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Encyclopedia > Ayutthaya kingdom
Part of History of Thailand.

Prehistoric Thailand
Early history of Thailand
Initial states of Thailand (3 BC-1238)
Sukhothai Kingdom (1238-1448 )
Ayutthaya Kingdom (1351-1767)
Thonburi Kingdom (1768-1782)
Rattanakosin Kingdom (1782-1932)
Kingdom of Thailand
  • 1932 - 1973
  • 1973 - present
Regional history
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The kingdom of Ayutthaya (Thai: อยุธยา) was a Thai kingdom that existed from 1350 to 1767. King Ramathibodi I (Uthong) founded Ayutthaya as the capital of his kingdom in 1350 and absorbed Sukhothai, 640 km to the north, in 1376. Over the next four centuries the kingdom expanded to become the nation of Siam, whose borders were roughly those of modern Thailand, except for the north, the Kingdom of Lannathai. Ayutthaya was friendly towards foreign traders, including the Chinese, Vietnamese, Indians, Japanese and Persians, and later the Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch and French, permitting them to set up villages outside the city walls. The court of King Narai (1656-1688) had strong links with that of King Louis XIV of France, whose ambassadors compared the city in size and wealth to Paris. The previous theory often been proposed, the history of Thailand begins with the migration of the Thais from their ancestral home in southern China into mainland southeast asia around the 10th century AD. Prior to this Mon, Khmer and Malay kingdoms ruled the region. ... Map of Thailand highlighting the Bangkok province File links The following pages link to this file: Bangkok Categories: GFDL images ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 576 KB) Photographer: Paul Brockmeyer from Chicago, USA Title: Grand Palace Description: The square building in the middle is the Phra Mondop, the library in the Wat Phra Kaeo, the Thai buddhist temple attatched to the Grand Palace in Bangkok. ... Prehistoric Thailand may be traced back as far as 1,000,000 years ago from the fossils and stone tools found in northern and western Thailand, an archaeological site in Lampang, northern Thailand. ... The known early history of Thailand begins with the earliest major archaeological site at Ban Chiang; dating of artefacts from this site is controversial, but there is a consensus that at least by 3600 BC, the inhabitants had developed bronze tools and had begun to cultivate wet rice, providing the... Prior to the southwards migration of the Tai people from Yunnan in the 10th century, the Indochina peninsula had been a home to various indigenous animistic communities for as far back as 500,000 years ago. ... Suvarnabhumi is ancient name for lower Burma or the Malay Peninsula in Southeast Asia. ... Tây SÆ¡n Dynasty (1778–1802) Nguyá»…n Dynasty (1802–1945) French Indochina (1887–1954) Empire of Vietnam (1945) North-South Division During The Indochina Wars (1945–1975) Democratic Republic of Vietnam State of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam Republic of South Vietnam Socialist Republic of Vietnam (from 1976) List... The Dvaravati kingdom of the Mon people existed from the 6th to the 11th centuries, when it was conquered by the Khmer Empire. ... Location of Thailand Known as Lavo during most of its history, Lopburi province is one of the most important cities in Thai history. ... The ancient Lanna society of the northern Thailand is considered more progressive than societies in other regions of the same period in that the Lanna people recorded their history and social development. ... A call of pan-pan is a very urgent message concerning the safety of a ship, aircraft or other vehicle, or persons on board who require immediate assistance. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Chi Tu. ... Langkasuka (-langkha Sanskrit for resplendent land -sukkha of bliss) was apparently the oldest kingdom on the Malay peninsula. ... Map of Southeast Asia at end of 12th century. ... Location of Malayu peninsula Tambralinga is one part of Thai history. ... The Sukhothai kingdom was a kingdom in the north of Thailand around the city Sukhothai. ... Thon Buri (Thai: ธนบุรี) was the capital of Thailand for a short time during the reign of King Taksin the Great, after the ruin of capital Ayutthaya by the Myanmar. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The history of Thailand since 1973 has been marked by a struggle to define the political contours of the state. ... Hariphunchai (or Haribhunjaya) was a Mon kingdom in the north of present Thailand in the centuries before the Thais moved into the area. ... The history of Isan has been determined by its geography: situated between Cambodia, Laos and Thailand, it has been dominated by each in turn, although its relative infertility meant it was more often a battleground than a prize. ... 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Events 29 August - An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet in the battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer. ... The Sukhothai kingdom was a kingdom in the north of Thailand around the city Sukhothai. ... // Events March – The treaty between England and France is extended until April of 1377. ... For the country formerly called Siam see Thailand SIAM is an acronym for Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. ... Lannathai (often short Lanna, English One Million Thai Rice Fields, Thai ล้านนาไทย) was a kingdom in the north of Thailand around the city of Chiang Mai. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... King Narai the Great (Son of Prasat Thong) (Thai: ; 1629 - July 11, 1688) became king of the Ayutthaya kingdom or Siam, todays Thailand, in 1656. ... // Events Mehmed Köprülü becomes Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... Louis XIV redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...

Contents

Historical overview

Buddha head overgrown by fig tree in Wat Mahatat, Ayutthaya historical park
Buddha head overgrown by fig tree in Wat Mahatat, Ayutthaya historical park

This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Species About 800, including: Ficus altissima Ficus americana Ficus aurea Ficus benghalensis- Indian Banyan Ficus benjamina- Weeping Fig Ficus broadwayi Ficus carica- Common Fig Ficus citrifolia Ficus coronata Ficus drupacea Ficus elastica Ficus godeffroyi Ficus grenadensis Ficus hartii Ficus lyrata Ficus macbrideii Ficus macrophylla- Moreton Bay Fig Ficus microcarpa- Chinese...

Origins

The Siamese state based at Ayutthaya in the valley of the Chao Phraya River grew from the earlier kingdom of Lopburi, which it absorbed, and its rise continued the steady shift southwards of the centre of gravity of the Tai-speaking peoples. In 1350, to escape the threat of an epidemic, King U Thong moved his court south into the rich floodplain of the Chao Phraya. On an island in the river he founded a new capital, which he called Ayutthaya, after Ayodhya in northern India, the city of the hero Rama in the Hindu epic Ramayana. U Thong assumed the royal name of Ramathibodi (1350-69) and claimed to be a descendant of the Lao royal lineage of Khun Boron. Ayutthaya (full name Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Thai พระนครศรีอยุธยา; also spelled Ayudhya) city is the capital of Ayutthaya province in Thailand. ... Origin of the Chao Phraya River in Nakhon Sawan A view of the Chao Phraya River in Bangkok The Chao Phraya (Thai: ) is a major river in Thailand, with its low alluvial river plain marking the mainland of the country. ... Lopburi is a city in Thailand, capital of the Lopburi province. ... Ramathibodi I (b. ... A view of the Chao Phraya River in Bangkok The Chao Phraya (Thai แม่น้ำเจ้าพระยา) is a major river in Thailand, with its low alluvial river plain marking the mainland of the country. ... Ayodhya   (Hindi: अयोध्या, Urdu: ایودھیا IAST Ayodhyā) is an ancient city of India, the old capital of Awadh, in the Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh. ... Rama ( in IAST, in DevanāgarÄ«) or Ramachandra is a legendary or historical king of ancient India. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ...


Ramathibodi tried to unify his kingdom. In 1360 he declared Theravada Buddhism the official religion of Ayutthaya and brought members of a sangha, a Buddhist monastic community, from Ceylon to establish new religious orders and spread the faith among his subjects. He also compiled a legal code, based on the Indian Dharmashastra (a Hindu legal text) and Thai custom, which became the basis of royal legislation. Composed in Pali -- an Indo-Aryan language closely related to Sanskrit and the language of the Theravada Buddhist scriptures -- it had the force of divine injunction. Supplemented by royal decrees, Ramathibodi's legal code remained generally in force until the late nineteenth century. Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... Sangha (संघ saṃgha) is a word in Pali or Sanskrit that can be translated roughly as association or assembly or community. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ... A legal code is a moral code enforced by the law of a state. ... The Dharmashastra is a volume of Hindu legal texts, covering moral, ethical and social laws. ... Pāli is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


Conquests

By the end of the fourteenth century, Ayutthaya was regarded as the strongest power in Indochina, but it lacked the manpower to dominate the region. In the last year of his reign, Ramathibodi had seized Angkor during what was to be the first of many successful Thai assaults on the Khmer capital. The policy was aimed at securing Ayutthaya's eastern frontier by preempting Vietnamese designs on Khmer territory. The weakened Khmer periodically submitted to Ayutthaya's suzerainty, but efforts to maintain control over Angkor were repeatedly frustrated. Thai troops were frequently diverted to suppress rebellions in Sukhothai or to campaign against Chiang Mai, where Ayutthaya's expansion was tenaciously resisted. Eventually Ayutthaya subdued the territory that had belonged to Sukhothai, and the year after Ramathibodi died, his kingdom was recognized by the emperor of China's newly established Ming Dynasty as Sukhothai's rightful successor. Indochina 1886 Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. ... Map of the Angkor region in Cambodia. ... Map of Asia and Europe circa 1200 C.E. and the golden age of Khmer Empire. ... Lannathai (often short Lanna, English One Million Thai Rice Fields, Thai ล้านนาไทย) was a kingdom in the north of Thailand around the city of Chiang Mai. ... For other uses, see Ming. ...


The Thai kingdom was not a single, unified state but rather a patchwork of self-governing principalities and tributary provinces owing allegiance to the king of Ayutthaya under the mandala system. These states were ruled by members of the royal family of Ayutthaya who had their own armies and warred among themselves, as well as self governing but subservient Malay states in the south. The king had to be vigilant to prevent royal princes from combining against him or allying with Ayutthaya's enemies. Whenever the succession was in dispute, princely governors gathered their forces and moved on the capital to press their claims. The mandala system was the main pattern of power relationships between the states of south-east Asia until the advent of European cultural and political colonisation in the mid-19th century. ...


During much of the fifteenth century Ayutthaya's energies were directed toward the Malay Peninsula, where the great trading port of Malacca contested its claims to sovereignty. Ayutthaya was successful with the military support of Ming China and Japan, who wanted to share the wealth of trade at Malacca. The northernmost loose confederations of Malay states were not well bound to Palembang, the Srivijayan capital. During this time, they stretched all the way north as far as modern day Chumporn, and far south including Pattani. The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Location of Palembang Palembang is a city in the south of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... Map of Southeast Asia at end of 12th century. ... Pattani (or Patani in Malay spelling) may refer to the town Pattani in southern Thailand the Pattani Province the region Pattani, which includes the above province. ...


Malacca and other Malay states south of Tambralinga had become Muslim early in the century, and thereafter Islam served as a symbol of Malay solidarity against the Thais. Although it failed to make a vassal state of Malacca, Ayutthaya continued to control the lucrative trade on the isthmus, which attracted Chinese traders of specialty goods for the luxury markets of China. Location of Malayu peninsula Tambralinga is one part of Thai history. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Ruins of the old city, Ayutthaya, after the Burmese invasion.
Ruins of the old city, Ayutthaya, after the Burmese invasion.

ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (888x616, 202 KB) Summary Picture taken by Patricia Young, May 2004. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (888x616, 202 KB) Summary Picture taken by Patricia Young, May 2004. ...

Fall

In 1767, Burma invaded Ayutthaya, repelled the Ming Dynasty and took back Lannathai, while totally destroying Ayutthaya. This forced the government to relocate to Thon Buri, near present day Bangkok. It was the last of many Burmese invasions of Ayutthaya. Lannathai (often short Lanna, English One Million Thai Rice Fields, Thai ล้านนาไทย) was a kingdom in the north of Thailand around the city of Chiang Mai. ... Ayutthaya (full name Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Thai พระนครศรีอยุธยา; also spelled Ayudhya) city is the capital of Ayutthaya province in Thailand. ... Thonburi (ธนบุรี) was capital of Thailand for a short time during the reign of King Taksin, after the previous capital Ayutthaya was sacked by the Burmese. ... Location within in Thailand Coordinates: , Country Settled Ayutthaya Period Founded as capital 21 April 1782 Government  - Type Special administrative area  - Governer Apirak Kosayothin Area  - City 1,568. ...


Thai kingship

Thai rulers were absolute monarchs whose office was partly religious in nature. They derived their authority from the ideal qualities they were believed to possess. The king was the moral model, who personified the virtue of his people, and his country lived at peace and prospered because of his meritorious actions. At Sukhothai, where Ramkhamhaeng was said to hear the petition of any subject who rang the bell at the palace gate to summon him, the king was revered as a father by his people. But the paternal aspects of kingship disappeared at Ayutthaya. The king was considered chakkraphat, the Sanskrit-Pali term for the chakravartin who through his adherence to the law made all the world revolve around him. As the Hindu god Shiva was "lord of the universe," the Thai king also became by analogy "lord of the land," distinguished in his appearance and bearing from his subjects. According to the elaborate court etiquette, even a special language, Phasa Rachasap, was used to communicate with or about royalty. This term first used to describe Ashoka of the Mauryan Dynasty literally translates to he for whom the wheel of law turns. ...


As devaraja (Sanskrit for "divine king"), the king ultimately came to be recognized as the earthly incarnation of Shiva and became the object of a politico-religious cult officiated over by a corps of royal Brahmans who were part of the Buddhist court retinue. In the Buddhist context, the devaraja was a bodhisattva (an enlightened being who, out of compassion, foregoes nirvana in order to aid others). The belief in divine kingship prevailed into the eighteenth century, although by that time its religious implications had limited impact. The French Abbe de Choisy, who came to Ayutthaya in 1685, wrote that, "the king has absolute power. He is truly the god of the Siamese: no-one dares to utter his name." Another 17th century writer, the Dutchman Van Vliet, remarked that the King of Siam was "honoured and worshipped by his subjects more than a god." Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... This article is about the Buddhist concept. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ...


One of the numerous institutional innovations of King Trailokanat (1448-88) was to adopt the position of uparaja, translated as "viceroy" or "underking", usually held by the king's senior son or full brother, in an attempt to regularize the succession to the throne -- a particularly difficult feat for a polygamous dynasty. In practice, there was inherent conflict between king and uparaja and frequent disputed successions. King Trailokanat (often short Trailok, Thai: , 1431-1488) was the king of Ayutthaya between 1448 and 1488. ... Ouparath, also Ouparaja, or Uparaja, are titles for viceregal positions reserved for of the Buddhist dynasties in Laos, Siam, Burma and Cambodia, as well as some minor tributary kingdoms of these. ...


Social and political development

The king stood at the apex of a highly stratified social and political hierarchy that extended throughout the society. In Ayutthayan society the basic unit of social organization was the village community composed of extended family households. Generally the elected headmen provided leadership for communal projects. Title to land resided with the headman, who held it in the name of the community, although peasant proprietors enjoyed the use of land as long as they cultivated it.


With ample reserves of land available for cultivation, the viability of the state depended on the acquisition and control of adequate manpower for farm labor and defense. The dramatic rise of Ayutthaya had entailed constant warfare and, as none of the parties in the region possessed a technological advantage, the outcome of battles was usually determined by the size of the armies. After each victorious campaign, Ayutthaya carried away a number of conquered people to its own territory, where they were assimilated and added to the labor force.


Every freeman had to be registered as a servant, or phrai, with the local lord, or nai, for military service and corvee labor on public works and on the land of the official to whom he was assigned. The phrai could also meet his labor obligation by paying a tax. If he found the forced labor under his nai repugnant, he could sell himself into slavery to a more attractive nai, who then paid a fee to the government in compensation for the loss of corvee labor. As much as one-third of the manpower supply into the nineteenth century was composed of phrai. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Wealth, status, and political influence were interrelated. The king allotted rice fields to governors, military commanders, and court officials in payment for their services to the crown, according to the sakdi na system. The size of each official's allotment was determined by the number of persons he could command to work it. The amount of manpower a particular nai could command determined his status relative to others in the hierarchy and his wealth. At the apex of the hierarchy, the king, who was the realm's largest landholder, also commanded the services of the largest number of phrai, called phrai luang (royal servants), who paid taxes, served in the royal army, and worked on the crown lands. King Trailok established definite allotments of land and phrai for the royal officials at each rung in the hierarchy, thus determining the country's social structure until the introduction of salaries for government officials in the nineteenth century.


Outside this system to some extent were the Buddhist monkhood, or sangha, which all classes of Siamese men could join, and the Chinese. Buddhist monasteries (wats) became the centres of Siamese education and culture, while during this period the Chinese first began to settle in Siam, and soon began to establish control over the country's economic life: another long-standing social problem. The Chinese were not obliged to register for corvee duty, so they were free to move about the kingdom at will and engage in commerce. By the sixteenth century, the Chinese controlled Ayutthaya's internal trade and had found important places in the civil and military service. Most of these men took Thai wives because few women left China to accompany the men. For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ...


Ramathibodi I was responsible for the compilation of the Dharmashastra, a legal code based on Hindu sources and traditional Thai custom. The Dharmashastra remained a tool of Thai law until late in the 19th century. A bureaucracy based on a hierarchy of ranked and titled officials was introduced, and society was organised in a manner reminiscent of, though not as strict as, the Indian caste system. The Dharmashastra is a volume of Hindu legal texts, covering moral, ethical and social laws. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ...


The sixteenth century witnessed the rise of Burma, which, under an aggressive dynasty, had overrun Chiang Mai and Laos and made war on the Thai. In 1569 Burmese forces, joined by Thai rebels mostly royal family members of Siam, captured the city of Ayutthaya and carried off the whole royal family to Burma. Dhammaraja (1569-90), a Thai governor who had aided the Burmese, was installed as vassal king at Ayutthaya. Thai independence was restored by his son, King Naresuan (1590- 1605), who turned on the Burmese and by 1600 had driven them from the country. A street scene in Chiang Mai, showing (centre right), a gate of the old city wall. ... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ... King Naresuan the Great (1555 - April 25, 1605, also sometimes called Naret or the Black Prince, Thai สมเด็จพระนเรศวรมหาราช) was king of Siam (today Thailand) from 1590 until his death in 1605. ...


Determined to prevent another treason like his father's, Naresuan set about unifying the country's administration directly under the royal court at Ayutthaya. He ended the practice of nominating royal princes to govern Ayutthaya's provinces, assigning instead court officials who were expected to execute policies handed down by the king. Thereafter royal princes were confined to the capital. Their power struggles continued, but at court under the king's watchful eye.


In order to ensure his control over the new class of governors, Naresuan decreed that all freemen subject to phrai service had become phrai luang, bound directly to the king, who distributed the use of their services to his officials. This measure gave the king a theoretical monopoly on all manpower, and the idea developed that since the king owned the services of all the people, he also possessed all the land. Ministerial offices and governorships--and the sakdi na that went with them--were usually inherited positions dominated by a few families often connected to the king by marriage. Indeed, marriage was frequently used by Thai kings to cement alliances between themselves and powerful families, a custom prevailing through the nineteenth century. As a result of this policy, the king's wives usually numbered in the dozens.


Even with Naresuan's reforms, the effectiveness of the royal government over the next 150 years should not be overestimated. Royal power outside the crown lands--although in theory absolute- -was in practice limited by the looseness of the civil administration. The influence of central government ministers was not extensive beyond the capital until the late nineteenth century.


Economic development

The Thais never lacked a rich food supply. Peasants planted rice for their own consumption and to pay taxes. Whatever remained was used to support religious institutions. From the thirteenth to the fifteenth century, however, a remarkable transformation took place in Thai rice cultivation. In the highlands, where rainfall had to be supplemented by a system of irrigation that controlled the water level in flooded paddies, the Thais sowed the glutinous rice that is still the staple in the geographical regions of the North and Northeast. But in the floodplain of the Chao Phraya, farmers turned to a different variety of rice--the so-called floating rice, a slender, nonglutinous grain introduced from Bengal--that would grow fast enough to keep pace with the rise of the water level in the lowland fields. RICE is a treatment method for soft tissue injury which is an abbreviation for Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation. ...


The new strain grew easily and abundantly, producing a surplus that could be sold cheaply abroad. Ayutthaya, situated at the southern extremity of the floodplain, thus became the hub of economic activity. Under royal patronage, corvee labor dug canals on which rice was brought from the fields to the king's ships for export to China. In the process, the Chao Phraya Delta--mud flats between the sea and firm land hitherto considered unsuitable for habitation--was reclaimed and placed under cultivation.


Contacts with the West

Memorial plate in Lopburi showing king Narai with French ambassadors
Memorial plate in Lopburi showing king Narai with French ambassadors

In 1511 Ayutthaya received a diplomatic mission from the Portuguese, who earlier that year had conquered Malacca. These were probably the first Europeans to visit the country. Five years after that initial contact, Ayutthaya and Portugal concluded a treaty granting the Portuguese permission to trade in the kingdom. A similar treaty in 1592 gave the Dutch a privileged position in the rice trade. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 52 KB) Commemorative plate in the palace ruins of Lopburi showing King Narai The Great giving an audience to french diplomats. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 52 KB) Commemorative plate in the palace ruins of Lopburi showing King Narai The Great giving an audience to french diplomats. ... Year 1511 (MDXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1592 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Foreigners were cordially welcomed at the court of Narai (16571688), a ruler with a cosmopolitan outlook who was nonetheless wary of outside influence. Important commercial ties were forged with Japan. Dutch and English trading companies were allowed to establish factories, and Thai diplomatic missions were sent to Paris and The Hague. By maintaining all these ties, the Thai court skillfully played off the Dutch against the English and the French, avoiding the excessive influence of a single power. King Narai the Great (Son of Prasat Thong) (Thai: ; 1629 - July 11, 1688) became king of the Ayutthaya kingdom or Siam, todays Thailand, in 1656. ... Events January 8 - Miles Sindercombe, would-be-assassin of Oliver Cromwell, and his group are captured in London February - Admiral Robert Blake defeats the Spanish West Indian Fleet in a battle over the seizure of Jamaica. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ...


In 1664, however, the Dutch used force to exact a treaty granting them extraterritorial rights as well as freer access to trade. At the urging of his foreign minister, the Greek adventurer Constantine Phaulkon, Narai turned to France for assistance. French engineers constructed fortifications for the Thai and built a new palace at Lopburi for Narai. In addition, French missionaries engaged in education and medicine and brought the first printing press into the country. Louis XIV's personal interest was aroused by reports from missionaries suggesting that Narai might be converted to Christianity. Events March 12 - New Jersey becomes a colony of England. ... Constantine Phaulkon (born Κωνσταντίνος Γεράκης or Constantinos Gerakis; Gerakis is the Greek word for Phaulkon) (1647 - June 5, 1688) was a Greek adventurer, who became first counsellor to King Narai of Ayutthaya. ... Lopburi is a city in Thailand, capital of the Lopburi province. ...


The French presence encouraged by Phaulkon, however, stirred the resentment and suspicions of the Thai nobles and Buddhist clergy. When word spread that Narai was dying, a general, Phetracha, killed the designated heir, a Christian, and had Phaulkon put to death along with a number of missionaries. The arrival of English warships provoked a massacre of more Europeans. Phetracha (reigned 1688-93) seized the throne, expelled the remaining foreigners, and ushered in a 150-year period during which the Thais consciously isolated themselves from contacts with the West. Phetracha (alternative spellings: Bedraja, Petraja, Petraja, Petratcha; also called Phra Phetracha; Thai สมเด็จพระเพทราชา) (d. ...


During the early 20th Century, Thailand, after learning lessons from Burma–a militarily stronger neighbour that failed to protect itself from western powerhouse Britain in 1885–mostly used flexible and significantly compromising approach towards its counterparts including numerous western nations and Japan.


The final phase

Three pagodas of Wat Phra Si Sanphet which house the remains of King Borommatrailokanat, King Borommarachathirat III and King Ramathibodi II
Three pagodas of Wat Phra Si Sanphet which house the remains of King Borommatrailokanat, King Borommarachathirat III and King Ramathibodi II

After a bloody period of dynastic struggle, Ayutthaya entered into what has been called its golden age, a relatively peaceful episode in the second quarter of the eighteenth century when art, literature, and learning flourished. There were foreign wars. The Ayutthaya fought with Nguyen Lords (Vietnamese rulers of South Vietnam) for control of Cambodia starting around 1715. But a greater threat came from Burma, where the new Alaungpaya dynasty had subdued the Shan states. Download high resolution version (1040x800, 91 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Download high resolution version (1040x800, 91 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... The Nguyen Lords (1558 - 1775) were a series of rulers of Southern Vietnam. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Alaungpaya 1711-15 May 1760 was a Burmese king who established the Konbaung Dynasty (Heavens platform) in the early 18th century. ...


In 1765 Thai territory was invaded by two Burmese armies that converged on Ayutthaya. The only notable example of successful resistance to these forces was found at the village of Bang Rajan. After a lengthy siege, the city capitulated and was burned in 1767. Ayutthaya's art treasures, the libraries containing its literature, and the archives housing its historic records were almost totally destroyed, and the city was left in ruins. Year 1765 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... One of the more iconic images of the Bang Rajan battles is when one of the Thai leaders, Nai Thong Men, became drunk and furiously rode a water buffalo into battle against the Burmese. ... 1767 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


The country was reduced to chaos. Provinces were proclaimed independent states under military leaders, rogue monks, and cadet members of the royal family. The Thais were saved from Burmese subjugation, however, by an opportune Chinese invasion of Burma and by the leadership of a Thai military commander, Phraya Taksin.


All that remains of the old city are some impressive ruins of the royal palace. King Taksin established a capital at Thonburi, across the Chao Phraya from the present capital, Bangkok. The ruins of the historic city of Ayutthaya and "associated historic towns" in the Ayutthaya historical park have been listed by the UNESCO as World Heritage Sites. The city of Ayutthaya was refounded near the old city, and is now capital of the Ayutthaya province. This article is about a Siamese king. ... Thon Buri (ธนบุรี) was capital of Thailand for a short time during the reign of King Taksin, after the previous capital Ayutthaya was sacked by the Burmese. ... A view of the Chao Phraya River in Bangkok The Chao Phraya (Thai แม่น้ำเจ้าพระยา) is a major river in Thailand, with its low alluvial river plain marking the mainland of the country. ... Location within in Thailand Coordinates: , Country Settled Ayutthaya Period Founded as capital 21 April 1782 Government  - Type Special administrative area  - Governer Apirak Kosayothin Area  - City 1,568. ... Buddha overgrown by fig tree, Wat Mahatat The Ayutthaya historical park covers the ruins of the old city of Ayutthaya, Thailand, which was the capital of the country until its destruction by the Burmese army in 1767. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... Ayutthaya (full name Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Thai พระนครศรีอยุธยา, pronounced eye-you-TEE-a) is one of the central provinces (changwat) of Thailand. ...


List of rulers of Ayutthaya

Image File history File links Emblem-important. ...

Uthong Dynasty (first reign)

Ramathibodi I (b. ... Events 29 August - An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet in the battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer. ... Events King Charles V of France renounces the treaty of Brétigny and war is declared between France and England. ... Ramesuan (b. ... Events King Charles V of France renounces the treaty of Brétigny and war is declared between France and England. ... Events Beginning of the rule of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ...

Suphannaphum Dynasty (first reign)

Events Beginning of the rule of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... Events Beginning of prosecution of Lollards in England The Battle of Otterburn between England and Scotland A Chinese army under Xu Da sacks Karakorum Births September 14 - Claudius Claussön Swart, Danish geographer September 29 - Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence, second son of Henry IV of England (d. ... Events Beginning of prosecution of Lollards in England The Battle of Otterburn between England and Scotland A Chinese army under Xu Da sacks Karakorum Births September 14 - Claudius Claussön Swart, Danish geographer September 29 - Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence, second son of Henry IV of England (d. ...

Uthong Dynasty (second reign)

Events Beginning of prosecution of Lollards in England The Battle of Otterburn between England and Scotland A Chinese army under Xu Da sacks Karakorum Births September 14 - Claudius Claussön Swart, Danish geographer September 29 - Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence, second son of Henry IV of England (d. ... Events End of reign of Hungary by Capet-Anjou family. ... Events End of reign of Hungary by Capet-Anjou family. ... Events January 1 - The Welsh surrender Harlech Castle to the English. ...

Suphannaphum Dynasty (second reign)

Events January 1 - The Welsh surrender Harlech Castle to the English. ... August 17 - Battle of Verneuil - An English force under John, Duke of Bedford defeats a larger French army under the Duke of Alençon, John Stewart, and Earl Archibald of Douglas. ... August 17 - Battle of Verneuil - An English force under John, Duke of Bedford defeats a larger French army under the Duke of Alençon, John Stewart, and Earl Archibald of Douglas. ... Events January 5/ 6 - Christopher of Bavaria, King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden dies with no designated heir leaving all three kingdoms with vacant thrones. ... King Trailokanat (often short Trailok, Thai: , 1431-1488) was the king of Ayutthaya between 1448 and 1488. ... Events January 5/ 6 - Christopher of Bavaria, King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden dies with no designated heir leaving all three kingdoms with vacant thrones. ... // January 8 - The present Royal Netherlands Navy was formed By decree of Maximillian of Austria. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // January 8 - The present Royal Netherlands Navy was formed By decree of Maximillian of Austria. ... // Events December 6 - King Charles VIII marries Anne de Bretagne, thus incorporating Brittany into the kingdom of France. ... // Events December 6 - King Charles VIII marries Anne de Bretagne, thus incorporating Brittany into the kingdom of France. ... Events April 22 - Treaty of Saragossa divides the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal, stipulating that the dividing line should lie 297. ... Events April 22 - Treaty of Saragossa divides the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal, stipulating that the dividing line should lie 297. ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... King Chairacha (Thai: ) (Reigned 1534-1546) was King of Ayutthaya (Siam). ... 1534 (MDXXXIV) was a common year in the 16th century. ... // Events Spanish conquest of Yucatan Peace between England and France Foundation of Trinity College, Cambridge by Henry VIII of England Katharina von Bora flees to Magdeburg Science Architecture Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. ... // Events Spanish conquest of Yucatan Peace between England and France Foundation of Trinity College, Cambridge by Henry VIII of England Katharina von Bora flees to Magdeburg Science Architecture Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. ... Events Mary I of Scotland sent to France Births September 2 - Vincenzo Scamozzi, Italian architect (died 1616) September 29 - William V, Duke of Bavaria (died 1626) Francesco Andreini, Italian actor (died 1624) Giordano Bruno, Italian philosopher, astronomer, and occultist (burned at the stake) 1600 (died 1600) Honda Tadakatsu, Japanese general... Khun Vorawongsathiratch (Thai: วรวงศาธิราช; RTGS: Vorawongsathiratch) was an Ayuthian monarch whose legitimacy to the title of king is denied by Thai historians as he is believed to have been an usurper to the throne. ... Events Mary I of Scotland sent to France Births September 2 - Vincenzo Scamozzi, Italian architect (died 1616) September 29 - William V, Duke of Bavaria (died 1626) Francesco Andreini, Italian actor (died 1624) Giordano Bruno, Italian philosopher, astronomer, and occultist (burned at the stake) 1600 (died 1600) Honda Tadakatsu, Japanese general... Events Mary I of Scotland sent to France Births September 2 - Vincenzo Scamozzi, Italian architect (died 1616) September 29 - William V, Duke of Bavaria (died 1626) Francesco Andreini, Italian actor (died 1624) Giordano Bruno, Italian philosopher, astronomer, and occultist (burned at the stake) 1600 (died 1600) Honda Tadakatsu, Japanese general... Events March 23 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. ... Queen Sri Suriyothai (also known as Somdet Phra Sisuriyothai, Thai: สมเด็จพระศรีสุริโยทัย) was a legendary queen during the 16th century Ayutthaya period of Siam (now Thailand). ... Events Mary I of Scotland sent to France Births September 2 - Vincenzo Scamozzi, Italian architect (died 1616) September 29 - William V, Duke of Bavaria (died 1626) Francesco Andreini, Italian actor (died 1624) Giordano Bruno, Italian philosopher, astronomer, and occultist (burned at the stake) 1600 (died 1600) Honda Tadakatsu, Japanese general... Events March 23 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. ... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ...

Sukhothai Dynasty

Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ... Bold text{| align=right cellpadding=3 id=toc style=margin-left: 15px; |- | align=center colspan=2 | Years: 1587 1588 1589 - 1590 - 1591 1592 1593 |-vdsf gno[gldw[pvkijxaiamknn csogfhbvdowkhbfkqhjkhrjkhwgfhbjkpnkfokfgok3pkpk9pjhkt9erktyujkip9kijker9thhrkg9hkitr9gtkih9t0ykltk[u0jo0iey9uhyit90ertyhige9rity9riyh9ujirtyuhjnh-4e9tyigh9thiuy0h8tyh34tu8uy8u8u8u8rtu5y8ru8thu0tru0ut0rhutuh0trhu0hseogtrhr8uyhju8t89er9te9r8fy8shit ass dick bitch fuck | align=center colspan=2 | Decades: 1560s 1570s 1580s - 1590s - 1600s 1610s 1620s |- | align=center | Centuries... King Naresuan the Great (1555 - April 25, 1605, also sometimes called Naret or the Black Prince, Thai สมเด็จพระนเรศวรมหาราช) was king of Siam (today Thailand) from 1590 until his death in 1605. ... Bold text{| align=right cellpadding=3 id=toc style=margin-left: 15px; |- | align=center colspan=2 | Years: 1587 1588 1589 - 1590 - 1591 1592 1593 |-vdsf gno[gldw[pvkijxaiamknn csogfhbvdowkhbfkqhjkhrjkhwgfhbjkpnkfokfgok3pkpk9pjhkt9erktyujkip9kijker9thhrkg9hkitr9gtkih9t0ykltk[u0jo0iey9uhyit90ertyhige9rity9riyh9ujirtyuhjnh-4e9tyigh9thiuy0h8tyh34tu8uy8u8u8u8rtu5y8ru8thu0tru0ut0rhutuh0trhu0hseogtrhr8uyhju8t89er9te9r8fy8shit ass dick bitch fuck | align=center colspan=2 | Decades: 1560s 1570s 1580s - 1590s - 1600s 1610s 1620s |- | align=center | Centuries... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Statue of King Ekathotsarot at Wat Pha Mok, Ang Thong King Ekathotsarot (Thai: ), also known as Sanpet III or the White prince, was king of Ayutthaya (Siam) 1605-1610. ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1620 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1620 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1621 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Songtham was king of Siam (modern Thailand) between 1611 and 1628. ... 1621 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events March 4 - Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter. ... His Majesty King Jēṣṭhādhirāj (full Thai title: สมเด็จพระเชษฐาธิราช; RTGS: Somdet Phra Chetthathirat) was the eldest son of King Droṇdharm and older brother of King Ādiŧyavoṇś, all three of the House of Sukhōday. ... Events March 4 - Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter. ... His Majesty King Ādiŧyavoṇś (full Thai title: สมเด็จพระอาทิตยวงศ์; RTGS: Somdet Phra Athittayawong) (born 1618) was the 23rd monarch of Ayuthia (or 24th if including Khun Vạravoṇśādhirāj) who reigned for a period of 38 days in the year 1629. ... Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. ...

Prasat Thong Dynasty

King Prasat Thong (Thai: ) (reigned 1629-1656) was the first king of Prasat Thong dynasty, the 4th dynasty of Ayutthaya kingdom. ... Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. ... Events March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens. ... Events March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens. ... Events March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens. ... King Narai the Great (Son of Prasat Thong) (Thai: ; 1629 - July 11, 1688) became king of the Ayutthaya kingdom or Siam, todays Thailand, in 1656. ... // Events Mehmed Köprülü becomes Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ...

Ban Phlu Luang Dynasty

Phetracha (alternative spellings: Bedraja, Petraja, Petraja, Petratcha; also called Phra Phetracha; Thai สมเด็จพระเพทราชา) (d. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... Events February 12 - British colonist James Oglethorpe founds Savannah, Georgia. ... King Boromakot (Boromarachathirat III) (Thai: พระเจ้าอยู่หัวบรมโกศ or สมเด็จพระบรมราชาธิราชที่ 3) (ca. ... Events February 12 - British colonist James Oglethorpe founds Savannah, Georgia. ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... King Boromaratcha V, also known as Suriyamarin or Ekkathat (also spelled Ekathat), Thai สมเด็จพระเจ้าอยู่หัวพระที่นั่งสุริยามรินทร์ (พระเจ้าเอกทัศ), ruled from 1758-1767, and was the last king of the Ayutthaya kingdom. ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1767 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...

See also

The previous theory often been proposed, the history of Thailand begins with the migration of the Thais from their ancestral home in southern China into mainland southeast asia around the 10th century AD. Prior to this Mon, Khmer and Malay kingdoms ruled the region. ... One of the more iconic images of the Bang Rajan battles is when one of the Thai leaders, Nai Thong Men, became drunk and furiously rode a water buffalo into battle against the Burmese. ...

List of notable foreigners in seventeenth century Ayutthaya

  • Constantine Phaulkon, Greek Adventurer and First Councillor of King Narai
  • François-Timoléon de Choisy
  • Father Guy Tachard, French Jesuit Writer and Siamese Ambassador to France (1688)
  • Monsignor Laneau, Apostolic Vicar of Siam
  • Yamada Nagamasa, Japanese adventurer who became the ruler of the Nakhon Si Thammarat province

Constantine Phaulkon (born Κωνσταντίνος Γεράκης or Constantinos Gerakis; Gerakis is the Greek word for Phaulkon) (1647 - June 5, 1688) was a Greek adventurer, who became first counsellor to King Narai of Ayutthaya. ... François Timoléon, abbé de Choisy (October 2, 1644 - October 2, 1724), French author, was born in Paris. ... Portrait of Yamada Nagamasa c. ...

References

  • Original text adapted from the LOC Country Study of Thailand
  • From Isfahan to Ayutthaya: Contacts between Iran and Siam in the 17th Century, M. Ismail Marcinkowski, Singapore: Pustaka Nasional, 2005 (ISBN 9971-77-491-7).

Further reading

Smithies, Michael. A Siamese Embassy Lost in Africa 1686: The Odyssey of Ok-Khun Chamman. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 1999.


Dissertations Retrieved from ProQuest-Dissertations and Theses on Aug.16,2006


Subject: Art History


Listopad, John A. "The art and architecture of the reign of Somdet Phra Narai." Diss. U of Michigan, 1995.


Subject: Buddhist literature


Chrystall, Beatrice. "Connections without limit: The refiguring of the Buddha in the Jinamahanidana." Diss. Harvard U, 2004.


Subject: History


Smith, George V. "The Dutch East India Company in the Kingdom of Ayutthaya, 1604-1694." Diss. Northern Illinois U, 1974.


Subject: Buddhist literature


Chrystall, Beatrice. "Connections without limit: The refiguring of the Buddha in the Jinamahanidana." Diss. Harvard U, 2004.


Subject:Urban planning


Peerapun, Wannasilpa. "The economic impact of historic sites on the economy of Ayutthaya, Thailand." Diss. U of Akron, 1991.


Other historical sources

Phonsawadan Krun Si Ayutthaya

There are 18 versions of Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya (Phonsawadan Krun Si Ayutthaya) known to scholars[1].

  • Fifteenth-Century Fragment - covering roughly AD 1438-44
  • Van Vliet Chronicle (1640) - Translated and compiled by the Dutch merchant. The original Thai manuscripts disappeared.
  • The Luang Prasoet Version (1680) - [1]
  • CS 1136 Version (1774)
  • The Nok Kaeo Version (1782)
  • CS 1145 Version (1783)
  • Sanggitiyavamsa - Pali chronicle compiled by Phra Phonnarat, generally discussing Buddhism History of Thailand. [2]
  • CS 1157 Version of Phan Chanthanumat (1795)
  • Thonburi Chronicle (1795)
  • Somdet Phra Phonnarat Version (1795) - Thought to be indentical to Bradley Version below.
  • Culayuddhakaravamsa Vol.2 - Pali chronicle.
  • Phra Chakraphatdiphong (Chat) Version (1808)
  • Brith Museum Version (1807)
  • Wat Ban Thalu Version (1812)
  • Culayuddhakaravamsa Sermon (1820) - Pali chronicle.
  • Bradley or Two-Volume Version (1864) - Formerly called Krom Phra Paramanuchit Chinorot Version. Vol.1 Vol.2 Vol.3 or Vol.1 Vol.2
  • Pramanuchit's Abridged Version (1850)
  • Royal Autograph Version (1855)

Some of these are available in Cushman, Richard D. (2000). The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya: A Synoptic Translation, edited by David K. Wyatt. Bangkok: The Siam Society. Prince Paramanuchit (Thai: ; 1791-1852), also called Paramanujit or Paramanujita Jinorasa Srisugatakhatiyavamsha, was a child of King Rama I and Lady Joui. ...


Burmese Account

These below are Burmese historical account of Ayutthaya.

  • Kham Hai Kan Chao Krung Kao (Lit. Testimony of Ayutthayans)
  • Kham Hai Kan Khun Luang Ha Wat (Lit. Testimony of King Uthumphon)

Western Account

  • Second Voyage du Pere Tachard et des Jesuites envoyes par le Roi au Royaume de Siam. Paris: Horthemels, 1689.

Online Collection Southeast Asia Visions Collection by Cornell University Library, link titlesea/


References

  1. ^ Wyatt, David K. "Introduction", Chronicle of the Kingdom of Ayutthaya, Tokyo: The center for East Asian Cultural Studies for UNESCO, The Toyo Bunko, 1999, p.14 ISBN 9784896566130

External Links


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  Results from FactBites:
 
Thailand Historical Settings Ayutthaya :: ThailandGateway.Com (1676 words)
For 417 years the kingdom of Ayutthaya was the dominant power in the fertile Menam or Chao Phraya Basin.
Ayutthaya also captured Angkor on at least one occasion but was unable to hold on to it for long.
The Ayutthaya kingdom thus changed, during the 15th century, from being a small state primus inter pares among similar states in central Thailand into an increasingly centralized kingdom wielding tight control over a core area of territory, as well as having looser authority over a string of tributary states.
Ayutthaya kingdom - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2988 words)
The kingdom of Ayutthaya was a Thai kingdom that existed from the 1350 to 1767.
The dramatic rise of Ayutthaya had entailed constant warfare and, as none of the parties in the region possessed a technological advantage, the outcome of battles was usually determined by the size of the armies.
Ayutthaya, situated at the southern extremity of the floodplain, thus became the hub of economic activity.
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