and Turkmens or Turcomans, who were nomads and in part Shiite (or rather, Alevi). The latter were to keep the name "Turkmen" or "Turcoman" for a long time: from 13th century onwards they gradually Turkified the Iranian-speaking populations of Azerbaijan, thus creating a new identity based on Shiism and the use of Turkic. These are the people today known as Azeris[26] For all Turkic groupings and Turkic history, see Turkic peoples. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ...


Ancient period

Caucasian Albanians are believed to be the earliest inhabitants of the region where modern day Republic of Azerbaijan is located.[23] Early invaders included the Scythians in the ninth century BC.[27] Following the Scythians, the Medes came to dominate the area to the south of the Aras.[23] The Medes forged a vast empire between 900-700 BC, which was integrated into the Achaemenids Empire around 550 BC. During this period, Zoroastrianism spread in the Caucasus and Atropatene. The Achaemenids in turn were defeated by Alexander the Great in 330 BC, but the Median satrap Atropates was allowed to remain in power. Caucasian Albanians established a kingdom in the first century BC and largely remained independent until the Sassanids made the kingdom a vassal state in 252 AD.[23] Caucasian Albania's ruler, King Urnayr, officially adopted Christianity as the state religion in the fourth century AD, and Albania would remain a Christian state until the 8th century.[28][29] Sassanid control ended with their defeat by Muslim Arabs in 642 AD.[19] Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Caucasian Albania (or Aghbania) was an ancient kingdom that covered what is now southern Dagestan and most of present-day Azerbaijan. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... The Aras (also known as Araks, Arax, Araxi, Araxes, Araz, or Yeraskh; Armenian: , Persian: , Turkish: , Azerbaijani: , Kurdish: ; Russian: ) is a river located in and along the countries of Turkey, Armenia, Iran, and Azerbaijan. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ...


Medieval period

Muslim Arabs defeated the Sassanids and Byzantines as they marched into the Caucasus region. The Arabs made Caucasian Albania a vassal state after the Christian resistance, led by Prince Javanshir, surrendered in 667.[23] Between the ninth and tenth centuries, Arab authors began to refer to the region between the Kura and Aras rivers as Arran.[23] During this time, Arabs from Basra and Kufa came to Azerbaijan and seized lands that indigenous peoples had abandoned; the Arabs became a land-owning elite.[30] Conversion to Islam was slow as local resistance persisted for centuries and resentment grew as small groups of Arabs began migrating to cities such as Tabriz and Maraghah. This influx sparked a major rebellion in Iranian Azarbaijan from 816–837, led by a local Zoroastrian commoner named Bābak.[31] However, despite pockets of continued resistance, the majority of the inhabitants of Azerbaijan converted to Islam. Later on, in the 10th and 11th centuries, Kurdish dynasties of Shaddadid and Rawadid ruled parts of Azerbaijan. Byzantine redirects here. ... Javanshir (also spelled Jevanshir or Dzhavanshir, Azeri: CavanÅŸir, literally the young lion) (died in 669) was a presiding prince of the Girdman region in the Caucasian Albania from 635 to 669, whose deeds are the subject of legends and epic. ... Kura (Georgian Mtkvari, Azerbaijani Kür) is a river in the Caucasus Mountains. ... Arran (ar-Ran) is a historic geographic and sometimes political term used in the Azerbaijan Republic to signify the territory which lays within the triangle of land, lowland in the east and mountainous in the west, formed by the junction of Kura and Aras rivers,[1] including the highland and... This article is about the city of Basra. ... Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... Tabriz (Azeri and Persian: تبریز; is the largest city in north-western Iran with an estimated population of 1,597,319 (2007 est. ... Maragheh or Maraghah is a city in the East Azarbaijan Province of Iran, on the Safi River. ... This article is about the region in Iran; for other uses, see Azerbaijan (disambiguation). ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... Bābak Khorram-DÄ«n (Persian: بابک خرمدین; alternative spelling: Bâbak Xoramdin; 795, according to some other sources 798— January 838) was one of the main Persian[1][2][3] revolutionary leaders of the Iranian Khorram-Dinān[4] (Persian, Those of the joyous religion), which was a local freedom movement... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... The Shaddadids were a Kurdish dynasty, who ruled in various parts of Armenia, including Arran from 951-1174 or 1199 A.D. They were established Dvin. ... Rawadid (also Rawwadid or Ravvadid), (955-1227), was a Kurdish principality ruling Azerbaijan from the 10th to the early 13th centuries, centered around Tabriz and Maragheh(Maragha). ...


In the middle of the eleventh century, the Seljuq dynasty overthrew Arab rule and established an empire that encompassed most of Southwest Asia. The Seljuk period marked the influx of Oghuz nomads into the region and, thus, the beginning of the turkification of Azerbaijan as the West Oghuz Turkic language supplanted earlier Caucasian and Iranian ones.[27][32] The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... A Seljuk Prince. ... Not to be confused with Intermarriage. ...


However, Iranian cultural influence survived extensively, as evidenced by the works of then contemporary writers such as Persian poet Nezāmī Ganjavī. The emerging Turkic identity was chronicled in epic poems or dastans, the oldest being the Book of Dede Korkut, which relate allegorical tales about the early Turks in the Caucasus and Asia Minor.[23] Turkic dominion was interrupted by the Mongols in 1227 and later the Mongols and Tamerlane ruled the region until 1405. Turkic rule returned with the Sunni Qara Qoyunlū (Black Sheep Turkmen) and Aq Qoyunlū (White Sheep Turkmen), who dominated Azerbaijan until the Shi'a Safavids took power in 1501.[30][23] Farsi redirects here. ... Nezami (1141–1209) Nezāmi-ye GanjavÄ« (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ;‎ 1141 – 1209), or NezāmÄ« (Persian: ), whose full name was Nizām ad-DÄ«n AbÅ« Muhammad Ilyās ibn-YusÅ«f ibn-ZakÄ« ibn-Muayyid, is considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature, who brought a colloquial... The Book of Dede Korkut is one of the most famous epics of the Turkmens or the Oghuz Turks. ... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Mongol dominions, ca. ... For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Flag of the Kara Koyunlu For the district in Turkey, see Karakoyunlu. ... ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Pakistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ) were an Iranian[1] Shia dynasty of mixed Azeri[2] and Kurdish[3] origins, which ruled Persia from 1501/1502 to 1722. ...


Modern period

Early twentieth century fruit market in Urmia, Persia.
Early twentieth century fruit market in Urmia, Persia.

The Safavids, who rose from Ardabil town in Azerbaijan, created a large empire, containing at the top of magnificiense Iran, Iraq, Central Asia, Southern Caucasus, parts of today's Turkey and Afganistan and lasted until 1722, established the modern Iranian state. The Safavid shahs were Azeris. [33][34][35] Noted for achievements in state building, architecture, and the sciences, the Safavid state crumbled due to internal decay and external pressures from the Russians and Afghans. The Safavids encouraged and spread Shi'a Islam which is an important part of the national identity of Iranian Azerbaijani people as well as many Azerbaijanis north of the Aras. The Safavids encouraged the arts and culture and Shah Abbas the Great created an intellectual atmosphere which according to some scholars was a new Golden Age of Persia.[36] He reformed the government and the military, and responded to the needs of the common people.[36] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x750, 182 KB) Summary Fruit Market in Ourmiah, Persia. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x750, 182 KB) Summary Fruit Market in Ourmiah, Persia. ... Urmia, officially Orumiyeh (Persian: ارومیه, Azeri: Urmu, Urumiyə,Urmiye, Wurmê, Syriac: ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; previously called رضائیه, Rezaiyeh), is a district and a city located in northwestern Iran. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... The Hotaki dynasty (1709-1736) was founded by Afghans (Pashuns) from the Ghilzai clan. ... Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib was an uncle of Muhammad Abbas I of Egypt, egyptian pasha (1813-1854) Abbas I of Safavid aka Abbas the Great, persian Shah (1557-1629) Abbas II of Egypt aka Abbas Hilmi Pasha, egyptian khedive (1874-1944) Abbas Mirza, Prince of Persia, (1789-1833) Abu...


Ottoman rule followed the brief Safavid state, before conquest by Nadir Shah Afshar, a chieftain from Khorasan who reduced the power of the Shi'a.[30] The brief reign of Karim Khan came next, followed by the Qajars, who ruled Azerbaijan and Iran starting in 1779.[23] Russia loomed as a threat to Persian holdings in the Caucasus in this period. The Russo-Persian Wars began in the eighteenth century and ended in the early nineteenth century with the Gulistan Treaty of 1813 and the Turkmenchay Treaty in 1828, which officially gave the Caucasian portion of Qajar Iran to the Russian Empire.[24] Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Nadir Shah (Nadir Qoli Beg, also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan) (October 22, 1688 - June, 1747) ruled as Shah of Persia 1736-1747 and was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty. ... Map showing the pre-2004 Khorasan Province in Iran Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, anciently called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times is currently a region located in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire... Karim Khan Zand, (Persian: کریم خان زند), (c. ... Flag Map of Iran under the Qajar dynasty in the 19th century. ... The Russo-Persian Wars were wars fought between the Russian Empire and Persia in 18-20th centuries. ... Russia-Persia borders before and after the treaty The Treaty of Gulistan (Russian: Гюлистанский договор; Persian: عهدنامه گلستان) was a peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia on October 24, 1813 in the village of Gulistan in Karabakh as a result of the first Russo-Persian War. ... Russia-Persia borders before and after the treaty The Treaty of Turkmenchay (Russian: Туркманчайский договор; Persian: عهدنامه ترکمنچای) was a treaty negotiated in Turkmenchay by which the Persian Empire, more commonly known today as Iran, recognized Russian suzerainty over the Erivan khanate, Nakhchivan khanate and the remainder of the Talysh khanate, establishing the Aras...


Iranian Azerbaijan's role in the Iranian constitutional revolution cannot be underestimated. The greatest figures of the democracy seeking revolution Sattar Khan[37] and Bagher Khan were both from Iranian Azerbaijan. The Constitutional Revolution of 1906–11 shook the Qajar dynasty, whose kings had virtually sold the country to the tobacco and oil interests of the British Empire and had lost territory to the Russian empire. A parliament (Majlis) came into existence by the efforts of the constitutionalists. It was accompanied in some regions by a peasant revolt against tax collectors and landlords, the only indigenous mainstay of the monarchy. Pro-democracy newspapers appeared, and Iranian intellectuals began to relish the modernist breezes blowing from Paris and Petrograd. The Qajar Shah and his British advisers crushed the Constitutional Revolution, but the demise of the dynasty could not be long postponed. The last Shah of the Qajar dynasty was soon removed by a military coup led by Reza Khan, an officer of an old Cossack regiment, which had been created by Czarist Russia and officered by Russians to protect the Qajar ruler and Russian interests. In the quest of imposing national homogeneity on the country where half of the population consisted of ethnic minorities, Reza Shah issued in quick succession bans on the use of Azerbaijani language on the premises of schools, in theatrical performances, religious ceremonies, and, finally, in the publication of books.[38] A picture of Sattar Khan. ... Bagher Khan (1870s , Tabriz - November , 1911, Persian: باقر خان), honorarily titled Sālār-e Melli (Persian: سالار ملی meaning Leader of the Nation), was one of the key figures in the Persian Constitutional Revolution Constitutionalists of Tabriz The two men in the center are Sattar Khan & Bagher Khan [edit] See also Persian Constitutional... Shah Reza Pahlavi Reza Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی), (March 16, 1877–July 26, 1944), called Reza Shah the Great after his death, was Shah of Persia (later Iran) from December 15, 1925 to September 16, 1941. ...


With the dethronement of Reza Shah in September 1941, Russian troops captured Tabriz and northwestern Persia for military and strategic reasons. Azerbaijan People's Government, a client state set up by the order of Stalin himself, under leadership of Sayyid Jafar Pishevari was proclaimed in Tabriz[39] However, under pressure by the Western countries, the Soviet army was soon withdrawn, and the Iranian government regained control over Iranian Azerbaijan by the end of 1946. A surcharged stamp published under the name of Azarbaijan Peoples Government The Azerbaijan Peoples Government (APG) was a short-lived, Soviet-backed client state (November 1945 - November 1946) in northern Iran. ... Sayyid Jafar Pishevari (جعفر پیشه‌وری) was the founder and chairman of the Azerbaijan Peoples Government (November 1945 – November 1946). ...


According to Professor. Gary R. Hess:

On December 11, an Iranian force entered Tabriz and the Peeshavari government quickly collapsed. Indeed the Iranians were enthusiastically welcomed by the people of Azerbaijan, who strongly preferred domination by Tehran rather than Moscow. The Soviet willingness to forego its influence in (Iranian) Azerbaijan probably resulted from several factors, including the realization that the sentiment for autonomy had been exaggerated and that oil concessions remained the more desirable long-term Soviet Objective.[40]

While the Azeris in Iran largely integrated into modern Iranian society, the northern Azeris lived through the transition from the Russian Empire to brief independence from 1918–1920 and then incorporation into the Soviet Union despite pleas by Woodrow Wilson for their independence at the Treaty of Versailles conference. The Republic of Azerbaijan achieved independence in 1991, but became embroiled in a war over the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh with Armenia. Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . Left to right, Prime Minister David Lloyd George of the United Kingdom, Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando of Italy, Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau of France... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ...


Origins

Azeris in downtown Baku, Azerbaijan.
Azeris in downtown Baku, Azerbaijan.

In many references, Azerbaijanis are designated as a Turkic people, due to their Turkic language.[41][42][43] However, modern-day Azerbaijanis are believed to be primarily the descendants of the Caucasian and Iranic peoples who lived in the areas of the Caucasus and northern Iran, respectively, prior to Turkification. Various historians including Vladimir Minorsky explain how largely Iranian and Caucasian populations became Turkish-speaking: Image File history File links Azeri_1. ... Image File history File links Azeri_1. ... Location in Azerbaijan Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - Total 260 km² (100. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Caucasian Albania (or Aghbania) was an ancient kingdom that covered what is now southern Dagestan and most of present-day Azerbaijan. ... A girl in rural Iran. ... Turkification is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something or someone non-Turkish is made to become Turkish. ... Vladimir Minorsky (1877-1966) was a famous Russian Iranologist. ...

In the beginning of the 5th/11th century the Ghuzz hordes, first in smaller parties, and then in considerable numbers, under the Seljuqids occupied Azarbaijan. In consequence, the Iranian population of Azarbaijan and the adjacent parts of Transcaucasia became Turkophone while the characteristic features of Ādharbāyjānī Turkish, such as Persian intonations and disregard of the vocalic harmony, reflect the non-Turkish origin of the Turkicised population."[44]

Thus, centuries of Turkic migration and turkification of the region helped to formulate the modern Azerbaijani ethnic group.


Turkification

Main article: Oghuz languages
Sattar Khan (1868-1914) was a major revolutionary figure in the late Qajar period in Iran.
Sattar Khan (1868-1914) was a major revolutionary figure in the late Qajar period in Iran.

Although, "Turkic penetration probably began in the Hunnic era and its aftermath," there is little evidence to indicate, "permanent settlements".[42] The earliest major Turkic incursion began with Mahmud of Ghazni and accelerated during the Seljuk period.[42] The migration of Oghuz Turks from present-day Turkmenistan, which is attested by linguistic similarity, remained high through the Mongol period, as many troops under the Ilkhans were Turkic. By the Safavid period, the Turkification of Azerbaijan continued with the influence of the Kizilbash. The very name Azerbaijan is derived from the pre-Turkic name of the province, Azarbayjan or Adarbayjan, and illustrates a gradual language shift that took place as local place names survived Turkification, albeit in altered form.[45] The Oghuz languages, a major branch of the Turkic language family, are spoken by more than 110-130 million people (including second language speakers) in an area spanning from the Balkans to China. ... Image File history File links Sattar_Khan. ... Image File history File links Sattar_Khan. ... A picture of Sattar Khan. ... Flag Map of Iran under the Qajar dynasty in the 19th century. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Pakistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ) were an Iranian[1] Shia dynasty of mixed Azeri[2] and Kurdish[3] origins, which ruled Persia from 1501/1502 to 1722. ... Kizilbash (Turkish: KızılbaÅŸ, Azerbaijani: QızılbaÅŸ, Persian: قزلباش Qezelbāsh) - Red Heads - name given to a wide variety of extremist Shiite militant groups (ghulāt) who helped found the Safavid Dynasty of Iran. ...


Most academics view this migration as the most likely source of a Turkic background, but one that most likely involved the linguistic Turkification of predominantly non-Turkic-speaking indigenous peoples and assimilation of small bands of Turkic tribes.[23][24]


There are cultural connections between Azeris and the wider Oghuz Turk populace; the epic literary work the book of Dede Korkut is a treasured heritage shared through Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Turkey and the Azeri's of Iran. In addition to this, the epic of Koroglu is important in Azeri cultre, and some cultural items such as Alpamysh and mythology of the wolf Ashina may also have something in common with Azerbaijan's culture today[citation needed]. The musical tradition of Ashik/Ozan/Bakshy is popular in Azerbaijan as is the folk music including Türkü style mirroring Turkish folk music. For all Turkic groupings and Turkic history, see Turkic peoples. ... The Book of Dede Korkut is the most famous epic of the Turkmens or the Oghuz Turks. ... Ashina (also Asen or Asena), the ruling dynasty of the ancient Turks, according to Xin Tangshu they were related to the northern tribes from Xiongnu, though four theories were already established prior to the present under Zhoushu, Suishu and Youyang Zazu from as early as the 7th-century [1]. The... Ashik (Turkish:aşık, Azeri:aşıq) is a mistic troubadour or travelling bard, in Turkey, Azerbaijan and Iran who sings and plays the saz, a form of lute. ...


Iranian origin

Main article: Iranian origin of the Azerbaijanis
Statue of Nezami Ganjavi, a twelfth-century writer and philosopher, in Baku, Azerbaijan. Nezami is a major literary figure to both Azeris and Persians.
Statue of Nezami Ganjavi, a twelfth-century writer and philosopher, in Baku, Azerbaijan. Nezami is a major literary figure to both Azeris and Persians.

The Iranian origins of the Azeris likely derive from ancient Iranic tribes, such as the Medes in Iranian Azarbaijan, and Scythian invaders who arrived during the eighth century BCE. It is believed that the Medes mixed with an indigenous population, the Caucasian Mannai, a Northeast Caucasian group related to the Urartians.[46] Ancient written accounts, such as one written by Arab historian Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn al-Masudi(896-956), attest to an Iranian presence in the region: The Iranian origin of the Azerbaijanis defines a link between present-day Azerbaijanis and their pre-Turkification Iranian past and mostly applies to Iranian Azeris. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (820x1093, 795 KB) Summary Statue of Nizami in Baku, Azerbaijan Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Azerbaijan Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (820x1093, 795 KB) Summary Statue of Nizami in Baku, Azerbaijan Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Azerbaijan Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... Nezami (1141–1209) Nezāmi-ye GanjavÄ« (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ;‎ 1141 – 1209), or NezāmÄ« (Persian: ), whose full name was Nizām ad-DÄ«n AbÅ« Muhammad Ilyās ibn-YusÅ«f ibn-ZakÄ« ibn-Muayyid, is considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature, who brought a colloquial... Location in Azerbaijan Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - Total 260 km² (100. ... Median Empire, ca. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... The Mannaeans were an ancient people of Asia Minor, occupying the region East of Assyria and South-East of Urartu, in present-day North-West Iran. ... The Northeast Caucasian languages, also called East Caucasian, Caspian, Nakh-Dagestanian, or Dagestanian, are a family of languages spoken mostly in the Dagestan, Chechnya, and Ingushetia regions of Russia, in Northern Azerbaijan, and in Georgia. ... Urartian can refer to: The ancient kingdom of Urartu the Urartian language spoken there the family of Hurro-Urartian languages This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

The Persians are a people whose borders are the Mahat Mountains and Azarbaijan up to Armenia and Aran, and Bayleqan and Darband, and Ray and Tabaristan and Masqat and Shabaran and Jorjan and Abarshahr, and that is Nishabur, and Herat and Marv and other places in land of Khorasan, and Sejistan and Kerman and Fars and Ahvaz...All these lands were once one kingdom with one sovereign and one language...although the language differed slightly. The language, however, is one, in that its letters are written the same way and used the same way in composition. There are, then, different languages such as Pahlavi, Dari, Azari, as well as other Persian languages.

[47]


Scholars see cultural similarities between modern Persians and Azeris as evidence of an ancient Iranian influence.[48] Archaeological evidence indicates that the Iranian religion of Zoroastrianism was prominent throughout the Caucasus before Christianity and Islam and that the influence of various Persian Empires added to the Iranian character of the area.[49] It has also been hypothesized that the population of Iranian Azarbaijan was predominantly Persian-speaking before the Oghuz arrived. This claim is supported by the many figures of Persian literature, such as Qatran Tabrizi, Shams Tabrizi, Nezami, and Khaghani, who wrote in Persian prior to and during the Oghuz migration, as well as by Strabo, Al-Istakhri, and Al-Masudi, who all describe the language of the region as Persian. The claim is mentioned by other medieval historians, such as Al-Muqaddasi.[50][45] Other common Perso-Azeribaijani features include Iranian place names such as Tabriz[51] and the name Azerbaijan itself. Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Persia redirects here. ... Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray. ... Abu Mansur Qatran Adudi ( 1009 - 1072) was a royal Persian poet. ... For the missionary, see Shams Tabraiz (missionary). ... Nezami (1141–1209) Nezāmi-ye Ganjavī (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ;‎ 1141 – 1209), or Nezāmī (Persian: ), whose full name was Nizām ad-Dīn Abū Muhammad Ilyās ibn-Yusūf ibn-Zakī ibn-Muayyid, is considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature, who brought a colloquial... Khaqani (1120-1190) (Persian: خاقانی) was a Persian poet. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Muhammad ibn Ahmad Shams al-Din Al-Muqaddasi (Arabic: محمد بن امحد شمس الدين المقدسي) (also known as Al-Maqdisi) was a notable medieval Arab geographer, author of Ahsan at-Taqasim fi Ma`rifat il-Aqalim (The Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Regions). ... Tabriz (Azeri and Persian: تبریز; is the largest city in north-western Iran with an estimated population of 1,597,319 (2007 est. ...


Various sources such as Encyclopaedia Iranica explain how, "The Turkish speakers of Azerbaijan (q.v.) are mainly descended from the earlier Iranian speakers, several pockets of whom still exist in the region."[52] The modern presence of the Iranian Talysh and Tats in Azerbaijan is further evidence of the former Iranian character of the region.[53][54] As a precursor to these modern groups, the ancient Azaris are also hypothesized as ancestors of the modern Azerbaijanis. Encyclopædia Iranica is a project in Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian studies, to create an English language encyclopedia about Iran and Persia. ... Talysh (also Talishi, Taleshi or Talyshi) are an Iranian people who speak Talysh language one of the Northwestern Iranian languages. ... The Tat are an Iranian-speaking ethnic group in the Caucasus. ... Azari, also spelled Adari, Adhari or (Ancient) Azeri, is the name used for the Iranian language which was spoken in Azerbaijan before it was replaced by the modern Azeri or Azerbaijani language, which is of Turkic language. ...


Caucasian origin

Main article: Caucasian origin of the Azerbaijanis
Haji Zeynalabdin Taghiyev (1838-1924), a leading Azeri industrialist and philanthropist.

According to Encyclopedia Britannica about Azeris in the Republic of Azerbaijan: The Caucasian origin of the Azerbaijanis defines a link between Azerbaijanis and their pre-Turkification Caucasian past and mostly applies to the Azeris of the Caucasus, most of whom are now inhabitants of the Republic of Azerbaijan. ... Image File history File links 132_610_taghiyev. ... Image File history File links 132_610_taghiyev. ... Haji Zaynalabdin Taghyiev (1838 - 1924) - an Azeri national industrial magnate and philanthropist. ...

The Azerbaijani are of mixed ethnic origin, the oldest element deriving from the indigenous population of eastern Transcaucasia and possibly from the Medians of northern Persia.[55]

The Caucasian origin mostly applies to the Azeris of the Caucasus, most of whom are now inhabitants of the Republic of Azerbaijan. There is evidence that, despite repeated invasions and migrations, aboriginal Caucasians may have been culturally assimilated, first by Iranians and later by the Oghuz. Considerable information has been learned about the Caucasian Albanians including their language, history, early conversion to Christianity, and close ties to the Armenians. Many academics believe that the Udi language, still spoken in Azerbaijan, is a remnant of the Albanians' language.[56][29] Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Caucasian Albania (or Aghbania) was an ancient kingdom that covered what is now southern Dagestan and most of present-day Azerbaijan. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Udi language, spoken by the Udi people, is a member of the Northeast Caucasian language family. ...


This Caucasian influence extended further south into Iranian Azarbaijan. During the 1st millennium BCE, another Caucasian people, the Mannaeans (Mannai) populated much of Iranian Azarbaijan. Weakened by conflicts with the Assyrians, the Mannaeans are believed to have been conquered and assimilated by the Medes by 590 BCE.[57] Long Live Azerbaijan. ... The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan around the 10th to 7th century BC. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ...


Genetics

Some new genetic studies suggest that recent erosion of human population structure might not be as important as previously thought, and overall genetic structure of human populations may not change with the immigration events and thus in the Azerbaijani case; the Azeris of Azerbaijan republic most of all genetically resemble other Caucasian people like Armenians [58] and people in the Azarbaijan region of Iran to other Iranians [59].


Studies conducted at Cambridge University

A recent study of the genetic landscape of Iran was completed by a team of Cambridge geneticists led by Dr. Maziar Ashrafian Bonab (an Iranian Azarbaijani).[60] Bonab remarked that his group had done extensive DNA testing on different language groups, including Indo-European and non Indo-European speakers, in Iran.[61] The study found that the Azerbaijanis of Iran do not have a similar FSt and other genetic markers found in Anatolian and European Turks. However, the genetic Fst and other genetic traits like MRca and mtDNA of Iranian Azeris were identical to Persians in Iran. The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ...


Studies conducted in the Caucasus

A 2003 study found that: "Y-chromosome haplogroups indicate that Indo-European-speaking Armenians and Turkic-speaking Azerbaijanians (of the Republic of Azerbaijan) are genetically more closely related to their geographic neighbors in the Caucasus than to their linguistic neighbors elsewhere."[62] The authors of this study suggest that this indicates a language replacement of indigenous Caucasian peoples. There is evidence of limited genetic admixture derived from Central Asians (specifically Haplogroup H12), notably the Turkmen, that is higher than that of their neighbors, the Georgians and Armenians.[63] MtDNA analysis indicates that the main relationship with Iranians is through a larger West Eurasian group that is secondary to that of the Caucasus, according to a study that did not include Azeris, but Georgians who have clustered with Azeris in other studies.[64] The conclusion from the testing shows that the Caucasian Azeris are a mixed population with relationships, in order of greatest similarity, with the Caucasus, Iranians and Near Easterners, Europeans, and Turkmen. Other genetic analysis of mtDNA and Y-chromosomes indicates that Caucasian populations are genetically intermediate between Europeans and Near Easterners, but that they are more closely related to Near Easterners overall.[62] Another study, conducted in 2003 by the Russian Journal of Genetics, links Iranians in Azerbaijan (the Talysh and Tats) with Turkic Azerbaijanis of the Republic: In human genetics, Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups are haplogroups defined by differences in the DNA of the Y chromosome (called Y-DNA). ... In human genetics, Haplogroup H (M52) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA which is not located in the nucleus of the cell but in the mitochondria. ... Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA which is not located in the nucleus of the cell but in the mitochondria. ... The Y chromosome is one of the sex-determining chromosomes in humans and most other mammals (the other is the X chromosome). ... Talysh (also Talishi, Taleshi or Talyshi) are an Iranian people who speak Talysh language one of the Northwestern Iranian languages. ... The Tat are an Iranian-speaking ethnic group in the Caucasus. ...

the genetic structure of the populations examined with the other Iranian-speaking populations (Persians and Kurds from Iran, Ossetins, and Tajiks) and Azerbaijanis showed that Iranian-speaking populations from Azerbaijan were closer to Azerbaijanis than to Iranian-speaking populations inhabiting other world regions.[65]

Ethnonym

Historically the Turkic speakers[66] of Iranian Azerbaijan and the Caucasus called themselves or were referred to by others as Turks and religious identification prevailed over ethnic identification. When Transacaucasia became part of the Russian empire, Russian authorities, who traditionally called all Turkic people Tatars, called Azeris Aderbeijani/Azerbaijani or Caucasian Tatars to distinguish them from other Turkic people, also called Tatars by Russians.[67] Russian Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary also refers to Azerbaijanis as Aderbeijans in some articles.[68] According to the article Turko-Tatars of the above encyclopedia, The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Historically, the term Tatar (or Tartar) has been ambiguously used by Europeans to refer to many different peoples of Inner Asia and Northern Asia. ... Title pages of «Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary» Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (35 volumes, small; 86 volumes, large) is, in its scope and style, the Russian counterpart to the 1911 Britannica. ...

some scholars (Yadrintsev, Kharuzin, Chantre) suggested to change the terminology of some Turko-Tatar people, who somatically don’t have much in common with Turks, for instance, to call Aderbaijani Tatars (Iranians by race) Aderbaijans.[69]

Ernest Chantre (1843-1924) was a prominent French archaeologist and anthropologist. ...

Demographics and society

Azeri female wearing traditional clothing, 1900
Azeri female wearing traditional clothing, 1900

There are an estimated 24 to 33 million Azerbaijanis in the world, but census figures are difficult to verify. The vast majority live in Azerbaijan and Iranian Azarbaijan. Between 16 and 23 million Azeris live in Iran, mainly in the northwestern provinces. Approximately 7.6 million Azeris are found in the Republic of Azerbaijan. A diaspora, possibly numbering in the millions, is found in neighboring countries and around the world. There are sizable communities in Turkey, Georgia, Russia, USA, Canada, Germany and other countries.[70] Demographics of Azerbaijan, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... Ethnolinguistic groups in Iran Irans population was declared 70,049,262 in 2006 census. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the region in Iran; for other uses, see Azerbaijan (disambiguation). ...


While population estimates in Azerbaijan are considered reliable due to regular censuses taken, the figures for Iran remain questionable. Since the early twentieth century, successive Iranian governments have avoided publishing statistics on ethnic groups.[71] Unofficial population estimates of Azeris in Iran range from 20–24%.[1][72] However, many Iran scholars, such as Nikki Keddie, Patricia J. Higgins, Shahrough Akhavi, Ali Reza Sheikholeslami, and others, claim that Azeris may comprise as much as one third of Iran's population.[71][73][74]


A large expatriate community of Azerbaijanis is found outside Azerbaijan and Iran. According to Ethnologue, there were over 1 million Azerbaijani-speakers of the north dialect in southern Dagestan, Armenia, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan as of 1993.[70] Other sources, such as national censuses, confirm the presence of Azeris throughout the former Soviet Union. The Ethnologue figures are outdated in the case of Armenia, where conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh has affected the population of Azeris.[75] Ethnologue further reports that an additional 1 million South Azeris live outside Iran, but these figures most likely are a reference to the Iraqi Turkmen, a distinct though related Turkic people.[76] Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... The Republic of Dagestan IPA: (Russian: ; Avar: , ), older spelling Daghestan, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Iraqi Turkmen (also spelled Turkomen, Turcoman, and Turkman) (Turkish:Irak Türkmenleri) are a distinct Turkic ethnic group living in Iraq, notably in the cities of Arbil, Tal Afar, Kirkuk, and Mosul. ...


Azeris in Azerbaijan

By far the largest ethnic group in Azerbaijan (over 90%), the Azeris generally tend to dominate most aspects of the country. Unlike most of their ethnic brethren in Iran, the majority of Azeris are secularized from decades of official Soviet atheism. The literacy rate is high, another Soviet legacy, and is estimated at 98.8%.[77] Whereas most urban Azeris are educated, education remains comparatively lower in rural areas. A similar disparity exists with healthcare. Atheist redirects here. ...


Azeri society has been deeply impacted by the war with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh, which has displaced nearly 1 million Azeris and put strains upon the economy.[78] Azerbaijan has benefited from the oil industry, but high levels of corruption have prevented greater prosperity for the masses.[79] Many Azeris have grown frustrated over the political process in Azerbaijan as the election of current president Ilham Aliyev has been described as "marred by allegations of corruption and brutal crackdowns on his political opposition".[80][81] Despite these problems, there is a renaissance in Azerbaijan as positive economic predictions and an active political opposition appear determined to improve the lives of average Azeris.[82][27] Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... Ilham Heydar oglu Aliyev (Azerbaijani: Ä°lham HeydÉ™r oÄŸlu Əliyev) (born December 24, 1961) is the current President of Azerbaijan. ...


Azeris in Iran

Main article: Azeris in Iran
Googoosh, an Iranian pop diva of Azeri ethnicity.

Azerbaijanis in Iran are mainly found in the northwest provinces: East Azerbaijan, West Azerbaijan, Ardabil, Zanjan, Kordestan, Qazvin, Hamedan, and Markazi. Many others live in Tehran, Fars Province, and other regions.[19] Generally, Azeris in Iran have been "a well integrated linguistic minority" according to academics such as anthropologist Patricia Higgins.[71] In fact, until the Pahlavi period in the twentieth century, "the identity of Iran was not exclusively Persian, but supra-ethnic", as much of the political leadership, starting from the eleventh century, had been Turkic.[3] The Iranian and Turkic groups were integrated until twentieth century nationalism and communalism began to alter popular perception.[3] Despite friction, Azerbaijanis in Iran came to be well represented at all levels of, "political, military, and intellectual hierarchies, as well as the religious hierarchy."[71] The Azeri (also known as Azerbaijani population of Iran is mainly found in the northwest provinces: East Azarbaijan, West Azarbaijan, Ardebil, Zanjan, and Markazi. ... Image File history File links some photos for the page dedicated to the Persian diva Googoosh http://en. ... Image File history File links some photos for the page dedicated to the Persian diva Googoosh http://en. ... Googoosh (alternately spelled Gogosh, Googosh or Gougoush; Persian: , born Faegheh Atashin, Persian: , born May 5, 1950[1] in Tehran) is an Iranian pop singer and actress. ... For other senses of this word, see diva (disambiguation). ... East Azarbaijan province enjoys some of Irans most favorable climatic conditions. ... West Azarbaijan (آذربایجان غربی in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Sheikh Safis Tomb Ardabil (Persian: اردبیل; also known as: Ardebil; ancient name: Artavil) is one of 30 provinces of Iran. ... Zanjan Province ... Map of high density Kurdish populated area. ... For other uses, see Qazvin (disambiguation). ... Avicennas tomb in Hamedan Hamadan or Hamedan ( Persian: همدان , Kurdish: Ekbatan) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. ... The Congregation Mosque of Narāgh. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see fars (disambiguation). ... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ...


Resentment came with Pahlavi policies that suppressed the use of the Azerbaijani language in local government, schools, and the press.[83] However with the advent of the Iranian Revolution in 1979, emphasis shifted away from nationalism as the new government highlighted religion as the main unifying factor. Within the Islamic Revolutionary government there emerged an Azeri nationalist faction led by Ayatollah Kazem Shariatmadari, who advocated greater regional autonomy and wanted the constitution to be revised to include secularists and opposition parties; this was denied.[84] In May 2006 Iranian Azerbaijan witnessed riots over publication of a cartoon [85] that many Azeris found offensive.[86][87] The cartoon was drawn by Mana Neyestani, an ethnic Azeri, who was fired along with his editor as a result of the controversy.[88][89] The Azerbaijani language, also called Azeri, Azari, Azeri Turkish, or Azerbaijani Turkish, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... Ayatollah Kazem Shariatmadari (1904 - 1985) was among the most senior leading Shia clerics in Iran and Iraq. ... Cartoon that started the controversy. ... Mana Neyestani is a Iranian cartoonist of Azari origin. ...

Ethnic diversity of Iran.
Ethnic diversity of Iran.

Despite sporadic problems, Azeris are an intrinsic community within Iran. Currently, the living conditions of Azeris in Iran closely resemble that of Persians: Download high resolution version (1941x1385, 922 KB)Demographic map of Iran, produced by the CIA, displayed with Public Domain permission from The University of Texas Perry-Castañeda Library Used by permission of the University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin. ... Download high resolution version (1941x1385, 922 KB)Demographic map of Iran, produced by the CIA, displayed with Public Domain permission from The University of Texas Perry-Castañeda Library Used by permission of the University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ...

The life styles of urban Azerbaijanis do not differ from those of Persians, and there is considerable intermarriage among the upper classes in cities of mixed populations. Similarly, customs among Azerbaijani villagers do not appear to differ markedly from those of Persian villagers.[19]

Andrew Burke writes:

Azeris are famously active in commerce and in bazaars all over Iran their voluble voices can be heard. Older Azeri men wear the traditional wool hat, and their music & dances have become part of the mainstream culture. Azeris are well integrated, and many Azeri-Iranians are prominent in Farsi literature, politics, and clerical world.[90]

Azeris in Iran are in high positions of authority with the Ayatollah Ali Khamenei currently sitting as the Supreme Leader. Azeris in Iran remain quite conservative in comparison to most Azeris in the Republic of Azerbaijan. Nonetheless, since the Republic of Azerbaijan's independence in 1991, there has been renewed interest and contact between Azeris on both sides of the border. Grand Âyatollâh   (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی خامنه‌ای, pronounced []) (born 17 July 1939), also known as Seyyed Ali Khamenei,[3] has been Supreme Leader of Iran since 1989 and before that was president of Iran from 1981 to 1989. ... Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran. ...

See also: Azeris in Georgia, Azeris in Armenia, Azeris in Russia, and Azeris in Turkey

According to the 2002 census, there are 284,761 ethnic Azeris living in Georgia. ... The Azeri community in Armenia has historically been present on these lands in large numbers but has been virtually non-existent since 1988–1991, when the overwhelming majority of Azeris fled the country as a result of the Nagorno-Karabakh War and the ongoing conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan. ... Aside from a large Azeri community that is native to Russias Dagestan Republic, the majority of Azeris in Russia are fairly recent immigrants. ... It is hard to determine how many ethnic Azeris currently reside in Turkey due to the fact that the question of ethnicity in this country is a highly debated and difficult issue. ...

Culture

In many respects, Azeris are Eurasian and bi-cultural, as northern Azeris have absorbed Russo-Soviet and Eastern European influences, whereas the Azeris of the south have remained within the Turko-Iranian and Persianate tradition. Modern Azeri culture includes significant achievements in literature, art, music, and film. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Safavid era painting kept at The Grand Shah Abbas Caravanserai Hotel in Isfahan. ... Eurasian, also Euroasian or Euro-Asian can mean: Eurasian may be used as a slang term to refer to people of Asian decent, living in European countries who have no other traits of being Asian other then the fact that they look it. ... Eastern Europe is, by convention, a region defined geographically as that part of Europe covering the eastern part of the continent. ... The composite Turko-Persian tradition was a variant of Islamic culture. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Turko-Persian Tradition. ...


Language and literature

Muhammad Fuzûlî, sixteenth-century poet.
Muhammad Fuzûlî, sixteenth-century poet.

The Azerbaijanis speak Azerbaijani (sometimes called Azerbaijani Turkish or Azeri), a Turkic language that is mutually intelligible with Turkish despite minor variations in accent, vocabulary and grammar. Other mutually intelligible Turkic languages include Turkmen and the Turkish spoken by the Turkomans of Iraq and the Qashqai. The Azerbaijani language is descended from the Western Oghuz Turkic language that became established in Azerbaijan in the 11th century CE. Early Oghuz was mainly an oral language. It began to develop as a literary language by the 13th century.[91] Early oral Azerbaijani, derived from the Oghuz language, began with history recitations (dastans), including the Book of Dede Korkut and Koroglu, which contained Turkic mythology. Some of the earliest Azeri writings of the past are traced back to the poet Nasimi (died 1417) and then decades later Fuzûlî (1483–1556). Ismail I, Shah of Safavid Persia wrote Azeri poetry under the pen name Khatâ'i. Modern Azeri literature continued with a traditional emphasis upon, humanism, as conveyed in the writings of Samad Vurgun, Reza Baraheni, Shahriar, and many others.[92] Image File history File links Fuzûlî.jpg Summary Source: Åžentürk, Ahmet Atilla. ... Image File history File links Fuzûlî.jpg Summary Source: Åžentürk, Ahmet Atilla. ... Fuzûlî (1483?–1556) Fuzûlî (فضولی) was the pen name (Ottoman Turkish: mahlas; ﻡﺨﻠﺺ) of the poet Muhammad ibn Suleyman (محمد بن سليمان) (c. ... The Azerbaijani language, also called Azeri, Azari, Azeri Turkish, or Azerbaijani Turkish, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan. ... The Azerbaijani language is a language of the Oghuz branch of Turkic languages mutually intelligible with the Turkish of Turkey, Turkmenistan, Iran, the Balkans and the Middle East. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Turkish is a Turkic language, spoken natively by about 72 million speakers in Turkey, Cyprus, and worldwide. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Iraqi Turkoman. ... For the language, see Qashqai language. ... A literary language is a register of a language that is used in writing, and which often differs in lexicon and syntax from the language used in speech. ... The Book of Dede Korkut is one of the most famous epics of the Turkmens or the Oghuz Turks. ... The Epic of KöroÄŸlu (Turkish: KöroÄŸlu destanı) is a legend prominent in the oral traditions of the Turkic peoples. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Tatar mythology. ... Nesîmî statue in Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan This article is about the 14th-century Sufi poet. ... Fuzûlî (1483?–1556) Fuzûlî (فضولی) was the pen name (Ottoman Turkish: mahlas; ﻡﺨﻠﺺ) of the poet Muhammad ibn Suleyman (محمد بن سليمان) (c. ... Shah Ismail I, the founder of Safavid Dynasty of Iran pictured at battle against Abul-khayr Khan in a scene from the Tarikh-i alam-aray-i Shāh Ismāil Abul-Mozaffar bin Sheikh Haydar bin Sheikh Junayd SafawÄ« (Persian: - Azerbaijani: ) (July 17, 1487 - May 23, 1524), Shah... Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Pakistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ) were an Iranian[1] Shia dynasty of mixed Azeri[2] and Kurdish[3] origins, which ruled Persia from 1501/1502 to 1722. ... For the specific belief system, see Humanism (life stance). ... Soviet stamp, issued on the 70th birth anniversary of Samed Vurgun. ... Reza Baraheni (born 1935) is an exiled Iranian novelist, poet, critic and political activist. ... Seyyed Mohammad Hossein Behjat-Tabrizi (Persian: سید محمدحسین بهجت تبریزی)‎ (1906-September 18, 1988), chiefly known by his pen name as Shahriar (or Shahryar / Shahriyar شهریار), was an Iranian Azeri poet, writing in Persian and Azerbaijani. ...


Azeris are generally bilingual, often fluent in either Russian (in Azerbaijan) or Persian (in Iran). Around 5,000,000 of Azerbaijan's roughly 8,000,000 population speaks Russian.[93] Moreover, in 1999, around 2,700 Azeris in the Azerbaijan Republic (0.04% of the total Azeri population) reported Russian as their mothertongue.[94] An Iranian survey (2002) revealed that 90.0% of the sample household population in Iran is able to speak Persian, 4.6% can only understand it, and 5.4% can neither speak nor understand Persian. Azeri is the most spoken minority language in an Iranian household (23.3%). [95]


Religion

The majority of Azerbaijanis are Shi'a Muslims. Religious minorities include Sunni Muslims, Zoroastrians, Christians and Bahá'ís. Azeris in the Republic of Azerbaijan have an unknown number showing any religious affiliation, since being in a secular country. Many describe themselves as cultural Muslims.[27][96] Christian Azeris number around 5,000 people in the Republic of Azerbaijan and consist mostly of recent converts.[97] Some Azeris from rural regions retain pre-Islamic animist beliefs, such as the sanctity of certain sites and the veneration of certain trees and rocks.[98] In the Republic of Azerbaijan traditions from other religions are often celebrated in addition to Islamic holidays, including Norouz and Christmas. After the fall of the Soviet Union, Azerbaijanis have increasingly returned to their Islamic heritage as recent reports indicate that many Azerbaijani youth are being drawn to Islam.[99] This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Juma mosque in Baku, built in 1606, was ordered to close in 2004 because worshipers supposedly posed a threat to the architectural integrity of the mosque. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Ł Islam is the religion of 5000% of Iranians of which approximately 500% are Shia and 93% are Sunni, mostly Turkomen, a minority of Arabs, Pashtuns, Baluchs, and Kurds living in the southwest, southeast, northeast and northwest. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... A Zoroastrian in meditation in the Yanar Dag, which is a holy wall of fire located on a mountain in Azerbaijan. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... Generally, a Muslim is defined by faith in the religion of Islam; however, in the modern world there are religiously unobservant, agnostic or atheist individuals who still identify with the Muslim culture due to family background or personal experiences. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Islamic holidays In Islam there are two major annual holidays: Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha. ... Persepolis all nations stair case. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ...


Performance art

See also: Music of Azerbaijan and Music of Iran
Azeri musicians in performance.
Azeri musicians in performance.
Azeri dance
Azeri dance

Azeris express themselves in a variety of artistic ways including dance, music, and the media. Azeri folk dances are ancient and similar to that of their neighbours in the Caucasus and Iran. The group dance is a common form found from southeastern Europe to the Caspian Sea. In the group dance the performers come together in a semi-circular or circular formation as, "The leader of these dances often executes special figures as well as signaling and changes in the foot patterns, movements, or direction in which the group is moving, often by gesturing with his or her hand, in which a kerchief is held."[100] Solitary dances are performed by both men and women and involve subtle hand motions in addition to sequenced steps. Music of Azerbaijan includes various arrays of styles that reflect influences from the musics of the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Iran. ... Figurines playing stringed instruments, excavated at Susa, 3rd millennium BC. Iran National Museum. ... Image File history File links Azeri_7. ... Image File history File links Azeri_7. ... Image File history File links Azeri_Cultural_Concert_Rotterdam. ... Image File history File links Azeri_Cultural_Concert_Rotterdam. ... Balkan redirects here. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ...


Azeri musical tradition can be traced back to singing bards called Ashiqs, a vocation that survives to this day. Modern Ashiqs play the saz (lute) and sing dastans (historical ballads).[101] Other musical instruments include the tar (another type of lute), duduk (a wind instrument), Kamancha (fiddle), and the dhol (drums). Azeri classical music, called mugham, is often an emotional singing performance. Composers Uzeyir Hajibeyov, Gara Garayev and Fikret Amirov created a hybrid style that combines Western classical music with mugham. Other Azeris, notably Vagif Mustafa Zadeh and Aziza Mustafa Zadeh, mixed jazz with mugham. Some Azeri musicians have received international acclaim, including Rashid Behbudov (who could sing in over eight languages) and Muslim Magomayev (a pop star from the Soviet era). The Bard (ca. ... Eros God and symbol of love since antiquity Love has several different meanings in English, from something that gives a little pleasure (I loved that meal) to something one would die for (patriotism, pairbonding). ... This article is about the music instrument. ... A renaissance-era lute. ... For other uses, see Ballad (disambiguation). ... Iranian Tar Woman playing the tar in a painting from the Hasht-Behesht Palace in Isfahan Iran, 1669 Iranian Tar The tar is a long-necked, waisted lute found in Iran, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia and other areas near the Caucasus region. ... A duduk The duduk (pronounced ) is a traditional woodwind instrument of Armenian origins. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Kamancheh. ... The dhol (Punjabi: ਢੋਲ, ڈھول; Hindustani: ढोल, ڈھول; Armenian: Ô´Õ¸Õ¬) dohol (Persian: ), is a drum (a percussion musical instrument) widely used in India and Pakistan, usually the Punjab region, the Indian/Pakistani province of Punjab, Maharastra and Gujarat. ... Mugham also spelled as Mugam (Azeri: MuÄŸam) is one of the many musical traditions of Azerbaijan. ... Uzeyir Abdulhuseyn oglu Hajibeyov (Azeri: Ãœzeyir HacıbÉ™yov) (September 18, 1885, Agjabadi – November 23, 1948, Baku) was an Azerbaijani composer, conductor, scientist, publicist, playwright, teacher, translator and social figure. ... Gara Garayev, also spelled Qara Qarayev, born as Gara Abulfazl Garayev (December 5, 1918, baku–May 13, 1982, Moscow) was a prominent Azerbaijani composer. ... Fikret Amirov Fikret Meshedi Jamil oglu Amirov (November 22, 1922, Ganja - February 20, 1984, Baku) was a prominent Azerbaijani composer. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... Vagif Mustafa Zadeh (1940 in Baku - 1979) was an Azeri jazz pianist and composer. ... Aziza Mustafa Zadeh also known as Princes of Jazz was born in Baku ( December 19, 1969) (currently lives in Germany) is an Azerbaijanian singer, pianist and composer who playes a fusion of jazz and mugam (a traditional improvisational style of Azerbaijan). ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Rashid Behbudov (Azerbaijani: ) (December 14, 1915 – June 9, 1989) was an Azerbaijani singer and actor. ... For other persons named Muslim Magomayev, see Muslim Magomayev (disambiguation). ...


Meanwhile in Iran, Azeri music has taken a different course. According to Iranian Azeri singer Hossein Alizadeh, "Historically in Iran, music faced strong opposition from the religious establishment, forcing it to go underground."[102] As a result, most Iranian Azeri music is performed outside of Iran amongst exile communities. Alizadeh at a concert in London Hossein Alizadeh (Persian: ) who is of Azerbaijani descent, is a Grammy Award nominated Iranian composer, Radif-preserver, researcher, teacher, and excellent tar and setar instrumentalist and improvisor, dubbed by many as an Ostad (Master of Persian music). ...


Azeri film and television is largely broadcast in Azerbaijan with limited outlets in Iran. Some Azeris have been prolific film-makers, such as Rustam Ibragimbekov, who wrote Burnt by the Sun, winner of the Grand Prize at the Cannes Film Festival and an Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 1994. Many Iranian Azeris have been prominent in the cinematic tradition of Iran, which has received critical praise since the 1980s. Rustam Ibragimbekov (Azeri: Rüstəm Məmməd İbrahim oğlu İbrahimbəyov) (born February 5, 1939 in Baku) is Azerbaijani screenwriter, dramatist and producer, well known beyond his home Azerbaijan and CIS. Rustam Ibragimbekov graduated from Azerbaijan Oil and Chemistry Institute, then studied script writing and film directing... For other articles with similar names, see Burnt by the Sun (disambiguation). ... The Cannes Film Festival (French: le Festival de Cannes), founded in 1939, is one of the worlds oldest, most influential and prestigious film festivals. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... The Academy Award (Oscar) for Best Foreign Language Film is a yearly US award for the best film in a language other than English, released in the period October - September in the country of origin. ... The cinema of Iran (or Persian cinema) is a flourishing film industry with a long history. ...


Sports

See also: Azerbaijan national football team and Azerbaijan at the 2004 Summer Olympics
Chess player Teimour Radjabov.
Chess player Teimour Radjabov.

Sports have historically been an important part of Azeri life. Numerous competitions were conducted on horseback and praised by poets and writers such as Gatran Tabrizi and Nezami Ganjavi.[103] Other ancient sports include wrestling, javelin throwing and ox-wrestling. First international Georgia 6 - 3 Azerbaijan (Gurjaani, Georgia; September 17, 1992) Biggest win Azerbaijan 4 - 0 Liechtenstein (Baku, Azerbaijan; June 5, 1999) Biggest defeat France 10 - 0 Azerbaijan (Auxerre, France; September 6, 1995) The Azerbaijan national football team is the national football team of Azerbaijan and is controlled by Association... Azerbaijan at the 2004 Summer Olympics Medals Results by event Athletics Mens 100 metres: Teymur Gasimov - Round 1, 11. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (621x1043, 96 KB) en: Teimour Radjabov – Azerbaijani ()grandmaster. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (621x1043, 96 KB) en: Teimour Radjabov – Azerbaijani ()grandmaster. ... Teimour Radjabov, also spelled Teymur Rajabov, (Azerbaijani: Teymur Rəcəbov; born March 12, 1987 in Baku, Azerbaijan) is a leading chess player from Azerbaijan. ... Nezami (1141–1209) Nezāmi-ye Ganjavī (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ;‎ 1141 – 1209), or Nezāmī (Persian: ), whose full name was Nizām ad-Dīn Abū Muhammad Ilyās ibn-Yusūf ibn-Zakī ibn-Muayyid, is considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature, who brought a colloquial...


The Soviet legacy has in modern times propelled some Azeris to become accomplished athletes at the Olympic level.[103] The Azeri government supports the country's athletic legacy and encourages Azeri youth to take part. Football is very popular in both Azerbaijan and Iranian Azarbaijan. There are many prominent Azeri soccer players such as Ali Daei, the world's all-time leading goal scorer in international matches and the former captain of the Iran national soccer team. Azeri athletes have particularly excelled in weight lifting, gymnastics, shooting, javelin throwing, karate, boxing, and wrestling.[104] Weight lifters, such as Iran's Hossein Reza Zadeh, world’s super heavyweight lifting record holder and two times Olympic champion in 2000 and 2004 and Nizami Pashayev, who won the European heavyweight title in 2006, have excelled at the international level. Soccer redirects here. ... This article is about the region in Iran; for other uses, see Azerbaijan (disambiguation). ... Ali Daei (Persian: nicknamed Shahriar, born March 21, 1969 in Ardabil, Iran) is a retired Iranian football player who currently is head coach of IPL team Saipa F.C.[1] and the Iran national football team. ... This is a list of football (soccer) players with 30 or more international goals. ... First international Afghanistan 0 - 0 Iran (Kabul, Afghanistan; January 1, 1941) Largest win Iran 19 - 0 Guam (Tabriz, Iran; November 24, 2000) Worst defeat Turkey 6 - 1 Iran (Istanbul, Turkey; May 28, 1950) South Korea 5 - 0 Iran (Tokyo, Japan; May 28, 1958) World Cup Appearances 3 (First in 1978... Weightlifting is a sport where competitors attempt to lift heavy weights mounted on steel bars. ... Gymnastics is a sport involving the performance of sequences of movements requiring physical strength, flexibility, balance, endurance, gracefulness, and kinesthetic awareness, and includes such skills as handsprings, handstands, split leaps, aerials and cartwheels. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The javelin throw is an athletics (track and field) throwing event where the object to be thrown is the javelin, a spear-like object made of metal and fibreglass. ... For other uses, see Karate (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer. ... Ancient Greek wrestlers (Pankratiasts) Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two unarmed persons, in which each wrestler strives to get an advantage over or control of their opponent. ... Hossein Reza Zadeh (Persian: ‎ ​, born May 12, 1978) is an Iranian weightlifter and the current world record holder in the sport. ... Nizami Pashayev lifting 402 kilos. ...


Chess is another popular pastime in Azerbaijan. The country has produced many notable players, such as Teimour Radjabov and Shakhriyar Mamedyarov, both highly ranked internationally. This article is about the Western board game. ... Teimour Radjabov, also spelled Teymur Rajabov, (Azerbaijani: Teymur Rəcəbov; born March 12, 1987 in Baku, Azerbaijan) is a leading chess player from Azerbaijan. ... Shakhriyar Mamedyarov Shakhriyar Mamedyarov was born on the 12th of April 1985 in Sumgait, Azerbaijan. ...


Institutions

Azerbaijan and Iranian Azerbaijan have developed distinct institutions as a result of divergent socio-political evolution. Azerbaijan began the twentieth century with institutions based upon those of Russia and the Soviet Union, with strict state control over most aspects of society. Since, they have moved towards the adoption of Western social models as of the late twentieth century. Since independence, relaxed state controls have allowed local civil society to develop. In contrast, in Iranian Azerbaijan Islamic theocratic institutions dominate nearly all aspects of society, with most political power in the hands of the Supreme Leader of Iran and the Council of Guardians. Yet both societies are in a state of change. In Azerbaijan there is a secular democratic system that is mired in political corruption and charges of election fraud. Azerbaijan's civil society is a work in progress: The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ... The post of Supreme Leader (Persian: رهبر انقلاب, Rahbare Enqelab,[1] lit. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی in Persian) is a high office within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran which has the authority to interpret the constitution and to determine if the laws passed by the parliament are in line with the constitution of...

The lack of more 'modern' forms of self-organization and the experience of liberal democratic rule is the main reason why the building of civil society and the process of democratization in Azerbaijan takes place in a parallel rather than linear way. In the result, today Azerbaijan society may be characterized mostly as quasi civil and quasi democratic society the structures and institutions of which having signs of civil and democratic society from the standpoint of their level of development do not correspond to the modern criteria of the modern democratic society.[105]

Despite these problems Azerbaijan has an active political opposition that seeks more expansive democratic reforms.[82] Azeris in Iran remain intertwined with the Islamic republic's theocratic regime and lack any significant civil society of a secular nature that can pose a major challenge. There are signs of civil unrest due to the policies of the Iranian government in Iranian Azarbaijan and increased interaction with fellow Azeris in Azerbaijan and satellite broadcasts from Turkey have revived Azeri nationalism.[106] Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Theocracy (disambiguation). ...


Women

Late nineteenth to early twentieth-century Azeri girl from Shusha.
Late nineteenth to early twentieth-century Azeri girl from Shusha.
See also: Women in Azerbaijan
See also: Women in Iran

Azeri females have historically struggled against a legacy of male domination but have made great strides since the twentieth century. In Azerbaijan, women were granted the right to vote in 1919.[107] Women have attained Western-style equality in major cities such as Baku, although in rural areas more traditional views remain.[108][27] Some problems that are especially prevalent include violence against women, especially in rural areas. Crimes such as rape are severely punished in Azerbaijan, but rarely reported, not unlike other parts of the former Soviet Union.[109] Azeri women were forced to "give up the veil,"[23] placing Azerbaijan in sharp contrast with Iranian Azarbajan. Women are underrepresented in elective office but have attained high positions in parliament. An Azeri woman is the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in Azerbaijan, and two others are Justices of the Constitutional Court. As of 6 November 2005, women constituted 12% of all MPs (fifteen seats in total) in the National Assembly of Azerbaijan.[110] The Republic of Azerbaijan is also one of the few Muslim countries where abortion is available on demand.[111] Image File history File links Az_girl_karabakh. ... Image File history File links Az_girl_karabakh. ... Azeri subdivsion Shusha rayon Nagrono Karabakh Republic Subdivsion Shushi province Elevation 1,400 m above sea level m Population  - City ~3,000 Shusha (Azerbaijani: ÅžuÅŸa, Russian: Шуша translit. ... A Persian woman here as depicted during the Safavi period of Iran. ... Location in Azerbaijan Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - Total 260 km² (100. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The external link and official web site of Parliament of Azebaijan is: http://www. ...


In Iran, the continued unequal treatment of women has been met with increasingly vocal protests, including that of Shirin Ebadi, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2003 for her strong advocacy for women's rights. A groundswell of grassroots movements have emerged seeking gender equality since the 1980s.[112][19] Regular protests take place in defiance of government bans and are often dispersed through violence, as in June 2006 when "[t]housands of women and male supporters came together on June 12 in Haft Tir Square in Tehran" and were dispersed through "brutal suppression".[113] Past Iranian leaders, such as Mohammad Khatami, promised women greater rights, but the government has opposed changes that they interpret as contrary to Islamic doctrine. As of 2004, nine Azeri women have been elected to parliament (Majlis) and while most are committed to social change, some represent conservative positions regarding gender issues.[114] The social fate of Azeri women largely mirrors that of other women in Iran. Shirin Ebadi at a press conference in November 2005. ... The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Danish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Mohammad Khatami (Persian : سید محمد خاتمی Seyyed Moḥammad KhātamÄ«), born on September 29, 1943, in Ardakan city of Yazd province, is an Iranian intellectual, philosopher and political figure. ... Majlis (مجلس) is an Arabic term used to describe various types of formal legislative assemblies in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries. ...


See also

This is a list of prominent people from the Republic of Azerbaijan (or, previously, the Azerbaijan SSR) and Iran. ... The Azeri (also known as Azerbaijani) population of Iran is mainly found in the northwest provinces: East Azarbaijan, West Azarbaijan, Ardabil, Zanjan, and as a minority some regions of Kordestan, Hamadan and Markazi. ... According to the 2002 census, there are 284,761 ethnic Azeris living in Georgia. ... The Azeri community in Armenia has historically been present on these lands in large numbers but has been virtually non-existent since 1988–1991, when the overwhelming majority of Azeris fled the country as a result of the Nagorno-Karabakh War and the ongoing conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan. ... Aside from a large Azeri community that is native to Russias Dagestan Republic, the majority of Azeris in Russia are fairly recent immigrants. ... It is hard to determine how many ethnic Azeris currently reside in Turkey due to the fact that the question of ethnicity in this country is a highly debated and difficult issue. ... The Iranian origin of the Azerbaijanis defines a link between present-day Azerbaijanis and their pre-Turkification Iranian past and mostly applies to Iranian Azeris. ... The Caucasian origin of the Azerbaijanis defines a link between Azerbaijanis and their pre-Turkification Caucasian past and mostly applies to the Azeris of the Caucasus, most of whom are now inhabitants of the Republic of Azerbaijan. ... Azerbaijan is the name used by the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Iranian region of Azerbaijan. ... Caucasian Albanians, also referred to as Arranians by Persian or Arabic sources, were a Caucasian people who inhabited Caucasian Albania. ...

External links

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b "Iran: People", CIA: The World Factbook (retrieved 7 June 2006).
  2. ^ "Iran", Amnesty International report on Iran and Azerbaijanis (retrieved 30 July 2006).
  3. ^ a b c "Borders and Brethren: Iran and the Challenge of Azerbaijani Identity" in The Azerbaijani Population by Brenda Shaffer, pp. 221–225. The MIT Press (2003), ISBN 0-262-19477-5 (retrieved 10 June 2006).
  4. ^ "Iran" in the Encyclopedia Orient (retrieved 18 Aug 2006).
  5. ^ "Population by ethnic groups", The State Statistical Committee of Azerbaijan Republic (retrieved 19 June 2006).
  6. ^ "Azerbaijan: ɹPeople", CIA Factbook. Azeri ethnic percentage of 90.6% used to calculate population derived from Azeri census (retrieved 7 June 2006).
  7. ^ "Turkey: Religions & Peoples", Encyclopedia of the Orient (retrieved 7 June 2006)
  8. ^ "Azerbaijanis in Russia", 2002 Russian Census (retrieved 7 June 2006)
  9. ^ State Statistics Department of Georgia: 2002 census (retrieved 16 July 2006)
  10. ^ "Ethnodemographic situation in Kazakhstan" (1999 census) (retrieved 7 June 2006).
  11. ^ "About number and composition population of Ukraine by data All-Ukrainian census of the population 2001", Ukraine Census 2001 (retrieved 7 June 2006).
  12. ^ Azerbaijan Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Azerbaijan-Netherlands relations: Diaspora Info (October 2007). NB Of these, 7,000 are immigrants from Azerbaijan
  13. ^ First, Second, and Total Responses to the Ancestry Question by Detailed Ancestry Code: 2000. This number includes both primary and secondary ancestry. (retrieved April 18, 2008).
  14. ^ List of Canadians by ethnicity (following 2006 census). NB Canadian census on ancestry may not reflect current ethnic affiliation in Canada. (retrieved 7 June 2006). In the 2006 census, 1,480 people indicated 'Azeri'/'Azerbaijani' as a single responce and 1,985 - as part of multiple origins.
  15. ^ Azerbaijan Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Azerbaijan-Austria relations: Diaspora Info (February 2008). NB Of these, about 70-75% are Iranian Azeris, 15-20% are Turkish Azeris and 5-10% are Azeris originally from Azerbaijan and the former Soviet Union.
  16. ^ 2006 Australian Census. NB According to the 2006 census, 290 people living in Australia identified themselves as of Azeri ancestry, although the Australian-Azeri community is estimated to be larger. (retrieved 1 April 2008)
  17. ^ StatBank Denmark (2008). NB This number includes Danish citizens who declare Azerbaijan as their country of origin. It does not account for ethnic Azeris from Iran. (retrieved 25 April 2008)
  18. ^ (IPA[æzə(ɹ)baɪˈdʒɑːni]; in Azerbaijani: Azərbaycanlılar, Azeris/Azərilər, Azeri Turks/Azəri Türkləri; Azeri Cyrillic: Азәриләр) or Azarbaijanis
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  101. ^ "Guba", Azerbaijan: The Land of the Arts (retrieved 11 June 2006).
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  • Important note: population statistics for Azerbaijanis (including those without a notation) in foreign countries were derived from various census counts, the UN, the CIA Factbook, Ethnologue, and the Joshua Project.

is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of the dominant self-identified ethnic origins of ancestors per census division. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Azeri (also known as Azerbaijani) population of Iran is mainly found in the northwest provinces: East Azarbaijan, West Azarbaijan, Ardabil, Zanjan, and as a minority some regions of Kordestan, Hamadan and Markazi. ... It is hard to determine how many ethnic Azeris currently reside in Turkey due to the fact that the question of ethnicity in this country is a highly debated and difficult issue. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... In Azerbaijan, two alphabets are employed for writing the Azerbaijani language: variations on the Cyrillic and Latin alphabets. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hugh N. Kennedy professor of history at University of St Andrews. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Muhammad ibn Ahmad Shams al-Din Al-Muqaddasi (Arabic: محمد بن امحد شمس الدين المقدسي) (also known as Al-Maqdisi) was a notable medieval Arab geographer, author of Ahsan at-Taqasim fi Ma`rifat il-Aqalim (The Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Regions). ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... The Azeri (also known as Azerbaijani) population of Iran is mainly found in the northwest provinces: East Azarbaijan, West Azarbaijan, Ardabil, Zanjan, and as a minority some regions of Kordestan, Hamadan and Markazi. ... The Guilak (in Persian: Gilak) are an Iranian ethnic group whose homeland is the Gilan Province. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Iranian Arabs (Persian: عربان ايران) are the Arabic-speaking citizens of Iran. ... Lurs are an ethnic group of Iranian peoples. ... Language(s) Balochi Religion(s) Islam Sunni (predominantly) and Zikris around Turbat[17][18] [19] Related ethnic groups Iranian people Especially Pashtuns, Kurds, Laks, Zazas Persians and Mazandaranis The Baloch (بلوچ; alternative transliterations Baluch, Balouch, Bloach,Balooch, Balush, Balosh, Baloosh, Baloush et al. ... Image File history File links Iran_tricolour. ... For the language, see Qashqai language. ... Language(s) Persian languages, Hebrew, Judeo-Aramaic language Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Bukharan Jews, Kurdish Jews ,Mountain Jews ,Mizrahi Jews,Persians,Jews A modern-day synagogue in Iran. ... Language(s) Aramaic Religion(s) Syriac Christianity Related ethnic groups Other Semitic peoples, and other ethnic groups from the Fertile Crescent. ... Circassians is a term derived from the Turkic Cherkess (Çerkes), and is not the self-designation of any people. ... Talysh (also Talishi, Taleshi or Talyshi) are an Iranian people who speak Talysh language one of the Northwestern Iranian languages. ... The Tat are an Iranian-speaking ethnic group in the Caucasus. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Afshar or Afshari, is a Turkic language spoken in parts of Afghanistan and Iran. ... Altay is a language of the Turkic group of languages. ... ... The Bashkir language is a Turkic language. ... Bulgar (also BolÄŸar), also Proto-Bulgarian is the language of the Bulgars, now extinct, whose classification is unclear. ... The Chagatai language is an extinct Turkic language which was once widely spoken in Central Asia. ... Chulyum also known as Chulym-Turkic , Chulym Tatar (not at all related to the Tatar language), or Küerik is a language of Chulyms. ... Chuvash (Chuvash: Чӑвашла, ČăvaÅ¡la, IPA: ; also known as Chăvash, Chuwash, Chovash, Chavash, ÇuvaÅŸ or ÇuaÅŸ) is a Turkic language spoken to the west of the Ural Mountains in central Russia. ... Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili, Qırımtatarca), also known as Crimean (Qırım tili, Qırımca) and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi) is the language of the Crimean Tatars. ... Cuman language was a Turkic language spoken by the Kipchaks (also known as the Cumans) similar to todays Crimean Tatar language. ... The Dolgan Language, is a Turkic language with around 5,000 speakers that is spoken in the Taymyr Peninsula in the Russian Federation. ... Fuyü Gïrgïs or Fu-Yu Kirgiz is the easternmost Turkic language. ... The Gagauz language (Gagauz dili) is a Turkic language, used by Gagauz people, official language of Gagauzia, Republic of Moldova. ... The Hunnic language is an extinct language of the Huns. ... Ili Turki is a language spoken primarily in China. ... The Karachay-Balkar language (Къарачай-Малкъар /Qarachay-Malqar/) is a Turkic language of the Karachays and Balkars. ... The Karaim language is a Turkic language with Hebrew influences, in a similar manner to Yiddish or Ladino. ... Karakalpak is a Turkic language mainly spoken by Karakalpaks in Karakalpakstan (Uzbekistan), as well as by Bashkirs and Nogay. ... Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants[2], natively , , ‎; pronounced ) is a Turkic language closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak. ... Khakas is a Turkic language spoken by the Khakas people, who mainly live in the southern Siberian Khakas Republic, or Khakassia, in Russia. ... Khalaj is a language spoken primarily in Iran and Afghanistan. ... Language spoken by the medieval Khazar tribe. ... Khorasani Turkic (تركي خراساني / Xorasan TürkçeÉ™sı) is variety of speech belonging to the Turkic language family. ... The Kipchak language was an extinct Turkic language of Kipchak-Bolghar group. ... Krymchak is the Crimean Tatar language dialect spoken by the Krymchaks - Rabbanite Jews of the Crimea. ... Kyrgyz or Kirghiz (Kyrgyz tili, Кыргыз тили, قىرعىز ٴتىلى) is a Turkic language, and, together with Russian, an official language of Kyrgyzstan. ... Kumyk (also Qumuq, Kumuk, Kumuklar, and Kumyki) is a Turkic language, spoken by about 200 thousands speakers (the Kumyks) in the Dagestan republic of Russian Federation. ... The Kypchak languages (also known as the Kipchak, Qypchaq, or Northeastern Turkic languages), are a major branch of the Turkic language family spoken by more than 12 million people in an area spanning from Lithuania to China. ... Nogai (also Nogay or Nogai Tatar), is a Turkic language spoken in southwestern Russia. ... Old Tatar language (Iske imla: يسكى تاتار تلى (translit. ... The Turkic language spoken by the Gokturks and used on the Orkhon inscriptions. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... Pecheneg language is the extinct Turkic language spoken by the Pechenegs in Eastern Europe, similar to Cuman. ... Qashqai (also spelled Ghashghai, Qashqai, Qashqay, and Kashkai) is a Turkic language. ... Sakha, or Yakut, is a Turkic language with around 363,000 speakers spoken in the Sakha Republic in the Russian Federation. ... Salar is a Turkic language spoken by the Salar people, who mainly live in the provinces of Qinghai and Gansu in China, some also live in Ghulja, Xinjiang. ... The Shor language is one of the Turkic languages. ... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars. ... Tofa, also known as Tofalar or Karagas, is one of the Turkic languages. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... Tuvan (Tuvan: Тыва дыл Tyva dyl), also known as Tuvinian, Tyvan, or Tuvin, is one of the Turkic languages. ... Urum is a Turkic language spoken by several thousand people who inhabit a few villages in the Southeastern Ukraine and in Georgia. ... Uyghur (‎/Uyghurche//, or ‎/Uyghur tili//)[1] is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghurstan), formerly also “Sinkiang” and “Chinese Turkestan,” a Central Asian region administered by China. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The Altay or Altai are a Turkic people living in the Siberian Altai Republic and Altai Krai and surrounding areas of Tuva and Mongolia. ... The Balkars (Karachay-Balkar: sg. ... The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. ... Not to be confused with Bulgarians. ... The Chulyms (Чулымцы in Russian; self-designation: Чулымские люди, or Chulymian people) are a Turkic people in the Tomsk Oblast and Krasnoyarsk Krai in Russia. ... The Chuvash (Chuvash ; Russian: Чуваши; Tatar: ÇuaÅŸlar, Чуашлар) are a Turkic people usually associated with Chuvashia. ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... Cuman, also called Polovtsy, Polovtsian, or the Anglicized Polovzian (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Turkish: , Bulgarian: , Romanian: , Hungarian: ), is a Western European exonym for the western Kipchaks. ... The Dolgans (Russian: ; self-designation: долган, тыа-кихи, саха) are a Turkic people, who inhabit Taymyr Autonomous Okrug in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. ... The Gagauz are a minority Turkic people in southern Moldova (in Gagauzia) and southwestern Ukraine (in Budjak) that numbers around 250,000. ... The Iraqi Turkmen (also spelled Turkomen, Turcoman, and Turkman) (Turkish:Irak Türkmenleri) are a distinct Turkic ethnic group living in Iraq, notably in the cities of Arbil, Tal Afar, Kirkuk, and Mosul. ... The Karachays (Къарачайлыла, Qaraçaylıla) are a Turkic people of the Ciscaucasus, mostly situated in the Russian Karachay-Cherkess Republic. ... The Crimean Karaites (Crimean Karaim: sg. ... The Karakalpaks are ethnic group of Turkic people who mainly live in the lower reaches of the Amu Darya and in the (former) delta of Amu Darya on the southern shore of the Aral Sea. ... The Karapapak are a small ethnic group of Turkic people who mainly live in north west province of West Azerbaijan (Azarbaijan-e-Gharbi) in and around the Sulduz area and North West of Turkey near the border with Georgia. ... Language(s) Kazakh, Russian (and/or languages in country of residence) Religion(s) Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар IPA: ; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of... The Khakas, or Khakass, are a Turkic people, who live in Russia, in the republic of Khakassia in the southern Siberia. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Kmek or Kimak was a nomadic tribe lived in modern Astrakhan Oblast of Russia in 9th-13th century. ... Kipchaks in Eurasia circa 1200 C.E. Kipchaks (also spelled as Kypchaks, Qipchaqs, Qypchaqs) (Ukrainian: (polovtsy), Crimean Tatar: , Karachay-Balkar: Къыпчакъ, Uzbek: , Kazakh: Қыпшақ, Kumyk: Къыпчакъ, Kyrgyz: Кыпчак, Nogai: Кыпчак, Turkish: Kıpçak) were an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. The western... The Krymchaks (Krymchak: sg. ... Flag of the Kumyks Kumyks are a Turkic people occupying the Kumyk plateau in north Dagestan and south Terek, and the lands bordering the Caspian Sea. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Kyrgyz language. ... Language(s) Turkish, Russian, Georgian,Azerbaijanian Religion(s) Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups Turks, Terekeme, other Muslims of Meskheti Meskhetian Turks are the former Muslim inhabitants of Meskheti (Georgia), along the border with Turkey. ... NaÄŸaybäk (; plural NaÄŸaybäklär; Russian: нагайбаки) is a group of Keräşen Tatars, frequently viewed as one of indigenous peoples of Russia. ... The Nogais, also spelled Nogay, Noghai, and often called the Caucasian Mongols (Caucasian refers to their geographic position, in the Caucasus mountains, not to their ethnicity), are a Turkic people, and an important ethnic group in the Daghestan region who speak the Turkic Nogai language. ... A Seljuk Prince. ... For the language, see Qashqai language. ... The Salar people (Chinese: 撒拉族, Pinyin: Sālāzú) are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... Syrian Turkmen or Syrian Turkomen[1] are Syrian citizens of Oghuz Turkish descent, who had been living in the Syrian province of the Ottoman Empire before its dissolution and continue to live in the modern country of Syria. ... This article is about the people. ... The Finnish Tatar community, about 800 people, is recognized as a national minority by the government of Finland, which considers their language as a non-territorial language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. ... The Lipka Tatars were a noble military caste of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth who followed the Sunni branch of the Islamic religion and whose origins can be traced back to the Mongol Empire of Ghengis Khan, through the Khanate of the White Horde of Siberia. ... The Native Western Siberian Tatars (200,000) are an ethnic group or a sub-group of the Tatars. ... Volga Tatars are a Turkic people who live in the central and Eastern European parts of Russia. ... A Telengit is a member of an ethnic group in Russia. ... According to the 2002 census, there were 2650 Teleuts in Russia. ... Tofalars (Тофалары, тофа (tofa) in Russian; formerly known as карагасы, or karagas) are a Turkic-speaking people in the Irkutsk Oblast in Russia. ... Turkish Cypriots are those inhabitants of Cyprus who are ethnically Turkish[1], as opposed to those who are of Greek (the Greek Cypriots) or other ethnicities. ... For other uses of Turkish, see Turkish (disambiguation). ... Tuvans or Tuvinians (Tuvan: Тывалар, Tyvalar) are a group of Turkic people who make up about two thirds of the population of Tuva, Russia. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... Yakuts, self-designation: Sakha, are a Turkic people associated with the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. ... Main areas inhabited by Yoruk tribes in Anatolia The Yörük are a Turkic-speaking people primarily inhabiting the mountains of the southeast European Balkan peninsula and Anatolia. ... The Yugur people are an ethnic group. ... The history of the Turkic peoples (Turkic speaking peoples). ... Turkic peoples listed geographically. ... Turanism, or Pan-Turanism, is a political movement for the union of all Turanian peoples. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... // Azerbaijan Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Turkmenistan Turkey Uzbekistan Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus [1] Bashkortostan Chuvashia Sakha (Yakutia) Republic Tatarstan Tuva These republics have a small Turkic minority and official language is a Turkic language. ... Anthem: Ä°stiklâl Marşı(Turkish) Independence March Capital Nicosia (LefkoÅŸa in Turkish) Official languages Turkish Government Representative democratic republic1  -  President Mehmet Ali Talat  -  Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer Independence from Cyprus   -  Proclaimed November 15, 1983   -  Recognition By Turkey only  Area  -  Total 3,355 km² (167th ranked together with Cyprus... // Azerbaijan Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Turkmenistan Turkey Uzbekistan Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus [1] Bashkortostan Chuvashia Sakha (Yakutia) Republic Tatarstan Tuva These republics have a small Turkic minority and official language is a Turkic language. ... The Altai Republic (Russian: ; Altay: Алтай Республика) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... The Republic of Bashkortostan, or Bashkiria (Russian: or ; Bashkir: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... , Chuvash Republic (Russian: ; ), or Chuvashia () is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in central Russia. ... Anthem Gagauziya Milli Marşı Location of Gagauzia (purple) Capital (and largest city) Comrat Official languages Gagauz, Moldovan (Romanian), Russian Government  -  Governor Mihail Formuzal  -  Chairman of the Peoples Assembly Stepan Esir Autonomous region of Moldova  -  Created April 23, 1994  Area  -  Total 1,832 km²  707 sq mi  Population  -  19961 estimate... Karakalpakstan (Uzbek: Qoraqalpogiston Respublikasi or Қорақалпоғистон Республикаси; Karakalpak: Қарақалпақстан Республикасы or Qaraqalpaqstan Respublikası) is an autonomous republic of Uzbekistan. ... Khakassia or Khakasiya (Russian: or ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in south central Siberia. ... This article is about the autonomous region. ... The Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (Russian: ; Sakha: Саха Республиката) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Republic of Tatarstan (Russian: ; Tatar Cyrillic: Татарстан Республикасы, Latin: Tatarstan Respublikası) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Tyva Republic IPA: (Russian: IPA: ; Tuvan: ), or Tuva (), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Nomadic Empires, sometimes also called Steppe Empires, Central or Inner Asian Empires, are the empires erected by the bow wielding, horse riding, Eurasian nomads, from Classical Antiquity (Scythia) to the Early Modern era (Dzungars). ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ... The Proto-Turkic language is the proto-language of the family of Turkic languages that predates the separation of the Turkic peoples in the course of the Turkic expansion from ca. ... The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ...


 
 

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