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Encyclopedia > Ayurveda
Alternative medical systems - edit
NCCAM classifications
  1. Alternative Medical Systems
  2. Mind-Body Intervention
  3. Biologically Based Therapy
  4. Manipulative and body-based methods
  5. Energy Therapy
See also

Ayurveda (Devanagari: आयुर्वेद) or Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient Hindu system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent. Even today it is very common in India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka and is used by millions of people. Ayurveda is also gaining popularity in the west. The word "Ayurveda" is a tatpurusha compound of the word āyus meaning "life," "life principle," or "long life" and the word veda, which refers to a system of "knowledge." Thus "Ayurveda" roughly translates as the "knowledge of life," "knowledge of a long life" or even "science of life." According to Charaka Samhita, "life" itself is defined as the "combination of the body, sense organs, mind and soul, the factor responsible for preventing decay and death, which sustains the body over time, and guides the processes of rebirth."[1][2] According to this perspective, Ayurveda is concerned with measures to protect "ayus", which includes healthy living along with therapeutic measures that relate to physical, mental, social and spiritual harmony. Ayurveda is also one among the few traditional systems of medicine to contain a sophisticated system of surgery (which is referred to as "salya-chikitsa"). Chiropractic (from Greek chiros and praktikos meaning done by hand) is a health care profession whose purpose is to diagnose and treat mechanical disorders of the spine and musculoskeletal system with the intention of affecting the nervous system and improving health. ... Herbalism is a traditional medicinal or folk medicine practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts. ... Homeopathic remedy Rhus toxicodendron, derived from poison ivy. ... Naturopathic medicine (also known as naturopathy) is a school of medical philosophy and practice that seeks to improve health and treat disease chiefly by assisting the bodys innate capacity to recover from illness and injury. ... This article is about a type of complementary medicine practiced worldwide. ... Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... This is a glossary for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), an umbrella term for a large number of practices that fall outside the scope of conventional medicine. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Alternative medicine. ... Alternative medicine has been described as any of various systems of healing or treating disease (as chiropractic, homeopathy, or faith healing) not included in the traditional medical curricula taught in the United States and Britain.[1] Alternative medicine practices are often based in belief systems not derived from modern science. ... Complementary medicine refers to a group of therapeutic and diagnostic disciplines that exist largely outside the institutions where conventional health care is taught and provided. ... This is a glossary for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), an umbrella term for a large number of practices that fall outside the scope of conventional medicine. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) DevanāgarÄ« (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... A Tatpurusha is a type of compound in Sanskrit grammar. ... The Charaka Samhita is an ancient Indian manuscript, originating partly from early as 1000 BCE, on Ayurvedic internal medicine. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ...



Ayurveda, Ancient Indian System of Medicines deals with knowledge that can define the quality and quantum of social and personal health status and ways to restore, maintain and upgrade it based on the principles of Vedic metaphysics[charaka samhita].

According to the Ayurvedavatarana (the "descent of Ayurveda"), the origin of Ayurveda is stated to be a divine revelation of the Hindu deity Brahma[3] as he awoke to recreate the universe. It was revealed to the gods through the means of the divine physician Dhanvantari who emerged from the churning of the celestial ocean. This knowledge was passed directly to Daksha Prajapati in the form of shloka sung by Lord Brahma,[4] and this was in turn passed down through a successive chain of deities to Lord Indra, the protector of dharma. According to this account, the first human exponent of Ayurveda was Bharadvaja, who learned it directly from Indra. Bharadvaja in turn taught Ayurveda to a group of assembled sages, who then passed down different aspects of this knowledge to their students. According to tradition, Ayurveda was first described in text form by Agnivesha, in his book the Agnivesh tantra. The book was later redacted by Charaka, and became known as the Charaka Samhitā.[5] Another early text of Ayurveda is the Sushruta Samhitā, which was compiled by Sushruta, the primary pupil of Dhanvantri, sometime around 1000 BCE. Sushrut is known as the Father of Surgery, and in the Sushrut Samhita, the teachings and surgical techniques of Dhanvantri are compiled and complemented with additional findings and observations of Sushrut regarding topics ranging from obstetrics and orthopedics to ophthalmology. Sushrut Samhita together with Charaka Samhitā, served as the textual material within the ancient Universities of Takshashila and Nalanda.[6] These texts are believed to have been written around the beginning of the Common Era, and are based on a holistic approach rooted in the philosophy of the Vedas and Vedic culture. Holism is central to ayurvedic philosophy and elements of holism is found in several aspects of ayurveda.[7] For other uses, see Divinity (disambiguation) and Divine (disambiguation). ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... This article is about the Hindu god of creation. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A Sanskrit term shloka (श्लोक; also spelt sloka) specifically denotes a metered and often rhymed poetic verse or phrase. ... For other uses, see Indra (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ... In Hinduism, Bharadwaja was one of the great sages(rishi) who lived in ancient India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For a village in Greece, see Charaka (Laconia), Greece Charaka, sometimes spelled Caraka, (perhaps 1st or 2nd century) is one of the founders of Ayurveda. ... The Charaka Samhitā is one of the early ancient texts of Ayurveda. ... Sushruta Samhita See also; Sushruta /Ayurveda ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sushruta Samhita. ... Centuries: 12th century BC - 11th century BC - 10th century BC Decades: 1050s BC 1040s BC 1030s BC 1020s BC 1010s BC - 1000s BC - 990s BC 980s BC 970s BC 960s BC 950s BC Events and trends 1006 BC - David becomes king of the ancient Israelites (traditional date) 1002 BC - Death... BCE redirects here. ... The Charaka Samhitā is one of the early ancient texts of Ayurveda. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... This article needs cleanup. ... This article is about the ancient town and university. ... BCE redirects here. ... The Earth seen from Apollo 17. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Ashtanga are the eight branches of Ayurveda:

  1. Internal medicine - Kayachikitsa
  2. Pediatrics - Kaumarabhritya Tantra
  3. Psychology/Psychiatry - Bhuta Vidya
  4. Ears, eyes, nose and throat - Shalakya tantra
  5. Surgery - Shalya Tantra
  6. Toxicology - Agada Tantra
  7. Rejuvenation - Rasayana Tantra
  8. Fertility Therapy - Vajikarana Tantra

Shalakyatanthra is a branch of ayurveda, the Indian system of medicine. ... This article is an overview of Tantra and an in-depth look at the Tantra of Hinduism. ...


There is a concept that has been passing down verbally from generation to generation in India about the origin of Ayurveda. Accordingly, the ancient "Rishis" or wise men of India gathered at the foot of the Himalayas. Their objective was to innovate together the secret of leading a healthy, long life. The final product of their effort came to be known as Ayurveda or the "science of life".

A statue of the Hindu deity Brahma. Hinduism believes in the divine origin of Ayurveda
A statue of the Hindu deity Brahma. Hinduism believes in the divine origin of Ayurveda
Dhanvantari, the God of Ayurveda
Dhanvantari, the God of Ayurveda
Nagarjuna, a follower of Buddha, was a well known herbologist, known for inventing various new drugs for the treatment of ailments
Nagarjuna, a follower of Buddha, was a well known herbologist, known for inventing various new drugs for the treatment of ailments

Documented references to the precise timing of the origins of Ayurveda are not available. The age of Ayurveda has been established on the basis of correlating the evidence with other disciplines as well as circumstantial evidence. Ayurveda is said to have been first compiled as a text by Agnivesha, in his book Agnivesh tantra, which was written during Vedic times.[citation needed] The book was later revised by Charaka, and renamed to Charaka Samhitā (encyclopedia of the physician Charaka).[8] Other early texts of Ayurveda include the Charaka Samhitā and the Sushruta Samhitā[6] The system was orally transferred via the Gurukul system until a script came into existence. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (728x1304, 211 KB) Skildring Brahma carving from Halebid in Karnataka. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (728x1304, 211 KB) Skildring Brahma carving from Halebid in Karnataka. ... This article is about the Hindu god of creation. ... A detail from a miniature painting in the Rajastani style, made by the artist LaLa in Udipur, ordered pecially by User:F16. ... A detail from a miniature painting in the Rajastani style, made by the artist LaLa in Udipur, ordered pecially by User:F16. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1401 KB) Summary Image taken by Benjamin Matthews on visit to Samye Ling Monastery, Dumfriesshire, UK, on 1 May 2004. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1401 KB) Summary Image taken by Benjamin Matthews on visit to Samye Ling Monastery, Dumfriesshire, UK, on 1 May 2004. ... For other uses, see Nagarjuna (disambiguation). ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... It has been suggested that Herbal supplements be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

The earliest scripts would have been written on perishable materials such as Taalpatra and Bhojapatra, which could not be readily preserved.[citation needed] The script was later written on stone and copper sheets.[citation needed] Verses dealing with Ayurveda are included in the Atharvaveda, which implies that some form of Ayurveda is as old as the Vedas.[citation needed] Ayurvedic practices have also evolved over time, and some practices may be considered innovations upon earlier Vedic practices, such as the advances made during the Buddhist period in India.[citation needed] The Atharvaveda (Sanskrit: अथर्ववेद, , a tatpurusha compound of , a type of priest, and meaning knowledge) is a sacred text of Hinduism, and one of the four Vedas, often called the fourth Veda. According to tradition, the Atharvaveda was mainly composed by two groups of rishis known as the Bhrigus and the...

Hinduism attributes the genesis of Ayurveda to several theories in which the knowledge is believed to have been passed on from being to being, initially, through its realization by the divine sages, and gradually into the human sphere by a complex system of mnemonics. Details of Ayurvedic traditions vary between writers, as is expected when oral traditions are transcribed from multiple sources. The earliest authors of Ayurvedic manuscripts recorded divergent forms of the tradition.

Ayurveda was mainly formulated in ancient times, but there were a number of additions made during the Middle Ages. Alongside the ancient physicians Sushruta and Charaka, the medieval physician Vagbhata, who lived in the 7th century, is considered one of the three classic writers of Ayurveda. In the 8th century, Madhav wrote the Nidāna, a 79-chapter book which lists diseases along with their causes, symptoms, and complications. He also included a special chapter on smallpox (masūrikā) and described the method of inoculation to protect against smallpox.[9] Ancient redirects here. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sushruta Samhita. ... For a village in Greece, see Charaka (Laconia), Greece Charaka, sometimes spelled Caraka, (perhaps 1st or 2nd century) is one of the founders of Ayurveda. ... Madhav was an 8th century Indian physician who wrote the Nidāna, which soon assumed a position of authority. ... This article is about the disease. ... Inoculation, originally Variolation, is a method of purposefully infecting a person with smallpox (Variola) in a controlled manner so as to minimise the severity of the infection and also to induce immunity against further infection. ...

Ayurveda & Purana

In the Mahabharata it is stated that Lord Krishna had a son named Samb. He was suffering from leprosy. In order to treat him, Krishna invited special Brahmins from shakdvipa (believed as present-day Iran). They were sun worshipers and famous astronomers. They treated Samb and cured him of leprosy. Shakdvipiya brahmins originated from those shakdvipa origin brahmins and are also called as magi brahmins. Sakaldwipya are said to be specialized in ayurveda, astronomy, astrology and the Sakaldwipiya are the sun worshipper or so-called Saura. The most detailed account of the origin of Śākadvīpīs or Bhojakas occurs in Bhavishya Purana (chapter 133).[10][11] They also played a great role in Ayurveda. The founder of modern Ayurveda Charaka was a Maga or Sakaldwipiya. For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... Sol redirects here. ... Galileo is often referred to as the Father of Modern Astronomy. ... For the malady found in the Hebrew Bible, see Tzaraath. ... For other uses, see Magi (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... The Saura Indians lived in a village near what is now called Sauratown Mountain in the piedmont area of North Carolina just east of Pilot Mountain and North of the Yadkin River. ... The Bhavishya Purana is an ancient Sanskrit text authored by Rishi Vyasa, the compiler of the Vedic texts. ... For a village in Greece, see Charaka (Laconia), Greece Charaka, sometimes spelled Caraka, (perhaps 1st or 2nd century) is one of the founders of Ayurveda. ...

Historical evidence

The history of indigenous Indian medical science is probably as old as the Indus Valley Civilization dating back to 3000 BC. The meticulously planned cities of Harappa and Mohenjodaro are pointers not only to India’s rich cultural heritage but also to its advanced systems of hygiene and health care. The remains of deer antler and bitumen found in Harappa testify to the existence of a medical science. It was between 1200 and 700 BC, that the four sacred Vedas were composed. References to diseases, herbs and herbal cures can be seen in all the four Vedas especially in the Rig Veda. Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan. ... Location of Harappa in the Indus Valley. ... Mohenjo-daro (literally, mound of the dead), like Harappa, was a city of the Indus Valley civilization. ... Veda redirects here. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ...

The Atharva Veda has many hymns eulogizing herbs. Many plants were worshipped as deities and invoked by incantations. There were also many Mantras (invocations) to combat jaundice, consumption and hereditary diseases among others. The Atharvan hymns chanted for the cure of diseases were known as Bhaishajyams and those for attaining longevity and prosperity were called Ayushyams. These hymns, especially the Ayushyams are considered to be the foundation for advances in later medicine.


Ayurvedic practice was flourishing during the time of Buddha (around 520 BC), and in this period the Ayurvedic practitioners were commonly using Mercuric-sulphur combination based medicines.[12] In this period mercury, sulphur and other metals were used in conjunction with herbs to prepare the different medications.[citation needed] An important Ayurvedic practitioner of this period was Nagarjuna, a Buddhist herbologist, famous for inventing various new drugs for the treatment of ailments.[citation needed] Nagarjuna was accompanied by Surananda, Nagbodhi, Yashodhana, Nityanatha, Govinda, Anantdev, Vagbhatta etc. The knowledge of Ayurveda progressed a lot during this period, including development of newer and more effective medicines, and is therefore termed as the Golden Period of Ayurveda.[citation needed] This article is about the element. ... For the chemical element see: sulfur. ... For other uses, see Nagarjuna (disambiguation). ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... It has been suggested that Herbal supplements be merged into this article or section. ... Krsnas name is Govinda. ...

After emerging victorious at the Kalinga War, Emperor Ashoka (304 BC-232 BC) influenced by the Buddhist teachings, banned any bloodshed in his kingdom in 250 BC. Therefore many Ayurveda practitioners, who were practicing surgery along with medicine, left the surgical intervention and adopted totally new medicinal treatments. In this period, Ayurveda again evolved and flourished with the invention of new drugs, new methodology and new innovations. The practice of the accompanying surgery slowly died out during this period.[citation needed] Combatants Mauryan Empire State of Kalinga Commanders Ashoka Unknown Strength Unknown larger quantity Unknown smaller quantity Casualties 10,000 (approx. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in...

During the regime of Chandragupta Maurya (375-415 AD), Ayurveda was part of mainstream Indian medical techniques, and continued to be so until the colonisation by the British. Allegiance: Maurya Dynasty Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya Reign: 322 BC-298 BC Place of birth: Indian subcontinent Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य; Romanized Greek: Sandrakottos), whilst often referred to as Sandrakottos outside India, is also known simply as Chandragupta (born c. ...

Chakrapani Dutta (DuttaSharma) was a Vaid Brahman of Bengal who wrote books on Ayurveda such as "Chakradutta" and others. Chakrapani Dutta was the Rajavaidya of Great King Laxman Sen {some says rajVaid of King Nayapala (1038 - 1055)}. It is believed by some practitioners that Chakradutta is the essence of Ayurveda. Brahman (nominative ) is a concept of Hinduism. ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ...

During the 17th century the colonial Dutch Governor in India (based in Kochi)used the palm leaf manuscripts and services of Ayurvedic physician Itty Achudan to compile his botanical treatise Hortus Malabaricus. Ayurveda has always been preserved by the people of India as a traditional "science of life", despite increasing adoption of European medical techniques during the time of British rule. For several decades the reputation and skills of the various Ayurvedic schools declined markedly as Western medicine and Western-style hospitals were built. However, beginning in the 1970s, a gradual recognition of the value of Ayurveda returned, and today Ayurvedic hospitals and practitioners are flourishing throughout all of India. As well, the production and marketing of Ayurvedic herbal medicines has dramatically increased, as well as scientific documentation of benefits.[citation needed] Today, Ayurvedic medicines are available throughout the world. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Kochi may refer to: Kochi, India, a city in the state of Kerala, India, formerly known as Cochin. ... The cover page of the original Latin edition of Hortus Malabaricus Hortus Malabaricus (meaning Garden of Malabar) is a comprehensive treatise that deals with the medicinal properties of the flora in the Indian state of Kerala. ...

See also: The Eight Armed Ayurveda

Gurukula system

In the earlier days of its conception, the system of Ayurvedic medicine was orally transferred via the Gurukul system until a written script came into existence. A Gurukul (Guru refers to teacher or master; Kul refers to his domain, from the Sanskrit word kula, meaning extended family. ...

In this system, the Guru gave a solemn address where he directed the students to a life of chastity, honesty, and vegetarianism. The student was to strive with all his being to heal the sick. He was not to betray patients for his own advantage. He was required to dress modestly and avoid alcohol or drugs. He was to be collected and self-controlled, measured in speech at all times. He was to constantly improve his knowledge and technical skill. At the patient's home, he was to be courteous and modest, directing all attention to the patient's welfare. He was not to divulge any knowledge about the patient and his family. If the patient was incurable, he was to keep this to himself if it was likely to harm the patient or others. For other uses, see Guru (disambiguation). ... Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes all animal flesh, including poultry, game, fish, shellfish or crustacea, and slaughter by-products[1] [2]. The reasons for choosing vegetarianism may be related to morality, religion, culture, ethics, aesthetics, environment, society, economy, politics, taste, or health. ...

The normal length of the student's training appears to have been seven years. Before graduation, the student was to pass a test. But the physician was to continue to learn through texts, direct observation (pratyaksha), and through inference (anumāna). In addition, the vaidyas attended meetings where knowledge was exchanged. The practitioners also gained knowledge of unusual remedies from laypeople who were outside the huffsteter community such as hillsmen, herdsmen, and forest-dwellers.

Sapta dhatus

Sapta means seven and the word Dhatu refers to various types of tissues the human body is made of. The word Dhatu in Sanskrit means “that which forms the body”. The root Dha means support and the Dhatus sustain the body.

The seven dhatus mentioned are Rasa, Rakta, Maamsa Medas, Asthi, Majja and Shukra.

Rasa: The food we consume is digested in the stomach and intestine and forms a semi-fluid. This is called Rasa dhatu. In modern science it is called chyme. This is absorbed into the blood stream and becomes part of the plasma the fluid which can be seen after the cells in the blood settle down at the bottom if blood mixed with an anticoagulant (a substance which prevents blood from clotting) is kept in a tube.

Rakta: Rakta means blood.

Mamsa: This refers to muscle tissue. There are three types of muscles in the human body. The skeletal muscles are responsible for movements of joints and are under voluntary control. Smooth muscles are present in internal organs and are not under voluntary control. For example the intestines contain smooth muscles which propel food forward. Cardiac muscle is present only in the heart and is a specialized tissue responsible for pumping of blood.

Medas: This is the adipose tissue which consists mainly of fat. It is responsible for lubrication.

Ashthi: This consists of bones and cartilages. Bones give strength to the body.

Majja: This refers to the bone marrow. It is a spongy substance inside the cavity of bones.

Shukra: The shukra dhatu is represented by the semen in the male and the ovum in the female. It is responsible for reproduction. But a part of this dhatu transforms itself into ojas.

The word ojas is a Sanskrit word which literally means immunity, energy, vigor etc. It is somewhat an abstract entity and its equivalent in modern medicine is not known. It is the interface between the spiritual and the material dimensions of a human being.

We all know that some people are full of energy, rarely fall sick and have a bright look on their face. On the other hand some people always feel tired, fall sick frequently and look dull. It may not be possible to identify any difference between the two by conducting detailed physiological and biochemical tests.

According to ayurveda the difference is in the level of ojas. Ojas integrates body, mind and spirit together resulting in a unique individual. Ojas is responsible for bala (strength) and vyadhikshamatva (resistance to diseases).

Scriptures describe two types of ojas-Para ojas and Apara ojas. Para ojas is said to be located in the heart and its loss leads to death. Apara ojas is distributed throughout the body.

Tridosha system

The central concept of Ayurvedic medicine is the theory that health exists when there is a balance between three fundamental bodily humours or doshas called Vata, Pitta and Kapha.

  • Vata is the dynamic "kinetic" principle necessary to mobilize anything from electron to a galaxy. Air is the representative in an abstract sense.
  • Pitta is the thermal, explosive force behind the ability to transform everything. Sun is the representative.
  • Kapha is the cohesion that holds everything together with its electro magnetic and gravitational forces.

All Ayurvedic physicians believe that these ancient ideas, based in the knowledge discovered by the Rishis and Munis, exist in harmony with physical reality. These Ayurvedic concepts allow physicians to examine the homeostasis of the whole system. People may be of a predominant dosha or constitution, but all doshas have the basic elements within them. Homeostasis (from Greek: ὅμος, homos, equal; and ιστημι, histemi, to stand lit. ...


The emergence of different schools of Sanskrit philosophy like Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Sankhya, Yoga, Vedanta and Mimamsa was another landmark in the history of Indian medicine. The principles expounded in these philosophies facilitated the development within Ayurveda of its theory of humoral pathology which propounds that the human body is composed of Tridoshas, the three humors – Vata, Pitta and Kapha. When these are in equilibrium they are called the Tridhatus. The body in which these three humors are in a state of equilibrium enjoys perfect health; their disequilibrium causes ill health. (Sanskrit ni-āyá, literally recursion, used in the sense of syllogism, inference)) is the name given to one of the six orthodox or astika schools of Hindu philosophy—specifically the school of logic. ... Vaisheshika, also Vaisesika, (Sanskrit: वैशॆषिक)is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy (orthodox Vedic systems) of India. ... Samkhya, also Sankhya, (Sanskrit: सांख्य) is a school of Indian philosophy, and is one of the six astika or Hindu philosophical schools of India. ... For other uses such as Yoga postures, see Yoga (disambiguation) Statue of Shiva performing Yogic meditation Yoga (Sanskrit: योग Yog, IPA: ) is a group of ancient spiritual practices designed for the purpose of cultivating a steady mind. ... For other uses, see Vedanta (disambiguation). ... The main objective of the Purva (earlier) Mimamsa school was to establish the authority of the Vedas. ...

Disease management

Shamana and Shodhana are the two concepts of disease management in Ayurveda. Shamana means alleviation. Shamana methods mitigate the disease and its symptoms. Shodhana means elimination and Shodhana methods aim at the elimination of the basic cause of disease. There are 5 types of shodana which is well known as panchakarma. Panchakarmas are vamana, virechana, nasya, basti and raktha mokshana. In shamana usually medicines are given internally where as in shodana external treatments are given. Shodana karma have 2 poorvakarma for prepraring the patients body for treatment, ie. snehana and swedana.

Tastes and effects

Ayurveda holds that the tastes of foods or herbs have specific physiological effects. Those tastes that transform after digestion (Vipaka) are more powerful.

  • Sweet (Madhura) - Sweet foods nourish, cool, moisten, oil, and increase weight
  • Sour (Amla) - Sour foods warm, oil, and increase weight
  • Salty (Lavana) - Salty foods warm, dissolve, stimulate, soften, oil, and increase weight
  • Bitter (Katu) - Bitter foods cool, dry, purify and decrease weight
  • Pungent (Tikta) - Pungent foods warm, dry, stimulate, and decrease weight
  • Astringent (Kashaya) - Astringent foods cool, dry, reduce stickiness.
  • Hot (Jhala)


See also: List of herbs and minerals in Ayurveda

Ayurveda operates on the precept that various materials of vegetable, animal, and mineral origin have some medicinal value. The medicinal properties of these materials have been documented by the practitioners and have been used for centuries to cure illness and/or help maintain good health. Ayurvedic medicaments are made from herbs or mixtures of herbs, either alone or in combination with minerals, metals and other ingredients of animal origin. The metals, animals and minerals are purified by individual processes before being used for medicinal purposes. Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) is a form of traditional medicine in use primarily in India. ...

Writers and compilers of Ayurvedic literature such as Charaka, Sushruta, Vagabhatta, Bhav Mishra, Shaligram and others have written about the qualities, characteristics and medicinal uses of the herbs, mineral, metals, chemicals, animal parts, cooked food articles, natural foods, fruits etc. Among them, the Bhav Prakash Nighantu, written by Bhav Mishra, is known for its detail .The composition of the Nighantu part (Ayurvedic Materia Medica) of the Bhav Prakash is part of the classical book. The details of the medicinal herbs are given according to the nature, effects, and curative properties as observed by the Ayurvedic practitioners.

Ayurvedic literature has been written by several authors in languages such as Sanskrit, Hindi, Kannada, Tamil, Telugu and more recently, in English.The Shaligram Nighantu was written in Sanskrit. The Banaushadhi Chandrodaya was written in Hindi.The Indian Materia Medica was written in English. Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... -1... Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... Tamil ( ; IPA: ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people, originating on the Indian subcontinent. ... Telugu may refer to: Telugu language Telugu literature Telugu people Telugu script Telugu films Look up Telugu in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... -1...

Panchakarma and Ayurvedic massage

See also: Panchakarma

Panchakarma (the five therapeutic modalities) is a collection of purification techniques that Ayurveda prescribes for specific conditions and diseases and for periodic cleansing. A course of Pancharkarma typically includes a nutritional adjustments, herbs, pre or co panchakarma therapies (such as oil massages, hot baths, steam or sauna, shirodhara, dehadhara, hot rice massage etc) and one or some of the main therapies (such as vamana - removal of the kapha toxins, virechana - removal of the pitta toxins, vasti - removal of the vata toxins, raktamoksha - removal of the toxins trapped in blood stream, and nasya - removal of toxins trapped in sinuses and cranial area. Panchakarma is a high profile process of cleaning the entire human body internally, as described in Ayurvedic Science. ... Panchakarma is a high profile process of cleaning the entire human body internally, as described in Ayurvedic Science. ...

Abhyanga - oil application and mardana - massage form the background of a course of therapy. This combination helps heal pain, circulatory problems, residue of stress, disturbed sleep, stiffness and tiredness.[citation needed] Massage therapy can soothe pain, relax stiff muscles, and reduce the swelling that accompanies arthritis.[citation needed] Advocates claim that, with Ayurvedic massage, deep-seated toxins in the joints and tissues are loosened and released into the system for elimination through natural toxin-release processes.[13] There are several different types of Ayurvedic treatments such as panchakarma, marma massage and abhyangam.[14] Ayurvedic massage is especially developed in Sri Lanka and the Indian state of Kerala.-1...

Current status

In the early 20th century, Ayurvedic physicians began to organize into professional associations and to promote their case for national recognition and funding.[citation needed] This began to become a reality after Indian independence in 1947.[citation needed] Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Research and innovations in Ayurveda are under taken by the Central Government statutory body Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha [CCRAS], which have national network of research institutes. ... The History of the Republic of India began on August 15, 1947 when India became an independent Dominion within the British Commonwealth. ...

Ayurveda is now a statutory, recognised medical system of health care like other medical systems existing in India. The Central Council of Indian Medicine {CCIM} governs and recommends policies for the research and development of the system. An Encyclopedia on Ayurveda - Ayushveda.com[2] has been developed to promote the knowledge of Ayurveda worldwide.

In India, practitioners in Ayurveda undergo 5 and 1/2 years of training including 1 year of internship in select Ayurveda Medical Schools wherein they earn the professional doctorate degree of Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery[B.A.M.S.]. A Bachelor's degree with a major in Science [Physics, Chemistry, Biology] and a minor in Sanskrit is desirable for candidates interested in taking up the course.

Select institutions like the Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, offer higher doctorates and postgraduate training such as MD [Ayurveda] which includes a 3 year residency and a dissertation similar to the MD/MS degrees in modern systems of medicine.

Ayurvedic institutions and practitioners

Ayurvedic practitioners have been appointed as Honorary Ayurvedic Physician to the President of India. Every year on the occasion of Dhanvantari jayanti, a prestigious Dhanvantari Award is conferred on a famous personality of Medical Sciences including Ayurveda. Traditionally Kerala has been the leading state in India that promoted Ayurveda as a medical system, because there existed about 18 families known as 'Ashtavaidyas' who practised ayurveda generation after generation. Even now a few number of these families exist (Pulamanthole Mooss, Thaikkattu mooss,Vayaskara Mooss,Alathur Nambi, Vaidyamadhom, etc.).They taught the ayurveda system of treatment to several people and it spread through them. It led to the establishment of Ayurveda colleges and also inspired research activities in Ayurveda. Now there are many Ayurvedic centers (known as Vaidya shalas) all over Kerala, and, of late, several Ayurveda colleges also have come up. The President of India (Hindi: Rashtrapati) is the head of state and first citizen of India and the Supreme Commander of the Indian armed forces. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Practice in the West

As a result of regulations in medical practice in Europe and America, the most commonly practiced Ayurvedic treatments in the west are massage and dietary and herbal advice. Psychiatrist Frank John Ninivaggi, M. D. of Yale University School of Medicine has recently outlined the principles of Ayurveda, specifically for Western health practitioners.[15] For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...

In the United States, the National Institute of Ayurvedic Medicine (established by Scott Gerson) is an example of a research institute that has carried out research into Ayurvedic practices.[16] Gerson has published part of his work on the antifungal activities of certain Ayurvedic plants in medical journals.[17]

Several Pharmaceutical companies and Academic Institutions in the west have come into conflict with Indian academic institutions and traditional Ayurvedic practitioners over the intellectual property rights of herbal products researched by the western agencies. The Ayurvedic practitioners have known about the efficacy of such products for centuries and so contend that they carry precedence with regards to patent rights on such products.

In December 1993, the University of Mississippi Medical Center had a patent issued to them by U.S patents and trademarks office on the use of turmeric (U.S. patent No. 5,401,504) for healing. The patent was contested by India's industrial research organization, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (C.S.I.R), on the grounds that traditional Ayurvedic practitioners were already aware of the healing properties of the substance and have been for centuries, making this patent a case of bio-piracy.[18] The University of Mississippi, also known as Ole Miss, is a public, coeducational research university located in Oxford, Mississippi. ... Binomial name Linnaeus Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae which is native to tropical South Asia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Bioprospecting. ...

After a complex legal battle, the U.S. Patents and Trademarks Office ruled on August 14, 1997 that the patent was invalid because it was not a novel invention, giving the intellectual property rights to the principle back to the traditional practitioners of Ayurveda. R. A. Mashelkar, director-general of the CSIR, was satisfied with the result, saying: is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...

This success will enhance the confidence of the people and help remove fears about India's helplessness on preventing bio-piracy and appropriation of inventions based on traditional knowledge[18]

Vandana Shiva, a global campaigner for a fair and honest Intellectual Property Rights system, says patents on herbal products derived from Neem, Amla, Jar Amla, Anar ("Pomegranate"), Salai, Dudhi ("Calabash"), Gulmendhi, Bagbherenda, Karela, Erand, Rangoon-kibel, Vilayetishisham and Chamkura also need to be revoked.[18] Neem (Azadirachta indica, syn. ... Binomial name Phyllanthus emblica Gaertn. ... Anar is the Persian word for pomegranate. This term has been borrowed into numerous other languages, including Turkish, Azeri, Hindi, Kurdish and others. ... Binomial name L. The Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 5–8 m tall. ... Dudhi is a town and a nagar panchayat in Sonbhadra district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. ... Binomial name (Molina) Standl. ... Binomial name Momordica charantia Descourt. ... Erand is a suburb of Johannesburg, South Africa. ...

Seven American and four Japanese firms have filed for grant of patents on formulations containing extracts of the herb Ashwagandha. Fruits, leaves and seeds of the Indian medicinal plant withania somnifera have been traditionally used for the Ayurvedic system as aphrodisiacs, diuretics and for treating memory loss. The Japanese patent applications are related to the use of the herb as a skin ointment and for promoting reproductive fertility. The U.S based company Natreon has also obtained a patent for an Ashwagandha extract. Another US establishment, the New England Deaconess Hospital, has taken a patent on an Ashwagandha formulation claimed to alleviate symptoms associated with arthritis. It is clear that the Ashwagandha plant is catching the attention of scientists and more patents related to Ashwagandha are being filed or granted by different patent offices since 1996.[19] Binomial name L. Synonyms Physalis somnifera Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), also known as Indian ginseng, Winter cherry, Ajagandha, Kanaje Hindi and Samm Al Ferakh, is a plant in Solanaceae or nightshade family. ... Binomial name Withania somnifera L. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), also known as Indian ginseng, Winter cherry, Ajagandha, Kanaje Hindi and Samm Al Ferakh, is a plant in Solanaceae or nightshade family. ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ...

Ayurvedic wisdom originated in the main Vedas as a part of way of life - a spiritual connection with spirit and nature. This is most evident reading Atharva Veda. Ayurveda was used to remove obstacles on one’s path to Self-Realization. At some point the medical aspects began to take priority over the spiritual forms of healing (ie, focusing on lifestyle, dharma and moksha. Today, these spiritual aspects of Ayurveda have taken a back seat to the medical focus. As Ayurveda becomes a more commercially viable career, the spiritual aspects may continue to lose ground. Yet there are a growing number of practitioners who practice mainly these spiritual therapies and find better results than limiting their approach to the medical, physical realm. Categories: Substubs ... For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moksha (disambiguation). ...


Scientific studies and standards

Critics object to the lack of rigorous scientific studies and clinical trials of many ayurvedic products. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine states that "most clinical trials of Ayurvedic approaches have been small, had problems with research designs, lacked appropriate control groups, or had other issues that affected how meaningful the results were."[20] In medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a research study. ... The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine or NCCAM, a division of the National Institutes of Health within the Department of Health and Human Services of the United States federal government, was established in October, 1991, as the Office of Alternative Medicine, which was re-established as the NCCAM...

In India, scientific research in Ayurveda is largely undertaken by the statutory body of the Central Government, the Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS), through a national network of research institutes.[21] A large number of non-governmental organisations are also conducting research work on different aspects of Ayurveda[22]. However, "even staunch advocates of Ayurveda like cardiologist Dr. M.S. Valiathan...admit that 'clinical studies that would satisfy the liberal criteria of WHO World Health Organisation have been alarmingly few from India, in spite of patients crowding in Ayurvedic hospitals"'.[20] Judiciary Supreme Court of India Chief Justice of India High Courts District Courts Elections Political Parties Local & State Govt. ... ... For other meanings of the acronym WHO, see WHO (disambiguation) WHO flag Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the World Health Organization (WHO) is an agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health. ...

Safety concerns

There is evidence that using some ayurvedic medicine, especially those involving herbs, metals, minerals, or other materials involves potentially serious risks, including toxicity.[23][3][24] This article is about the plants used in cooking and medicine. ... For alternative meanings see metal (disambiguation). ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... // Toxic and Intoxicated redirect here – toxic has other uses, which can be found at Toxicity (disambiguation); for the state of being intoxicated by alcohol see Drunkenness. ...

A research study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association[25] found significant levels of toxic heavy metals such as lead, mercury and arsenic in 20% of Ayurvedic preparations that were made in South Asia for sale in America. The Journal found that, if taken according to the manufacturers' instructions, this 20% of remedies "could result in heavy metal intakes above published regulatory standards"[25] Similar studies have been performed in India, and have confirmed these results. Cases of metal toxicity from use of ayurvedic medicines are well known.[26] Some practitioners claimed that "heavy metals are integral to some formulations and have been used for centuries. There is no point of doing trials as they have been used safely and have mention in our ancient texts."[26] JAMA, published continuously since in 1883, is an international peer-reviewed general medical journal published 48 times per year. ... For other uses, see Heavy metal (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ...

There is a technique of detoxification applied to heavy metals and toxic herbs called samskaras, which is similar to the Chinese pao zhi although the Ayurvedic technique is more complex and may involve prayers as well as physical pharmacy techniques.[27] Samskara is a process in Ayurvedic medicine of detoxification applied to heavy metals and toxic herbs, which is similar to the Chinese pao zhi. ... In Chinese medicine the technique of altering the properties of crude drugs by such means as roasting, honey frying, wine frying, earth frying, vinegar frying, calcining, or other means. ...

The described detoxification is a simple chemical process which involves four successive rounds of boiling the crude Aconitum root in cow's urine (twice) and cow's milk (twice). This process is claimed to chemically modify both toxic and proposed therapeutic components of the root. It also extracts some of these compounds from the root into the boiling solvents, thereby decreasing their concentration in the final product. This article is about the herb sometimes known as wolfsbane. ...

See also

Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) is a form of traditional medicine in use primarily in India. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A jar and spoonful of Dabur chyawanprash Chyawanprash, also spelled chyavanaprasha, chyavanaprash, chyavanaprasam and chyawanaprash, is an ancient Ayurvedic health tonic, widely used in India, as a rejuvenative, energizer and immunity booster. ... Research and innovations in Ayurveda are under taken by the Central Government statutory body Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha [CCRAS], which have national network of research institutes. ... The Charaka Samhita is an ancient Indian manuscript, originating partly from early as 1000 BCE, on Ayurvedic internal medicine. ... Panchgavya (or cowpathy) is an Indian therapeutic practice which uses the five products of cows. ... Sri Lanka with an Archeological history running back to 30000 BC, has its indigenous scheme of Medicine, this system has been practised for many centuries in the island nation. ... Astrogenetics is a subject dealing with the influence of planetary motion and astrological influences on human birth and health. ... The term describes medical knowledge systems, which developed over centuries within various societies before the era of modern medicine; traditional medicines include medicines such as herbal medicine, Ayurvedic medicine, Unani medicine, Acupuncture, Traditional Chinese medicine, Traditional Ayurvedic Medicine, South African Muti, Yoruba Ifá, as well as other medical knowledge and... Yoga whythbytvfbyjfgnuj6yfgy6gbytbythbthnbtyyhn uyuytnhunnytnjytjyhnygfhjnynjhfygnhen used as a form of alternative medicine is a combination of breathing exercises, physical postures, and meditation, practiced for over 5,000 years. ...


  1. ^ http://www.toddcaldecott.com/pdf%20files/publications/Ayurvedic%20medicine/Chapter_one.pdfPDF (1.25 MiB)
  2. ^ 'Suddha medicine' refers to classical Ayurvedic medicine. The word "suddha" is translated as "pure."
  3. ^ a b Development and its Status of Ayurveda
  4. ^ Ayurveda Encyclopedia, "Know Ayurveda"
  5. ^ ayurveda.in
  6. ^ a b Introduction to Ayurveda. Ayurveda. Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Govt of India. Retrieved on 2006-07-05.
  7. ^ Kerala Ayurvedic Health Clinic, "Holistic ayurveda"
  8. ^ History of Ayurveda,ayurvediccure.com
  9. ^ Dick, Michael S. (1998). The Ancient Ayurvedic Writings. Retrieved May 19, 2005.
  10. ^ Jāti-Bhāṣkara, p. 150 quotes Bhavishya Purana while giving an account of the origin of Śākadvīpīs.
  11. ^ http://shakdwipi.com/historyintroduction.htm/
  12. ^ Dr. Prabhakar Chatterjee. Ras Chkitsa. 
  13. ^ Ayurveda is Life - Best Ayurveda
  14. ^ Types of Ayurvedic Treatments
  15. ^ Frank John Ninivaggi. Ayurveda: A Comprehensive Guide to Traditional Indian Medicine for the West. Praeger Press,2007. ISBN 0313348375.
  16. ^ National Institute of Ayurvedic Medicine, United States
  17. ^ Gerson, S, Green, LH, Preliminary Evaluation Of Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts of Morinda citrifolia Linn., Abstr. Am. Soc. Microbiol. A-66:13 May 2002
  18. ^ a b c Johnston, Barbara and Webb, Ginger (1997). "Turmeric Patent Overturned in Legal Victory". HerbalGram Fall 1997 (41): 11. 
  19. ^ Ashwagandha next on patent hunters list,Hindu Vivek Kendra archive of the Times of India May 16 2001
  20. ^ a b Ayurveda under the scanner,The Hindu
  21. ^ Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha.
  22. ^ [1]
  23. ^ National Center for Complementary and Alternatie Medicine
  24. ^ The Ayurveda Wars,Indian Express
  25. ^ a b Journal of the American Medical Association
  26. ^ a b Indian express
  27. ^ Alan Keith Tillotson. AHG, PhD, D.Ay The One Earth Herbal Sourcebook: Everything You Need to Know About Chinese, Western, and Ayurvedic Herbal Treatments 2001

    Crude aconite is an extremely lethal substance. However, the science of Ayurveda looks upon aconite as a therapeutic entity. Crude aconite is always processed i.e. it undergoes 'samskaras' before being utilised in the Ayurvedic formulations. This study was undertaken in mice, to ascertain whether 'processed' aconite is less toxic as compared to the crude or unprocessed one. It was seen that crude aconite was significantly toxic to mice (100% mortality at a dose of 2.6 mg/mouse) whereas the fully processed aconite was absolutely non-toxic (no mortality at a dose even 8 times as high as that of crude aconite). Further, all the steps in the processing were essential for complete detoxification. – "Can we dispense with Ayurvedic samskaras?" Thorat S. and Dahanukar S. J Postgrad Med. 1991 Jul;37(3):157-9. “PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

manufecturer of ayuervdic medicine

Liberty Drugs Gram Udyog Samiti 466, vikas nagar street no 7 phooshgarh road.

External links

  • Video clips on Ayurveda
  • All about AYURVEDA
  • Basic Principles of Ayurveda
  • India Ayurveda

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