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Encyclopedia > Ayahuasca

Ayahuasca (Quechua, pronounced [ajaˈwaska]) is any of various psychoactive infusions or decoctions prepared from the Banisteriopsis spp. vine, native to the Amazon Rainforest (which is also called ayahuasca). The resulting drinks are pharmacologically complex and used for shamanic, folk-medicinal, and religious purposes. To occidental ethno-biologists it is noted a variety of 200-300 plants are used in the different brews made by the Ayahuasceras. It is an open question whether Ayahuasca should be noted as one particular shamanic medicinal brew, or that it should be noted as an entire medicinal tradition specific to the Amazonas. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Quechua (Runa Simi in Quechua; Runa, human + Simi, speech, literally mouth; i. ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical that alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness, or behaviour. ... A decoction is a method of extraction of herbal or plant material, which includes, but is not limited to: Leaves, flowers, stems, roots, bark, and rhizomes. ... Binomial name (Spruce ex Griseb. ... Map of the Amazon rainforest ecoregions as delineated by the WWF. Yellow line encloses the Amazon rainforest. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ... A traditional healer in Côte dIvoire Folk medicine refers collectively to procedures traditionally used for treatment of illness and injury, aid to childbirth, and maintenance of wellness. ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual...

Contents

Preparation

Ayahuasca being prepared in the Napo region of Ecuador by Carly L..
Ayahuasca being prepared in the Napo region of Ecuador by Carly L..
Freshly harvested caapi vine ready for preparation
Freshly harvested caapi vine ready for preparation

Sections of vine are macerated and boiled alone or with leaves from any of a large number of other plants, including Psychotria viridis (chakruna in Quechua) or Diplopterys cabrerana (also known as chaliponga). The resulting brew contains MAO inhibiting harmala alkaloids and the powerful hallucinogenic alkaloid N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a psychedelic which is active orally only when combined with an MAOI. Harmala alkaloids in Banisteriopsis caapi serve as MAOIs in Ayahuasca. Following that the Ayahuasca tradition has met other shamanic plant-medicine cultures in a globalised world the brews sometimes substitute plant sources such as Syrian Rue or other harmala containing plants in lieu of the Banisteriopsis caapi vine, but the vine itself is always central to traditional usage. Image File history File links Aya-preparation. ... Image File history File links Aya-preparation. ... Napo is a province in Ecuador. ... Liquid-liquid extraction, also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds based on their solution preferences for two different immiscible liquids, usually water and an organic solvent. ... Binomial name Psychotria viridis Psychotria viridis is a shrub from the coffee family, Rubiaceae. ... Binomial name Diplopterys cabrerana (Cuatrec. ... MAOI redirects here. ... Peganum harmala, commonly known as Syrian Rue The MAOI (MonAmine Oxidase Inhibitor) alkaloids found in seeds of Peganum harmala (also known as Harmal or Syrian Rue)- harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine- are collectively known as harmala alkaloids. ... The general group of pharmacological agents commonly known as hallucinogens can be divided into three broad categories: psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants. ... Dimethyltryptamine, also known as DMT or N,N-dimethyltryptamine, is a short-acting psychedelic hallucinogenic drug. ... A fractal pattern similar to the spiral patterns that may be seen as the result of some psychedelic drug experiences. ... Binomial name L. Harmal seed capsules Harmal (Peganum harmala) is a plant of the family Nitrariaceae, native from the eastern Mediterranean region east to India. ...

Banisteriopsis caapi preparation
Banisteriopsis caapi preparation
Beaten caapi ready for boiling
Beaten caapi ready for boiling
Caapi cooking over an open fire
Caapi cooking over an open fire

Brews are also made with no DMT-containing plants; sometimes they are made with plants such as Justicia pectoralis, Brugmansia and sometimes made with no plants other than the ayahuasca vine itself. Tobacco is a common additive in traditional brews. The potency of this brew varies radically from one batch to the next, both in strength and psychoactive effect, based mainly on the skill of the shaman or brewer, as well as other admixtures sometimes added. Natural variations in plant alkaloid content and profiles also affect the final concentration of alkaloids in the brew, and the physical act of cooking may also serve to modify the alkaloid profile of harmala alkaloids.[1][2] Species See text Brugmansia is a genus of six species of flowering plants in the family Solanaceae, native to subtropical regions of South America, along the Andes from Colombia to northern Chile, and also in southeastern Brazil. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Harmala, also known at various times as Telepathine and Banisterine, is a blanket term for a group of naturally occurring beta-carbolines including harmine, harmaline, and others. ...


Individual polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450-2D6 enzyme affects the ability of individuals to metabolize harmine.[3] Some natural tolerance to the regular use of Ayahuasca (say, once weekly) may be seen as an upregulation of the serotonergic system.[4] A phase 1 pharmacokinetic study on Ayahuasca (as Hoasca) with 15 volunteers was conducted in 1993, during the Hoasca Project.[5] A review of the Hoasca Project has been published.[6] In biology, polymorphism can be defined as the occurrence in the same habitat of two or more forms of a trait in such frequencies that the rarer cannot be maintained by recurrent mutation alone. ...


Names

  • "caapi", "cipó," "hoasca" or "daime" in Brazil
  • "yagé" or "yajé" (both pronounced [ʝaˈhe]) in Colombia; popularized in English by the beat generation writers William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg in The Yage Letters.
  • "ayahuasca" or "ayawaska" in Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru, also to a lesser extent in Brazil ("vine of the dead" or "vine of souls": in Quechua, aya means "spirit," "ancestor," or "dead person," while waska means "vine" or "rope"). The name is properly that of the plant B. caapi, one of the primary sources of beta-carbolines for the brew.
  • "natem" amongst the indigenous Shuar people of Peru.

The spelling ayahuasca is the hispanicized version of the name; many Quechua or Aymara speakers would prefer the spelling ayawaska. In the central Andeans of Perú, Ayacwasca means: "Ayac" (spirit or dead) and "Wasca" (vine, cord or rope) Beats redirects here. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: William S. Burroughs William Seward Burroughs II (February 5, 1914) — August 2, 1997; pronounced ), more commonly known as William S. Burroughs, was an American novelist, essayist, social critic, painter and spoken word performer. ... Irwin Allen Ginsberg (IPA: ) (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American poet. ... Mid-1990s City Lights Books edition. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... Shuar, in the Shuar language, means people.[1] The people who speak the Shuar language live in tropical rainforest between the upper mountains of the Andes, and the tropical rainforests and savannas of the Amazonian lowlands, in Ecuador and Peru. ... The Aymara are a native ethnic group in the Andes region of South America; about 2. ...


Harmine compounds are of beta-carboline origin. The three most studied beta-carboline compounds found in the B. caapi vine are harmine, harmaline and tetrahydraharmine. These compound blocks MAO A and MAO B. This inhibition allows DMT to diffuse past the membranes in the stomach and small intestine and eventually get past the blood brain barrier. Without the MAOIs, DMT would be metabolized and would not have an effect when taken orally.


Usage

Urarina shaman, 1988
Urarina shaman, 1988

Ayahuasca is used largely as a religious sacrament, no matter which culture it is associated with. Those whose usage of ayahuasca is performed in non-traditional contexts often align themselves with the philosophies and cosmologies associated with ayahuasca shamanism, as practiced among indigenous peoples like the Urarina of Peruvian Amazonia. The religion Santo Daime uses it. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1215x1800, 1038 KB) Summary Urarina Shaman, Photo by Bartholomew Dean Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1215x1800, 1038 KB) Summary Urarina Shaman, Photo by Bartholomew Dean Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The shaman is an intellectual and spiritual figure who is regarded as possessing power and influence on other peoples in the tribe and performs several functions, primarily that of a healer ( medicine man). The shaman provides medical care, and serves other community needs during crisis times, via supernatural means (means... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... An Indigenous Peoples of the Peruvian Amazon (Loreto), they refer to themselves as Kachá (lit. ... A river in the Amazon rainforest The Amazon is a rainforest in South America. ... Santo Daime is a syncretic spiritual practice, which grew out of the Brazilian Amazonian state of Acre in the 1930s and became a worldwide movement in the 1990s. ...


While non-native users know of the spiritual applications of ayahuasca, a less well-known traditional usage focuses on the medicinal properties of ayahuasca. Its purgative properties are highly important (many refer to it as la Purga, "the purge"). The intense vomiting and occasional diarrhea it induces can clear the body of worms and other tropical parasites,[7] and harmala alkaloids themselves have been shown to be anthelmintic[8] Thus, this action is twofold; a direct action on the parasites by these harmala alkaloids (particularly harmine in ayahuasca) works to kill the parasites, and parasites are expelled through the increased intestinal motility that is caused by these alkaloids. Heaving redirects here. ... In medicine, diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), refers to frequent loose or liquid bowel movements. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... Anthelmintics (in the U.S., antihelminthics) are drugs that expel parasitic worms (helminthes) from the body or kill them. ...


Dietary taboos are almost always associated with the use of Ayahuasca; in the rainforest, these tend towards the purification of one's self - abstaining from spicy and heavily seasoned foods, fat, salt, caffeine, acidic foods (such as citrus) and sex before, after, or both before and after a ceremony. A diet low in foods containing tyramine has been recommended, as the speculative interaction of tyramine and MAOIs could lead to a hypertensive crisis. However, evidence indicates that harmala alkaloids act only on MAO-A, in a reversible way similar to moclobemide (an antidepressive that does not require dietary restrictions). Psychonautic experiments and absence of diet restrictions in the highly urban Brazilian ayahuasca church União do Vegetal also suggest that the risk is much lower than conceived, and probably non-existent.[9] This is a list of foods containing tyramine, which can produce hypertensive crises in individuals who take monoamine oxidase inhibitors and can also trigger migraines. ... In organic chemistry tyramine (4-hydroxy-phenethylamine, para-tyramine, p-tyramine) is a monoamine compound derived from the amino acid tyrosine. ... A hypertensive emergency is severe hypertension with acute impairment of an organ system (especially the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and/or the renal system) and the possibility of irreversible organ-damage. ... Monoamine oxidase A is an isozyme of monoamine oxidase. ... Moclobemide (sold as Aurorix®, Manerix®) is a psychiatric drug primarily used to treat depression and social anxiety. ... This article is about people who explore their inner psyche, and related practices; for other uses, see Psychonaut (disambiguation). ... União do Vegetal (Centro Espírita Beneficente União do Vegetal or UDV) is a church which is known fundamentally for its usage of Hoasca (or Ayahuasca) as a sacramental entheogenic herbal tea — the vegetal alluded to in the name of the entity. ...


Today, the name 'ayahuasca' can mean a variety of botanical concoctions containing one or more MAOIs and DMT or one of its chemical analogues. The synthetic pharmahuasca is sometimes called ayahuasca as well. In this usage, the DMT is generally considered the main psychoactive active ingredient, while the MAOI merely preserves the psychoactivity of orally ingested DMT, which would otherwise be destroyed in the gut before it could be absorbed in the body. Most ayahuasqueros and others working with the brew claim the B. caapi vine to be the defining ingredient; according to them, it is not ayahuasca unless B. caapi is in the brew. The vine is considered to be the "spirit" of ayahuasca, the gatekeeper and guide to the otherworldly realms. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs prescribed for the treatment of depression. ... Dimethyltryptamine (DMT), also known as N,N-dimethyltryptamine, is a psychedelic tryptamine. ... Pharmahuasca is slang for a pharmaceutical version of the traditional entheogenic brew Ayahuasca, which is made with either synthesized (or extracted) chemicals or a mix of synthesized chemicals and plant materials. ... Binomial name (Spruce ex Griseb. ... Binomial name (Spruce ex Griseb. ...


In some areas, it is even said that the chakruna or chaliponga admixtures are added only to make the brew taste sweeter. This is a strong indicator of the often wildly divergent intentions and cultural differences between the native ayahuasca-using cultures and psychedelics enthusiasts in other countries.


In modern Europe and North America, ayahuasca analogues are often prepared using non-traditional plants which contain the same alkaloids. For example, seeds of the Syrian rue plant are often used as a substitute for the ayawaska vine, and the DMT-rich Mimosa hostilis is used in place of chakruna. Australia has several indigenous plants which are popular among modern ayahuasqueros there, such as various DMT-rich species of Acacia. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... North American redirects here. ... Species Pagnum harmala Syrian Rue (Pagnum harmala) is a member of the Zygophyllaceae family. ... Binomial name Mimosa hostilis Benth. ... For other uses, see Acacia (disambiguation). ...

Ayahuasca cooking in the Napo region of Ecuador.
Ayahuasca cooking in the Napo region of Ecuador.

In modern Western culture, entheogen users sometimes base concoctions on Ayahuasca. When doing so, most often Rue or B. caapi are used with an alternative form of the DMT molecule, such as psilocin, or a non-DMT based hallucinogen such as mescaline. Nicknames such as Psilohuasca, Mush-rue-asca, or 'Shroom-a-huasca, for mushroom based mixtures, or Pedrohuasca (from the San Pedro Cactus, which contains mescaline) are often given to such brews. Such nicknames are by many considered inappropriate and culturally insensitive seeing as "huasca" means "vine" and none of the above are vines, nor do the psychedelic experimentalist trappings of such concoctions bear any resemblance to the medicinal use of Ayahuasca in its original cultural context. This is usually only done by experienced entheogen users who are more familiar with the chemicals and plants being used, as the uninformed combination of various neuro-chemicals can be dangerous. Image File history File links Aya-cooking. ... Image File history File links Aya-cooking. ... Napo is a province in Ecuador. ... Binomial name (Spruce ex Griseb. ... Psilocin,(4-HO-DMT) sometimes called psilocine or psilotsin, is a psychedelic (hallucinogenic) mushroom alkaloid. ... Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class. ...


It seems unlikely that Ayahuasca could ever emerge as a "street-drug", given the difficulty of making the tea and the intense experience it provides. Most Western users employ it almost exclusively for spiritual purposes, in line with both traditional, animist usage and organized churches such as the União do Vegetal (or UDV). With the exception of UDV, a diet is almost always followed before use, including a day of fasting. In traditional settings, the "dieta" is followed to spiritually cleanse the body before and after the experience. União do Vegetal (Centro Espírita Beneficente União do Vegetal or UDV) is a church which is known fundamentally for its usage of Hoasca (or Ayahuasca) as a sacramental entheogenic herbal tea — the vegetal alluded to in the name of the entity. ...


Introduction to the West

Ayahuasca is mentioned in the writings of some of the earliest missionaries to South America, but it only became commonly known in the West much later.[specify] The early missionary reports generally claim it as demonic, and great efforts were made by the Roman Catholic Church to stamp it out. When originally researched in the 20th century, the active chemical constituent of B. caapi was called telepathine, however it was found to be identical to a chemical already isolated from Peganum harmala and was given the name harmaline. William Burroughs sought yagé (still considered to be "telepathine") in the 1950s while traveling through South America in the hopes that it could relieve or cure opiate addiction. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg first introduced Ayahuasca to the West through the publication of The Yage Letters (1963). Burroughs and Ginsberg's letters influenced Terence and Dennis McKenna to journey to the rainforest to search for Ayahuasca. Ayahuasca became known more widely when the McKennas published their experience in the Amazon as the Invisible Landscape. Dennis later studied the pharmacology, botany, and chemistry of ayahuasca and oo-koo-he, and became the subject of his master's thesis. For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... “Fiend” redirects here. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Harmala, also known at various times as Telepathine and Banisterine, is a blanket term for a group of naturally occurring beta-carbolines including harmine, harmaline, and others. ... Harmala, also known at various times as Telepathine and Banisterine, is a blanket term for a group of naturally occurring beta-carbolines including harmine, harmaline, and others. ... For other uses see Opiate (disambiguation), or for the class of drugs see Opioid. ... This article is about the concept of addiction. ... Mid-1990s City Lights Books edition. ... For the Canadian writer, actor, producer & director, see Terence McKenna (film producer). ... Dennis McKenna, born December 17, 1950, is an American ethnopharmacologist and author. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Anadenanthera peregrina Yopo, Anadenanthera peregrina, (also known as Cohoba, Nopo, Ñopo), is a native South American tree as well as an entheogen used in healing and rituals. ...


In Brazil, a number of modern religious movements based on the use of ayahuasca have emerged, the most famous of them being Santo Daime and the União do Vegetal (or UDV), usually in an animistic context that may be shamanistic or, more often (as with Santo Daime and the UDV), integrated with Christianity. Both Santo Daime and União do Vegetal now have members and churches throughout the world. Similarly, the US and Europe have started to see new religious groups develop in relation to increased ayahuasca use. PaDeva, an American Wiccan group, has become the first incorporated legal church which holds the use of ayahuasca central to their beliefs. Some Westerners have teamed up with shamans in the Amazon rainforest regions, forming Ayahuasca healing retreats that claim to be able to cure mental and physical illness and allow communication with the spirit world. Anecdotal reports and scientific studies affirm that ritualized use of ayahuasca may improve mental and physical health,[10] but it is thought to be a potential risk for a psychotic outbreaks in susceptible individuals, although no supporting scientific research data is available. Santo Daime is a syncretic spiritual practice, which grew out of the Brazilian Amazonian state of Acre in the 1930s and became a worldwide movement in the 1990s. ... União do Vegetal (Centro Espírita Beneficente União do Vegetal or UDV) is a church which is known fundamentally for its usage of Hoasca (or Ayahuasca) as a sacramental entheogenic herbal tea — the vegetal alluded to in the name of the entity. ... This article is about Kardecist spiritism. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Wicca (disambiguation). ...


Several notable celebrities have publicly discussed their use of ayahuasca, including Sting, Tori Amos, and Paul Simon (who wrote the song Spirit Voices about his experience with the brew in the Amazon). This article is about the musician. ... Tori Amos (born Myra Ellen Amos on August 22, 1963) is an American pianist and singer-songwriter. ... Paul Frederic Simon (born October 13, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter and guitarist, half of the folk-singing duo Simon and Garfunkel who continues a successful solo career. ...


Recent years have seen notable media attention to the position of the UDV church in the United States. After having their importation and use of Hoasca tea challenged by the U.S. Department of Justice, and then having the issue settled in their favor by the U.S. Supreme Court, the church gained some notoriety. This mirrors in some ways the experiences of UDV and Santo Daime churches in Europe, where legal authorities have taken interest in their activities in France, Germany, Holland and Spain.


Holland was an early Western context for the spread of ayahuasca use. Supporting a large Brazilian population, Santo Daime members in particular made efforts to spread the philosophy of ritualized ayahuasca use. In the mid-to-late 1990s one group, the Amsterdam-based Friends of the Forest, was formed by Santo Daime members to introduce ayahuasca to Europeans and others with "allergies to Christianity." They did this by introducing "New Age" rituals incorporating basic ritual structure, celebrating with songs in the Daime tradition (Portuguese waltzes), English language songs, ambient music and mantras and kirtan. They existed at least until the Dutch authorities raided a Santo Daime ritual in progress, and other ayahuasca-oriented groups sensed that an obvious public profile was not in their best interest. Amsterdam is also among the few cities in Europe where one can find, in addition to Cannabis, psilocybin mushrooms and peyote, ayahuasca vine, chacruna leaves, and plants for ayahuasca analogues in the tradition of Jonathan Ott's so-called "ayahuasca borealis."


"Ayahuasca tourism"

"Ayahuasca tourist" is a pejorative term implying an insincere Westerner wanting a taste of an exotic ritual or who go on modified services geared specifically towards Westerners. Some seekers seek to clear emotional blocks and gain a sense of peace. Other participants include explorers of consciousness, writers, medical doctors, journalists, anthropologists and ethnobotanists. Ayahuasca is popularly known as 'Grandmother'. Though the tourism occurs most often in Peru, it has foreigners have also visited Argentina, Colombia and Mexico. This article is about people who explore their inner psyche, and related practices; for other uses, see Psychonaut (disambiguation). ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... The word physician should not be confused with physicist, which means a scientist in the area of physics. ... For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ... See Anthropology. ... Ethnobotany is the study of the relationship between plants and people: Fromethno - study of people and botany - study of plants. ...


Initiation

Usually a visitor who wishes to become a "dietero" or "dietera" that is, a male or female apprentice-shaman learning the way of the teacher plants undergoes a rigorous initiation. This can involve spending a year in the jungle. This initiation challenges and trains the initiate through extreme circumstances covering isolation, deprivation from utilities available in civilization and its conveniences, enduring radical weather of heavy rains, storms, intense heat, insects and solitude.[citation needed]


Modern descriptions

Wade Davis (author of The Serpent and The Rainbow) describes the traditional mixture as tough in his book One River: "The smell and acrid taste was that of the entire jungle ground up and mixed with bile." [p.194] Edmund Wade Davis (born December 14, 1953) is a noted anthropologist and ethnobotanist whose work has usually focused on the observation and analysis of the customs, beliefs, and social relations of indigenous cultures in North and South America, particularly the traditional uses and beliefs associated with plants with psychoactive properties. ...


Writer Kira Salak describes her personal experiences with ayahuasca in the March 2006 issue of National Geographic Adventure magazine. The article includes a candid description of how ayahuasca cured her depression, as well as provides detailed information about the brew. Here is an excerpt from the article about Dr. Charles Grob's landmark findings: National Geographic Adventure is a magazine published by the National Geographic Society in the United States. ...

The taking of ayahuasca has been associated with a long list of documented cures: the disappearance of everything from metastasized colorectal cancer to cocaine addiction, even after just a ceremony or two. It has been medically proven to be nonaddictive and safe to ingest. Yet Western scientists have all but ignored it for decades, reluctant to risk their careers by researching a substance containing the outlawed DMT. Only in the past decade, and then only by a handful of researchers, has ayahuasca begun to be studied. At the vanguard of this research is Charles Grob, M.D., a professor of psychiatry and pediatrics at UCLA’s School of Medicine.

In 1993 Dr. Grob launched the Hoasca Project, the first in-depth study of the physical and psychological effects of ayahuasca on humans. His team went to Brazil, where the plant mixture can be taken legally, to study members of a church, the União do Vegetal (UDV), who use ayahuasca as a sacrament, and compared them to a control group that had never ingested the substance. The studies found that all the ayahuasca-using UDV members had experienced remission without recurrence of their addictions, depression, or anxiety disorders. Unlike most common anti-depressants, which Grob says can create such high levels of serotonin that cells may actually compensate by losing many of their serotonin receptors, the Hoasca Project showed that ayahuasca strongly enhances the body’s ability to absorb the serotonin that’s naturally there. 'Ayahuasca is perhaps a far more sophisticated and effective way to treat depression than SSRIs [antidepressant drugs],' Grob concludes, adding that the use of SSRIs is 'a rather crude way' of doing it. And ayahuasca, he insists, has great potential as a long-term solution.

Chilean novelist Isabel Allende told The Sunday Telegraph in London that she once took the drug in an attempt to "punch through" writer's block[11]. The paper wrote: For the Chilean politician and daughter of Salvador Allende, see Isabel Allende Bussi. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... For other uses, see Writers block (disambiguation). ...

But after forcing down the foul-tasting brew, she was catapulted to a place so dark her husband feared he had 'lost his wife to the world of spirits'. Her life flashed before her as the hallucinogen took hold. She faced demons, saw herself as a terrified four-year-old and curled up on the floor, shivering, retching and muttering for two days.

'I think I went through an experience of death at a certain point, when I was no longer a body or a soul or a spirit or anything,' Allende says matter-of-factly. 'There was just a total, absolute void that you cannot even describe because you are not. And I think that's death.'

Nevertheless, the process proved transformative. Allende emerged aching but lucid and was able to complete [a trilogy she was writing], now being adapted for film by the co-producers of The Chronicles of Narnia.

Plant constituents

Traditional

Traditional Ayahuasca brews are always made with Banisteriopsis caapi as an MAOI, although DMT sources and other admixtures vary from region to region. There are several varieties of caapi, often known as different "colors", with varying effects, potencies, and uses. Binomial name (Spruce ex Griseb. ...


DMT admixtures:

Other common admixtures: Binomial name Psychotria viridis Psychotria viridis is a shrub from the coffee family, Rubiaceae. ... Binomial name Diplopterys cabrerana (Cuatrec. ... Binomial name Psychotria carthagensis Psychotria carthagensis, also known as Amyruca, is a South American rainforest understory shrub from the coffee family, Rubiaceae. ...

Species See text Brugmansia is a genus of six species of flowering plants in the family Solanaceae, native to subtropical regions of South America, along the Andes from Colombia to northern Chile, and also in southeastern Brazil. ... Nicotiana rustica is a very potent variety of tobacco. ... Binomial name Ilex guayusa Ilex guayusa is a tree of the holly family, native to the Ecuadorian Amazon Rainforest. ... Binomial name A. St. ...

Western Ayahuasca analogs

Although traditional plant materials are often used, sources with similar chemical constituents are often substituted for the traditional ingredients.


MAOI:

DMT admixture sources: Binomial name L. Harmal seed capsules Harmal (Peganum harmala) is a plant of the family Nitrariaceae, native from the eastern Mediterranean region east to India. ... Species Passiflora amalocarpa Passiflora amethystina Passiflora aurantia Passiflora caerulea Passiflora capsularis Passiflora edulis Passiflora foetida Passiflora helleri Passiflora holosericea Passiflora incarnata Passiflora karwinskii Passiflora mucronata Passiflora murucuja Passiflora tenuifila Passiflora tulae Passiflora vitifolia Passiflora yucatanensis Passion flower refers to vines in the genus Passiflora—flowering plants known for their showy... MAOI redirects here. ...

Binomial name Acacia maidenii F. Muell. ... Binomial name Acacia phlebophylla H.B.Will. ... For other uses, see Acacia (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Speg. ... Binomial name Mimosa hostilis Benth. ...

Legal status

Internationally, DMT is a Schedule I drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. The Commentary on the Convention on Psychotropic Substances notes, however, that the plant itself is excluded from international control:[12] Convention on Psychotropic Substances Opened for signature February 21, 1971 in Vienna Entered into force August 16, 1976 Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 175 The Convention on Psychotropic Substances is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamines, barbiturates, and psychedelics. ...

The cultivation of plants from which psychotropic substances are obtained is not controlled by the Vienna Convention. . . . Neither the crown (fruit, mescal button) of the Peyote cactus nor the roots of the plant Mimosa hostilis nor Psilocybe mushrooms themselves are included in Schedule 1, but only their respective principles, mescaline, DMT and psilocin.

A fax from the Secretary of the International Narcotics Control Board to the Netherlands Ministry of Public Health sent in 2001 goes on to state that "Consequently, preparations (e.g.decoctions) made of these plants, including ayahuasca, are not under international control and, therefore, not subject to any of the articles of the 1971 Convention." [1] For other uses, see Fax (disambiguation). ...


The legal status of these plants in the United States is somewhat questionable. Ayahuasca plants and preparations are legal as they contain no scheduled chemicals. However, brews made using DMT containing plants are illegal since DMT is a Schedule I drug. That said, some people are challenging this, using arguments similar to those used by peyotist religious sects, such as the Native American Church. A court case allowing União do Vegetal to use the tea for religious purposes in the United States, Gonzales v. O Centro Espirita Beneficente Uniao do Vegetal, was heard by the U.S. Supreme Court on November 1, 2005; the decision, released February 21, 2006, allows the UDV to use the tea in its ceremonies pursuant to the Religious Freedom Restoration Act. Native American Church Native American Church, a religious denomination which practices Peyotism or Peyote religion, originated in the U.S. state of Oklahoma, and is the most widespread indigenous religion among Native Americans. ... Holding A church was properly granted an injunction under the Religious Freedom Restoration Act against criminal prosecution for its sacramental use of a hallucinatory substance, because the federal government had failed to demonstrate a compelling interest in prohibiting that use under the Controlled Substances Act. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... The Religious Freedom Restoration Act (42 U.S.C. Â§ 2000bb, also known as RFRA) is a 1993 United States federal law aimed at preventing laws which substantially burden a persons free exercise of their religion. ...


Religious use in Brazil was legalized after two official inquiries into the tea in the mid-1980s, which concluded that ayahuasca is not a recreational drug and has valid spiritual uses.[13]


In France, Santo Daime won a court case allowing them to use the tea in early 2005; however, they were not allowed an exception for religious purposes, but rather for the simple reason that they did not perform chemical extractions to end up with pure DMT and harmala and the plants used were not scheduled. Four months after the court victory, the common ingredients of Ayahuasca as well as harmala were declared stupéfiants, or narcotic schedule I substances, making the tea and its ingredients illegal to use or possess.[citation needed] See [2] and [3] (French) for more information. Santo Daime is a syncretic spiritual practice, which grew out of the Brazilian Amazonian state of Acre in the 1930s and became a worldwide movement in the 1990s. ...


See also

Icaros are medicine songs, used as part of the toolkit of Shamans in the Peruvian Amazon Basin. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

External links

Ayahuasca churches

Law

PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ...

Other

Literature

Nonfiction

  • Adelaars, Arno. Ayahuasca. Rituale, Zaubertränke und visionäre Kunst aus Amazonien, ISBN 978-3-03800-270-3
  • William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg Ginsberg, Allen. The Yage Letters. San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1963. ISBN 0-87286-004-3
  • Marlene Dobkin De Rios. Visionary Vine: Hallucinogenic Healing in the Peruvian Amazon, (2nd ed.). Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland, 1984. ISBN 0-88133-093-0
  • Graham Hancock, Supernatural: Meetings with the Ancient Teachers of Mankind. London: Century, 2005. ISBN-10: 1844136817 [4]
  • Ross Heaven and Howard G. Charing. 'Plant Spirit Shamanism: Traditional Techniques for Healing the Soul'. Vermont: Destiny Books, 2006. ISBN 1-59477-118-9
  • Bruce F. Lamb. Rio Tigre and Beyond: The Amazon Jungle Medicine of Manuel Córdova. Berkeley: North Atlantic, 1985. ISBN 0-938190-59-8
  • Luis Eduardo Luna. Vegetalismo: Shamanism among the Mestizo Population of the Peruvian Amazon. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International, 1986. ISBN 91-22-00819-5
  • Luis Eduardo Luna & Pablo Amaringo. Ayahuasca Visions: The Religious Iconography of A Peruvian Shaman. Berkeley: North Atlantic, 1999. ISBN 1-55643-311-5
  • Luis Eduardo Luna & Stephen F. White, eds. Ayahuasca Reader: Encounters with the Amazon's Sacred Vine. Santa Fe, NM: Synergetic, 2000. ISBN 0-907791-32-8
  • E. Jean Matteson Langdon & Gerhard Baer, eds. Portals of Power: Shamanism in South America. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1992. ISBN 0-8263-1345-0
  • Terence McKenna. Food of the Gods: A Radical History of Plants, Drugs, and Human Evolution.
  • Ralph Metzner, ed. Ayahuasca: Hallucinogens, Consciousness, and the Spirit of Nature. New York: Thunder's Mouth, 1999. ISBN 1-56025-160-3
  • Jeremy Narby. The Cosmic Serpent: DNA and the Origins of Knowledge. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, 1998. ISBN 0-87477-911-1
  • P. J. O'Rourke, All the Trouble in the World. New York: The Atlantic Monthly Press, 1994. ISBN 0-87113-611-2
  • Jonathan Ott. Ayahuasca Analogues: Pangæan Entheogens. Kennewick, Wash.: Natural Products, 1994. ISBN 0-9614234-5-5
  • John Perkins. The World Is As You Dream It: Shamanic Teachings from the Amazon and Andes. Rochester, Vt.: Park Street, 1994. ISBN 0-89281-459-4[5]
  • Daniel Pinchbeck. Breaking Open the Head: A Psychedelic Journey into the Heart of Contemporary Shamanism. New York: Broadway, 2002. ISBN 0-7679-0743-4[6]
  • Alex Polari de Alverga. Forest of Visions: Ayahuasca, Amazonian Spirituality, and the Santo Daime Tradition. Rochester, Vt.: Park Street, 1999. ISBN 0-89281-716-X
  • Gerardo Reichel-Dolmatoff. The Shaman and the Jaguar: A Study of Narcotic Drugs Among the Indians of Colombia. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1975. ISBN 0-87722-038-7
  • Richard Evans Schultes & Robert F. Raffauf. Vine of the Soul: Medicine Men, Their Plants and Rituals in the Colombian Amazonia. Oracle, AZ: Synergetic, 1992. ISBN 0-907791-24-7
  • Benny Shanon. The Antipodes of the Mind: Charting the Phenomenology of the Ayahuasca Experience. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-19-925293-9
  • Peter G. Stafford. Heavenly Highs: Ayahuasca, Kava-Kava, Dmt, and Other Plants of the Gods. Berkeley: Ronin, 2004. ISBN 1-57951-069-8
  • Rick Strassman. DMT: The Spirit Molecule: A Doctor's Revolutionary Research into the Biology of Near-Death and Mystical Experiences. Rochester, Vt.: Park Street, 2001. ISBN 0-89281-927-8
  • Michael Taussig. Shamanism, Colonialism, and the Wild Man: A Study in Terror and Healing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986. ISBN 0-226-79012-6
  • Joan Parisi Wilcox (2003). Ayahuasca: The Visionary and Healing Powers of the Vine of the Soul. Rochester, Vt.: Park Street. ISBN 0-89281-131-5
  • Jaya Bear "Amazon Magic: The Life Story of Ayahuasquero & Shaman Don Agustin Rivas Vasquez". Libros Colibri (January 2000). ISBN-10: 0967425506. ISBN-13: 978-096742550

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: William S. Burroughs William Seward Burroughs II (February 5, 1914) — August 2, 1997; pronounced ), more commonly known as William S. Burroughs, was an American novelist, essayist, social critic, painter and spoken word performer. ... Irwin Allen Ginsberg (IPA: ) (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American poet. ... Mid-1990s City Lights Books edition. ... Graham Hancock (born August 2, 1950) is a British writer and journalist. ... For the Canadian writer, actor, producer & director, see Terence McKenna (film producer). ... Dr. Ralph Metzner Ph. ... Jeremy Narby Jeremy Narby, Phd. ... P.J. ORourke speaks at a January 2007 event at the Cato Institute about his latest book. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Daniel Pinchbeck. ... Breaking Open the Head was written by author and journalist Daniel Pinchbeck, founding editor of Open City. ... Rick Strassman (born 1952 in Los Angeles, California, United States [1]) began the first new human research with psychedelic, or hallucinogenic, drugs in the United States in over 20 years. ...

Fiction

  • Bruce Balfour Prometheus Road, ISBN 0-441-01221-3

Filmography

Documentaries

  • Alistair Appleton, The Man Who Drank the Universe, 30 minutes 2005
  • Dean Jefferys; Shamans of the Amazon, 52 min. Australia 2001
  • Jan Kounen, Autres mondes
  • Glenn Switkes, Night of the Liana, 45 min. Brazil 2002
  • Armand BERNADI, L'Ayahuasca, le Serpent et Moi, 52 min. France 2003

Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... Alistair Appleton (born 1970 in Tunbridge Wells, Kent) is an English television presenter. ... Jan Kounen is a French film director and producer born in the Netherlands. ...

Fiction films

Jan Kounen is a French film director and producer born in the Netherlands. ... Blueberry is a French movie adaptation of the popular European comic of Jean Giraud (better known as Moebius) and Jean-Michel Charlier. ...

References

  1. ^ Callaway JC (2005). Various alkaloid profiles in decoctions of Banisteriopsis caapi. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 37(2): 151–155
  2. ^ Callaway JC, Brito GS & Neves ES (2005). Phytochemical analyses of Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 37(2): 145–150.
  3. ^ Callaway JC (2005). Fast and slow metabolizers of hoasca. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 37(2): 157–161.
  4. ^ Callaway JC, Airaksinen MM, McKenna DJ, Brito GS & Grob CS (1994). Platelet serotonin uptake sites increased in drinkers of ayahuasca. Psychopharmacology 116(3): 385–387.
  5. ^ Callaway JC, McKenna DJ, Grob CS, Brito GS, Raymon LP, Poland RE, Andrade EN, Andrade EO (1999). Pharmacology of hoasca alkaloids in healthy humans. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 65(3): 243–256.
  6. ^ McKenna DJ, Callaway JC, Grob CS (1998). The scientific investigation of ayahuasca: A review of past and current research. The Heffter Review of Psychedelic Research 1: 65–77.
  7. ^ Andritzky, W. (1989). Sociopsychotherapeutic functions of ayahuasca healing in Amazonia. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 21(1), 77-89.
  8. ^ Hassan, I. 1967. Some folk uses of Peganum harmala in India and Pakistan. Economic Botany 21: 384.
  9. ^ Ott, J. Jonathan Ott. Ayahuasca Analogues: Pangaean Entheogens. Kennewick, WA: Natural Books, 1994.
  10. ^ See research by Doctor John Halpern in New Scientist
  11. ^ Isabel Allende: kith and tell - Telegraph
  12. ^ MAPS: DMT - UN report
  13. ^ More on the legal status of ayahuasca can be found in the Erowid vault on the legality of ayahuasca.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Erowid Ayahuasca Vault: Basics (868 words)
Ayahuasca is traditionally prepared by boiling or soaking the stems of B. caapi along with various admixture plants, most commonly the N,N-DMT containing leaves of the Psychotria viridis bush.
Outside the amazon basin, in cities around the world, ayahuasca is prepared with a wide variety of ingredients including pure chemicals (sometimes called 'pharmahuasca') or the root bark from mimosa hostilis/tenuiflora (sometimes called 'mimosahuasca'), and often the seeds of Perganum harmala (Syrian Rue) as a source of MAO-inhibiting harmala alkaloids.
Because one of the major components of Ayahuasca is an MAOI, which acts to inhibit a key enzyme in your body responsible for processes in the brain and throughout the body, it is possible to have severe negative reactions to Ayahuasca.
AYAHUASCA: An Overview of an Extraordinary Healing Plant and its Companions (1406 words)
The word "Ayahuasca" refers to a medicinal and magical drink incorporating two or more distinctive plant species capable of producing profound mental, physical and spiritual effects when brewed together and consumed in a ceremonial setting.
The oldest know object related to the use of ayahuasca is a ceremonial cup, hewn out of stone, with engraved ornamentation, which was found in the Pastaza culture of the Ecuadorean Amazon from 500 B.C. to 50 A.D. It is deposited in the collection of the Ethnological Museum of the Central University (Quito, Ecuador).
The harmala alkaloids in ayahuasca, primarily harmine and tetrahydroharmine, reversibly inhibit the neuronal enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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