FACTOID # 13: New York has America's lowest percentage of residents who are veterans.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Aymara language
Aymara
Spoken in: Bolivia, Peru, Chile
Total speakers: 2,227,642 speakers of Central Aymara, no estimate available for Southern Aymara
Language family: Aymaran
 Aymara
Language codes
ISO 639-1: ay
ISO 639-2: aym
ISO 639-3: variously:
aym — Aymara (generic)
ayr — Central Aymara
ayc — Southern Aymara 
Geographic Distribution of the Aymara language.

Aymara is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara of the Andes. It is one of only a handful of Native American languages with over a million speakers.[1][2] Aymara, along with Quechua and Spanish, is an official language of Peru and Bolivia. It is also spoken to a much lesser extent in Chile. Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families. ... The Aymaran languages are a South American language family. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2:1998 Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code Twenty-two of the languages have two three-letter codes: a code for bibliographic use (ISO 639-2/B) a code for terminological use (ISO 639-2/T). ... ISO 639-3 is in process of development as an international standard for language codes. ... Image File history File links Aymara-Language-Distributio. ... Image File history File links Aymara-Language-Distributio. ... For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words see here. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of sounds and the human voice. ... Because of technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... This chart shows concisely the most common way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is applied to represent the English language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Aymaran (also Jaqui, Jaqi, Aimara, Haki) is a South American language family. ... The Aymara are a native ethnic group in the Andes region of South America; about 2. ... The Andes form the longest mountain chain in the world. ... Native American languages are the indigenous languages of the Americas, spoken by Native Americans from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland. ... Quechua (Runa Simi; Kichwa in Ecuador) is a Native American language of South America. ...


Some linguists have claimed that Aymara is related to its more widely-spoken neighbour, Quechua. This claim, however, is disputed — although there are indeed similarities, the majority position among linguists today is that these similarities are better explained as areal features resulting from prolonged interaction between the two languages, and that they are not demonstrably related. Quechua (Runa Simi; Kichwa in Ecuador) is a Native American language of South America. ... In linguistics, an areal feature is any typological feature shared by languages within the same geographical area. ...


The Aymara language is an agglutinating and to a certain extent polysynthetic language, and has a subject-object-verb word order. An agglutinative language is a language in which the words are formed by joining morphemes together. ... Polysynthetic languages are highly synthetic languages, i. ... In linguistic typology, Subject Object Verb (SOV) is the type of languages in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence appear (usually) in that order. ...

Contents

Etymology

The old suggestion that the word "Aymara" come from the Aymara words "jaya" (ancient) and "mara" (year, time) is almost certainly a quite mistaken folk etymology. The true etymology remains unclear, though a discussion can be found in the book Lingüística Aimara by the respected Peruvian linguist Rodolfo Cerrón-Palomino (2000: pp.34-6). Folk etymology or popular etymology is a linguistic term for a category of false etymology which has grown up in popular lore, as opposed to one which arose in scholarly usage. ...


Phonology

Aymara has three phoneme vowels (/a i u/, which distinguish two degrees of length. The high vowels are lowered to mid height before uvular consonants (/i/[e], /u/[o]). In spoken language, a phoneme is a basic, theoretical unit of sound that can distinguish words (i. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


As for the consonants, Aymara has phonemic stops at the labial, alveolar, palatal, velar and uvular points of articulation. Stops show no distinction of voice (e.g. there is no phonemic contrast between [p] and [b]), but each stop has three forms: plain (unaspirated), glottalized, and aspirated. Aymara also has a trilled /r/, and an alveolar/palatal contrast for nasals and laterals, as well as two semivowels (/w/ and /j/). In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ...


Stress is usually on the penult (the syllable before the last one), but long vowels may shift it.


The wider language family

It is often assumed that the Aymara language descends from the language spoken in Tiwanaku, on the grounds that it is the native language of that area today. This is very far from certain, however, and most specialists now incline to the idea that Aymara only expanded into the Tiwanaku area rather late, as it spread southwards from an original homeland more likely to have been in Central Peru. Aymara placenames are found all the way north into central Peru, and indeed (Altiplano) Aymara is actually but one of the two extant languages of a wider language family, the other surviving representative being Jaqaru/Kawki. Area of the Middle Horizon The Gate of the Sun Tiwanaku (Spanish spellings: Tiahuanaco and Tiahuanacu) is an important Pre-Columbian archaeological site in Bolivia. ... Distribution of Jaqaru (orange) Jaqaru or Kawki is a language that belongs to the Aymaran or Jaqi family of languages to which Aymara also belongs. ... Distribution of Jaqaru (orange) Jaqaru or Kawki is a language that belongs to the Aymaran or Jaqi family of languages to which Aymara also belongs. ...


This family was established by the research of Martha James Hardman de Bautista of the Program in Linguistics at the University of Florida. Jaqaru [jaqi aru = human language] and Kawki communities are in the district of Tupe, Yauyos Valley, in the Dept. of Lima, in central Peru. Jaqaru has approximately 3,000 native speakers, nearly all Spanish bilinguals. Kawki is spoken in a neighboring community by a very small number of mostly elderly individuals and is a dying language. It was originally proposed by Dr Hardman that Jaqaru and Kawki should be classified as languages quite distinct from each other, but other more recent research classifies them as two very closely related varieties of the same mutually intelligible language.


Terminology for this wider language family is not yet well established. Dr Hardman has proposed the name 'Jaqi', while other widely respected Peruvian linguists have proposed alternative names for the same language family. Alfredo Torero uses the term 'Aru' ('speech'); Rodolfo Cerrón-Palomino, meanwhile, has proposed that the term 'Aymara' should be used for the whole family, distinguished into two branches, Southern (or Altiplano) Aymara and Central Aymara (i.e. Jaqaru and Kawki). Each of these three proposals has its followers in Andean linguistics. In English usage, some linguists use the term Aymaran for the family, reserving 'Aymara' for the Altiplano branch. Aymaran (also Jaqui, Jaqi, Aimara, Haki) is a South American language family. ...


Geographical distribution

There are 1.2 million Bolivian speakers, 300,000 Peruvian speakers, 50,000 Chilean speakers and about 10,000 Argentinean speakers.


The language has several mutually intelligible varieties. One is spoken in La Paz, Bolivia; a similar variety is used by about 200,000 speakers from the border of Peru to Puno. A third distinct form is used by 90,000 speakers in the provinces of Huancané and Moho in the department of Puno in Peru. Central La Paz La Paz is the administrative capital of Bolivia, as well as the departmental capital of La Paz Department. ... Mayor Mariano Portugal Population  - Total 100 168 Time zone UTC-5 Height 3860 m (12421 ft) Official website: www. ... Huancane is the capital of the province of Huancane. ... Moho may refer to: The Mohorovičić discontinuity, the boundary between the Earths crust and the mantle. ... Mayor Mariano Portugal Population  - Total 100 168 Time zone UTC-5 Height 3860 m (12421 ft) Official website: www. ...


Unique features

The language has attracted interest because it is based on a three value logic system, and thus supposedly has better expressiveness than many other languages based on binary logic. A ternary, three-valued or trivalent logic is a term to describe any of several multi-valued logic systems in which there are three truth values indicating true, false and some third value. ... In logic, the principle of bivalence states that for any proposition P, either P is true or P is false. ...


It is cited by the author Umberto Eco in The Search for the Perfect Language as a language of immense flexibility, capable of accommodating many neologisms. Ludovico Bertonio published Arte de la lengua aymara in 1603. He remarked that the language was particularly useful for expressing abstract concepts. In 1860 Emeterio Villamil de Rada suggested it was "the language of Adam" (la lengua de Adán). Guzmán de Rojas has suggested that it be used as an intermediary language for computerised translation. Umberto Eco (born January 5, 1932) is an Italian medievalist, semiotician, philosopher and novelist, best known for his novel The Name of the Rose (Il nome della rosa) and his many essays. ... A neologism is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (coined) — often to apply to new concepts, or to reshape older terms in newer language form. ... King James I of England/VII of Scotland, the first monarch to rule the Kingdoms of England and Scotland at the same time Events March - Samuel de Champlain, French explorer, sails to Canada March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James I of... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Machine translation, sometimes referred to by the acronym MT, is a sub-field of computational linguistics that investigates the use of computer software to translate text or speech from one natural language to another. ...


Linguistic and gestural analysis by Núñez and Sweetser also assert that the Aymara have an apparently unique, or at least very rare, understanding of time, and is, besides Quechua, one of very few languages where speakers seem to represent the past as in front of them and the future as behind them. Their argument is situated mainly within the framework of conceptual metaphor, which recognizes in general two subtypes of the metaphor THE PASSAGE OF TIME IS MOTION: one is TIME PASSING IS MOTION OVER A LANDSCAPE (or "moving-ego"), and the other is TIME PASSING IS A MOVING OBJECT ("moving-events"). The latter metaphor does not explicitly involve the individual/speaker; events are in a queue, with prior events towards the front of the line. The individual may be facing the queue, or it may be moving from left to right in front of him/her. Rafael E. Núñez is a professor of Cognitive science at the University of California, San Diego and is well known for promoting the idea of embodied cognition. ... Eve Sweetser is a professor of linguistics at the University of California, Berkeley, and an important figure in the field of cognitive linguistics. ... Quechua (Runa Simi; Kichwa in Ecuador) is a Native American language of South America. ... Conceptual metaphor: In cognitive linguistics, metaphor is defined as understanding one conceptual domain in terms of another conceptual domain; for example, using one persons life experience to understand a different persons experience. ...


The claims regarding Aymara involve the moving-ego metaphor. Most languages conceptualize the ego as moving forward into the future, with ego's back to the past. The English sentences prepare for what lies before us and we are facing a prosperous future, and possibly the Chinese word 未來 (lit. not yet come, meaning future) exemplify this metaphor. In contrast, Aymara seems to encode the past as in front of individuals, and the future in back; this is typologically a rare phenomenon. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Linguistic typology is the typology that classifies languages by their features. ...


Many languages, including English and Chinese, have words like before/前 and after/後 that are (currently or archaically) polysemous between 'front/earlier' or 'back/later'. This seemingly refutes the claims regarding Aymara uniqueness. However, these words relate events to other events, i.e., are part of the moving-events metaphor. In fact, when before means in front of ego, it can only mean future. For instance, our future is laid out before us while our past is behind us. Parallel Aymara examples describe future days as qhipa uru, literally 'back days', and these are sometimes accompanied by gestures to behind the speaker. The same applies to Quechua speakers, whose expression qhipa p'unchaw corresponds directly to Aymara qhipa uru. Polysemy (from the Greek πολυσημεία = multiple meaning) is the capacity for a sign to have multiple meanings. ... Quechua (Runa Simi; Kichwa in Ecuador) is a Native American language of South America. ...


References

  • Núñez, R., & Sweetser, E. With the Future Behind Them : Convergent Evidence From Aymara Language and Gesture in the Crosslinguistic Comparison of Spatial Construals of Time. Cognitive Science, 30(3), 1-49.

Rafael E. Núñez is a professor of Cognitive science at the University of California, San Diego and is well known for promoting the idea of embodied cognition. ... Eve Sweetser is a professor of linguistics at the University of California, Berkeley, and an important figure in the field of cognitive linguistics. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Bolivia: Idioma Materno de la Población de 4 años de edad y más- UBICACIÓN, ÁREA GEOGRÁFICA, SEXO Y EDAD. 2001 Bolivian Census. Instituto Nacional de Estadística, La Paz - Bolivia.
  2. ^ The other native American languages with more than one million speakers are: Nahuatl, Quechua, and Guaraní.

Nahuatl is a native language of central Mexico. ... Quechua (Runa Simi; Kichwa in Ecuador) is a Native American language of South America. ... Guaraní (gwah-rah-nee) [gwarani] (local name: avañeẽ) is a language spoken in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and southwestern Brazil. ...

See also

Indigenous languages of the Americas (or Amerindian Languages) are spoken by indigenous peoples from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland, encompassing the land masses which constitute the Americas. ... This article is a list of different language classification proposals developed for indigenous languages of the Americas. ... Genealogy Areal Uto-Aztecan —5000 BP* Soshonean (N Uto-Aztecan) —3500 BP Numic (Plateau group) —2000 BP C Plateau Soshoni [SHH] Comanche [COM] Paramint [PAR] S Plateau Ute-Chemehuevi (S Paiute) [UTE] Kawaiisu [KAW] W Plateau Mono [MON] Paiute (Northern Paiute) [PAO] Takic ( Southern Californian) —2400... Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families (families hereforth). ... It has been suggested that List of Native American tribes be merged into this article or section. ... A Hupa man. ... Peru is a multilingual nation. ... This is a list of Spanish words that come from Indigenous languages of the Americas. ...

External links

Wikipedia
Aymara language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  • Aymara - Compendio de Estrutura Fonológica y Gramatical, 20 dowloadable PDF files (in Spanish)
  • www.aymara.org An extensive website about the language in English, Spanish and Aymara.
  • The Sounds of the Andean Languages listen online to pronunciations of Aymara words, see photos of speakers and their home regions, learn about the origins and varieties of Aymara.
  • Ethnologue reports for Aymara
  • (Spanish)(ay) Aymara.org
  • Encyclopedy in Aymara
  • Aymara - English Dictionary: from Webster's Online Dictionary, the Rosetta Edition.
  • The Dream of a Perfect Language (PDF) A lecture by Umberto Eco where he mentions Aymara.
  • Andean language looks back to the future - article on Aymara's reversed concept of time, with the past ahead and the future behind
  • JACH'AK'ACHI. Patpatankiri markana kont’awipa An aymara page dedicated to this city in aymara language.
Official Languages of South America

Aymará (Bolivia, Perú) · Dutch (Netherlands Antilles, Aruba, Suriname) · English (Falkland Islands, Guyana)
French (French Guiana) · Guaraní (Paraguay, Corrientes (Argentina)) · Papiamento (Aruba) · Portuguese (Brazil) · Quechua (Bolivia, Perú)
Spanish (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú, Bolivia, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, Argentina) *All native languages are official in Perú, in areas in which they are the majority language. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Guaraní (local name: avañeẽ ) is an Amerindian language of South America that belongs to the Tupí-Guaraní subfamily. ... Papiamento or Papiamentu is the primary language spoken on the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao (the so-called ABC islands). ... Quechua (Runa Simi; Kichwa in Ecuador) is a Native American language of South America. ...

[[sl:Ajmarščina]]


  Results from FactBites:
 
Backs to the Future (1201 words)
New analysis of the language and gesture of South America's indigenous Aymara people indicates they have a concept of time opposite to all the world's studied cultures -- so that the past is ahead of them and the future behind.
The Aymara case is the first documented to depart from the standard model," said Nunez.
The language of the Aymara, who live in the Andes highlands of Bolivia, Peru and Chile, has been noticed by Westerners since the earliest days of the Spanish conquest.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m