FACTOID # 23: Wisconsin has more metal fabricators per capita than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Azerbaijani language
Azerbaijani
Azərbaycan dili
Азәрбајҹан дили
آذربایجان دیلی 
Pronunciation: /azærbajʤan dili/
Spoken in: Republic of Azerbaijan & Iran, also in parts of neighboring countries such as Georgia, Iraq, Russia, Turkey, and Ukraine
Total speakers: 23–30 million 
Ranking: 31
Language family: Altaic[1] (controversial)
 Turkic
  Oghuz
   Azerbaijani 
Writing system: Latin alphabet in Azerbaijan, Arabic alphabet in Iran, and, formerly, Cyrillic alphabet (Azerbaijani variants
Official status
Official language of: Republic of Azerbaijan (northern dialect), Iraq (southern dialect; official in areas where Iraqi Turkmen form a majority)
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: az
ISO 639-2: aze
ISO 639-3: variously:
aze — Azerbaijani (generic)
azj — North Azerbaijani
azb — South Azerbaijani
qxq — Qashqa'i
slq — Salchuq 

Map showing locations of Azerbaijani

The Azerbaijani language, also called Azeri, Azari, Azeri Turkish, or Azerbaijani Turkish, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... This is a list of languages placed in order by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families A language family is a group of related languages said to have descended from a common proto-language. ... Altaic is a proposed language family which includes 66 languages [1] spoken by about 348 million people, mostly in and around Central Asia and northeast Asia. ... Altaic is a putative language family which would include 60 languages spoken by about 250 million people, mostly in and around central Asia. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China with an estimated 140 million native speakers and tens of millions of second-language speakers. ... The Oghuz languages, a major branch of the Turkic language family, are spoken by more than 110-130 million people (including second language speakers) in an area spanning from the Balkans to China. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... In Azerbaijan, two alphabets are employed for writing the Azerbaijani language: variations on the Cyrillic and Latin alphabets. ... The Iraqi Turkmen (also spelled Turkomen, Turcoman, and Turkman) are a distinct Turkic ethnic group living in northern Iraq, notably in the cities of Arbil, Tal Afar, Kirkuk, and Mosul. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Qashqai (also spelled Ghashghai, Qashqai, Qashqay, and Kashkai) is a Turkic language. ... Image File history File links Azerilanguage. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Unicode is an industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in any of the worlds writing systems. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ...


It is called Azərbaycan dili in Azerbaijani. Iranian Azerbaijanis often call it Türki. Some dialects of the language are spoken in many parts of Iran, most notably in Iranian Azerbaijan, where it is the most dominant language and lingua franca.[2] Iran is home to the majority of Azeri speakers in the world. The language is also spoken in Russia's Republic of Dagestan, south-eastern Georgia, northern Iraq, and eastern Turkey. The Azeri (also known as Azerbaijani) population of Iran is mainly found in the northwest provinces: East Azarbaijan, West Azarbaijan, Ardabil, Zanjan, and many regions of Hamadan and Markazi. ... Iranian Azerbaijan or Iranian Azarbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان ایران; Ä€zārbāijān-e Irān), (Azeri: اذربایجان, c. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... The Republic of Dagestan (Russian: Респу́блика Дагеста́н) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ...


There are approximately 23 to 30 million native Azerbaijani speakers (circa 16 to 23 million in Iran, 8 million in the Azerbaijan Republic, and 800,000 in other smaller communities according to Ethnologue). It is a Turkic language of the Oghuz branch, closely related to Turkish and also historically influenced by Persian and Arabic. Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China with an estimated 140 million native speakers and tens of millions of second-language speakers. ... The Oghuz languages, a major branch of the Turkic language family, are spoken by more than 110-130 million people (including second language speakers) in an area spanning from the Balkans to China. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ...


In addition, Azerbaijani is mutually intelligible with other Oghuz languages, which include the Turkish language as it is spoken in Turkey, the Caucasus, Cyprus, the Balkans, Iraq, Syria, and Western Europe, as well as the Turkmen language. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Oghuz languages, a major branch of the Turkic language family, are spoken by more than 110-130 million people (including second language speakers) in an area spanning from the Balkans to China. ... Turkish (, ) is a language spoken by 65–73 million people worldwide, predominantly in Turkey, with smaller communities of speakers in Cyprus, Greece and Eastern Europe, as well as by several million immigrants in Western Europe, particularly Germany, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... Turkmen (Latin script: türkmen, Cyrillic: түркмен, ISO 639-1: tk, ISO 639-2: tuk) is the name of the national language of Turkmenistan. ...

Contents

History and evolution

For the languages spoken in Azerbaijan before the Turks' arrival, see:

The Azerbaijani language of today is based on the Oghuz language (brought from Central Asia by Seljuk Turks) heavily influenced by Persian and Arabic. (source unknown) Many different languages have dominated in the territory currently called Azerbaijan. ... Azari, also spelled Adari, Adhari or (Ancient) Azeri, is the name used for the Iranian language which was spoken in Azerbaijan before it was replaced by the modern Azeri or Azerbaijani language, which is a Turkic language. ... The Oghuz Turks (also with various alternate spellings, including Oguz, OÄŸuz, Ouz, Okuz, Oufoi, Guozz, Ghuzz and Uz) are regarded as one of the major branches of Turkic peoples. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ...


It gradually supplanted the previous Iranian languages—Tat, Azari, and Middle Persian in northern Iran, and a variety of Caucasian languages in the Caucasus, particularly Udi, and had become the dominant language before by the time of the Safavid dynasty; however, minorities in both the Republic of Azerbaijan and Iran continue to speak the earlier Iranian languages to this day, and Middle- and New Persian loanwords are numerous in Azerbaijani. The Tat language is an Indo-Iranian language spoken by the Tat ethnic group. ... Azari, also spelled Adari, Adhari or (Ancient) Azeri, is the name used for the Iranian language which was spoken in Azerbaijan before it was replaced by the modern Azeri or Azerbaijani language, which is of Turkic language. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... The term Caucasian languages is loosely used to refer to a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than 7 million people in the Caucasus region of Eastern Europe, between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. ... The Udi language, spoken by the Udi people, is a member of the Northeast Caucasian language family. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ... Persian is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and in Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ...


The historical development of Azerbaijani can be divided into two major periods: early (ca. 16th to 18th century) and modern (18th century to present). Old Azerbaijani differs from its descendant in that it contained a much greater amount of Persian, Arabic, and Ottoman Turkish loanwords, phrases and syntactic elements. Early writings in Azerbaijani also demonstrate lingustic interchangeability between Oghuz and Kypchak elements in many aspects (such as pronouns, case endings, participles, etc...). As Azerbaijani gradually moved from being merely a language of epic and lyric poetry to being also a language of journalism and scientific research, its literary version has become more or less unified and simplified with the loss of many archaic Turkic elements, bulky Iranisms and Ottomanisms, and other words, expressions, and rules that failed to gain popularity among Azerbaijani-speaking masses. Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... omg holy crap| cellpadding=4 cellspacing=0 style=width:270px; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; background:#FFFFFF; border: 0px #aaaaaa solid; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 85%; float:right; | // |- |} Lyric be excepted. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A scientific method or process is considered fundamental to the scientific investigation and acquisition of new knowledge based upon physical evidence. ...


Between ca. 1900 and 1930, there were several competing approaches to the unification of the national language in Azerbaijan popularized by the literati. Despite major differences, they all aimed primarily at making it easy for semiliterate masses to read and understand literature. They all criticized the overuse of Persian, Arabic, Ottoman Turkish, and European (mainly Russian) elements in both colloquial and literary language and called for a more simple and popular style. Year 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Part of the series on
Azerbaijanis
Azərbaycanlılar
Азәрбајҹанлылар
آذربایجانلیلار

Azerbaijani culture
Architecture · Art · Cinema · Cuisine ·
Dance · Dress · Literature · Music ·
Religion · Media · Sport Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Architecture of Azerbaijan refers to the architecture development in Azerbaijan. ... The Azerbaijani language is a language of the Oghuz branch of Turkic languages mutually intelligible with the Turkish of Turkey, Turkmenistan, Iran, the Balkans and the Middle East. ... Music of Azerbaijan includes various arrays of styles that reflect influences from the musics of the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Iran. ...

By country or region
Azerbaijan · Iran · Georgia · Russia
Turkey · Armenia

Religion
Shia Islam · Sunni Islam · Christianity ·
Bahá'í Faith · Zoroastrianism Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... Seat of the Universal House of Justice, governing body of the Baháís, in Haifa, Israel The Baháí Faith is the religion founded by Baháulláh in 19th century Persia. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ...

Languages and dialects
Azerbaijani

v  d  e

The Russian conquest of the South Caucasus in the 19th century split the speech community across two states; the Soviet Union promoted development of the language, but set it back considerably with two successive script changes - from Arabic alphabet to Latin to Cyrillic - while Iranian Azeris continued to use the Arabic script as they always had. Despite the wide use of Azerbaijani during the Soviet era, it became the official language of Azerbaijan only in 1978 (along with Georgian in Georgia and Armenian in Armenia). After independence, the Republic of Azerbaijan decided to switch again to the Latin script, following the Turkish model. South Caucasus: Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan South Caucasus (also referred sometimes as Transcaucasus) is a name to the transitional region between Europe and Asia extending from the Greater Caucasus to the Turkish and Iranian borders, between the Black and Caspian seas. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ...


Literature

Classical literature in Azerbaijani was formed in 14th century based on the Tabrizi and Shirvani dialects (these dialects were used by classical Azerbaijani writers Nasimi, Fuzuli, and Khatai). Modern literature in the Republic of Azerbaijan is based on the Shirvani dialect only, while in Iran it is based on the Tabrizi one. The first newspaper in Azerbaijani, Əkinçi was published in 1875. The Azerbaijani language is a language of the Oghuz branch of Turkic languages mutually intelligible with the Turkish of Turkey, Turkmenistan, Iran, the Balkans and the Middle East. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Shervan or Shirvan was a former Persian province in Caucasus, a state ruled by the Shervanshahs and the birthplace of the Persian poet Khaqani. ... Imadeddin Nasimi (1369-1417) was born in Shamakhy, Azerbaijan. ... Fuzûlî (1494?–1556), a Divan poet of Azeri origin Mehmed bin Süleyman Fuzuli, most commonly referred to as Fuzuli, was born around 1494 in Iran (Safavid era), although his actual date of birth is unknown. ... Khatai or Xatai in Azeri, is a pen name of Shah Ismail I. For his biography and political exploits see his page He wrote majority his poems in Azeri-Turkic language and - to a lesser degree - in Persian. ... Akinchi (Azeri: Əkinçi / اکنچي), also transliterated as Ekinchi (The Ploughman), was an Azeri-language newspaper, published in Baku (then part of the Russian Empire, now the capital of Azerbaijan) between 1875 and 1877. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


In mid-19th century it was taught in the schools of Baku, Ganja, Shaki, Tbilisi, and Yerevan. Since 1845, it has also been taught in the University of St. Petersburg in Russia. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Baku (disambiguation). ... Ganja (Azerbaijani GÉ™ncÉ™) is Azerbaijans second largest city. ... Saki is a sahar (city) in Azerbaijan. ... Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Georgia Established IV-III Millennium BC Government  - Mayor Giorgi (Gigi) Ugulava Area  - City 726 km²  (280. ... Location of Yerevan in Armenia Coordinates: Country Armenia Established 782 BC Government  - Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Area  - City 227 km²  (87. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Categories: Russia-related stubs | Universities and colleges in Russia | Saint Petersburg ...


Famous literacy works in Azerbaijani are the Book of Dada Gorgud, the Epic of Köroğlu, Leyli and Majnun, and Heydar Babaya Salam. Important poets and writers of the Azerbaijani language include Imadeddin Nasimi, Muhammed Fuzuli, Hasanoglu Izeddin, Shah Ismail I, Khurshidbanu Natavan, Mirza Fatali Akhundov, Mirza Alakbar Sabir, Bakhtiyar Vahabzade, and Mohammad Hossein Shahriar. The Book of Dede Korkut is one of the most famous epics of the Turkmens or the Oghuz Turks. ... The Epic of KöroÄŸlu (Turkish: KöroÄŸlu destanı) is a legend prominent in the oral traditions of the Turkic peoples. ... Categories: Pages needing attention | Persian literature | Stub ... Heydar Babaya Salam is the best known poem by Mohammad Hossein Shahriar (Shahriyar), a famous Iranian Azerbaijani poet. ... Imadeddin Nasimi (1369-1417) was allegedly born in Shamakhy, Azerbaijan (Other sources indicate that he may have been born in Baghdad or Shiraz(Dehkhoda)). He was a poet who adopted hurufizm, a movement headed by Nasimis teacher Fadlullah Naimi or Fadlullah. ... Fuzûlî (1483?–1556) FużūlÄ« (فضولی) was the pen name (مخلص; Arabic: mukhliá¹£, Persian: mükhliá¹£, Ottoman Turkish: maḫlaá¹£) of the Turkic poet Muhammad bin Suleyman (محمد بن سليمان) (c. ... Shah Ismail I, the founder of Safavid Dynasty of Iran pictured at battle against Abul-khayr Khan in a scene from the Tarikh-i alam-aray-i Shāh Ismāil Abul-Mozaffar bin Sheikh Haydar bin Sheikh Junayd SafawÄ« (Persian: - Azerbaijani: ) (July 17, 1487 - May 23, 1524), Shah... Khurshud Banu Natavan Khurshidbanu Natavan (Azeri: XurÅŸidbanu NatÉ™van) (6 August 1832, Shusha – 2 October 1897, Shusha) is considered one of the best lyrical poets of Azerbaijan. ... Mirza Fatali Akhundov (1812-1878) was the great Azerbaijanian prose writer, dramatist, philosopher, founder of the modern realist school and literary criticism. ... A monument of Mirza Alakbar Sabir. ... Bakhtiyar Vahabzade Bakhtiyar Vahabzade (b. ... Seyyed Mohammad Hossein Behjat-Tabrizi (Persian: سید محمدحسین بهجت تبریزی)‎ (1906-September 18, 1988), chiefly known by his pen name as Shahriar (or Shahryar / Shahriyar شهریار), was an Iranian Azeri poet, writing in Persian and Azerbaijani. ...


Distribution of native speakers

Since early last century, successive Iranian governments have avoided publishing any statistics on ethnic groups. This policy presents difficulty in providing any statistics on distribution and size of ethnicity in Iran. The population size of Turkic speaking ethnic groups, are estimated to be much higher in Iran than official publications.[citation needed] The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China with an estimated 140 million native speakers and tens of millions of second-language speakers. ...


The estimated size of all Azeri speakers within Azerbaijan and Iran combined, according to two source, differs from 23.4 to 30 million. This total does not include the Azeri speakers in Iraq, Afghanistan, Turkey, Georgia, Dagestan and other smaller pockets within the Middle East and Russia. Ethnologue adds 864,000 for the speakers out of Iran and Republics of Azerbaijan The Republic of Dagestan IPA: (Russian: ; Avar: , ), older spelling Daghestan, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ...

Source
(where given)
Total population % Azeri Number of speakers
CIA Facts Book on Azerbaijan 7,911,974 90.6% 7,168,248
CIA Facts Book on Iran 68,017,860 24% 16,324,286
23,492,534 total

Regions where Azerbaijani is spoken by significant group of people

  • Azerbaijani (North Dialect)1

Azerbaijan, and southern Dagestan, along the Caspian coast in the southern Caucasus Mountains. Also spoken in Armenia, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia (Asia), Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. The Republic of Dagestan IPA: (Russian: ; Avar: , ), older spelling Daghestan, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... For Caspian Sea, go to: Caspian Sea CASPIAN Consumers Against Supermarket Privacy Invasion and Numbering (CASPIAN) is a national grass-roots consumer group dedicated to fighting supermarket loyalty or frequent shopper cards. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ...

  • Azerbaijani (South Dialect) 2

East Azerbaijan and West Azerbaijan, Ardabil, Zanjan,and part of Kordestan, Hamedan,Markazi and Gilan provinces. Many in districts of Tehran. Some Azerbaijani-speaking groups are in Fars Province and other parts of Iran. Also spoken in Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Jordan, Syria, Turkey (Asia), USA. East Azarbaijan province enjoys some of Irans most favorable climatic conditions. ... West Azarbaijan (آذربایجان غربی in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Ardabil (Persian: اردبیل; Azeri: اردبيل; also known as Ardebil; Old Persian: Artavil) is a historical city in north-western Iran. ... Zanjan Province ... Map of high density Kurdish populated area. ... Avicennas tomb in Hamedan Hamadan or Hamedan ( Persian: همدان , Kurdish: Ekbatan) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. ... Guilan (گیلان in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran, during antique time known as part of Hyrcania, with a population of approximately 2 million and an area of 14,700 sq. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Fars (Persian: فارس) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ...


Dialects

Despite their relatively large number, dialects of Azerbaijani do not differ substantially. Speakers of various dialects normally do not have problems understanding each other. However minor problems may occur between Azerbaijani-speakers from the Caucasus and Iran, as some of the words used by the latter that are of Persian or Arabic origin may be unknown to the former. For example, the word firqə ("political party") used by Iranian Azeris may not be understood in Azerbaijan, where the word partiya is used to describe the same object. Such phenomenon is explained by the fact that both words have been in wide use since after the split of the two speech communities in 1828. Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The following list reflects only one of several perspectives on the dialectology of Azerbaijani. Some dialects may be varieties of others.

  • Ardabil dialect (Ardabil and western Gilan, Iran)
  • Ayrum dialect (northwestern Azerbaijan; northeastern Armenia1)
  • Baku dialect (eastern Azerbaijan)
  • Borchali dialect (southern Georgia; northern Armenia1)
  • Derbent dialect (southern Russia)
  • Gabala (Gutgashen) dialect (northern Azerbaijan)
  • Ganja dialect (western Azerbaijan)
  • Gazakh dialect (northwestern Azerbaijan)
  • Guba dialect (northeastern Azerbaijan)
  • Hamadan dialect (Hamadan, Iran)
  • Karabakh dialect (central Azerbaijan)
  • Karadagh dialect (East Azerbaijan and West Azerbaijan, Iran)
  • Kars dialect (eastern Turkey and northwestern Armenia1)
  • Kirkuk dialect (northern Iraq)
  • Lankaran dialect (southeast Azerbaijan)
  • Maragheh dialect (East Azerbaijan, Iran)
  • Mughan (Salyan) dialect (central Azerbaijan)
  • Nakhichevan dialect (southwestern Azerbaijan)
  • Ordubad dialect (southwestern Azerbaijan; southern Armenia1)
  • Shaki (Nukha) dialect (northern Azerbaijan)
  • Shirvan (Shamakhy) dialect (eastern Azerbaijan)
  • Tabriz dialect (East Azerbaijan, Iran)
  • Urmia dialect (West Azerbaijan, Iran)
  • Yamji dialect (West Azerbaijan, Iran)
  • Yerevan dialect (central Armenia1)
  • Zagatala-Gakh dialect (northern Azerbaijan)
  • Zanjan dialect (Zanjan, Iran)
1 The denoted dialects were traditionally spoken in the given area until recent times. As a result of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict virtually all Azeris fled Armenia by 1991, which is why Azerbaijani is no longer spoken there.

Phonology

Consonants

Consonant phonemes of Standard Azeri
Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosives and
affricates
p b t d ʧ ʤ c ɟ k ɡ
Nasals m n
Fricatives f v s z ʃ ʒ x ɣ h
Approximants l j
Taps ɾ
  1. In some dialects of Nakhichevan (Azerbaijan), West Azerbaijan (Iran) and Kirkuk (Iraq), [ʦ] and [ʣ] occur as allophones of /ʧ/ and /ʤ/, and/or /c/ and /ɟ/ respectively.
  2. In many dialects of Azeri, /c/ is realized as [ç] when it is found in the coda position or is preceded by a voiceless consonant (as in çörək [ʧœˈɾæç] - "bread"; səksən [sæçˈsæn] - "eighty").
  3. /k/ appears only in words borrowed from Russian or French (spelled, as with /c/, with a k).
  4. /w/ exists in the Kirkuk dialect as an allophone of /v/ in Arabic loanwords.
  5. In the Baku dialect, /ov/ may be realised as [oʷ], and /ev/ and /œv/ as [œʷ], e.g. /ɡovurˈma/[ɡoʷurˈma], /sevˈda/[sœʷˈda], /dœvˈran/[dœʷˈran]

Vowels

Vowel phonemes of Standard Azeri
Image:Azeri vowel chart.png Ardabil (Persian: اردبیل; Azeri: اردبيل; also known as Ardebil; Old Persian: Artavil) is a historical city in north-western Iran. ... Guilan (گیلان in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran, during antique time known as part of Hyrcania, with a population of approximately 2 million and an area of 14,700 sq. ... Avicennas tomb in Hamedan Hamadan or Hamedan ( Persian: همدان ) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. ... East Azarbaijan province enjoys some of Irans most favorable climatic conditions. ... West Azarbaijan (آذربایجان غربی in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... East Azarbaijan province enjoys some of Irans most favorable climatic conditions. ... East Azarbaijan province enjoys some of Irans most favorable climatic conditions. ... West Azarbaijan (آذربایجان غربی in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... West Azarbaijan (آذربایجان غربی in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Zanjan Province ... Combatants Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh1 Republic of Armenia 2 CIS mercenaries Republic of Azerbaijan Afghan Mujahideen 3 Chechen Volunteers 4 CIS mercenaries Commanders Samvel Babayan, Hemayag Haroyan, Monte Melkonian, Vazgen Sarkisyan, Arkady Ter-Tatevosyan Ä°sgandar Hamidov, Suret Huseynov, Rahim Gaziev, Shamil Basayev Casualties ~6,000 dead, 20,000 wounded ~17... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... An affricate is a consonant that begins like a stop (most often an alveovelar, such as [t] or [d]) and that doesnt have a release of its own, but opens directly into a fricative (or, in one language, into a trill). ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator is thrown against another. ... The Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic (Azerbaijani: Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası, Armenian: Õ†Õ¡Õ­Õ«Õ»Ö‡Õ¡Õ¶Õ« Ô»Õ¶Ö„Õ¶Õ¡Õ¾Õ¡Ö€ Õ€Õ¡Õ¶Ö€Õ¡ÕºÕ¥Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶, Russian: Нахичеванская Автономная Республика, Persian:جمهوری خودمختار نخجوان, Turkish: Nahçıvan Özerk Cumhuriyeti), known simply as Nakhichevan, is a landlocked exclave of Azerbaijan. ... West Azarbaijan (آذربایجان غربی in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Kirkuk (also spelled Karkuk or Kerkuk; Arabic: كركوك, KirkÅ«k; Kurdish: كه‌ركووك, Kerkûk; Syriac: ܐܪܦܗܐ, Arrapha; Persian: کرکوک; Turkish: Kerkük) is a city in northern Iraq and capital of Taamim Governorate. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Image File history File links Azeri_vowel_chart. ...

Alphabets

Main article: Azerbaijani alphabet
Azerbaijan Latin alphabets
Azerbaijan Latin alphabets

In the Republic of Azerbaijan, Azerbaijani now officially uses the Latin alphabet, but the "Soviet" Cyrillic alphabet is still in wide use, while in Iran the Arabic script is used. There is a one-to-one correspondence between the Latin and Cyrillic alphabets for Azerbaijani (although the Cyrillic alphabet has a different order): In Azerbaijan, two alphabets are employed for writing the Azerbaijani language: variations on the Cyrillic and Latin alphabets. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (964x3004, 626 KB) design by: Postmann Michael Date: 23. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (964x3004, 626 KB) design by: Postmann Michael Date: 23. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing the Arabic language, which is the language of the Quran, the holy book of Islam. ...

Aa Аа
Əə Әә
Bb Бб
Cc Ҹҹ
Çç Чч
Dd Дд
Ee Ее
Ff Фф
Gg Ҝҝ
Ğğ Ғғ
Hh Һһ
Xx Хх
Ыы
İi Ии
Jj Жж
Kk Кк
Qq Гг
Ll Лл
Mm Мм
Nn Нн
Oo Оо
Öö Өө
Pp Пп
Rr Рр
Ss Сс
Şş Шш
Tt Тт
Uu Уу
Üü Үү
Vv Вв
Yy Јј
Zz Зз

Before 1929, Azerbaijani was only written in the Arabic alphabet. In 19291938 a Latin alphabet was in use (although it was different from the one used now), from 1938 to 1991 the Cyrillic alphabet was used, and in 1991 the current Latin alphabet was introduced, although the transition to it has been rather slow. The Azerbaijani speakers in Iran have always continued to use the Arabic alphabet, although the spelling and orthography is not yet standardized[citation needed]. Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ...


The Azerbaijani language, if written in Latin, transliterates all foreign words to its own spelling. For example, "Bush" becomes "Buş", and "Schröder" becomes "Şröder".

Nomenclature

During the initial period of the Republic of Azerbaijan's independence, the official language of Azerbaijan was called "Türk dili" ("Turkish"), but since 1994 the older name of the language, "Azərbaycan dili" ("Azerbaijani"), has been re-established. The most important literary magazine of the language published in Iran, Varliq, uses the English term "Turkish" and the Persian term "torki" for the language. Most Iranians casually call the language Torki, distinguishing it from Turkey's official language, Turkish, by calling the latter a term which can be translated as Istanbuli Turkish. Some people also consider "Azerbaijani" a dialect of a greater "Turkish" language and call it "Azerbaijani-Turkish". ISO and the Unicode Consortium, call the language "Azerbaijani". Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In computing, Unicode is the international standard whose goal is to provide the means to encode the text of every document people want to store in computers. ...

See also

References

External links

Wikipedia
Azerbaijani language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
v  d  e
Turkic languages
Bulgar Bulgar† | Chuvash | Hunnic† | Khazar†
Uyghur Old Turkic† | Aini²| Chagatay† | Ili Turki | Lop | Uyghur | Uzbek
Kypchak Baraba | Bashkir | Crimean Tatar¹ | Cuman† | Karachay-Balkar | Karaim | Karakalpak | Kazakh | Kipchak† | Krymchak | Kumyk | Nogai | Old Tatar† | Tatar | Urum¹ | Altay | Kyrgyz
Oghuz Afshar | Azerbaijani | Crimean Tatar¹ | Gagauz | Khorasani Turkish | Ottoman Turkish† | Pecheneg | Qashqai | Salar | Turkish | Turkmen | Urum¹
Khalaj Khalaj
Northeastern Chulym | Dolgan | Fuyü Gïrgïs | Khakas | Northern Altay | Shor | Tofa | Tuvan | Western Yugur | Sakha / Yakut
Notes: ¹Listed in more than one group, ²Mixed language, ³Disputed, †Extinct

  Results from FactBites:
 
Azerbaijani language, alphabets and pronunciation (592 words)
Azerbaijani is a Turkic language with about 8 million speakers in Azerbaijan, 32 million speakers in north-western Iran, and a further 6 million speakers in Georgia and Russian Dagestan.
The Arabic script was introduced to the Azerbaijan region in the 7th century and continued to be used to write Azerbaijani until the 1920s.
In Iran the Azerbaijani language has always been written with a version of the Arabic script and is know as Azeri Turk.
Azerbaijani (759 words)
Azerbaijani is spoken by over 32 million people in Iran, Azerbaijan, in some areas of the Caucasus, as well as in Iraq and Turkey.
Azerbaijani speakers in Iran are often bilingual, with the result that their language also shows a strong imprint of Persian, in addition to Arabic.
Azerbaijani is considered to be a category II language in terms of difficulty for English speakers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m