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Encyclopedia > Azerbaijan
Azərbaycan Respublikası
Republic of Azerbaijan
Flag of Azerbaijan Coat of arms of Azerbaijan
Flag Coat of arms
Mottonone
AnthemAzərbaycan Respublikasının Dövlət Himni
(March of Azerbaijan)

Location of Azerbaijan
Capital
(and largest city)
Baku
40°22′N, 49°53′E
Official languages Azerbaijani
Demonym Azerbaijani
Government Presidential republic
 -  President Ilham Aliyev
 -  Prime Minister Artur Rasizade
Independence from the Soviet Union 
 -  Declared August 30, 1991 
 -  Completed October 18, 1991 
Area
 -  Total 86,600 km² (114th)
33,436 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.6%
Population
 -  April 2008 estimate 8,653,000 [2] (91st)
 -  2002 census 8,265,000 
 -  Density 97/km² (100th)
251/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $52.35 billion (77th)
 -  Per capita $6.476 (96th)
GDP (nominal) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $19.81 billion (85th)
 -  Per capita $3,633 (88th)
Gini (2006) 36.5 (58th)
HDI (2007) 0.746 (medium) (98th)
Currency Manat (AZN)
Time zone (UTC+4)
 -  Summer (DST)  (UTC+5)
Internet TLD .az
Calling code +994
The Maiden Tower in old Baku
The Maiden Tower in old Baku

Azerbaijan (IPA: /ˌæzəbaɪˈʤɑːn/ (UK), /ˌɑzɚbaɪˈʤɑːn/ (US); Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Respublikası), is the largest and most populous country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, it is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west, and Iran to the south. The Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan is bordered by Armenia to the north and east, Iran to the south and west, and Turkey to the northwest. Nagorno-Karabakh, along with 7 other districts in Azerbaijan's southwest, have been controlled by Armenia since the end of the Nagorno-Karabakh War in 1994.[1] Four United Nations Security Council Resolutions (822, 853, 874, and 884) called for "the withdrawal of occupying forces from occupied areas of the Azerbaijani Republic"[2] The country's territory also encompasses several islands in the Caspian Sea. Azerbaijan, a nation with an ethnic Azeri and Shi‘ite Muslim majority population,[3][4] is a secular and unitary republic. The country has been a co-founder of GUAM and the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, and has been a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States since September 1993.[5] The country has a Permanent Mission to the European Union, hosts a Special Envoy of the European Commission and is a member of the United Nations, OSCE, Council of Europe, and the NATO Partnership for Peace (PfP) program. Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: AzÉ™rbaycan) is a country in the Caucasus, at the crossroads of Europe and Southwest Asia, with a coast on the Caspian Sea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Azerbaijan. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Azerbaijan mixes traditional and modern symbols. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... AzÉ™rbaycan Respublikasının DövlÉ™t Himni is the national anthem of Azerbaijan, the original title of which is March of Azerbaijan (AzÉ™rbaycan marşı). The words were written by the poet Ahmed Javad, and the music was composed by the legendary Azeri composer Uzeyir Hajibeyov. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Demographics of Azerbaijan, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... Location in Azerbaijan Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - Total 260 km² (100. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separately from the legislature, to which it is not accountable and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... The country of Azerbaijan is a presidential republic, with the President of Azerbaijan as the head of state, and the Prime Minister of Azerbaijan as head of government. ... Ilham Heydar oglu Aliyev (Azerbaijani: Ä°lham HeydÉ™r oÄŸlu Əliyev) (born December 24, 1961) is the current President of Azerbaijan. ... Politics of Azerbaijan takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, , with the President of Azerbaijan as the head of state, and the Prime Minister of Azerbaijan as head of government. ... Artur Tahir oÄŸlu RasizadÉ™ (born 1935) is the Prime Minister of Azerbaijan. ... The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... World map of GDP (Nominal and PPP). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by 2006 GDP (nominal) per capita (IMF, October 2007). ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... World map of the Gini coefficient This is a list of countries or dependencies by Income inequality metrics, sorted in ascending order according to their Gini coefficient. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... The manat is the currency unit of Azerbaijan. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .az is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Azerbaijan. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Area codes in Azerbaijan. ... For other uses, see Inner City (disambiguation) Inner City (Azeri: İçəri ŞəhÉ™r) is the ancient historical core of Baku. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ... This article is about the autonomous region. ... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... Combatants Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh1 Republic of Armenia 2 CIS mercenaries Republic of Azerbaijan Afghan Mujahideen 3 Chechen Volunteers 4 CIS mercenaries Commanders Samvel Babayan, Hemayag Haroyan, Monte Melkonian, Vazgen Sargsyan, Arkady Ter-Tatevosyan Ä°sgandar Hamidov, Suret Huseynov, Rahim Gaziev, Shamil Basayev Casualties 6,000 dead, 25,000 wounded 17... “Security Council” redirects here. ... This article is about the Azerbaijani ethnic group. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about secularism. ... In politics, unitarisation is a process of uniting a political entity which consists of smaller regions, either by cancelling the regions completely or by transferring their power to the central government. ... For GUAM, an eastern European international organization, see GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development. ... The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) is not an agency of the United Nations. ...  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Sergei Lebedev Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... UN redirects here. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... This article is about the military alliance. ...

Contents

Etymology of the name

Main article: Atropates

The name of Azerbaijan derives from Atropates[6][7], a satrap of Persia under the Achaemenid empire, who was later reinstated as the satrap of Media under Alexander of Macedonia.[8][9] The original etymology of this name is thought to have its roots in the ancient Zoroastrianism, namely, in Avestan Frawardin Yasht ("Hymn to the Guardian Angels"), there is a mentioning of: âterepâtahe ashaonô fravashîm ýazamaide, which literally translates from Old Persian as "we worship the Fravashi of the holy Atare-pata"[10] . Atropates ruled over the region of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan. The name "Atropates" itself is derived from Old Persian roots meaning "protected by fire."[11] Azerbaijan is the name used by the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Iranian region of Azerbaijan. ... Atropates (Greek Aτρoπάτης, from Old Persian Aturpat protected by fire[1]) was a Mede nobleman who served Darius III, then Alexander the Great, and eventually founded an independent kingdom and dynasty that was named after him. ... Atropates (Greek Aτρoπάτης, from Old Persian Aturpat protected by fire[1]) was a Mede nobleman who served Darius III, then Alexander the Great, and eventually founded an independent kingdom and dynasty that was named after him. ... Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... Faravahar, believed to be a depiction of a Fravashi. ... Atropates (Greek Aτρoπάτης, from Old Persian Aturpat protected by fire[1]) was a Mede nobleman who served Darius III, then Alexander the Great, and eventually founded an independent kingdom and dynasty that was named after him. ... Iranian Azerbaijan or Iranian Azarbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان ایران; Ä€zārbāijān-e Irān), (Azeri: اذربایجان, c. ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ...


History

Main article: History of Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ...

Ancient History

The earliest evidence of human settlement in the territory of Azerbaijan dates to the late Stone Age and is related to the Quruçay culture of Azykh Cave. The Upper Paleolithic and particularly Mousterian cultures are attested to in the caves of Tağlar, Damcili, Zar, Yataq-yeri, etc. Jugs with the remnants of dry wine, revealed in the necropolises of Leylatepe and Sarytepe, testify to wine-making activity during the Late Bronze Age. Stone Age fishing hook. ... The Azykh Cave (alternatively known as Azikh or Azokh; Azeri: Azıx maÄŸarası) is an impressive six-cave complex known as a living site of stone-age man. ... The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... Mousterian is a name given by archaeologists to a style of predominantly flint tools (or industry) associated primarily with Homo neanderthalensis and dating to the Middle Paleolithic, the middle part of the Old Stone Age. ... Zar may refer to: Alternative spelling of Tsar South African currency, the rand Zar (religious custom), a widespread religious custom to placate spirits who are believed to have possessed them. ... For the record label, see Necropolis Records. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ...

Mausoleum of Shirvanshahs in old Baku.
Mausoleum of Shirvanshahs in old Baku.

The entire South Caucasus was conquered by the Achaemenids around 550 B.C., which led to the spread of Zoroastrianism in this part of the Persian Empire. After its overthrow by Alexander the Great, the Seleucid Greeks, who inherited the Caucasus, were ultimately beset by pressures from Rome, secessionist Greeks in Bactria and most adversely the Parthians. Caucasian Albanians, the original inhabitants of the area established a kingdom in the 4th century B.C. In 95-67 B.C. parts of Caucasian Albania may have been under the subjugation of neighboring Armenia, as a part of Tigranes the Great's empire. According to Strabo, as the Romans and Parthians began to expand their domains, Albania, unlike Iberia and Armenia, remained independent of Roman domination, signing a peace treaty (Strabo XI, 4, 5). The Roman inscription found in Gobustan testifies to the presence of Legio XII Fulminata in the time of Domitian. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (853x1280, 186 KB) This image was originally posted to Flickr as 03520018. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (853x1280, 186 KB) This image was originally posted to Flickr as 03520018. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Persia redirects here. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Caucasian Albania (or Aghbania) was an ancient kingdom that covered what is now southern Dagestan and most of present-day Azerbaijan. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Caucasian Albania (or Aghbania) was an ancient kingdom that covered what is now southern Dagestan and most of present-day Azerbaijan. ... This article is about a king of Armenia in the 1st century BCE. For other historical figures with the same name (including other kings of Armenia) see Tigranes. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Qobustan is a rayon of Azerbaijan. ... Legio XII Fulminata, also known as Paterna or Antiqua, was originally levied by Julius Caesar in 58 BC and accompanied him during the Gallic wars until 49 BC. They were stationed in Pharsalus in 48 BC and probably fought in the Battle of Pharsalus. ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ...


Caucasian Albania remained largely independent until the Sassanids turned it into a vassal state in 252 A.D. King Urnayr of Caucasian Albania officially adopted Christianity as the state religion in the 4th century A.D., and Albania remained a predominantly Christian state until the Islamic conquest of the 8th century A.D. Despite numerous conquests by the Sassanids and Byzantines, Caucasian Albania remained an entity in the region until the 9th century A.D. The territory of modern Azerbaijan roughly corresponds to the ancient state of Caucasian Albania.[12] Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Caucasian Albania (or Aghbania) was an ancient kingdom that covered what is now southern Dagestan and most of present-day Azerbaijan. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Caucasian Albania (or Aghbania) was an ancient kingdom that covered what is now southern Dagestan and most of present-day Azerbaijan. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Caucasian Albania (or Aghbania) was an ancient kingdom that covered what is now southern Dagestan and most of present-day Azerbaijan. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Caucasian Albania (or Aghbania) was an ancient kingdom that covered what is now southern Dagestan and most of present-day Azerbaijan. ...


Medieval History

The Islamic Umayyad Caliphate defeated both the Sassanids and the Byzantines, making Caucasian Albania a vassal state after the Christian resistance, led by Prince Javanshir, was suppressed in 667 A.D. After the decline of Abbasid Caliphate, the territory of present-day Azerbaijan was under the sway of numerous dynasties such as the Salarids, Sajids, Shaddadids, Rawadids and Buyids. At the beginning of the 11th century, the territory was gradually seized by waves of Turkic Oghuz tribes from Central Asia. The first of these dynasties were the Ghaznavids, who took over part of the area now known as Azerbaijan by 1030. The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the Quraish. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Caucasian Albania (or Aghbania) was an ancient kingdom that covered what is now southern Dagestan and most of present-day Azerbaijan. ... Javanshir (also spelled Jevanshir or Dzhavanshir, Azeri: CavanÅŸir, literally the young lion) (died in 669) was a presiding prince of the Girdman region in the Caucasian Albania from 635 to 669, whose deeds are the subject of legends and epic. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire, that overthrew the Umayyid caliphs. ... The Sallarid dynasty (also known as the Musafirids or Langarids) was an Islamic dynasty principally known for its rule of Iranian Azerbaijan and part of Armenia from 942 until 979. ... The Sajid dynasty was an Islamic dynasty that ruled Azerbaijan from 889-890 until 929. ... The Shaddadids were a Kurdish dynasty, who ruled in various parts of Armenia, including Arran from 951-1174 or 1199 A.D. They were established Dvin. ... Rawadid (also Rawwadid or Ravvadid), (955-1227), was a Kurdish principality ruling Azerbaijan from the 10th to the early 13th centuries, centered around Tabriz and Maragheh(Maragha). ... The Buwayhids or Buyyids or Āl-i Buyeh, were a Shiite tribal confederation from Daylam, a region on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... For all Turkic groupings and Turkic history, see Turkic peoples. ... The Ghaznavid Empire was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 977 to 1186. ...


Locally, the possessions of the subsequent Seljuk Empire were ruled by atabegs, who were technically vassals of the Seljuk sultans, being sometimes de facto rulers themselves. Under the Seljuk Turks, local poets such as Nizami Ganjavi and Khagani Shirvani gave rise to a blossoming of Persian literature on the territory of present-day Azerbaijan. The next ruling state of the Jalayirids was short-lived and fell under the conquests of Tamerlan. The local dynasty of Shirvanshahs became a vassal state of Tamerlan's empire and assisted Tamerlan in his war with the ruler of the Golden Horde Tokhtamysh. Following Tamerlan's death two independent and rival states emerged: Kara Koyunlu and Ak Koyunlu. Until his death the Ak Koyunlu sultan Uzun Hasan ruled the whole territory now known as Azerbaijan. Thereafter the Shirvanshahs maintained a high degree of autonomy as local rulers and vassals from 861 until 1539. As the Shirvanshahs were persecuted by the Safavids, the last dynasty imposed Shia Islam upon the formerly Sunni population, battling against the Sunni Ottoman Empire. The area was ruled under Iranian dynasties of Afshar and Zand following the collapse of the Safavids and briefly under Qajars. In the meanwhile, however, Persian ruled [13] but de facto independent khanates[14][15][16][17][18] emerged in the area, especially following collapse of Zand dynasty and in early Qajar era. Engaged in constant warfare, these khanates were eventually incorporated to the Russian Empire, following two Russo-Persian Wars. Under the Treaty of Turkmenchay the Persian Empire recognized Russian sovereignty over the Erivan khanate, the Nakhchivan khanate and the remainder of the Talysh khanate. The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that occupied parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Nezami is pictured on a rug in a museum in Ganja, Azerbaijan Nezami Ganjavi (نظامی گنجوی in Persian, Nizami Gəncəvi in Azerbaijani)‎ (1140? – 1217?), with the complete name of Nezam al-Din Abu Mohammad Elyas Ibn Yosouf Ibn Zaki Ibn Mo’ayyed Nezami Ganjavi, was an Iranian poet and storywriter. ... Sclupture of Khaqani in Tabriz. ... Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray. ... edit The Jalayirids (آل جلایر) were a Mongol descendant dynasty which ruled over Iraq and western Persia [1] after the breakup of the Mongol Khanate of Persia (or Ilkhanate) in the 1330s. ... Statue of Timur in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan TÄ«mÅ«r bin Taraghay Barlas (Chagatai Turkic: تیمور - TÄ“mōr, iron) (1336 – February 1405) was a 14th-century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent[1][2][3][4], conqueror of much of Western and central Asia, and founder of the Timurid Empire (1370–1405... // History The role of Shirvanshah (Shirvan) state in national development of Azerbaijan (especially of northern Azerbaijan) is hard to underestimate. ... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3] — later Turkicized[4] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire after the Mongol invasion of Rus in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... Tokhtamysh (d. ... Flag of the Kara Koyunlu For the district in Turkey, see Karakoyunlu. ... Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative) The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: AÄŸqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ... Uzun Hassan, prince of the Ak-Koyunla dynasty, or White Sheep Turkmen, ruled parts of western Persia, Iraq and Turkey between 1435 and 1478. ... // History The role of Shirvanshah (Shirvan) state in national development of Azerbaijan (especially of northern Azerbaijan) is hard to underestimate. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Afsharid Dynasty (1723-1735) Bronze statue of Nader Shah, by Master Sadighi. ... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... Flag Map of Iran under the Qajar dynasty in the 19th century. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Russia-Persia borders before and after the treaty The Treaty of Turkmenchay (Russian: Туркманчайский договор; Persian: عهدنامه ترکمنچای) was a treaty negotiated in Turkmenchay by which the Persian Empire, more commonly known today as Iran, recognized Russian suzerainty over the Erivan khanate, Nakhchivan khanate and the remainder of the Talysh khanate, establishing the Aras... Persia redirects here. ... Erivan (Yerevan), Erwan (آرون) Khanate was a Muslim principality under the dominion of Persia that existed on the territory of modern Armenia and parts of Azerbaijan between 1747 and 1828. ... Nakhchivan khanate (Naxçıvan xanlığı in Azerbaijani) was a feudal state that existed in the territory of the present-day Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. ... Talysh khanate was an independent principality that existed on the territory of modern Azerbaijan Republic between 1747 and 1813. ...


First Independence and Soviet Azerbaijan

After the collapse of the Russian Empire during World War I, Azerbaijan, together with Armenia and Georgia became part of the short-lived Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. When the republic dissolved in May 1918, Azerbaijan declared independence as the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR). The ADR was the first democratic parliamentary republic in the Muslim world, but lasted only 23 months until the Bolshevik XIth Red Army invaded in April 1920. Overthrowing the ADR government, Bolsheviks established Azerbaijan SSR in Baku on April 28, 1920. The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Flag Russian Transcaucasia immediately prior to the formation of the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. ... Motto: None Anthem: AzÉ™rbaycan Respublikasının DövlÉ™t Himni March of Azerbaijan Map of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1919 to 1920. ... Parliamentary republics around the world, shown in Orange (Parliamentary republics with a non-executive President) and Green (Parliamentary republics with an executive President linked to Parliament). ... This article is about the Bolshevik faction in the RSDLP 1903-1912. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... State motto: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... Location in Azerbaijan Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - Total 260 km² (100. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1922, Azerbaijan, along with Armenia and Georgia, became part of the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic {TSFSR), which itself became a constituent member of the newly-established Soviet Union. In 1936, TSFSR was dissolved and Azerbaijan SSR became one of the 12 (by 1940 - 15) constituent member states of the Soviet Union. The Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic was a short-lived (1922-1936) Soviet republic, consisting of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, which were traditionally known as the Transcaucasian Republics in the Soviet Union. ... State motto: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ...


During the 1940s, the Azerbaijan SSR supplied much of the Soviet Union's oil on the Eastern Front of World War II. Close to 600,000 Azerbaijanis fought on this front against Nazi Germany. Operation Edelweiss was launched by Adolf Hitler to occupy the Caucasian oilfields and capture Baku, but all the offensives were pushed back. The Germans made largely fruitless efforts to enlist the cooperation of émigré political figures, such as Mammed Amin Rasulzade, who came to Berlin and found opportunities to meet captured Soviet Azerbaijani POWs.[19] Combatants Soviet Union1 Poland Germany1 Italy (to 1943) Romania Finland (to 1944) Hungary Slovakia Commanders Aleksei Antonov Ivan Konev Rodion Malinovsky Kirill Meretskov Ivan Petrov Alexander Rodimtsev Konstantin Rokossovsky Pavel Rotmistrov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Tolbukhin Aleksandr Vasilevsky Nikolai Vatutin Kliment Voroshilov Andrei Yeremenko Matvei Zakharov Georgy Zhukov Fedor von Bock... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Operation Edelweiss (German: Edelweiß, named after the prominent German 1st Mountain Division) was a German plan to gain control over the Caucasus and capture the oil fields of Baku during the Soviet-German War. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Location in Azerbaijan Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - Total 260 km² (100. ... Mammad Amin Rasulzade Mammed Amin Rasulzade (Azerbaijani: ; January 31, 1884, Novkhana, near Baku—March 6, 1955, Ankara) was an Azerbaijani statesman, scholar, public figure and one of the founding political leaders of Azerbaijan Republic (1918-1920). ... State motto: Azerbaijani: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Baku Official language Azerbaijani, Russian, and Armenian (in the Nagorno-Karabakh AO) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until April 28, 1920 December 30, 1922 August 30, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 9th in the USSR 86,600 km² negligible Population... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...

A painting by Enver Aliyev depicting Azerbaijani citizens digging entrenchments and antitank obstacles near Baku to prevent a possible Nazi invasion.
A painting by Enver Aliyev depicting Azerbaijani citizens digging entrenchments and antitank obstacles near Baku to prevent a possible Nazi invasion.

Image File history File links Transheya. ... Image File history File links Transheya. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...

Newly Independent Azerbaijan

Following the politics of glasnost, initiated by the last General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev, civil unrest and ethnic strife grew in various regions of the Soviet Union, including Nagorno-Karabakh, a region of the Azerbaijan SSR. The disturbances in Azerbaijan, in response to Moscow's indifference to already heated conflict, resulted in calls for independence and secession from the USSR, which subsequently culminated in the events of Black January in Baku. At this time, Ayaz Mutallibov was appointed as the First Secretary of the Azerbaijan Communist Party. //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... Joseph Stalin, first General Secretary The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (First Secretary in 1953-1966) was the title synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union after Vladimir Lenins death in 1924. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... State motto: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Soviet government troops arrest several Azeris in a clash with Popular Front protesters in Baku in January 1990. ... Location in Azerbaijan Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - Total 260 km² (100. ... Ayaz Niyazi oÄŸlu Mütallibov (Ayaz Niyazi oÄŸlu MütÉ™llibov in Azeri) (in Russian : Аяз Ниязиевич Муталибов Ayaz Niyaziyevich Mutalibov) (born 1938) was an Azerbaijani Communist political figure. ... The Azerbaijan Communist Party (Azərbaycan Kommunist Partiyası) is a communist political party in Azerbaijan. ...


Later in 1990, the Supreme Council of the Azerbaijan SSR dropped the words "Soviet Socialist" from the title; adopted the Declaration of Sovereignty of the Azerbaijan Republic, a constituent member of Soviet Union; and restored the modified flag of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic as a state flag. In early 1991, the Supreme Council of Azerbaijan established the office of the presidency. Ayaz Mutallibov was subsequently elected as the first president by the Council. On September 8, 1991, Ayaz Mutallibov was elected as president in nationwide elections in which he was the only candidate running. Motto: None Anthem: AzÉ™rbaycan Respublikasının DövlÉ™t Himni March of Azerbaijan Map of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1919 to 1920. ... Ayaz Niyazi oÄŸlu Mütallibov (Ayaz Niyazi oÄŸlu MütÉ™llibov in Azeri) (in Russian : Аяз Ниязиевич Муталибов Ayaz Niyaziyevich Mutalibov) (born 1938) was an Azerbaijani Communist political figure. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... Ayaz Niyazi oÄŸlu Mütallibov (Ayaz Niyazi oÄŸlu MütÉ™llibov in Azeri) (in Russian : Аяз Ниязиевич Муталибов Ayaz Niyaziyevich Mutalibov) (born 1938) was an Azerbaijani Communist political figure. ...


On October 18, 1991, Supreme Council of Azerbaijan adopted a Declaration of Independence which was affirmed by a nationwide referendum in December, 1991, when the Soviet Union was officially dissolved. The early years of independence were overshadowed by the Nagorno-Karabakh War with neighboring Armenia. By the end of hostilities in 1994, Azerbaijan lost control of up to 16% of its internationally recognized territory, including Nagorno-Karabakh itself.[20][21] In 1993, democratically elected president Abulfaz Elchibey was overthrown by a military insurrection led by Colonel Suret Huseynov, which resulted in the rise to power of the former leader of Soviet Azerbaijan, Heydar Aliyev. In 1994, Suret Huseynov, by that time a prime minister, attempted another military coup against Heydar Aliyev but failed, was arrested and was charged with treason. In 1995, another coup attempt against Aliyev, by the commander of the military police, Rovshan Javadov, was averted, resulting in the killing of the latter and disbanding of Azerbaijan's military police. is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... Combatants Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh1 Republic of Armenia 2 CIS mercenaries Republic of Azerbaijan Afghan Mujahideen 3 Chechen Volunteers 4 CIS mercenaries Commanders Samvel Babayan, Hemayag Haroyan, Monte Melkonian, Vazgen Sargsyan, Arkady Ter-Tatevosyan Ä°sgandar Hamidov, Suret Huseynov, Rahim Gaziev, Shamil Basayev Casualties 6,000 dead, 25,000 wounded 17... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... Abulfaz Elchibey (ƏbülfÉ™z ElçibÉ™y in Azerbaijani; b. ... State motto: Azerbaijani: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Baku Official language Azerbaijani, Russian, and Armenian (in the Nagorno-Karabakh AO) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until April 28, 1920 December 30, 1922 August 30, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 9th in the USSR 86,600 km² negligible Population... Heydar Alirza oglu Aliyev (HeydÉ™r Əlirza oÄŸlu Əliyev in Azerbaijani) (sometimes transliterated as Heidar Aliev or Geidar Aliev from the Russian Гейдар Алиев) (May 10, 1923? - December 12, 2003) served as president of Azerbaijan for the New Azerbaijan Party from June 1993 to October 2003, when his son Ilham Aliyev... Heydar Alirza oglu Aliyev (HeydÉ™r Əlirza oÄŸlu Əliyev in Azerbaijani) (sometimes transliterated as Heidar Aliev or Geidar Aliev from the Russian Гейдар Алиев) (May 10, 1923? - December 12, 2003) served as president of Azerbaijan for the New Azerbaijan Party from June 1993 to October 2003, when his son Ilham Aliyev... Heydar Alirza oglu Aliyev (HeydÉ™r Əlirza oÄŸlu Əliyev in Azerbaijani) (sometimes transliterated as Heidar Aliev or Geidar Aliev from the Russian Гейдар Алиев) (May 10, 1923? - December 12, 2003) served as president of Azerbaijan for the New Azerbaijan Party from June 1993 to October 2003, when his son Ilham Aliyev... The Singapore Armed Forces Military Police Command providing security coverage at the Padang in Singapore during the National Day Parade in 2000. ...


Although during his presidency, Aliyev managed to reduce the country's unemployment, reined in criminal groups, established the fundamental institutions of independent statehood, and brought stability, peace and major foreign investment, the country was tainted by rampant corruption in the governing bureaucracy. In October 1998, Aliyev was reelected for a second term. Despite the much improved economy, particularly with the exploitations of Azeri-Chirag-Guneshli oil field and Shah Deniz gas field, Aliyev's presidency became unpopular due to vote fraud, wide-spread corruption and objection to his autocratic regime. The same harsh criticism followed the elections of former Prime Minister Ilham Aliyev, the second leader of New Azerbaijan Party after the death of his father Heydar. Azeri-Chirag-Guneshli (ACG) is a large complex of oil fields in the Caspian Sea, about 120 kilometres off the coast of Azerbaijan. ... Shah Deniz gas field is the largest natural gas field in Azerbaijan. ... Autocracy is a form of government where unlimited power is held by a single individual. ... Politics of Azerbaijan takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, , with the President of Azerbaijan as the head of state, and the Prime Minister of Azerbaijan as head of government. ... Ilham Heydar oglu Aliyev (Azerbaijani: İlham Heydər oğlu Əliyev) (born December 24, 1961) is the current President of Azerbaijan. ... The New Azerbaijan Party (Yeni Azərbaycan Partiyası) is the ruling political party in Azerbaijan. ...


Geography

See also: Extreme points of Azerbaijan

The total length of Azerbaijani land borders is 2,648 km, of which Armenia constitutes 1007, Iran 756, Georgia 480, Russia - 390 and Turkey - 15.[22] The coastline stretches for 800 km and the length of the widest area of the Azerbaijani section of Caspian Sea is 456 km.[22] The territory of Azerbaijan extends 400 km from north to south, and 500 km from west to east. The three mountain ranges are the Greater and Lesser Caucasus, and the Talysh Mountains, together covering approximately 40% of the country.[23] The highest peak of Azerbaijan is mount Bazardüzü (4,466 m), while the lowest point lies in the Caspian Sea (-28 m). Nearly half of all the mud volcanoes on Earth are concentrated in Azerbaijan. Map of Azerbaijan with cities This article describes the geography of Azerbaijan. ... Map of Azerbaijan This is a list of the extreme points of Azerbaijan, the points that are farther north, south, east or west than any other location. ... This is a list of land borders between countries Note: Entries which are not sovereign states are italicised. ... A coastal image featured on a United States postal stamp. ... Greater Caucasus (Russian: , sometimes translated as Caucasus Major, Big Caucasus or Large Caucasus) is the major mountain range of Caucasus mountains. ... Lesser Caucasus (Azeri: Kiçik Qafqaz DaÄŸları, Georgian: მცირე კავკასიონი, Russian: , sometimes translated as Caucasus Minor) is one of the two main mountain ranges of Caucasus mountains, of length about 600 km. ... Talysh Mountains (Persian Kuhha-ye Tavalesh, Russian Talyshinskiye Gory) is a mountain chain in northwestern Iran, in the northwest section of the Elburz Mountains, extending southeastward from the border with the Republic of Azerbaijan to the lower part of the Safid Rud (Safid River). ... Bazardüzü Dağı is the highest mountain in Azerbaijan at 4,485 metres above sea level. ... A gaseous mud volcano The term mud volcano or mud dome is used to refer to formations created by geologically excreted liquids and gases, although there are several different processes which may cause such activity. ...

NASA satellite image of Azerbaijan, as of March, 2003.
NASA satellite image of Azerbaijan, as of March, 2003.

The main water sources are the surface waters. However, only 24 of the 8,350 rivers are greater than 100 km in length.[23] All the rivers drain into the Caspian Sea in the east of the country.[23] The largest lake is Sarısu (67 km²) and the longest river is Kur (1,515 km), which is transboundary. Azerbaijan's four main islands in the Caspian Sea have a combined area of over thirty square kilometers. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 754 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2002 × 1593 pixel, file size: 526 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A cropped satellite image showing Azerbaijan in March 2003. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 754 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2002 × 1593 pixel, file size: 526 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A cropped satellite image showing Azerbaijan in March 2003. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Mtkvari (Kura) River near Old Town, Tbilisi Kura (Georgian მტკვარი - Mtkvari, Azerbaijani Kür) is a river in the Caucasus Mountains. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ...


Climate

Main article: Climate of Azerbaijan

The formation of climate in Azerbaijan is influenced particularly by cold arctic air masses of Scandinavian anticyclone, temperate of Siberian anticyclone, and Central Asian anticyclone.[24] Regarding landscape diversity, air masses have different ways to enter the country.[24] The Greater Caucasus protects the country from direct influences of cold air masses, coming from the north. That leads to the formation of subtropical climate on most foothills and plains of the country. Meanwhile plains and foothills are characterized by high solar radiation rates. The Climate of Azerbaijan is unique, nine of the Earths eleven climate zones can be found in Azerbaijan. ... For the ships, see USS Arctic, SS Arctic, MV Arctic The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, sometimes used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic... Air mass - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... In meteorology, an anticyclone (that is, opposite to a cyclone) is a weather phenomenon in which there is a descending movement of the air and a high pressure area over the part of the planets surface affected by it. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Subtropical (or semitropical) areas are those adjacent to the tropics, usually roughly defined as the ranges 23. ... Solar irradiance spectrum at top of atmosphere. ...


Nine out of eleven existing climate zones are present in Azerbaijan.[25] Both the absolute minimum temperature (-33 °C (-27.4 °F)) and the absolute maximum temperature (+46 °C (114.8 °F)) were observed in Julfa and Ordubad.[25] The maximum annual precipitation falls in Lankaran (1,600 to 1,800 mm) and the minimum in Absheron (200 to 350 mm).[25] The Köppen Climate Classifications are the standard incriments by which geographers and climatologists classify the climate of a particular part of the world. ... Map of Azerbaijan showing Julfa rayon Julfa (Culfa) is a rayon of Azerbaijan in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. ... Map of Azerbaijan showing Ordubad rayon Ordubad is a rayon of Azerbaijan in the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic. ... Lankaran, or Lenkoran, (Azeri: LÉ™nkÉ™ran) is a small city in Azerbaijan, on the coast of the Caspian Sea, near the southern border with Iran, with a population of 48,400 (2002), at least half of which are Talysh. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ...


Nature and ecology

Main article: Nature of Azerbaijan
Further information: Fauna of AzerbaijanFlora of Azerbaijan, and State Reserves of Azerbaijan

From the water supply point, Azerbaijan is below the average in the world with approximately 100,000 m³/year of water per km².[25] All big water reservoirs are built on Kur. Mountains near the highest village in Azerbaijan, Khinalyg. ... Fauna of Azerbaijan or Animal Kingdom of Azerbaijan refers to the diversity of various types of animals, which inhabit and populate a defined ground or water area in Azerbaijan. ... The Nabran Forest has some of the oldest trees in the world the avarage age is 500 years. ... The Agdam Forest is a vital part of Azerbaijan. ... Water supply is the process of self-provision or provision by third parties of water of various qualities to different users. ... The Ashokan Reservoir, located in Ulster County, New York, USA. It supplies New York City with drinking water. ...


The main areas of plant diversity in Azerbaijan are the highlands of Nakhchivan (60% of the species occur here), the Kura-Araz plain (40%), the Davachi-Quba region east of the Greater Caucasus (38%), the centre of the Lesser Caucasus (29%), Gobustan (26.6%), the Lenkoran region in the Talysh Mountains (27%) and the Absheron region (22%).[23] Northern-eastern slopes of the Great Caucasus, the northern, northern-eastern, and eastern slopes of the Lesser Caucasus and Talysh Mountains are deemed to be vast forest areas of Azerbaijan.[26] Davaci is a rayon of Azerbaijan. ... Quba (also known as Guba and Kuba) is a city and a rayon in northeastern Azerbaijan. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Lankaran. ...


Endemics include over 400 species of plants (of which around 16 species of Caspian algae), seven reptiles and perches from fifteen species and six sub-species of Gobiidae. Most of the endemic freshwater fish belongs to Cypriniformes.[23] However there are no strictly endemic mammals.[23] The major cause of biodiversity loss in Azerbaijan is the decrease in natural environments. Endemic, in a broad sense, can mean belonging or native to, characteristic of, or prevalent in a particular geography, race, field, area, or environment; Native to an area or scope. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... For the programming language, see algae (programming language). ... Orders  Crocodilia - Crocodilians scary crocodiles. ... Species P. flavescens (Yellow perch) P. fluviatilis (European perch) P. schrenkii (Balkhash perch) For other meanings of the word perch, including fish not in the Perca genus, see Perch (disambiguation). ... In taxonomy, a subspecies is the taxon immediately subordinate to a species. ... Genera Many, e. ... Families Suborder Cobitoidea     Balitoridae (hillstream loaches)     Catostomidae (suckers)     Cobitidae (loaches)     Gyrinocheilidae (algae eaters) Suborder Cyprinoidea     Cyprinidae (carps and minnows) The Cypriniformes are an order of ray-finned fish, including the minnows and some related families. ...


Administrative divisions

Azerbaijan is divided into 59 rayons (rayonlar, singular rayon), 11 city districts (şəhərlər, singular şəhər), and one autonomous republic (muxtar respublika) of Nakhchivan,[4] which subdivides into 7 rayons and a city. The President of Azerbaijan appoints the governors of these units, while the government of Nakhchivan is elected and approved by the parliament of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. The local governments of regions and cities under Armenian occupation, such as Khankendi or Shusha, continue to function in exile.[27] Azerbaijan is divided into: 59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities* (saharlar; sahar - singular), 1 autonomous republic** (muxtar respublika); All listed are rayons (with Rayonu after their name) unless otherwise noted. ... See rayon for the textile made of processed cellulose. ... A significant number of autonomous republics can be found within the successor states of the Soviet Union, but the majority are located within Russia. ... This article is about the autonomous region. ... The country of Azerbaijan is a presidential republic, with the President of Azerbaijan as the head of state, and the Prime Minister of Azerbaijan as head of government. ... This article is about the autonomous region. ... This article is about the autonomous region. ... Stepanakert is the capital of the self-proclaimed Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. ... Azeri subdivsion Shusha rayon Nagrono Karabakh Republic Subdivsion Shushi province Elevation 1,400 m above sea level m Population  - City ~3,000 Shusha (Azerbaijani: ÅžuÅŸa, Russian: Шуша translit. ...


Government and politics

Ilham Aliyev, the current president of Azerbaijan.
Ilham Aliyev, the current president of Azerbaijan.
See also: Elections in Azerbaijan and Human rights in Azerbaijan

The structural formation of Azerbaijan's political system was completed by the acceptance of the new Constitution on November 12, 1995. The state symbols of the Azerbaijan Republic are, according to the Article 23 of Constitution, the flag, the coat of arms and the national anthem. The state power in Azerbaijan is limited only by law for internal issues, but for international affairs is additionally limited by the provisions of international agreements. Image File history File links Aliyev_April06. ... Image File history File links Aliyev_April06. ... Ilham Heydar oglu Aliyev (Azerbaijani: İlham Heydər oğlu Əliyev) (born December 24, 1961) is the current President of Azerbaijan. ... The Politics of Azerbaijan take place in a framework of a presidential republic, with the President of Azerbaijan as the head of state, and the Prime Minister of Azerbaijan as head of government. ... Politics of Azerbaijan Categories: Election related stubs | Elections in Azerbaijan ... Despite being a member of such bodies as the Human Rights Council, several independent bodies, such as the Human Rights Watch, have deemed human rights in Azerbaijan to be subpar at best. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... A national symbol is a symbol of any entity considering itself and manifesting itself to the world as a national community – namely sovereign states, but also nations and countries in a state of colonial or other dependence, (con)federal integration, or even an ethnocultural community considered a nationality despite the...


The government of Azerbaijan is based on the separation of powers among the legislative, executive and judicial branches. The legislative power is held by the unicameral National Assembly and the Supreme National Assembly in the Nakhchevan Autonomous Republic. Parliamentary elections are held every five years, on the first Sunday of November. The accuracy of the election results are checked and confirmed by the Constitutional Court. The laws enacted by the National Assembly, unless specified otherwise come into effect from the day of their publication. The executive power is carried out by the president, who is elected for a 5 year term by direct elections. The president is authorized to form the Cabinet of Ministers, an inferior executive body, subordinated to him. The Cabinet of Ministers of Azerbaijan consists primarily of the Prime Minister, his Deputies and Ministers. The president does not have the right to dissolve the National Assembly, but has the right to veto its decisions. To override the presidential veto, the parliament must have a majority of 95 votes. The judicial power is vested in the Constitutional Court, Supreme Court and the Economic Court. The President nominates the judges in these courts. It has been suggested that Fifth power be merged into this article or section. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law. ... The judiciary, also referred to as the judicature, consists of justices, judges and magistrates among other types of adjudicators. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... The external link and official web site of Parliament of Azebaijan is: http://www. ... The country of Azerbaijan is a presidential republic, with the President of Azerbaijan as the head of state, and the Prime Minister of Azerbaijan as head of government. ... Direct election is a term describing a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons or political party that they desire to see elected. ... A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... Politics of Azerbaijan takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, , with the President of Azerbaijan as the head of state, and the Prime Minister of Azerbaijan as head of government. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The Security Council is the deliberative body under the president and he organizes it according to the Constitution. It was established on April 10, 1997. The administrative department is not a part of the president's office, but manages the financial, technical and pecuniary ensuring of activity of both the president and his office. is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...


Foreign relations

The short-lived Azerbaijan Democratic Republic succeeded in establishing diplomatic relations with six countries, sending diplomatic representatives to Germany and Finland.[28] The process of international recognition of Azerbaijan's independence from the collapsing Soviet Union lasted roughly one year. The last country, Bahrain recognized Azerbaijan on November 6, 1996.[29] Full diplomatic relations, including mutual exchanges of missions, were first established with Turkey, the United States and Iran.[28] Azerbaijan is a member of the United Nations; the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe; NATOs Partnership for Peace; Euro-Atlantic Partnership; World Health Organization; CFE Treaty member state; the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development; the Council of Europe; the Community of Democracies; the International Monetary Fund... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...


Azerbaijan has diplomatic relations with 158 countries so far and holds membership in 38 international organizations.[30] An observer status is held in the Non-Aligned Movement and World Trade Organization and the correspondent one at the International Telecommunication Union.[30] The Azerbaijani diaspora is represented in 36 countries,[31] dozens of ethnic minorities centers in turn are functioning inside the country (German cultural society "Karelhaus", Slavic cultural center, Azerbaijani-Israeli community, Kurdish cultural center, International Talysh Association, Lezgin national center "Samur", Azerbaijani-Tatar community, Crimean Tatars society etc.).[32] On May 9, 2006 Azerbaijan was elected as one the members of the newly established Human Rights Council by the United Nations General Assembly. The term of office begun on June 19, 2006.[33] Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... WTO redirects here. ... The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; French: Union internationale des télécommunications, Spanish: Unión Internacional de Telecomunicaciones) is an international organization established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. ... For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Talysh (also Talishi, Taleshi or Talyshi) are an Iranian people who speak Talysh language one of the Northwestern Iranian languages. ... Flag of the Lezgian people The Lezgins, also called the Lezgin, Lezgi, Lezgis, Lezgs, and Lezgians are an ethnic group who live mainly in southern Dagestan and northern Azerbaijan who speak the Lezgi language. ... Republic of Tatarstan (Russian: ; Tatar Cyrillic: Татарстан Республикасы, Latin: Tatarstan Respublikası) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Nations Human Rights Council is an international body within the United Nations System. ... Spanish president in the General Assembly in New York Org type: Principal Organ Acronyms: GA, UNGA Head: President of the UN General Assembly As of 18 September 2007 Srgjan Kerim former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Status: Active Established: 1945 Website: www. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Foreign policy priorities of Azerbaijan include: first of all, the restoration of the territorial integrity, elimination of the consequences of the loss of Nagorno-Karabakh and seven other regions of Azerbaijan [34], development of good-neighbourly and mutually advantageous relations with neighbouring countries; promotion of security and stability in the region; integration into European and Transatlantic security and cooperation structures, promotion of transregional economic, energy and transportation projects.[35] (For more information about Azerbaijan's official foreign policy, see [3]) The Azeri Government, in late 2007, stated that if a comprehensive peace treaty is not signed with Armenia in 2008, then Azerbaijan will adopt military solutions to the conflict involving the Karabakh enclave.[citation needed] The Government is in the process of increasing its military budget as its oil and gas revenues bring a torrent of cash into its coffers. Furthermore, economic sanctions by Turkey along the west, and by Azerbaijan itself along the east, have combined to greatly erode Armenia's economy, leading to steep prices for basic commodities and a great decline in the Armenian state revenues.[citation needed]


Azerbaijan is an active member of international coalitions fighting international terrorism. The country is contributing to peacekeeping efforts in Kosovo, Afghanistan and Iraq. Azerbaijan is an active member of NATO's “Partnership for Peace” program. It also maintains good relations with the European Union, and could potentially one day apply for membership. see Azerbaijan and the European Union.


Military

Azerbaijani interior guard troops on training.
Azerbaijani interior guard troops on training.

The Armed Forces of the Republic of Azerbaijan were created according to the Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan on the Armed Forces of Azerbaijan of 9 October 1991. Initially, the equipment and facilities were those of the Soviet Fourth Army. The Armed Forces have three branches: Land Forces, Air Force and Air Defence Force (a united branch) and the Navy. Besides the Armed Forces there are some additional militarily organised groups that can be involved in state defence when needed. These are the Internal Troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and forces of the State Border Service, which includes the Coast Guard as well.[36] Image File history File links Azerbaijan_Army_4. ... Image File history File links Azerbaijan_Army_4. ... The Azerbaijan Armed Forces consist of four military branches: the army, air force, navy, air defense force and four sub-branches: the national guard, interior guard, border guard and the coast guard. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Azerbaijan adheres to the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe. On January 13, 1993 Azerbaijan signed the Chemical Weapons Convention on the 47th United Nations General Assembly in Paris. In 1999 the country signed particularly the Document on Small Arms and Light Weapons.[37] Azerbaijan has been also a member of the NATO's Partnership for Peace since 1994 and the NATO Individual Partnership Action Plan since 2004.[38] Azerbaijan is also a party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and has an additional protocol with the International Atomic Energy Agency.[39] The armed forces supported the American Operation Enduring Freedom by providing one peacekeeping infantry platoon and Operation Iraqi Freedom with one peacekeeping infantry company.[40] 2007 military expenditures reached 871 mln USD.[41] The original Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) was negotiated and concluded during the last years of the Cold War and established comprehensive limits on key categories of conventional military equipment in Europe (from the Atlantic to the Urals) and mandated the destruction of excess weaponry. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Chemical Weapons Convention Opened for signature January 13, 1993 in Paris Entered into force April 29, 1997 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by 50 states and the convening of a Preparatory Commission Parties 181 (as of Oct. ... Spanish president in the General Assembly in New York Org type: Principal Organ Acronyms: GA, UNGA Head: President of the UN General Assembly As of 18 September 2007 Srgjan Kerim former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Status: Active Established: 1945 Website: www. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Partnership for Peace is a NATO project aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union. ... NATO launched IPAPs at the November 2002 Prague Summit, Individual Partnership Action Plans (IPAPs) are open to countries that have the political will and ability to deepen their relationship with NATO.[1] Currently IPAPs are in implementation with the following countries:  Georgia (29 October 2004)  Azerbaijan (27 May 2005)  Armenia... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... Combatants United States, Poland, France, Canada, Pakistan, India, Australia, United Kingdom, Germany, Netherlands, New Zealand, Philippines (in the Philippines theatre only), Northern Alliance, Italy, Czech Republic, Hungary, Ethiopia, Somalia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Croatia, Albania, Macedonia, Romania, Portugal, Bulgaria, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Georgia Taliban, al-Qaeda, Abu Sayyaf, Jemaah... Platoon of the German Bundeswehr. ... For other uses of the term, see Iraq war (disambiguation) The 2003 invasion of Iraq (also called the 2nd or 3rd Persian Gulf War) began on March 20, 2003, when forces belonging primarily to the United States and the United Kingdom invaded Iraq arguably without the explicit backing of the... Standard NATO code for a friendly infantry company. ... Look up million in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...


Economy

The National Bank.
The National Bank.
Main article: Economy of Azerbaijan

After gaining independence in 1991, Azerbaijan became a member of the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Islamic Development Bank and the Asian Development Bank.[42] The banking system of Azerbaijan consists of the National Bank of Azerbaijan, commercial banks and non-banking credit organizations. The National Bank was created in 1992 based on the Azerbaijan State Savings Bank, an affiliate of the former State Savings Bank of the USSR. The National Bank serves as Azerbaijan's central bank, empowered to issue the national currency, the Azerbaijani manat, and to supervise all commercial banks. Two major commercial banks are the state-owned International Bank of Azerbaijan and the United Universal Joint-Stock Bank. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 400 KB) Summary self made 2006 in Baku, Azerbaijan Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Azerbaijan ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 400 KB) Summary self made 2006 in Baku, Azerbaijan Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Azerbaijan ... Azerbaijan is an economy in transition in which the state continues to play a dominant role. ... IMF redirects here. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... Founded in 1991, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) uses the tools of investment to help build market economies and democracies in 27 countries from central Europe to central Asia. ... Islamic Development Bank (also known as IDB), is a multilateral development financing institution. ... The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established in 1966 to promote economic and social development in Asian and Pacific countries through loans and technical assistance. ... The National Bank of Azerbaijan (NBA) is the central bank of Azerbaijan. ... A commercial bank is a type of financial intermediary and a type of bank. ... ISO 4217 Code AZN User(s) Azerbaijan except Nagorno-Karabakh Inflation 11. ...


Pushed up by spending and demand growth, the 2007 Q1 inflation rate reached 16.6%.[43] Nominal incomes and monthly wages climbed 29% and 25% respectively against this figure, but price increases in non-oil industry encouraged inflation in the country.[43] Azerbaijan shows some signs of the so-called "Dutch disease" because of the fast growing energy sector, which causes inflation. This page refers to Q1, a residential tower on the Gold Coast, Australia. ... This article is about the economic phenomenon. ...


Two thirds of Azerbaijan is rich in oil and natural gas.[44] The region of the Lesser Caucasus accounts for most of the country's gold, silver, iron, copper, titanium, chromium, manganese, cobalt, molybdenum, complex ore and antimony.[44] In September 1994, a 30-year contract was signed between the State Oil Company of Azerbaijan Republic (SOCAR) and 13 oil companies, among them Amoco, BP, Exxon, LUKoil, and Statoil.[42] As Western oil companies are able to tap deepwater oilfields untouched by the Soviet exploitation, Azerbaijan is considered one of the most important spots in the world for oil exploration and development.[45] Meanwhile the State Oil Fund was established as an extra-budgetary fund to ensure the macroeconomic stability, transparency in the management of oil revenue, and the safeguarding of resources for future generations. Synthetic motor oil being poured. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery grey-white metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... This article is about the element. ... The State Oil Company of Azerbaijan (SOCAR) and its many subsidiaries are responsible for the production of oil and natural gas in Azerbaijan, for operation of the countrys two refineries, for running the countrys pipeline system, and for managing the countrys oil and natural gas imports and... The American Oil Company, or Amoco, was a global chemical and oil company, founded in Baltimore in 1910 and incorporated in 1922 by Louis Blaustein and his son Jacob, but now part of BP. The firms early innovations include the gasoline tanker truck and the drive-through filling station. ... This article is about the energy corporation. ... This article is about the fuel brand. ... LUKOIL (RTS:LKOH LSE: LKOD NASDAQ: LUKOY) (Russian: ; pronounced Luke-Oil) is Russias largest oil company and its largest producer of oil. ... StatoilHydro ASA (OSE: STL) is a Norwegian energy company, formed by the 2007 merger of Statoil with the oil and gas division of Norsk Hydro. ... Macroeconomics is the study of the entire economy in terms of the total amount of goods and services produced, total income earned, the level of employment of productive resources, and the general behavior of prices. ...


At the beginning of 2007 there were 4755100 hectares of utilized agricultural area.[46] In the same year the total wood resources counted 136 million .[46] Azerbaijan's agricultural scientific research institutes are focused on the meadows and pastures, the horticulture and subtropical crops, the green vegetables, the viticulture and wine-making, the cotton growing and the medicinal plants.[47] In some lands it is profitable to grow grain, potatoes, sugar beet, cotton and tobacco. The Caspian fishing industry is concentrated on the dwindling stocks of sturgeon and beluga. In 2002 the Azerbaijani merchant marine had 54 ships.[48] The cubic meter (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ... Horticulture (Latin: hortus (garden plant) + cultura (culture)) are classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ... Subtropical (or semitropical) areas are those adjacent to the tropics, usually roughly defined as the ranges 23. ... Fresh Swiss chard Fresh water spinach Creamed spinach Steamed kale Leaf vegetables, also called potherbs, greens, or leafy greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots. ... wine grapes Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) is the science, production and study of grapes which deals with the series of events that occur in the vineyard. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wikibooks. ... Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Two sugar beets - the one on the left has been cultivated to be smoother than the traditional beet, so that it traps less soil. ... Salmon for sale at a marketplace The Fishing industry is the commercial activity of fishing and producing fish and other seafood products. ... For other uses, see Sturgeon (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Pallas, 1776) Beluga range This article is about the whale. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Merchant Navy. ...


Some part of most products before imported from abroad has begun to be produced locally (among them are Coca Cola by Coca Cola Bottlers LTD, beer by Baki-Kastel, parquet by Nehir and oil pipes by EUPEC Pipe Coating Azerbaijan).[49]


Azerbaijan is also an important economic hub in terms of the raw materials transportation. The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline (BTC) became operational in May 2006 and stretches over 1,774 kilometers through the territory of Azerbaijan (440 km), Georgia (260 km) and Turkey (1114 km). The BTC is designed to transport up to 50 million tons of crude oil annually and carries oil from the Caspian Sea oilfields to global markets. The South Caucasus Pipeline, also stretching through the territory of Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey, became operational in the end of 2006 and offers additional gas supply to European market from the Shah Deniz gas field. It is expected to produce up to 296 billion cubic metres of natural gas per year. Azerbaijan also plays a major role in the EU-sponsored Silk Road Project. The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline (sometimes abbreviated as BTC pipeline) transports crude petroleum 1,776 km from the Azeri-Chirag-Guneshli oil field in the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. ... South Caucasus Pipeline (also: Baku-Tblisi-Erzerum Pipeline or Shah-Deniz Pipeline) is a natural gas pipeline to transport natural gas from the Shah Deniz gas field in the Azerbaijan sector of the Caspian Sea to Turkey. ... Shah Deniz gas field is the largest natural gas field in Azerbaijan. ... For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ...


Transportation and communications

In 2002 Azerbaijan led the way in per capita mobile phone use within the CIS.[50] Public pay phones are available for local calls and require a purchase token from the telephone exchange or some shops and kiosks. Tokens allow a call of indefinite duration. As of 2005, there were 1,091,400 main telephone lines and 408,000 internet users.[51] There are two GSM mobile network operators and four CDMA. Transportation in Azerbaijan Railways total: 2,125 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines broad gauge: 2,125 km 1. ... Communications in Azerbaijan: // Telephones Telephones - main lines in use: 640,000 (1995) Telephones - mobile cellular: 6,000 (1995) Telephone system: Azerbaijans telephone system is a combination of old Soviet era technology used by Azerbaijani citizens and small- to medium-size commercial establishments, and modern cellular telephones used by an... A telephone line (or just line) is a single-user circuit on a telephone communications system. ... For other uses, see GSM (disambiguation). ... A mobile network operator, also known as wireless service provider, wireless carrier, mobile phone operator, or cellular company, is a telephone company that provides services for mobile phone subscribers. ... General Information Generically (as a multiplexing scheme), code division multiple access (CDMA) is any use of any form of spread spectrum by multiple transmitters to send to the same receiver on the same frequency channel at the same time without harmful interference. ...


Broad gauge railways in 2005 stretched for 2,957 km and electrified railways numbered 1,278 km.[51] The number of airports in 2006 reached thirty six, there was also one heliport.[51] For other uses, see Gauge. ... Overhead wire in Coventry, England A railway electrification system is a way of supplying electric power to electric locomotives or multiple units. ...


Demographics

A man and his child from the village of Khinalyg in northeast Azerbaijan.

Azerbaijan's population totals approximately 8,621,000, broken out as follows: Demographics of Azerbaijan, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... Image File history File links Eldar_gardash. ... Image File history File links Eldar_gardash. ... The village of Khinalyg Khinalyg or Khinalugh (Azerbaijani: Xınalıq) is an ancient Caucasian village going back to the Caucasian Albanian period; high up in the mountains of Azerbaijan. ...

Azerbaijan
Azeris
 
86.7%
Talysh
 
4.9%
Lezgins
 
2%
Russians
 
1.7%
Armenians
 
1.5%
Other
 
0.6%


From the total population as of April, 2006 there were 4,380,000 (nearly 51%) city dwellers and a rural population of 4,060,000 (49%).[52] 51% of the total population were female.[52] The gender ratio for total population in that year was therefore 0.94 males per female.[53] Sex ratio by country for total population. ...


2006 population growth rate was 0.66%, compared to 1.14% worldwide.[53] A significant factor restricting the population growth is rather a high level of migration. In 2005 for instance 1,342 men and 1,564 women left the country due to labour migration.[52] In 2006 Azerbaijan saw migration of -4.38/1,000 persons.[53] The highest morbidity in 2005 was among respiratory diseases (806.9 diseases per 10,000 of total population).[54] The highest 2005 morbidity for infectious and parasitic diseases was noted among influenza and acute respiratory infections (4168,2 per 100,000 population).[55] 2007 estimate for total life expectancy is 66 years, 70.7 years for women and 61.9 for men.[56] Population growth rate is a term used in demographics and ecology which refers to the rate at which the number of individuals in a population increases. ... Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green). ... Diseases of the mammalian respiratory system are classified under one of two broad categories: physiologic, where disease states are characterised by alterations in physiology, or anatomical, where disease states are defined by the anatomical location/level affected, or by the layers of the respiratory system affected by disease. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... This is a list of topics related to human parasitic diseases. ... Flu redirects here. ... Acute viral nasopharyngitis, often known as the common cold, is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system (nose and throat). ... This article is about the measure of remaining life. ...


Language

Azerbaijan
Azerbaijani
 
92.5%
Russian
 
3.5%
Lezgin
 
1.9%
Talysh
 
1.8%
Other
 
0.3%

Religion

Further information: Religion in Azerbaijan
Shaykh Abbas Mosque in Ganja
Shaykh Abbas Mosque in Ganja

According to official figures, between 93.4% and 96% of the population is Muslim, of which 85% are Shia and 15% Sunni. Christians compose of 3 to 4% of the population, of which most are Russian and Armenian Orthodox.[57] In 2003 there were 250 Roman Catholics.[58] Other Christian denominations as of 2002 include Lutherans, Baptists and Molokans.[59] There are also Jewish, Bahá'í, Hare Krishna and Jehovah's Witnesses communities, as well as adherents of the Nehemiah Church, Star in the East Church and the Cathedral of Praise Church.[59] This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Shakh_Abbas_Mosque_view. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Shakh_Abbas_Mosque_view. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... The Russian Orthodox Church (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... The Armenian Apostolic Church, sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church is one of the original churches, having separated from the then-still-united Roman Catholic/Byzantine Orthodox church in 506, after the Council of Chalcedon (see Oriental Orthodoxy). ... The term Cucumber may refer to: The Eastern Orthodox Church: the Eastern Christian churches of Byzantine tradition that adhere to the seven Ecumenical Councils. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... The Molokans (Russian: ) are a Biblically-centered religious movement, among the Russian peasants, who broke away from the Russian Orthodox Church in the 1550s. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... Hare Krishna Mantra in Devanagari The Hare Krishna mantra, also referred to reverentially as the Maha Mantra (Great Mantra), is a sixteen-word Vaishnava mantra made well known outside of India by the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (commonly known as the Hare Krishnas).[1] It is believed by practitioners...

Azerbaijan in 2002
Islam
 
96%
Orthodox Christianity
 
3.2%
Judaism
 
0.24%
Protestantism
 
0.006%
Catholicism
 
0.002%
Other
 
0.55%

Culture

Traditional Azeri musicians
Traditional Azeri musicians
Main article: Culture of Azerbaijan
See also: Ethnic minorities in Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan folk consists of Azerbaijanis, the representative part of society, as well as of nations and ethnic groups, compactly living in various areas of the country. There are radio broadcasts in Kurdish, Lezgin, Talysh, Georgian, Russian and Armenian languages, which are financed from the state budget.[32] The local radio station in Balakan organizes broadcasts in the Avar language and in Khachmaz also in Tat.[32] In Baku several newspapers are published in Russian, Kurdish (Dengi Kurd), Lezgin (Samur) and Talysh languages.[32] Jewish society "Sokhnut" publishes the newspaper Aziz.[32] Image File history File links Azeri_7. ... Image File history File links Azeri_7. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Kurdish language (Kurdish: Kurdî or کوردی) is a term used for a range of different dialects of a language spoken by Kurds. ... Classification Lezgi belongs to the Lezgian group of the Dagestan or Northeast Caucasian language family. ... Talysh (also Talishi, Taleshi or Talyshi) are an Iranian people who speak one of the Northwestern Iranian languages. ... Balakan is a rayon of Azerbaijan. ... The modern Avar language (self-designation магарул мац language of the mountains or Авар мац Avar language) belongs to the Avar-Andi-Tsez subgroup of the Alarodian Northeast-Caucasian (or Nakh-Dagestani) language family. ... Xacmaz is a rayon of Azerbaijan. ... The Tat language is an Indo-Iranian language spoken by the Tat ethnic group. ...


Among national musical instruments there are fourteen string instruments, eight percussion instruments and six wind instruments.[60] A string instrument (also stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... Percussion may refer to: A family of musical instruments – see percussion instrument; A method of clinical examination – see percussion (medicine). ... A wind instrument consists of a tube containing a column of air which is set into vibration by the player blowing into (or over) a mouthpiece set into the end of the tube. ...


Azerbaijan national and traditional dress, are the Chokha and Papakhi. Chokha (Georgian: ) is a Georgian male’s national clothing used in Georgia from 9th century until 1920s. ... Famous Georgian poet Vazha Pshavela wearing Georgian Papakhi Papakhi (Georgian: transliterated: Papakhi; Ukrainian: ; Russian: transliterated: Papakha) is a Georgian wool hat. ...


Azerbaijan will make its debut appearance at the Eurovision Song Contest 2008, an event that has previously been used to showcase other former Soviet and Eastern Bloc states. Eurovision 2008 redirects here. ...


Entries, submitted on the UNESCO World Heritage tentative list include the Gobustan State Reserve, the Fire Temple of Baku, the Momine Khatun Mausoleum and the Khan Palace in Sheki. Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... Gobustan is amongst the most unique places on Earth. ... The Fire Temple of Baku, known locally as the Atashgah, is a castle-like Hindu temple and monastery complex in Surakhani near Baku in Azerbaijan. ... Mausoleum of Momine Khatun The Mausoleum of Momine Khatun (or Mumine Khatun) is located in Nakhichevan, the capital of the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic in Azerbaijan. ... Saki (or Sheki) is a city in North-west Azerbaijan. ...


References

  1. ^ CIA World Factbook 2007. Online Edition
  2. ^ U.S. Department of State - 1993 UN Security Council Resolutions on Nagorno-Karabakh
  3. ^ US State Department profile of Azerbaijan
  4. ^ a b CIA World Factbook Azerbaijan 2007
  5. ^ US State Department 1993 Country Reports on Economic Practice and Trade Reports: Azerbaijan
  6. ^ Minorsky, V.; Minorsky, V. "Ādharbaydjān (Azarbāydjān ) ." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P.Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2007. Brill Online. <http://www.encislam.brill.nl/subscriber/entry?entry=islam_COM-0016
  7. ^ Encyclopedia Iranica, "Azerbaijan: Pre-Islamic History", K. Shippmann
  8. ^ Chaumont, M. L. (1989), "Atropates", Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. 3.1, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul 
  9. ^ Historical Dictionary of Azerbaijan by Tadeusz Swietochowski and Brian C. Collins. The Scarecrow Press, Inc., Lanham, Maryland (1999), ISBN 0-8108-3550-9 (retrieved 7 June 2006)
  10. ^ Frawardin Yasht ("Hymn to the Guardian Angels") -- translated by James Darmesteter (From Sacred Books of the East, American Edition, 1898)
  11. ^ The Azerbaijani Turks: Power and Identity under Russian Rule by Audrey Altstadt. Hoover Institution Press (1992), ISBN 0-8179-9182-4 (retrieved 7 June 2006).
  12. ^ Minorsky, V. "Caucasica IV", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 15, No. 3. (1953), p. 504
  13. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica Online: History of Azerbaijan [1]
  14. ^ Bertsch, Gary Kenneth (2000). Crossroads and Conflict: Security and Foreign Policy in the Caucasus and Central Asia. Routledge, 297. ISBN 0415922739. “Shusha became the capital of an independent "Azeri" khanate in 1752 (Azeri in the sense of Muslims who spoke a version of the Turkic language we call Azeri today)” 
  15. ^ Nafziger, E. Wayne, Stewart, Frances and Väyrynen, Raimo (2000). War, Hunger, and Displacement: The Origins of Humanitarian Emergencies. Oxford University press, 406. ISBN 0198297394. 
  16. ^ Kashani-Sabet, Firoozeh (May 1997). "Fragile Frontiers: The Diminishing Domains of Qajar Iran". International Journal of Middle East Studies 29 (2): 210. “In 1795, Ibrahim Khalil Khan, the wali of Qarabagh, warned Sultan Selim III of Aqa Muhammad Khan's ambitions. Fearing for his independence, he informed the Sultan of Aqa Muhammad Khan's ability to subdue Azerbaijan and later Qarabagh, Erivan, and Georgia.” 
  17. ^ Baddeley, John Frederick (1908). The Russian Conquest of the Caucasus. Harvard University: Longmans, Green and Co., 71. “Potto sums up Tsitsianoff's achievements and character as follows: "In the short time he passed there (in Transcaucasia) he managed to completely alter the map of the country. He found it composed of minutely divided, independent Muhammadan States leaning upon Persia, namely, the khanates of Baku, Shirvan, Shekeen, Karabagh, Gandja and Erivan..."” 
  18. ^ Avery, Peter; Hambly, Gavin (1991). The Cambridge History of Iran. Cambridge University Press, 126. ISBN 0521200954. “Agha Muhammad Khan could now turn to the restoration of the outlying provinces of the Safavid kingdom. Returning to Tehran in the spring of 1795, he assembled a force of some 60,000 cavalry and infantry and in Shawwal Dhul-Qa'da/May, set off for Azarbaijan, intending to conquer the country between the rivers Aras and Kura, formerly under Safavid control. This region comprised a number of independent khanates of which the most important was Qarabagh, with its capital at Shusha; Ganja, with its capital of the same name; Shirvan across the Kura, with its capital at Shamakhi; and to the north-west, on both banks of the Kura, Christian Georgia (Gurjistan), with its capital at Tiflis.” 
  19. ^ Swietochowski, Tadeusz(1995) Russia and Azerbaijan: A Borderland in Transition, Columbia University, p. 133
  20. ^ Thomas De Waal. Black Garden: Armenia And Azerbaijan Through Peace and War. New York: New York University Press, p. 286. ISBN 0-8147-1945-7
  21. ^ CIA — The World Factbook. Azerbaijan.
  22. ^ a b Geographical data. The State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Retrieved on 2007-05-26.
  23. ^ a b c d e f Azerbaijan: Biodiversity. CAC-Biodiversity.org. Retrieved on 2007-05-26.
  24. ^ a b Azerbaijan - Climate. Azerbaijan.az. Retrieved on 2007-05-26.
  25. ^ a b c d Climate. Water Resources of the Azerbaijan Republic. Institute of Hydrometeorology, Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources. Retrieved on 2007-05-26.
  26. ^ Forestry. CAC-Biodiversity.org. Retrieved on 2007-05-26.
  27. ^ LLRX. com - A Guide to the Republic of Azerbaijan Law Research
  28. ^ a b Azerbaijan - Foreign Relations. CountryStudies.us. Retrieved on 2007-05-31.
  29. ^ Bilateral relations. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
  30. ^ a b AUK Foreign Office - Country Profiles: Azerbaijan. FCO.gov.uk. Retrieved on 2007-05-26.
  31. ^ (Azerbaijani)Xaricdəki təşkilatlar. Diaspora.az. Retrieved on 2007-05-25.
  32. ^ a b c d e Ethnic minorities. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
  33. ^ Elections & Appointments - Human Rights Council
  34. ^ Independence of Kosovo and the Nagorno-Karabakh Issue
  35. ^ MFA Foreign Policy Priorities
  36. ^ CIA World factbook Azerbaijan
  37. ^ Arms control and non-proliferation. Retrieved on 2007-05-24.
  38. ^ Khasiyev, Kamil. Mission of the Republic of Azerbaijan to NATO. Retrieved on 2007-05-05.
  39. ^ Azeri Military Statistics. NationMaster.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-25.
  40. ^ Azerbaijan. Centcom.mil. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
  41. ^ "Azerbaijan will end possible military reforms by 2015 to coincide with NATO standards", Today. az, May 15, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-27. 
  42. ^ a b Azerbaijan - General Information. Azerbaijan.az. Retrieved on 2007-05-22.
  43. ^ a b Azerbaijan's Q1 inflation rate 16.6%, National Bank Chief says. Today.az. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  44. ^ a b Azerbaijan - General Information. Azerbaijan.az. Retrieved on 2007-05-22.
  45. ^ Azerbaijan. GlobalEdge.msu.edu. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  46. ^ a b Natural resources. The State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Retrieved on 2007-05-26.
  47. ^ Azerbaijan: Status of Database. CAC-biodiversity.org. Retrieved on 2007-05-28.
  48. ^ Azerbaijan Transportation. NationsEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-24.
  49. ^ Industry. Statistical Yearbook of Azerbaijan 2004. Retrieved on 2007-05-26.
  50. ^ Azerbaijan - Communications. Travel-Images.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-24.
  51. ^ a b c World Guide - Azerbaijan. Intute. Retrieved on 2007-05-26.
  52. ^ a b c Population. Azerbaijan Gender Information Center. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
  53. ^ a b c Population and Demographics. Intute. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
  54. ^ Population morbidity by main diseases groups. The Ministry of Health. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
  55. ^ Morbidity of population by various infectious and parasitic diseases. The Ministry of Health. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
  56. ^ Azerbaijan Facts and Figures. MSN Encarta. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
  57. ^ CIA the World Factbook
  58. ^ Catholic Church in Azerbaijan. Catholic-hierarchy.org. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
  59. ^ a b Corley, Felix (April 9 2002). Azerbaijan: 125 religious groups re-registered. Keston News Service. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
  60. ^ The Azerbaijan musical instruments. Atlas.musigi-dunya.az. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.

is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Azerbaijan Portal
Wikipedia
Azerbaijani language edition of Wikipedia
Find more about Azerbaijan on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
Textbooks
Quotations
Source texts
Images and media
News stories
Learning resources

Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ...

General references

  • United Nations Office in Azerbaijan
  • State Statistical Committee of Azerbaijan
  • Azerbaijan entry at The World Factbook
  • Azerbaijan Links
  • Azerbaijan International Magazine

Portals

  • Azerbaijan.az
  • Azer.com
  • Azerb.com
  • Library of Congress Portals to the World: Azerbaijan directory
  • Azerbaijan Travel Information
  • Azerbaijan Hotels
  • Travel Information
  • Kataloq. net Directory of Azeri web-resources

Miscellaneous

  • Azerbaijan Paper Money
  • Independence of Kosovo and the Nagorno-Karabakh Issue
International ties of Azerbaijan
Geographical: Europe | Eurasia (Caucasus) | Asia (Western Asia)
International organizations : AsDB, BSEC, CCC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHRC, UNIDO, UPU, UNWTO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, (observer)
This article is about the autonomous region. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Afshar or Afshari, is a Turkic language spoken in parts of Afghanistan and Iran. ... Altay is a language of the Turkic group of languages. ... ... The Bashkir language is a Turkic language. ... Bulgar (also BolÄŸar), also Proto-Bulgarian is the language of the Bulgars, now extinct, whose classification is unclear. ... The Chagatai language is an extinct Turkic language which was once widely spoken in Central Asia. ... Chulyum also known as Chulym-Turkic , Chulym Tatar (not at all related to the Tatar language), or Küerik is a language of Chulyms. ... Chuvash (Chuvash: Чӑвашла, ČăvaÅ¡la, IPA: ; also known as Chăvash, Chuwash, Chovash, Chavash, ÇuvaÅŸ or ÇuaÅŸ) is a Turkic language spoken to the west of the Ural Mountains in central Russia. ... Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili, Qırımtatarca), also known as Crimean (Qırım tili, Qırımca) and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi) is the language of the Crimean Tatars. ... Cuman language was a Turkic language spoken by the Kipchaks (also known as the Cumans) similar to todays Crimean Tatar language. ... The Dolgan Language, is a Turkic language with around 5,000 speakers that is spoken in the Taymyr Peninsula in the Russian Federation. ... Fuyü Gïrgïs or Fu-Yu Kirgiz is the easternmost Turkic language. ... The Gagauz language (Gagauz dili) is a Turkic language, used by Gagauz people, official language of Gagauzia, Republic of Moldova. ... The Hunnic language is an extinct language of the Huns. ... Ili Turki is a language spoken primarily in China. ... The Karachay-Balkar language (Къарачай-Малкъар /Qarachay-Malqar/) is a Turkic language of the Karachays and Balkars. ... The Karaim language is a Turkic language with Hebrew influences, in a similar manner to Yiddish or Ladino. ... Karakalpak is a Turkic language mainly spoken by Karakalpaks in Karakalpakstan (Uzbekistan), as well as by Bashkirs and Nogay. ... Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants[2], natively , , ‎; pronounced ) is a Turkic language closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak. ... Khakas is a Turkic language spoken by the Khakas people, who mainly live in the southern Siberian Khakas Republic, or Khakassia, in Russia. ... Khalaj is a language spoken primarily in Iran and Afghanistan. ... Language spoken by the medieval Khazar tribe. ... Khorasani Turkic (تركي خراساني / Xorasan TürkçeÉ™sı) is variety of speech belonging to the Turkic language family. ... The Kipchak language was an extinct Turkic language of Kipchak-Bolghar group. ... Krymchak is the Crimean Tatar language dialect spoken by the Krymchaks - Rabbanite Jews of the Crimea. ... Kyrgyz or Kirghiz (Kyrgyz tili, Кыргыз тили, قىرعىز ٴتىلى) is a Turkic language, and, together with Russian, an official language of Kyrgyzstan. ... Kumyk (also Qumuq, Kumuk, Kumuklar, and Kumyki) is a Turkic language, spoken by about 200 thousands speakers (the Kumyks) in the Dagestan republic of Russian Federation. ... The Kypchak languages (also known as the Kipchak, Qypchaq, or Northeastern Turkic languages), are a major branch of the Turkic language family spoken by more than 12 million people in an area spanning from Lithuania to China. ... Nogai (also Nogay or Nogai Tatar), is a Turkic language spoken in southwestern Russia. ... Old Tatar language (Iske imla: يسكى تاتار تلى (translit. ... The Turkic language spoken by the Gokturks and used on the Orkhon inscriptions. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... Pecheneg language is the extinct Turkic language spoken by the Pechenegs in Eastern Europe, similar to Cuman. ... Qashqai (also spelled Ghashghai, Qashqai, Qashqay, and Kashkai) is a Turkic language. ... Sakha, or Yakut, is a Turkic language with around 363,000 speakers spoken in the Sakha Republic in the Russian Federation. ... Salar is a Turkic language spoken by the Salar people, who mainly live in the provinces of Qinghai and Gansu in China, some also live in Ghulja, Xinjiang. ... The Shor language is one of the Turkic languages. ... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars. ... Tofa, also known as Tofalar or Karagas, is one of the Turkic languages. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... Tuvan (Tuvan: Тыва дыл Tyva dyl), also known as Tuvinian, Tyvan, or Tuvin, is one of the Turkic languages. ... Urum is a Turkic language spoken by several thousand people who inhabit a few villages in the Southeastern Ukraine and in Georgia. ... Uyghur (‎/Uyghurche//, or ‎/Uyghur tili//)[1] is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghurstan), formerly also “Sinkiang” and “Chinese Turkestan,” a Central Asian region administered by China. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The Altay or Altai are a Turkic people living in the Siberian Altai Republic and Altai Krai and surrounding areas of Tuva and Mongolia. ... The Balkars (Karachay-Balkar: sg. ... The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. ... Not to be confused with Bulgarians. ... The Chulyms (Чулымцы in Russian; self-designation: Чулымские люди, or Chulymian people) are a Turkic people in the Tomsk Oblast and Krasnoyarsk Krai in Russia. ... The Chuvash (Chuvash ; Russian: Чуваши; Tatar: ÇuaÅŸlar, Чуашлар) are a Turkic people usually associated with Chuvashia. ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... Cuman, also called Polovtsy, Polovtsian, or the Anglicized Polovzian (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Turkish: , Bulgarian: , Romanian: , Hungarian: ), is a Western European exonym for the western Kipchaks. ... The Dolgans (Russian: ; self-designation: долган, тыа-кихи, саха) are a Turkic people, who inhabit Taymyr Autonomous Okrug in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. ... The Gagauz are a minority Turkic people in southern Moldova (in Gagauzia) and southwestern Ukraine (in Budjak) that numbers around 250,000. ... The Iraqi Turkmen (also spelled Turkomen, Turcoman, and Turkman) (Turkish:Irak Türkmenleri) are a distinct Turkic ethnic group living in Iraq, notably in the cities of Arbil, Tal Afar, Kirkuk, and Mosul. ... The Karachays (Къарачайлыла, Qaraçaylıla) are a Turkic people of the Ciscaucasus, mostly situated in the Russian Karachay-Cherkess Republic. ... The Crimean Karaites (Crimean Karaim: sg. ... The Karakalpaks are ethnic group of Turkic people who mainly live in the lower reaches of the Amu Darya and in the (former) delta of Amu Darya on the southern shore of the Aral Sea. ... The Karapapak are a small ethnic group of Turkic people who mainly live in north west province of West Azerbaijan (Azarbaijan-e-Gharbi) in and around the Sulduz area and North West of Turkey near the border with Georgia. ... Language(s) Kazakh, Russian (and/or languages in country of residence) Religion(s) Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар IPA: ; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of... The Khakas, or Khakass, are a Turkic people, who live in Russia, in the republic of Khakassia in the southern Siberia. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Kmek or Kimak was a nomadic tribe lived in modern Astrakhan Oblast of Russia in 9th-13th century. ... Kipchaks in Eurasia circa 1200 C.E. Kipchaks (also spelled as Kypchaks, Qipchaqs, Qypchaqs) (Ukrainian: (polovtsy), Crimean Tatar: , Karachay-Balkar: Къыпчакъ, Uzbek: , Kazakh: Қыпшақ, Kumyk: Къыпчакъ, Kyrgyz: Кыпчак, Nogai: Кыпчак, Turkish: Kıpçak) were an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. The western... The Krymchaks (Krymchak: sg. ... Flag of the Kumyks Kumyks are a Turkic people occupying the Kumyk plateau in north Dagestan and south Terek, and the lands bordering the Caspian Sea. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Kyrgyz language. ... Language(s) Turkish, Russian, Georgian,Azerbaijanian Religion(s) Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups Turks, Terekeme, other Muslims of Meskheti Meskhetian Turks are the former Muslim inhabitants of Meskheti (Georgia), along the border with Turkey. ... NaÄŸaybäk (; plural NaÄŸaybäklär; Russian: нагайбаки) is a group of Keräşen Tatars, frequently viewed as one of indigenous peoples of Russia. ... The Nogais, also spelled Nogay, Noghai, and often called the Caucasian Mongols (Caucasian refers to their geographic position, in the Caucasus mountains, not to their ethnicity), are a Turkic people, and an important ethnic group in the Daghestan region who speak the Turkic Nogai language. ... A Seljuk Prince. ... For the language, see Qashqai language. ... The Salar people (Chinese: 撒拉族, Pinyin: Sālāzú) are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... Syrian Turkmen or Syrian Turkomen[1] are Syrian citizens of Oghuz Turkish descent, who had been living in the Syrian province of the Ottoman Empire before its dissolution and continue to live in the modern country of Syria. ... This article is about the people. ... The Finnish Tatar community, about 800 people, is recognized as a national minority by the government of Finland, which considers their language as a non-territorial language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. ... The Lipka Tatars were a noble military caste of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth who followed the Sunni branch of the Islamic religion and whose origins can be traced back to the Mongol Empire of Ghengis Khan, through the Khanate of the White Horde of Siberia. ... The Native Western Siberian Tatars (200,000) are an ethnic group or a sub-group of the Tatars. ... Volga Tatars are a Turkic people who live in the central and Eastern European parts of Russia. ... A Telengit is a member of an ethnic group in Russia. ... According to the 2002 census, there were 2650 Teleuts in Russia. ... Tofalars (Тофалары, тофа (tofa) in Russian; formerly known as карагасы, or karagas) are a Turkic-speaking people in the Irkutsk Oblast in Russia. ... Turkish Cypriots are those inhabitants of Cyprus who are ethnically Turkish[1], as opposed to those who are of Greek (the Greek Cypriots) or other ethnicities. ... For other uses of Turkish, see Turkish (disambiguation). ... Tuvans or Tuvinians (Tuvan: Тывалар, Tyvalar) are a group of Turkic people who make up about two thirds of the population of Tuva, Russia. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... Yakuts, self-designation: Sakha, are a Turkic people associated with the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. ... Main areas inhabited by Yoruk tribes in Anatolia The Yörük are a Turkic-speaking people primarily inhabiting the mountains of the southeast European Balkan peninsula and Anatolia. ... The Yugur people are an ethnic group. ... The history of the Turkic peoples (Turkic speaking peoples). ... Turkic peoples listed geographically. ... Turanism, or Pan-Turanism, is a political movement for the union of all Turanian peoples. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... // Azerbaijan Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Turkmenistan Turkey Uzbekistan Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus [1] Bashkortostan Chuvashia Sakha (Yakutia) Republic Tatarstan Tuva These republics have a small Turkic minority and official language is a Turkic language. ... Anthem: Ä°stiklâl Marşı(Turkish) Independence March Capital Nicosia (LefkoÅŸa in Turkish) Official languages Turkish Government Representative democratic republic1  -  President Mehmet Ali Talat  -  Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer Independence from Cyprus   -  Proclaimed November 15, 1983   -  Recognition By Turkey only  Area  -  Total 3,355 km² (167th ranked together with Cyprus... // Azerbaijan Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Turkmenistan Turkey Uzbekistan Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus [1] Bashkortostan Chuvashia Sakha (Yakutia) Republic Tatarstan Tuva These republics have a small Turkic minority and official language is a Turkic language. ... The Altai Republic (Russian: ; Altay: Алтай Республика) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... The Republic of Bashkortostan, or Bashkiria (Russian: or ; Bashkir: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... , Chuvash Republic (Russian: ; ), or Chuvashia () is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in central Russia. ... Anthem Gagauziya Milli Marşı Location of Gagauzia (purple) Capital (and largest city) Comrat Official languages Gagauz, Moldovan (Romanian), Russian Government  -  Governor Mihail Formuzal  -  Chairman of the Peoples Assembly Stepan Esir Autonomous region of Moldova  -  Created April 23, 1994  Area  -  Total 1,832 km²  707 sq mi  Population  -  19961 estimate... Karakalpakstan (Uzbek: Qoraqalpogiston Respublikasi or Қорақалпоғистон Республикаси; Karakalpak: Қарақалпақстан Республикасы or Qaraqalpaqstan Respublikası) is an autonomous republic of Uzbekistan. ... Khakassia or Khakasiya (Russian: or ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in south central Siberia. ... This article is about the autonomous region. ... The Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (Russian: ; Sakha: Саха Республиката) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Republic of Tatarstan (Russian: ; Tatar Cyrillic: Татарстан Республикасы, Latin: Tatarstan Respublikası) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Tyva Republic IPA: (Russian: IPA: ; Tuvan: ), or Tuva (), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Nomadic Empires, sometimes also called Steppe Empires, Central or Inner Asian Empires, are the empires erected by the bow wielding, horse riding, Eurasian nomads, from Classical Antiquity (Scythia) to the Early Modern era (Dzungars). ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ... The Proto-Turkic language is the proto-language of the family of Turkic languages that predates the separation of the Turkic peoples in the course of the Turkic expansion from ca. ... The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... The Ethnolinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map This article concerns the geographic region. ... The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established in 1966 to promote economic and social development in Asian and Pacific countries through loans and technical assistance. ... The Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation is an organization created on June 25, 1992, to promote cooperation between its members, hoping to transform the BSEC into a regional economic organization. ... CCC may refer to: // Clear Channel Communications, a media company based in the United States of America The Coca-Cola Company, the worlds largest manufacturer, distributor and marketer of nonalcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups Consolidated Contractors Company, a large Middle East multinational contractor Color Climax Corporation, Danish pornography company... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden...  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Sergei Lebedev Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ... The Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC), a NATO institution, is a multilateral forum created to improve relations between NATO and non-NATO countries in Europe and those parts of Asia on the European periphery. ... Founded in 1991, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) uses the tools of investment to help build market economies and democracies in 27 countries from central Europe to central Asia. ... The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE or ECE) was established in 1947 to encourage economic cooperation among its member states. ... Map of the ECO member states The Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) is an intergovernmental international organization involving ten Asian nations. ... The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), located in Bangkok, Thailand, is the regional arm of the United Nations Secretariat for the Asian and Pacific region. ... FAO redirects here. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... Logo of the World Bank The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development is one of the five institutions consisting the World Bank Group. ... The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), an agency of the United Nations, codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. ... Claiming 157 million members in 225 affiliated organisations in 148 countries and territories, the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) came into being on December 7, 1949 following a split within the World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU). ... Red Cross redirects here. ... The International Development Association (IDA) created on September 24, 1960, is the part of the World Bank that helps the world’s poorest countries. ... Islamic Development Bank (also known as IDB), is a multilateral development financing institution. ... The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), a specialized agency of the United Nations, was established as an international financial institution in 1977 as one of the major outcomes of the 1974 World Food Conference. ... The International Finance Corporation (IFC) promotes sustainable private sector investment in developing countries as a way to reduce poverty and improve peoples lives. ... The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCS) is an international humanitarian organisation, often better known as the Red Cross or the Red Crescent. ... The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that deals with labour issues. ... IMF redirects here. ... Headquarters of the International Maritime Organisation in Lambeth, adjacent to the east end of Lambeth Bridge Headquarters building taken from the west side of the Thames Headquartered in London, U.K., the International Maritime Organization (IMO) promotes cooperation among governments and the shipping industry to improve maritime safety and to... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Stamp The International Olympic Committee (French: Comité International Olympique) is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on June 23, 1894. ... The International Organization for Migration is an intergovernmental organization. ... “ISO” redirects here. ... The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; French: Union internationale des télécommunications, Spanish: Unión Internacional de Telecomunicaciones) is an international organization established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... Headquarters Washington, D.C. Official languages English, French, Portuguese, Spanish Membership 35 countries Leaders  -  Secretary General José Miguel Insulza Chile (since 26 May 2005) Establishment  -  Charter first signed 30 April 1948 in effect 1 December 1951  Website http://www. ... The flag of the Organ of the Islamic Conference (OIC) Membership in the OIC:  Member Members once temporarily suspended Withdrew Observer Attempted to join but blocked OIC redirects here. ... The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) is not an agency of the United Nations. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... Partnership for Peace is a NATO project aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union. ... UN redirects here. ... The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) was established in 1964 as a permanent intergovernmental body, UNCTAD is the principal organ of the United Nations General Assembly dealing with trade, investment and development issues. ... UNESCO logo UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... The United Nations Human Rights Council is an international body within the United Nations System. ... United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) is an agency of the United Nations with the mission of helping countries pursue sustainable industrial development, it is a specialist in industrial affairs. ... The Universal Postal Union (UPU, French: Union postale universelle) is an international organization that coordinates postal policies between member nations, and hence the world-wide postal system. ... World Tourism Organization Building in Madrid The United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is a United Nations agency dealing with questions relating to tourism. ... The World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) was established in the wake of the Second World War to bring together trade unions across the world in a single international organization, much like the United Nations. ... WHO redirects here. ... The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) (French: Organisation mondiale de la propriété intellectuelle or OMPI) is one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations. ... WMO flag The World Meteorological Organization (WMO, French: , OMM) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 188 Member States and Territories. ... WTO redirects here. ... This list of countries, arranged alphabetically, gives an overview of countries of the world. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kazakhstan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkmenistan. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Azerbaijan (07/06) (3428 words)
Azerbaijan received de facto recognition by the Allies as an independent nation in January 1920, an independence terminated by the arrival of the Red Army in April.
Azerbaijan's embassy in the United States is at 2741 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008; tel (202) 337-3500; fax (202) 337-5911; Consular tel (202) 337-5912; Consular fax (202) 337-5913; www.azembassy.com.
Azerbaijan is a member of the United Nations, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), NATO's Partnership for Peace, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership, the World Health Organization, CFE Treaty member state, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Council of Europe, the Community of Democracies, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank.
Azerbaijan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2613 words)
Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan, or in Arabic alphabet: آذربایجان رسپوبلیکاسی), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Respublikası), is a country in the Caucasus region.
The Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic (an exclave of Azerbaijan) borders Armenia to the north and east, Iran to the south and west, and Turkey to the northwest.
In 1936, the TSFSR was dissolved and Azerbaijan became constituent republic of the USSR as the Azerbaijan SSR.
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