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Usul al-fiqh

Uṣūl al-fiqh (Arabic: ‎ ) is a term which literally translates to the roots of the law and refers to the study of the origins, sources, and practice of Islamic jurisprudence. ...

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(Arabic: آية الله; Persian: آيت‌الله); is a high ranking title given to Shi'a clerics. The word means "Sign of God" and those who carry the title are experts in Islamic studies such as jurisprudence, ethics, and philosophy and usually teach in seminaries of Islamic science. The next lower clerical rank is Hojatoleslam wal-muslemin. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Madhhab or Mazhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ... Minhaj is the Arabic word for methodology. ... In Sunni Islamic jurisprudence, Qiyas is the process of analogical reasoning from a known injunction (nass) to a new injunction. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ijmāʿ (إجماع) is an Arabic tern referring to the consensus of the ummah, the community of Muslims, those practicing Islam, or of the ulema, those learned in the relevant topic. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ... An ijazah is a certificate used primarily by Muslims to indicate that one has been authorized by a higher authority to transmit a certain subject or text of Islamic knowledge. ... Istihlal (Arabic: ) is a term used in Islamic jurisprudence, or fiqh, to refer to the act of regarding some action as permissible, or halaal; the implication is that such a regard is an erroneous and improper distortion of Islamic law. ... Istihsan is an Arabic term for juristic preference and is one of the methods of reasoning for understanding the sources of shariah and itjihad. ... For other uses, see Risala (disambiguation). ... In Islamic context, the Ahkam (أحكام) are rulings and orders of the Quran and Sunnah. ... Halaal (حلال, halāl, halal) is an Islamic Arabic term meaning permissible. In English it is most frequently used to refer to food that is permissible according to Islamic law. ... Fard also farida (arabic فرض obligation, duty) is an Islamic term which denotes a religious duty. ... Fard (Arabic: ) also farida (Arabic: ) is an Islamic term which denotes a religious duty. ... Mustahab, recomended, is a Islamic term denoting a actions between Mubah (neutral) and Wajib (actions which must be performed). ... Mubah is an Islamic Arabic term denoting an action as neither forbidden nor commended; neutral. ... Acts and substances which should be evaded by muslims. ... harām (Arabic: حرام Ḥarām, Turkish: Haram, Malay: Haram) is an Arabic word, used in Islam to refer to anything that is prohibited by the faith. ... Batil is an Arabic word meaning falsehood, and can be used to describe a nullified or invalid act or contract according to the sharia. ... A term in Islam. ... Marja (Arabic/Persian: مرجع), also appearing as Marja Taqlid or Marja Dini (Arabic/Persian: مرجع تقليد / مرجع ديني), literally means Source of Emulation or Religious Reference. It is the label provided to Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... Omdurman, Sudan. ... A Mufti (Arabic: مفتى ) is an Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law (Sharia), capable of issuing fataawa (plural of fatwa). // Role of a Mufti in governments In theocracies like Saudi Arabia and Iran, and in some countries where the constitution is based on sharia law, such... Qadi (قاضى) is an Arabic term meaning judge. ... A Faqih is an expert in fiqh, or, Islamic jurisprudence. ... Muhaddith is an Islamic title, referring to one who profoundly knows and narrates hadiths, the chains of their narration (saneed), and the original and famous narrators. ... Mullah (Persian: ملا) is a title given to some Islamic clergy, coming from the Arabic word mawla, means both `vicar` and `guardian. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Maulvi (also spelled: Moulvi, Mawlawi and Mawlvi Persian: مولوی) is an honorific Islamic religious title often, but not exclusively, given to Sunni Muslim religious scholars or Ulema preceding their names, similar to the titles Maulana, Mullah or Shaykh. ... For other uses, see Sheikh (disambiguation). ... Sheikh (Arabic: شيخ ), meaning elder of a tribe, lord, revered old man, or Islamic scholar. ... A Mujaddid (Arabic: مجدد), in Islamic tradition, refers to a person who, Muslims believe, is sent by God in the first half of every century of the Islamic calendar. ... Maulana is a title of respect, technically reserved for Muslim scholars or Ulema (plural of Aalim) who are knowledgable about Islam and have studied under a scholar or at a religious institution, e. ... Ayatollah may refer to the following: Ayatollah, title given to Shia mujtahids. ... “Arabic” redirects here. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Look up expert in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... For the jurisprudence of courts, see Case law. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Hawza is an academy or school of traditional Islamic studies. ... Hojatoleslam (or hojatalislam) is an honorific title meaning proof of Islam, given to middle-ranking Shia clerics of the rank of mujtahid. ...

Contents

Rank

The title is currently granted to top Shia mujtahid, after completing sat'h and kharij studies in the hawza. By then he would be able to issue his own edicts from the sources of religious laws: Qur'an, Sunnah, Ijmāˤ and 'Aql "intellect" (rather than the Sunnī principle of Qiyas). Most of the time this is attested by an issued certificate from his teachers. The Ayatollah can then teach in hawzas according to his speciality, can act as a reference for their religious questions, and act as a judge. ijtihad is a technical term of the Islamic law and means the process of making a legal decision by independent interpretation of the sources of the law, the Quran and the Sunna. ... Hawza is an academy or school of traditional Islamic studies. ... An edict is an announcement of a law, often associated with monarchism. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Ijmāʿ (إجماع) is an Arabic tern referring to the consensus of the ummah, the community of Muslims, those practicing Islam, or of the ulema, those learned in the relevant topic. ... In Shia Islamic jurisprudence, aql is the process of using intellect or logic to deduce law. ... In Sunni Islamic jurisprudence, Qiyas is the process of analogical reasoning from a known injunction (nass) to a new injunction. ...


There is an important difference from Shi'a Ayatollah's and "saints" in other religions and Sunni Islam. They are not regarded as enlightened by God Himself, but by the Word of God. Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ...


There are a few females which are equal in ranking to the Ayatollahs, and are known as Lady Mujtahideh. An example of which is Lady Mujtahideh Zohreh Sefati.[1] The first Lady Mujtahideh was Nosrat Amin Esfhani, born in 1886 to a religious family, she received her Ijtihad degree from Grand Ayatollahs of Qom at the age of 40.[2] ijtihad is a technical term of the Islamic law and means the process of making a legal decision by independent interpretation of the sources of the law, the Quran and the Sunna. ... Qom (Persian: قم, also known as Qum or Kom) is a city in Iran and the Qom (River) flows through the town. ...


Grand Ayatollah

Main article: Marja

Only a few of the most important Ayatollah are accorded the rank of Grand Ayatollah (Ayatollah Ozma, "Great Sign of God"). This usually happens when the followers of one of the Ayatollahs refer to him in many situations and ask him to publish his Juristic book in which he answers the vast majority of daily Muslim affairs. The book is called Resalah, which is usually a reinvention of the book Al-Urwatu l-Wuthqah, according to their knowledge of the most authentic Islamic sources and their application to current life. Marja (Arabic/Persian: مرجع), also appearing as Marja Taqlid or Marja Dini (Arabic/Persian: مرجع تقليد / مرجع ديني), literally means Source of Emulation or Religious Reference. It is the label provided to Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed... Ayatollah (Arabic: آية الله; Persian: آیت‌الله) is a high title given to major Shia clergymen. ... A Resalah is the name of the books writen by Shia Marja that contains their fatwa on different topics. ...


There is usually one Grand Ayatollah in Iraq that heads the Hawzas (currently Ali Sistani) and a few that coordinate with him like Mohammad Said Al-Hakim, Mohammad Ishaq Al-Fayyad, and Mohammad Taqi Modarresi. There are more in Iran and wherever the Shi'a exist. There are more than 20 living world-wide; the most famous of them are Ali Khamenei, Ali Sistani, Makarem Shirazi, Malakouti , Montazeri, Fadlullah, Haeri and Sadiq Shirazi. Hawza is an academy or school of traditional Islamic studies. ... Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Husaini al-Sistani Arabic: السيد علي الحسيني السيستاني, Persian: سید علی حسینی سیستانی;. Born approximately August 4, 1930) is an Iranian Grand Ayatollah, a Shia marja . ... Mohammad Said al-Hakeem Grand Ayatollah residing in Najaf. ... Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Ishaq al-Fayyadh ( Arabic: محمد إسحاق الفياض ). He lives in Najaf, Iraq. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... This page is a partial list of the Marja Taqleeds (Grand Ayatollahs), which are followed by Usulli Shia Muslims around the world. ... Grand Âyatollâh   (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی کس ننه ای Ä€yatollāh Seyyed `AlÄ« ḤoseynÄ« KhāmeneÄ«) (born 17 July 1939), also known as Seyyed Ali Khamenei,[1] is the current Supreme Leader of Iran and was the president of Iran from 1981 to 1989. ... Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Husaini Sistani (Arabic: السيد علي الحسيني السيستاني Persian: سید علی حسینی سیستان&#1740... The Grand Ayatollah Naser Makarem Shirazi is one of the most important and influential Ayatollahs currently in Iran. ... Grand Ayatollah Moslem Malakouti (Persian: مسلم ملكوتی) (born 13th August 1923 in Sarab,Azarbaijan, Iran) is an Iranian Shia Marja. ... Ayatollah Montazeri Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri (Persian: حسین علی منتظری), styled His Honourable Eminence, born in 1922, was one of the leaders of the Islamic Revolution in Iran and is a Grand Ayatollah (a Shia marja) and as such is considered one of the highest ranking authorities in Shia Islam today. ... Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah (b. ... Grand Ayatollah Kazem Husseini Haeri or Kazem Husseini Haeri is a prominent Shia leader. ... Grand Ayatollah Sadiq Hussaini Shirazi is an Iranian Shia Marja, and the brother of the late Grand Ayatollah Sayed Muhammad Shirazi , and a relative of Grand Ayatollah Mirza Hassan Shirazi. ...


The Ayatollah

Westerners who say "the Ayatollah" usually mean Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, who brought the word into the international limelight during the 1979 Iranian Revolution and the brutal religious extremist rulership that followed; a possible secondary meaning would be the term's use to indicate the serving Supreme Leader of Iran. Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza... The post of Supreme Leader (Persian: رهبر انقلاب, Rahbare Enqelab,[1] lit. ...


References

  1. ^ official website at sefaty.net
  2. ^ http://www.irib.ir/occasions/ladyamin/LadyAminEN.HTM

See also

This is a partial list of Ayatollahs, a title given to high ranked Shia Muslims clerics. ... This page is a partial list of the Marja Taqleeds (Grand Ayatollahs), which are followed by Usulli Shia Muslims around the world. ...

External links

  • [1]
  • [2] Ayatollah only news blog
  • Towards an Understanding of the Shiite Authoritative Sources

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Shah decided to seek the deportation of Ayatollah Khomeini from Iraq, the agreement of the Iraqi government was obtained at a meeting between the Iraqi and Iranian foreign ministers in New York, and on September 24, 1978, the Khomeini's house in Najaf was surrounded by troops.
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