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Encyclopedia > Aymara
Aymara
Flag of the Aymara
Total population: 1.6 million[citation needed]
Significant populations in: Bolivia (1.2 million[citation needed])
Peru (300,000[citation needed])
Chile (50,000[citation needed])
Argentina (10,000[citation needed])
Language: Aymara, Spanish
Religion: Catholicism, traditional Andean beliefs
Related ethnic groups: Quechua

The Aymara are a native ethnic group in the Andes region of South America; about 2.3 million live in Bolivia, Peru, Northern Chile, and Northern Argentina (in particular in Salta province). They lived in the region for many centuries before becoming a subject people of the Inca, and later of the Spanish in the 16th century. Image File history File links Qullasuyu_wiphala. ... Help wikipedia by translating Spanish article into this article. ... This article considers Catholicism in the broadest ecclesiastical sense. ... Quechua (Standard Quechua, Runasimi Language of People) is an Native American language of South America. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America; for other uses, see Andes (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Motto: Por la Razón o la Fuerza (Spanish: By right or might) Anthem: Himno Nacional Capital Santiago1 Largest city Santiago Official language(s) Spanish Government • President Democratic republic Michelle Bachelet Independence • Initiated • Declared • Recognized From Spain September 18, 1810 February 12, 1818 April 25, 1844 Area  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Water (%)   756... Salta is a province of Argentina, located in the northwest of the country. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ...

Contents


History

The Aymara have existed in the Andes in what is now Bolivia (and, to a lesser extent, Peru) for over 2,000 years, according to some estimates. Most scholars as well as the Aymara themselves associate them with the highly advanced civilization centered at Tiwanaku, though due to the lack of written history this cannot be proven conclusively. The region where Tiwanaku and the modern Aymara are located, the Altiplano, was conquered by the Quechua (commonly, and incorrectly, known as the Incas — "Inca" properly refers to the ruler of Tawantinsuyu, the Quechua empire) under Inca Huayna Capac (reign 1483-1523), although the exact date of this takeover is unknown. It is most likely that the Inca had a strong influence over the Aymara region for some time. The architecture for which the Inca are now known is clearly modeled after the Tiwanaku style. Though conquered by the Inca, the Aymara retained some degree of autonomy under the empire. Area of the Middle Horizon The Gate of the Sun Statue in Tiwanaku Walls around the temple Kalasasaya Tiwanaku (old spellings: Tiahuanaco and Tiahuanacu) is an important Pre-Columbian archaeological site in Bolivia. ... The Altiplano (Spanish for high plain), where the Andes are at their widest, is the most extensive area of high plateau on earth outside of Tibet. ... Quechua (Standard Quechua, Runasimi Language of People) is an Native American language of South America. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... Huayna Capac (Quechua Wayna Qhapaq splendid youth) was the eleventh Sapa Inca (1493 - 1527) of the Inca Empire, and sixth of the Hanan dynasty. ...


Geography

Most Aymara live in the Lake Titicaca region, and are concentrated south of the lake. The urban center of the Aymara region is El Alto, a 750,000-person city near the Bolivian capital La Paz. In addition, numerous Aymara live and work as campesinos in the surrounding Altiplano. Tourists aboard a totora boat made of reeds on Lake Titicaca. ... The city of El Alto (Spanish for The High) is a suburb of La Paz, Bolivia. ... La Paz, Bolivia Central La Paz Panoramic sight of the city of La Paz La Paz is the administrative capital of Bolivia, as well as the departmental capital of La Paz Department. ... Campesino means simple farmer in Spanish. ... The Altiplano (Spanish for high plain), where the Andes are at their widest, is the most extensive area of high plateau on earth outside of Tibet. ...


Culture

The native language of the Aymara is also named Aymara; in addition, many Aymara speak Spanish, which is the dominant language of the countries in which they live, as a second language. The Aymara flag is known as the Wiphala; it consists of seven colors quilted together with diagonal stripes. Aymara have grown and chewed coca plants for centuries, and used its leaves in traditional medicine as well as in ritual offerings to the sun god Inti and the earth goddess Pachamama. Over the last century, this has brought them into conflict with state authorities who have carried out coca eradication plans in order to prevent the creation of the drug cocaine, which is created by extracting the chemical from coca leaves in a complex chemical process. Coca plays a profound role in the indigenous religions of both the Aymara and the Quechua, and in more recent times has become a symbol of cultural identity. Help wikipedia by translating Spanish article into this article. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Binomial name Erythroxylum coca Lam. ... In Inca mythology, Inti was the sun god, as well a patron deity of Tahuantinsuyu. ... In Inca mythology, Mama Pacha or Pachamama was a dragoness fertility goddess who presided over planting and harvesting. ... Coca eradication is a strategy strongly promoted by the United States government as part of its War on Drugs to eliminate the cultivation of coca, a plant whose leaves are used in the manufacture of cocaine. ... This article is about the drug Cocaine. ...


Politics

Felipe Quispe (left) and Evo Morales. A Wiphala hangs behind them.
Felipe Quispe (left) and Evo Morales. A Wiphala hangs behind them.

There are numerous movements for greater independence or political power for the Aymara. These include the Tupac Katari Guerrilla Army, led by Felipe Quispe, and the Movement Towards Socialism, a political party organized by cocalero Evo Morales. These and many other Aymara organizations have been involved in activism in Bolivia, including the 2003 Bolivian Gas War and the 2005 Bolivia protests. One of the goals of the movement, as put forth by Quispe, is the establishment of an independent indigenous state, Collasuyu, named for the eastern (and largely Aymara) region of the Inca empire which covered the southeastern corner of Peru and much of what is today Bolivia. Evo Morales has run for president in several recent elections with several close calls, and in 2005 he finally won a surprise victory, winning the largest majority vote since Bolivia returned to democracy and becoming the first indigenous president of Bolivia. He is also credited with the ousting of Bolivia's previous two presidents. thiis is true Image File history File links Felipe Quispe (left) and Evo Morales. ... Image File history File links Felipe Quispe (left) and Evo Morales. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Tupac Katari Guerrilla Army is an indigenous guerilla movement in Bolivia. ... Felipe Quispe (left) and Evo Morales. ... The Movement Toward Socialism (abbreviated MAS, from the Spanish name) is a Bolivian political party led by Evo Morales. ... Cocalero is a term that refers to the coca leaf growers of Peru and Bolivia. ... Juan Evo Morales Ayma (born October 26, 1959 in Orinoca, Oruro), popularly known as Evo (IPA: ), is the President of Bolivia, the countrys self-proclaimed first Amerindian president. He has claimed to be the first indigenous person to lead the nation of Bolivia as its head of state in... The Bolivian Gas War, also called the First Bolivian Gas War (after the 2005 Bolivia protests began to be referred to as the Second Bolivian Gas War) was a conflict in Bolivia centering around the exploitation of the countrys vast natural gas reserves. ... The Bolivia natural gas protests in early 2005 are in many ways a continuation of the 2003 Bolivia Gas War, and some refer to the 2005 protests as a Second Bolivian Gas War. ... Collasuyu was the southwestern provincial region of the Tahuantinsuyu, or Inca Empire. ...


See also

Socialist Aymara Group (in Spanish: Grupo Aymara Socialista), a political grouping (left-wing indigenist) based amongst the Aymara people that contested the December 2004 municipal elections in Yaco, La Paz Department, Bolivia. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Mate de coca is a tea made from the leaves of the Coca plant (Eritroxilécea). ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Aymara - Crystalinks (777 words)
The region where Tiwanaku and the modern Aymara are located, the Altiplano, was conquered by the Incas under Huayna Capac (reign 1483-1523), although the exact date of this takeover is unknown.
This language, known as Jaqaru/Kawki, is of the same family as Aymara, indeed some linguists refer to it as 'Central Aymara', alongside the main 'Southern Aymara' branch of the family spoken in the Titicaca region.
The Aymara flag is known as the Wiphala; it consists of seven colors quilted together with diagonal stripes.
Aymara language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (685 words)
Aymara is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara of the Andes.
Aymara is one of three extant languages of the Jaqi language family along with Jaqaru and Kawki.
The Aymara spoken in La Paz, Bolivia is considered the purest form of the language.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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