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Encyclopedia > Ayin
ʿÁyin
Arabic Syriac Hebrew Aramaic Phoenician

ﻋ,ﻉ The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing Arabic and various other languages, together with various closely related scripts that typically differ in the presence or absence of a few letters. ... 11th century book in Syriac Serto. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Bilingual inscription (Greek and Aramaic) by the Indian emperor Ashoka the Great, 3rd century BC. The Aramaic alphabet is an abjad alphabet designed for writing the Aramaic language. ... The Phoenician alphabet is a continuation of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, by par convention taken to begin with a cut-off date of 1050 BC. It was used by the Phoenicians to write Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language. ...

ܥ ע ʿÁyin
Phonemic representation (IPA): ʕ
Position in alphabet: 16
Gematria/Abjad value: 70

ʿÁyin or Ayin is the sixteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ע and Arabic ʿayn ع (in abjadi order). It originally represented a voiced pharyngeal fricative (IPA /ʕ/). Image File history File links Ayin in Imperial Aramaic (all files in this series redrawn by me from Rosenthal) Typefaces are not copyrightable in the U.S. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Phoenician Ayin. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The voiced pharyngeal approximant/fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Abjad numerals are a decimal numeral system which was used in the Arabic-speaking world prior to the use of the Hindu-Arabic numerals from the 8th century, and in parallel with the latter until Modern times. ... The history of the alphabet starts in ancient Egypt. ... The Phoenician alphabet is a continuation of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, by par convention taken to begin with a cut-off date of 1050 BC. It was used by the Phoenicians to write Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing Arabic and various other languages, together with various closely related scripts that typically differ in the presence or absence of a few letters. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Abjad numerals. ... The voiced pharyngeal approximant/fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...


It is usually transliterated into the Latin alphabet with ʿ, a symbol based on the Greek spiritus asper ʽ, for example in the name of the letter itself, ʿayin. Ê¿ (U+02BF) modifier letter left half ring is a character of the Unicode Spacing Modifier Letters range, used to transliterate Ayin Okina See also: ʾ, ῾, Ê•. Category: ... The spiritus asper (rough breathing) or dasy pneuma (Greek: dasu, δασύ) is a diacritical mark used in Greek. ...


The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Omicron (Ο), and hence the Latin O, and the equivalent in the Cyrillic alphabet, all representing vowels. Omicron (upper case Ο, lower case ο, literally small o) is the 15th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Look up O, o in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced , also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages—Belarusian, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ...

Contents

Origins

The letter name is derived from West Semitic ʿen "eye", and the Proto-Canaanite letter had an eye-shape, ultimately derived from the hieroglyph (ı͗r) The Proto-Canaanite alphabet is the linear (, non-Cuneiform) abjad of twenty-plus acrophonic glyphs. ... A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ...

To this day, 'ayin in Hebrew and Arabic means "eye" (or "spring").


Transliteration

Less precise transcriptions may use an apostrophe, failing to distinguish the ayin from the glottal stop consonant, aleph. Even this representation is often omitted, as these symbols are often misinterpreted as punctuation instead of actual consonants. The Somali language represents the ayin with the ordinary Roman letter c. Semitic romanization, and similarly the Egyptologist transliteration of "Egyptian ayin" Transcription is the conversion into written, typewritten or printed form, of a spoken language source, such as the proceedings of a court hearing. ... For other uses, see Apostrophe (disambiguation). ... The glottal stop or voiceless glottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. ... is the reconstructed name of the first letter of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, continued in descended Semitic alphabets as Phoenician , Syriac , Hebrew , , and Arabic . Aleph originally expressed the glottal stop (IPA ), usually transliterated as , a symbol based on the Greek spiritus lenis , for example in the transliteration of the letter... The Somali language (Af Mahatiri or Af Maay) is a member of the East Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic family. ... Romanization schemes for Proto-Semitic and various Semitic languages (Semitic abjads): Romanization of Arabic ISO 233 DIN 31635 Romanization of Hebrew ISO 259 Transliteration of Ancient Egyptian Semitic_abjad#Descendants_of_the_Semitic_abjad Cuneiform#Transliteration Proto-Sinaitic alphabet Category: ...

, uses a superscript letter c, or a superscript semicircle ʿ or "pharyngeal" symbol ˁ. Pharyngealization is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx is constricted during the articulation of the sound. ...

Hebrew Ayin

Hebrew alphabet
א    ב    ג    ד    ה    ו
ז    ח    ט    י    כך
ל    מם    נן    ס    ע    פף
צץ    ק    ר    ש    ת
History · Transliteration
Niqqud · Dagesh · Gematria
Cantillation · Numeration
Arabic alphabet
هـ
History · Transliteration
Diacritics · hamza ء
Numerals · Numeration
Syriac alphabet
ܐ ܒ ܓ ܕ
ܗ ܘ ܙ ܚ ܛ ܝ
ܟܟ ܠ ܡܡ ܢܢ ܣ ܥ
ܦ ܨ ܩ ܪ ܫ ܬ

Ayin, along with Aleph, Resh, He, and Heth, cannot receive a dagesh. Note: This article contains special characters. ... Aleph ‎ is the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet, together with Arabic descended from Phoenician . Its original sound value was a glottal stop. ... Bet or Beth is the second letter of the Phoenician alphabet, the Hebrew alphabet, and the Aramaic alphabet. ...   Gimmel is the third letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Aramaic, Syriac, Phoenician and Hebrew. ...   Dalet or Daleth is the fourth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... He is the fifth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ...   Vav or waw is the sixth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Arabic in abjadi order; it is the twenty-seventh in modern Arabic order. ... Zayin or Zain is the seventh letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ...   Kheth or Het is the eighth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... (also Teth, Tet) is the ninth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic (in abjadi order, 16th in modern order). ... Yodh (also spelled Yud or Yod) is the tenth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic (in abjadi order, 28th in modern order). ... Kaph (also spelled Kap or Kaf) is the eleventh letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎ and Arabic alphabet ‎. Its value is IPA: . See also Ngaph. ... Lamed or Lamedh is the twelfth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Mem is the thirteenth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Nun is the fourteenth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Samekh is the fifteenth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... This is about the Hebrew letter: for the Cyrillic letter, see Pe (Cyrillic). ... Tsade (also spelled or Tzadi or Sadhe) is the eighteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎ and Arabic alphabet ‎. Its oldest sound value is probably IPA: , although there is a variety of pronunciation in different modern Semitic languages and their dialects. ...   Qoph is the nineteenth letter in many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Resh is the twentieth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Shin (also spelled Sin or Sheen) is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order, 12th in modern order). ... Taw or Tav is the twenty-second and last letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet . Its original value is an voiceless alveolar plosive, IPA , The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Tau (Τ), Latin T, and the equivalent in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Hebrew uses the Hebrew alphabet with optional vowel points. ... In Hebrew orthography, Niqqud or Nikkud (Standard Hebrew נִיקּוּד, Biblical Hebrew נְקֻדּוֹת, Tiberian Hebrew vowels) is the system of diacritical vowel points (or vowel marks) in the Hebrew alphabet. ... The dagesh (דגש) is a diacritic used in the Hebrew alphabet. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Gen. ... The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasi-decimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing Arabic and various other languages, together with various closely related scripts that typically differ in the presence or absence of a few letters. ... Alif ﺍ is the first letter of the Arabic alphabet. ...   Beth or Bet is the second letter of many Semetic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Taw or Tav is the twenty-second and last letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet . Its original value is an voiceless alveolar plosive, IPA , The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Tau (Τ), Latin T, and the equivalent in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents the voiceless dental fricative (IPA ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ...   Gimmel is the third letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Aramaic, Syriac, Phoenician and Hebrew. ...   Kheth or Het is the eighth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents the voiceless velar fricative (IPA ). In name and shape, it is a variant of (see also there). ... Dalet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents the voiced dental fricative (IPA ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ... Resh is the twentieth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Zayin or Zain is the seventh letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Shin (also spelled Sin or Sheen) is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order, 12th in modern order). ... Shin (also spelled Sin or Sheen) is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order, 12th in modern order). ... Tsade (also spelled or Tzadi or Sadhe) is the eighteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎ and Arabic alphabet ‎. Its oldest sound value is probably IPA: , although there is a variety of pronunciation in different modern Semitic languages and their dialects. ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents a pharyngealized voiced alveolar plosive (IPA ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ... (also Teth, Tet) is the ninth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic (in abjadi order, 16th in modern order). ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents a = pharyngealized voiced dental or alveolar fricative (IPA or ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents the voiced velar fricative (IPA ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ... This is about the Hebrew letter: for the Cyrillic letter, see Pe (Cyrillic). ...   Qoph is the nineteenth letter in many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Kaph (also spelled Kap or Kaf) is the eleventh letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎ and Arabic alphabet ‎. Its value is IPA: . See also Ngaph. ... Lamed or Lamedh is the twelfth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Mem is the thirteenth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Nun is the fourteenth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... He is the fifth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ...   Vav or waw is the sixth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Arabic in abjadi order; it is the twenty-seventh in modern Arabic order. ... Yodh (also spelled Yud or Yod) is the tenth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic (in abjadi order, 28th in modern order). ... If certain characters in this article display badly (as empty squares, question marks, etc), see Unicode. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals. ... In Arabic orthography, harakat are the diacritic marks used to represent vowel sounds. ... Hamza () is a letter in the Arabic alphabet, representing the glottal stop . ... The Eastern Arabic numerals (also called Eastern Arabic numerals, Arabic-Indic numerals, Arabic Eastern Numerals) are the symbols (glyphs) used to represent the Hindu-Arabic numeral system in conjunction with the Arabic alphabet in Egypt, Iran, Pakistan and parts of India, and also in the no longer used Ottoman Turkish... arabic numeration This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... 11th century book in Syriac Serto. ... is the reconstructed name of the first letter of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, continued in descended Semitic alphabets as Phoenician , Syriac , Hebrew , , and Arabic . Aleph originally expressed the glottal stop (IPA ), usually transliterated as , a symbol based on the Greek spiritus lenis , for example in the transliteration of the letter...   Beth or Bet is the second letter of many Semetic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ...   Gimmel is the third letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Aramaic, Syriac, Phoenician and Hebrew. ... Dalet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... He is the fifth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ...   Vav or waw is the sixth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Arabic in abjadi order; it is the twenty-seventh in modern Arabic order. ... Zayin or Zain is the seventh letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ...   Kheth or Het is the eighth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... (also Teth, Tet) is the ninth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic (in abjadi order, 16th in modern order). ... Yodh (also spelled Yud or Yod) is the tenth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic (in abjadi order, 28th in modern order). ... Kaph (also spelled Kap or Kaf) is the eleventh letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎ and Arabic alphabet ‎. Its value is IPA: . See also Ngaph. ... Lamed or Lamedh is the twelfth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Mem is the thirteenth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Nun is the fourteenth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Samekh is the fifteenth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... This is about the Hebrew letter: for the Cyrillic letter, see Pe (Cyrillic). ... Tsade (also spelled or Tzadi or Sadhe) is the eighteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎ and Arabic alphabet ‎. Its oldest sound value is probably IPA: , although there is a variety of pronunciation in different modern Semitic languages and their dialects. ...   Qoph is the nineteenth letter in many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Resh is the twentieth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Shin (also spelled Sin or Sheen) is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order, 12th in modern order). ... Taw or Tav is the twenty-second and last letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet . Its original value is an voiceless alveolar plosive, IPA , The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Tau (Τ), Latin T, and the equivalent in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Aleph ‎ is the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet, together with Arabic descended from Phoenician . Its original sound value was a glottal stop. ... Resh is the twentieth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... He is the fifth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ...   Kheth or Het is the eighth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... The dagesh (דגש) is a diacritic used in the Hebrew alphabet. ...


Phonemic representation

Ayin traditionally represents a voiced pharyngeal fricative that has no equivalent in the English language ([ʕ]). The voiced pharyngeal approximant/fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...


In some historical Sephardi pronunciations, `Ayin represented a velar nasal "ng" consonant sound, while in non-"Mizrahi" modern Israeli Hebrew represents a glottal stop in certain cases, but is mostly silent (i.e. it is given the same treatment as Aleph). However, certain changes in adjoining vowels often testify to the former presence of the glottal stop, even if it is no longer pronounced. In Arabic, Ghayin is written the same way as Ayin, but with a dot to distinguish it. The glottal stop or voiceless glottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. ... Aleph ‎ is the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet, together with Arabic descended from Phoenician . Its original sound value was a glottal stop. ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents the voiced velar fricative (IPA ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ...


In Yiddish, the ‘Áyin is used as a vowel, rather than a consonant, and represents /e/. Yiddish (Yid. ...


Ayin is also one of the three letters that can take a vowel at the end of a word, and the vowel it takes is chataf patach. In Hebrew orthography, Niqqud or Nikkud (Standard Hebrew נִיקּוּד, Biblical Hebrew נְקֻדּוֹת, Tiberian Hebrew vowels) is the system of diacritical vowel points (or vowel marks) in the Hebrew alphabet. ...


Transliteration

In Hebrew transliteration, the letter Ayin can be transliterated as `. In Greek and Latin it was sometimes represented as g, since the biblical phonemes /ʕ/ (or "`") and /ʁ/ (represented by "g") were both represented in Hebrew writing by the letter Ayin, just as they later merged in pronunciation to /ʕ/ and therefore are pronounced identically (as /ʕ/ or /ʔ/ or not pronounced at all) in all modern varieties of Hebrew (see Ġayn). Because of this, we get Gomorrah from the original /ʁamora/ (`Amora) and Gaza from the original /ʁazza/ (`Aza), which eventually gave us the English word gauze. There are a number of ways of transliterating Hebrew. ... The letter G is the seventh letter in the Latin alphabet. ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents the voiced velar fricative (IPA ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ... The Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, John Martin, 1832. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza. ...


Significance

In gematria, ayin represents the number 70. This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Ayin is also one of the seven letters which receive a special crown (called a tagin) when written in a Sefer Torah. See Shin, Gimmel, Teth, Nun, Zayin, and Tzadi. Tagin can mean:- Tagin (people), a tribe in Arunchal Pradesh in India. ... Sefer Torah being read during weekday service. ... Shin (also spelled Sin or Sheen) is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order, 12th in modern order). ... See also the alternate spelling gimel, the third letter of the Hebrew alphabet. ... (also Teth, Tet) is the ninth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic (in abjadi order, 16th in modern order). ... Nun is the fourteenth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Zayin or Zain is the seventh letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ...   Tsade, Tsadi or Sadhe is the eighteenth letter in many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ...


Pronunciation

Ayin is one of the most notoriously difficult letters for western learners to pronounce. The sound is somewhat like a combination of an emphatic "H" and long "aaah" sound, while clenching the muscles at the back of the throat, as in the gagging reflex. The produced sound has been described as somewhat like the bleating of a goat. To western listeners, the letter sounds something like an "Aah" with slightly raised intonation. Unfortunately, ayin is one of the most common letters in Arabic, presenting a significant barrier to western learners attempting to learn the language. One piece of advice for people trying to make the ayin sound is to "sing the lowest possible note, then one lower".


There is a theory that ayin was the pronunciation of the Proto-Indo-European h3 laryngeal. Proto-Indo-European (PIE) may refer to: Proto-Indo-European language the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages Proto-Indo-Europeans, the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language Proto-Indo-European roots, A list of reconstructed Proto-Indo-European roots Categories: | ... The laryngeal theory is a generally accepted theory of historical linguistics which proposes the existence of a set of three (or more) consonant sounds that appear in most current reconstructions of the Proto-Indo-European language. ...


 
 

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