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Encyclopedia > Azerbaijan Democratic Republic
Azərbaycan Demokratik Respublikası
Azerbaijan Democratic Republic

Short-lived state


1918 – 1920
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: None
Anthem: Azərbaycan Respublikasının Dövlət Himni
March of Azerbaijan
Map of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1919 to 1920. Consult the legend for further information.
Capital Baku
40°22′N 49°53′E
Language(s) Azerbaijani
Government Republic
Prime Minister Fatali Khan Khoyski
Nasib-bey Usubbeyov
Speaker Mammed Amin Rasulzade
Mammad-Yusif Jafarov
History
 - Independence from the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic 28 May1918
 - Soviet invasion of Baku 28 April1920
Population
 - 1918 est. c. 3,000,000 + 

Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR; Azerbaijani : Azərbaycan Xalq Cümhuriyyəti) was the first modern establishment of an Azerbaijani republic. It was founded on May 28, 1918, with Ganja as its capital. The ADR proclaimed itself a sovereign and independent country after the collapse of the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. It was the first democratic and secular state in the Islamic world (pre-dating the Republic of Turkey). Furthermore, it allowed for universal suffrage. In Azerbaijan, women voted for the first time during the Russian Constituent Assembly election on November 25, 1917. At the same time, in most western countries (including the United Kingdom and most of the United States), women had no right to vote. Flag of the Transcaucasian Federation. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Transcaucasian_Federation. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Transcaucasian_SFSR.svg‎ Flag of the Transcaucasian SFSR File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Soviet Union Republics of the Soviet Union Estonian SSR Byelorussian SSR Kazakh SSR Turkmen SSR Karelo-Finnish SSR... The Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic was a short-lived (1922-1936) Soviet republic, consisting of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, which were traditionally known as the Transcaucasian Republics in the Soviet Union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_Azerbaijan. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Azerbaijan mixes traditional and modern symbols. ... This page lists state and national mottos for the worlds independent states and if applicable, their component states. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... National Anthem of the Republic of Azerbaijan (AzÉ™rbaycan Respublikasının DövlÉ™t Himni in Azeri) is the national anthem of Azerbaijan, and the original title of this anthem is March of Azerbaijan (AzÉ™rbaycan marşı). The words was written by poet Ahmed Javad, and the melody was... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (950x877, 335 KB) The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic as of 1920. ... This is a list of national capitals of the world in alphabetical order. ... Municipality: Baku Area: 1000 km² Altitude: -28 m Population: 2,074,300 census 2003 Population density: 1280 persons/km² Postal Code: +99450 Area code: 012 Municipality code: BA Latitude: 41° 01 52 N Longitude: 21° 20 25 E Weather types: 9 of 11 Mayor: Hajibala Abutalybov The Baku region. ... For other uses, see Republic (disambiguation). ... Politics of Azerbaijan takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, , with the President of Azerbaijan as the head of state, and the Prime Minister of Azerbaijan as head of government. ... Fatali Khan Iskender oglu Khoyski (December 7, 1875, Sheki - June 19, 1920, Tbilisi) was a prominent Azerbaijani politician, Prime Minister of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. ... It has been suggested that Speakers of the House be merged into this article or section. ... [[1]] Mammed Amin Rasulzade (Azeri: MÉ™mmÉ™dÉ™min RÉ™sulzadÉ™; January 31, 1884, Novkhany, near Baku—March 6, 1955, Ankara) was an Azerbaijani statesman, public figure and one of the founding political leaders of the First Azerbaijan Republic (1918-1920). ... Flag of the Transcaucasian Federation. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Municipality: Baku Area: 1000 km² Altitude: -28 m Population: 2,074,300 census 2003 Population density: 1280 persons/km² Postal Code: +99450 Area code: 012 Municipality code: BA Latitude: 41° 01 52 N Longitude: 21° 20 25 E Weather types: 9 of 11 Mayor: Hajibala Abutalybov The Baku region. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... For other uses, see Republic (disambiguation). ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Municipality: Ganja Area: 1000 km² Altitude: 408 m Population: 500,000 census 2006 Postal Code: AZ1000 Area code: 016 Municipality code: GA Latitude: 40° 40 58 N Longitude: 46° 21 38 E Mayor: Eldar Azizov For the city in Tajikistan, see Panj. ... Flag of the Transcaucasian Federation. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation). ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are at least 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, or economic or social status. ... The elections to the Russian Constituent Assembly that were organised as a result of events in the Russian Revolution in 1917 were held on November 25, 1917 (although some districts had polling on alternate days). ... November 25 is the 329th (in leap years the 330th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ...


On 12 January 1920 at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 the Supreme Council of the Allied Powers de-facto recognized the independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Due to occupation and cessation of the existence of ADR on 27-28 April 1920, the application for de jure recognition and membership in the League of Nations, made on 1 November 1920, was turned down on 24 November 1920. The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 was a conference organized by the victors of World War I to negotiate the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and the defeated Central Powers. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded after the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. ...

Contents

Etymology

The name Azerbaijan itself is thought to be derived from Atropates, an Iranian Median satrap (governor), who ruled a region found in modern Iranian Azarbaijan called Atropatene.[1] Atropates name is believed to be derived from the Old Persian roots meaning "protected by fire."[2] The name is also mentioned in the Avestan Frawardin Yasht: âterepâtahe ashaonô fravashîm ýazamaide which translates literally to: We worship the Fravashi of the holy Atare-pata. [3] Azerbaijan is the name used by the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Iranian region of Azerbaijan. ... Atropates (in Greek Aτρoπατης; in Old Persian Atarepata), called Atrapes by Diodorus1, a Persian satrap, apparently of Media, had the command of the Medes, together with the Cadusii, Albani, and Sacesinae, at the battle of Gaugamela, 331 BC. After the death of king Darius III Codomannus (330 BC), he... In probability theory and statistics, a median is a number dividing the higher half of a sample, a population, or a probability distribution from the lower half. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Long Live Azerbaijan. ... Azerbaijan or Azerbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan, Azərbeycan) is a country in the Caucaus region, adjacent to the Caspian Sea. ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ...


Politics of the ADR

Political life in ADR was dominated by Musavat (Equality) Party, the local winner of the Constituent Assembly elections of 1917. First parliament of the republic opened on December 5, 1918. Musavat had 38 of its members in the parliament that consisted of 125 deputies. The republic was governed by five cabinets, all formed by a coalition of the Musavat and other parties including the Socialist Bloc, the Independents, the Liberals, the Social-Democratic Party Hummat (or Endeavor) Party and the Conservative Ittihad (Union) Party. The premier in the first three cabinets was Fatali Khan Khoyski; in the last two, Nasib Yusufbayli. The president of the parliament, Alimardan Topchubashev, was recognized as the head of state. In this capacity he represented Azerbaijan at the Versailles Paris Peace Conference in 1919. The Equality Party (Müsavat Partiyası) is a political party in Azerbaijan. ... A constituent assembly is a body elected with the purpose of drafting, and in some cases, adopting a constitution. ... Foundation: 1890 Dissolved: 1918, Court Martialed Head: Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) (Turkish: İttihad ve Terakki Cemiyeti) was a political organization during the dissolution period of the Ottoman Empire which came to power between 1908 and 1918. ... Fatali Khan Iskender oglu Khoyski (December 7, 1875, Sheki - June 19, 1920, Tbilisi) was a prominent Azerbaijani politician, Prime Minister of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. ... Alimardan Alekper oglu Topchubashev (May 4, 1862, Tbilisi - November 8, 1934, Paris) was a prominent Azerbaijani politician, Foreign Minister and Speaker of the Parliament of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. ...


The parliament of ADR included Azerbaijani as well as Russian, Armenian, Jewish and Georgian parties [1].


Policy

Despite existing for only two short years, the multi party Azerbaijani Parliamentary republic and the coalition governments managed to achieve a number of measures on national and state building, education, creation of an army, independent financial and economic systems, international recognition of the ADR as a de facto state pending de jure recognition, official recognitions and diplomatic relations with a number of states, preparing of a Constitution, equal rights for all, etc. This has laid an important foundation for the re-establishment of independence in 1991.


Foreign policy

Between 1918-1920, the Republic of Azerbaijan had diplomatic relations with a number of states. Agreements on the principles of mutual relations were signed with some of them; sixteen states established their missions in Baku.[4]


The ADR government always remained neutral on the issue of Russian Civil War and never sided with the Red or White Army. A neutral country takes no side in a war between other parties, and in return hopes to avoid being attacked by either of them. ... Combatants Red Army (Bolsheviks) White Army (Monarchists, SRs, Anti-Communists) Green Army (Peasants and Nationalists) Black Army (Anarchists) Commanders Leon Trotsky Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Lavr Kornilov, Alexander Kolchak, Anton Denikin, Pyotr Wrangel Alexander Antonov, Nikifor Grigoriev Nestor Makhno Strength 5,427,273 (peak) +1,000,000 Casualties 939,755... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... The White movement, whose military arm is known as the White Army (Белая Армия) or White Guard (Белая Гвардия, белогвардейцы) and whose members are known as Whites (Белые, or the derogatory Беляки) or White Russians (a term which has other meanings) comprised some of the Russian forces, both political and military, which opposed the Bolsheviks after the...


The first Prime Minister of ADR, Fatali Khan Khoyski established close ties with Turkey, Azerbaijan's traditional ally (during the period of the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic, Ottoman Turkey supported Azerbaijan, Germany supported Georgia and Great Britain supported Armenia). Fatali Khan Iskender oglu Khoyski (December 7, 1875, Sheki - June 19, 1920, Tbilisi) was a prominent Azerbaijani politician, Prime Minister of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. ... Flag of the Transcaucasian Federation. ...


Territorial disputes

Much like its other counterparts in the Caucasus, the ADR's early years of existence were plagued with territorial disputes. In particular, these included disputes with the Democratic Republic of Armenia (Nakhichevan, Nagorno-Karabakh, Zangezur (today the Armenian province of Syunik), and Qazakh) and the Democratic Republic of Georgia (Balakan, Zaqatala, and Qakh). The ADR also claimed territories of the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus (significant portions of southern Dagestan including Derbent), but they were not as persistent about these claims as they were about the territories they disputed between Armenia and Georgia. The Ethnolinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map Russia Georgia Azerbaijan (Azer. ... National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Ô´Õ¥Õ´Õ¸Õ¯Ö€Õ¡Õ¿Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Õ€Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ½Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ« Õ€Õ¡Õ¶Ö€Õ¡ÕºÕ¥Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of... Momine Khatun Mausoleum in Nakhichevan. ... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... Syunik (also called Siunik or Syunia) is one of the provinces (marz) of Armenia. ... Qazakh (Qazax) is a rayon of Azerbaijan. ... Motto: None Anthem: Dideba Zetsit Kurtheuls (Praise Be To The Heavenly Bestower of Blessings) Capital Tbilisi Largest city Tbilisi Official language(s) Georgian Government Chairman of the Government Parliamentary democracy Noe Zhordania Independence - Declared - Formerly From the Russian Empire May 26, 1918 Transcaucasian Federation Population c. ... Balakan is a rayon of Azerbaijan. ... Municipality: Zaqatala Altitude: 500m Population: 35,000 census Zaqatala is a rayon of Azerbaijan. ... Qakh (Qax) is a rayon of Azerbaijan. ... Leaders of the MRNC. The Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus (MRNC; also incorrectly referred to as the Mountaineers Republic of the Northern Caucasus) (1917-1920) was a short-lived state situated in the Northern Caucasus, now forming the republics of Chechenya, Ingushetia and Dagestan of the Russian Federation. ... The Republic of Dagestan IPA: (Russian: ), older spelling Daghestan, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Derbent is built around a Sassanid fortress, the only one preserved in the world. ...


The fight for Baku

Main article: Armenian-Azeri war 1918

The city of Baku became the capital of the ADR only in September, 1918 (until that time the Azeri National Government was first in Tblisi, then in Ganja); previously, the city was in many different hands. Following the October Revolution, a government of the local Soviet was established in Baku: the so-called Baku Commune (November 1917 - 31 July 1918). The Commune was formed by 85 Social Revolutionaries and Left Social Revolutionaries, 48 Bolsheviks, 36 Dashnaks, 18 Musavatists and 13 Mensheviks. Stepan Shaumyan, a Bolshevik, and Prokopius Dzhaparidze, a leftist SR, were elected Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissioners of the Commune of Baku. The Baku Soviet was at odds with emergent Transcausian Federation and was supportive of Bolshevik governments in most areas, except peace treaty with Ottoman Empire. Uneasy truce existed between different faction, until Treaty of Brest-Litovsk exposed weakness of the coalition. Combatants Democratic Republic of Armenia Azerbaijan Democratic Republic Commanders Andranik Samedbey Mehmandarov With the declarion of Armenia and Azerbaijan after the Russian Revolution of 1917 ended with a series of brutal and hard to classify wars between 1918, than 1920 to 1922. ... Municipality: Baku Area: 1000 km² Altitude: -28 m Population: 2,074,300 census 2003 Population density: 1280 persons/km² Postal Code: +99450 Area code: 012 Municipality code: BA Latitude: 41° 01 52 N Longitude: 21° 20 25 E Weather types: 9 of 11 Mayor: Hajibala Abutalybov The Baku region. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... View of Tiflis from the Grounds of Saint David Church, ca. ... Ganja (Azerbaijani GÉ™ncÉ™) is Azerbaijans second largest city. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Soviet redirects here. ... The Socialist-Revolutionary Party (SRs, or Esers; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР), эсеры in Russian) were a... In 1917, Russia the Socialist-Revolutionary Party split between those who supported the Provisional Government, established after the February Revolution, and those who supported the Bolsheviks who favoured a communist insurrection. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... The Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF) (Armenian: Hay Heghapokhakan Dashnaktsutiun, Dashnaktsutiun, Dashnak, or Tashnak) is an Armenian political party founded in Georgia in 1890 by Christofor Mikaelian, Rostom Zarian, and Simon Zavarian. ... The Equality Party (Müsavat Partiyası) is a political party in Azerbaijan. ... Leaders of the Menshevik Party at Norra Bantorget in Stockholm, Sweden, May 1917. ... Stepan Shaumyan (? 1878 - 20 September 1918) was an Armenian politician and revolutionary. ... Prokopius Dzhaparidze Prokopius Aprasionovich Dzhaparidze or Japaidze (1880-1918) was a Georgian Communist activist, one of the Red Army and Bolshevik Party leaders in Azerbaijan during the Russian Revolution. ...

This article is part of the series on: Image File history File links Albanian_stone. ...


History of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ...

Early History
Ancient History
Albania and Media
Caucasian Albania
Medieval History
Shirvanshah
Islamic Azerbaijan
Classical History
Safavid Dynasty
Independent Khanates
Russian Rule
Early Independence
Azerbaijan Democratic Republic
Soviet Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
Black January
Modern Azerbaijan
Republic of Azerbaijan

In March 1918, ethnic and religious tension grew and the Armenian-Azeri conflict in Baku began. Musavat and Ittihad parties were accused of Pan-Turkism by Bolsheviks and their allies. Armenian and Muslim militia engaged in armed confrontation, with the formally neutral Bolsheviks tacitly supporting the Armenian side. All the non-Azeri political groups of the city joined the Bolsheviks against the Muslims: Bolsheviks, Dashnaks, Social Revolutionaries, Mensheviks and even the anti-bolshevik Kadets found themselves for the first time on the same side of the barricade because they were all fighting "for the Russian cause". Equating the Azeris with the Ottoman Turks, the Dashnaks launched a massacre on the city's Azeris in revenge for the Armenian Genocide. [5] [6] As a result, between 3,000 and 12,000 were killed in what is known as the March Days. [7] [8] [9] Muslims were expelled from Baku, or went underground. At the same time the Baku Commune was involved in heavy fighting with the advancing Ottoman Caucasian Army of Islam in and around Ganja. Major battles occurred in Yevlakh and Agdash, where the Turks routed and defeated Dashnak and Russian forces. Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Caucasian Albania (or Aghbania) was an ancient kingdom that covered what is now southern Dagestan and most of present-day Azerbaijan. ... // History The role of Shirvanshah (Shirvan) state in national development of Azerbaijan (especially of northern Azerbaijan) is hard to underestimate. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... State motto: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... Soviet government troops arrest several Azeris in a clash with Popular Front protesters in Baku in January 1990. ... Turkic peoples listed geographically. ... The Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF) (Armenian: Hay Heghapokhakan Dashnaktsutiun Dashnaktsutiun, Dashnak, or Tashnak) is an Armenian political party founded in Georgia in 1890 by Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, and Simon Zavarian. ... This article is part of or related to the Liberalism series Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | Historical liberal parties | Political parties of Russian Revolution ... Armenian Genocide photo. ... The March Massacre or March Days refers to a period during the Russian Civil War from March to early April 1918 when ethnic Azerbaijanis were massacred by Armenian nationalist Dashnak party and Soviet Bolsheviks forces in the city of Baku and other areas of former Baku governorate (present-day Azerbaijan). ...


In the summer of 1918, the Dashnaks, together with the SRs and the Mensheviks, expelled the Bolsheviks, who refused to ask for British support, and founded the Centro Caspian Dictatorship (1 August 1918 - 15 September 1918). The CCD was supported by the British who sent an expeditionary force to Baku to help the Armenians and the Mensheviks. Fleeing the coup, the 26 Baku Commissars of the Soviet Commune were captured by British troops in Turkmenistan and executed by a firing squad. The purpose of the British forces (led by Major General Lionel Dunsterville, who arrived from Persia's Enzeli at the head of a 1,000-strong elite force) was to seize the oil fields in Baku ahead of Enver Pasha's advancing Turkish troops (Army of Islam) or the Kaiser's German troops (who were in neighboring Georgia) and to block a Bolshevik consolidation in the Caucasus and Central Asia. Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Diktatura Tsentrokaspiya flag Diktatura Tsentrokaspiya ( Central Caspian Dictatorship ) was a British-controlled anti-Soviet government founded in Baku on August 1, 1918. ... Leaders of the Menshevik Party at Norra Bantorget in Stockholm, Sweden, May 1917. ... The 26 Baku Commissars were Bolshevik and Left SR members of the Baku Soviet Commune that was established in Baku after the October Revolution. ... Execution by firing squad is a method of capital punishment, especially in times of war. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... General Lionel Charles Dunsterville (1865-1946) lead the so-called Dunsterforce across present-day Iran in an attempt to prevent an invasion of India by a combined Germano-Turkish force. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau (Irān - Land of the Aryans[1]) and beyond. ... Anzali Lagoon Bandar-e Anzali (in Persian: بندر انزلی), known as Bandar-e Pahlavi (بندر پهلوی) before the Iranian Revolution, is a harbour town on the Caspian Sea, in the Iranian province of Gilan, close to Rasht. ... Ismail Enver Ismail Enver, known to Europeans during his political career as Enver Pasha ( Istanbul, November 22, 1881 - August 4, 1922) was a military officer and a leader of the Young Turk revolution in the closing days of the Ottoman Empire. ... In 1918, Enver Pasha, the War Minister for the Ottoman Empire ordered the creation of a new military force. ... German Emperor Wilhelm (born Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albrecht, Prince of Prussia 27 January 1859–4 June 1941), was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (de: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. ... The Ethnolinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map Russia Georgia Azerbaijan (Azer. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


Unable to resist advancing Turkish troops, Dunsterville ordered the evacuation of the city on September 14, after six weeks of occupation, and withdrew to Iran; most of the Armenian population escaped with British forces. The Ottoman Army of Islam and its Azeri allies, led by Nuri Pasha, entered Baku on September 15 and slaughtered between 10,000 - 20,000 Armenians in retaliation for the March massacre of Muslims. [9] [10] [6] The capital of the ADR was finally moved from Ganja to Baku. However, after the armistice of Mudros between Great Britain and Turkey on October 30, Turkish troops were substituted by the Allies of World War I. Headed by British general W. Thomson, who had declared himself the military governor of Baku, 5,000 Commonwealth soldiers arrived in Baku on November 17, 1918. By General Thomson's order, martial law was implemented in Baku. September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... In 1918, Enver Pasha, the War Minister for the Ottoman Empire ordered the creation of a new military force. ... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... European military alliances in 1914. ... The Commonwealth of Nations (CN), usually known as the Commonwealth, is a voluntary association of 53 independent sovereign states, the majority of which are former colonies of the United Kingdom. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect (usually after a formal declaration) when a military authority takes control of the normal administration of justice. ...


Fight for survival

The ADR found itself in a difficult position, hemmed in from the north by advancing Denikin forces, unfriendly Iran in the south; the British administration was not hostile but indifferent to the plight of Muslims. General Thomson initially did not recognize the Republic [citation needed] but tacitly cooperated with it. Qajar Iran objected to Azerbaijan's independence, and protested the chosen name for the republic.[citation needed]By mid-1919 the situation in Azerbaijan had more or less stabilized, and British forces left in August 19, 1919. Anton Denikin on the day of his resignation in 1920 Anton Ivanovich Denikin (Анто́н Ива́нович Дени́кин) (December 16, 1872 - August 8, 1947) was a Russian army officer before and during...


This made the ADR pursue a neutral policy with regards to the Russian Civil War. On June 16, 1919, the ADR and Georgia signed a defensive treaty against the White troops of General Anton Denikin's Volunteer Army who were threatening to start an offensive on their borders. Denikin concluded a secret military pact with Armenia. The Republic of Armenia with its forces formed the 7th corps of Denikin's army and gained military support from the White Movement. This fact increased the tension between the ADR and Armenia. However, the war never materialized as by January 1920, Denikin's army was completely defeated by the XI Red Army, that later started to concentrate its troops on Azerbaijan's borders. June 16 is the 167th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (168th in leap years), with 198 days remaining. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Anton Denikin on the day of his resignation in 1920 Anton Ivanovich Denikin (Анто́н Ива́нович Дени́кин) (December 16, 1872 - August 8, 1947) was a Russian army officer before and during... The Volunteer Army (Добровольческая армия in Russian, or Dobrovolcheskaya armiya) was a counterrevolutionary army in South Russia during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920. ... The 11th Army of the Workers and Peasants Red Army (RKKA) was a unit of the then newly created Russian Red Army. ...


Armenia and Azerbaijan were engaged in fighting over Karabakh for some part of 1919. The fighting increased in intensity by February 1920 and martial law was introduced in Karabakh, which was enforced by the newly formed National Army, led by general Samedbey Mehmandarov. Combatants Democratic Republic of Armenia Azerbaijan Democratic Republic Commanders Andranik Samedbey Mehmandarov With the declarion of Armenia and Azerbaijan after the Russian Revolution of 1917 ended with a series of brutal and hard to classify wars between 1918, than 1920 to 1922. ... Samedbey Mehmandarov Samedbey Sadykhbey oglu Mehmandarov (Azeri: Səməd bəy Sadığ bəy oğlu Mehmandarov, 1855 - 1931) was Artillery General of the Russian Army and Minister of Defense of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. ...


Sovietization of Azerbaijan, April 1920

Flag of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic from 1920 to 1921
Flag of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic from 1920 to 1921

By March 1920, it was obvious that Soviet Russia would attack the much-needed Baku. Vladimir Lenin said that the invasion was justified by the fact that Soviet Russia couldn't survive without Baku oil. According to prevailing opinion in Moscow, Russian Bolsheviks were to assist Baku proletariat in overthrowing the "counter-revolutionary nationalists." Image File history File links Azerbaijansovietrep1920-1921. ... Image File history File links Azerbaijansovietrep1920-1921. ... Lenin redirects here. ... Bolshevist Russia is a common term that refers to the Red side in the Russian government between the Bolsheviks October Revolution (November 7, 1917) and the constitution of the Soviet Union (December 30, 1922). ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ...


After major political crisis, the Fifth Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic gave its resignations on April 1, 1920. On April 25, 1920, the Russian XI Red Army crossed into Azerbaijan and entered Baku on April 27. They demanded the dissolution of Azerbaijani Parliament (Majlis) and set up their own Bolshevik government headed by Nariman Narimanov. The deputies obliged to do so to avoid bloodshed, and on April 28, 1920, the ADR officially ceased to exist. The Red Army met very little resistance from Azerbaijani forces in Baku, which were tied up on Karabakh front. April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (116th in leap years). ... The 11th Army of the Workers and Peasants Red Army (RKKA) was a unit of the then newly created Russian Red Army. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Nariman Kerbalay Nadzhaf ogly Narimanov (April 2, 1870, Tiflis - March 19, 1925, Moscow) was an Azerbaijani revolutionary, writer, publicist, politician and statesman. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 247 days remaining. ...


In May 1920, there was a major uprising against the occupying Russian XI Army in Ganja, intent on restoring Musavatists in power. The uprising was crushed by the Bolsheviks by May 31. Leaders of the ADR either fled to Menshevik Georgia, Turkey and Iran, or were captured by Bolsheviks, like Mammed Amin Rasulzade (who was later allowed to emigrate) and executed (like Gen. Selimov, Gen. Sulkevich, Gen. Agalarov, a total of over 20 generals)[2], or assassinated by Armenian militants like Fatali Khan Khoyski and Behbudagha Javanshir.[3] Most students and citizens travelling abroad remained in those countries never to return again to their country. Other prominent ADR military figures like the former Minister of Defense Samedbey Mehmandarov and general Aliaga Shikhlinsky ( who was called "the God of Artillery" ) were at first arrested but then released two months later thanks to Nariman Narimanov. Mehmandarov and Shikhlinsky spent their last years teaching in the Azerbaijan SSR military school. Ganja (Azerbaijani Gəncə) is Azerbaijans second largest city. ... The Equality Party (Müsavat Partiyası) is a political party in Azerbaijan. ... Leaders of the Menshevik Party at Norra Bantorget in Stockholm, Sweden, May 1917. ... [[1]] Mammed Amin Rasulzade (Azeri: Məmmədəmin Rəsulzadə; January 31, 1884, Novkhany, near Baku—March 6, 1955, Ankara) was an Azerbaijani statesman, public figure and one of the founding political leaders of the First Azerbaijan Republic (1918-1920). ... Fatali Khan Iskender oglu Khoyski (December 7, 1875, Sheki - June 19, 1920, Tbilisi) was a prominent Azerbaijani politician, Prime Minister of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. ... Samedbey Mehmandarov Samedbey Sadykhbey oglu Mehmandarov (Azeri: Səməd bəy Sadığ bəy oğlu Mehmandarov, 1855 - 1931) was Artillery General of the Russian Army and Minister of Defense of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. ... Nariman Kerbalay Nadzhaf ogly Narimanov (April 2, 1870, Tiflis - March 19, 1925, Moscow) was an Azerbaijani revolutionary, writer, publicist, politician and statesman. ... State motto: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ Historical Dictionary of Azerbaijan by Tadeusz Swietochowski and Brian C. Collins, ISBN 0-8108-3550-9 (retrieved 07 June 2006).
  2. ^ The Azerbaijani Turks: Power and Identity under Russian Rule by Audrey Altstadt, ISBN 0-8179-9182-4 (retrieved 07 June 2006).
  3. ^ FRAWARDIN YASHT ("Hymn to the Guardian Angels"). Translated by James Darmesteter (From Sacred Books of the East, American Edition, 1898.).
  4. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan
  5. ^ Michael P. Croissant. The Armenia-Azerbaijan Conflict: Causes and Implications, p. 14. ISBN 0-275-96241-5
  6. ^ a b Tadeusz Swietochowski. Russia and Azerbaijan: A Borderland in Transition. ISBN 0-231-07068-3
  7. ^ Firuz Kazemzadeh, Ph.D. The Struggle For Transcaucasia: 1917-1921. ISBN 0-8305-0076-6
  8. ^ (Russian) Michael Smith. Azerbaijan and Russia: Society and State: Traumatic Loss and Azerbaijani National Memory
  9. ^ a b Human Rights Watch. “Playing the "Communal Card": Communal Violence and Human Rights”
  10. ^ Croissant. Armenia-Azerbaijan Conflict, p. 15.

June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Gulistan Treaty of 1813 (also written Golestan, Gulestan, and Golistan), was a peace treaty between imperial Russia and Persia, signed on October 24 (November 5) in a village of Gulestan in Karabakh at the end of the first Russo-Persian Wars (1804-1813). ... [[Image:Turkmanchai. ... The Kurekchay Treaty is a territorial division treaty of Azerbaijan signed between Russia and Iran aswell as the Gulistan Treaty (October 12, 1813) and Turkmanchai Treaty (February 10, 1828). ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Woodrow Wilson and the American peace commissioners during the negotiations on the Treaty of Versailles. ... A surcharged stamp published under the name of Azarbaijan Peoples Government The Azerbaijan Peoples Government (APG) was a short-lived, Soviet-backed client state (November 1945 - November 1946) in northern Iran. ... Motto: None Anthem: Dideba Zetsit Kurtheuls (Praise Be To The Heavenly Bestower of Blessings) Capital Tbilisi Largest city Tbilisi Official language(s) Georgian Government Chairman of the Government Parliamentary democracy Noe Zhordania Independence - Declared - Formerly From the Russian Empire May 26, 1918 Transcaucasian Federation Population c. ... National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Ô´Õ¥Õ´Õ¸Õ¯Ö€Õ¡Õ¿Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Õ€Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ½Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ« Õ€Õ¡Õ¶Ö€Õ¡ÕºÕ¥Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of...

External links

  • Account of British Force in Baku

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