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Ay
Aya
Portrait study thought to be of Ay
Portrait study thought to be of Ay
Pharaoh of Egypt
Reign 1323–1319 BC or 1327–1323 BC,  18th Dynasty
Predecessor Tutankhamun
Successor Horemheb
Consort(s) Tey and Ankhesenamun
Children Possibly Nefertiti and Mutnedjmet
Died 1319 or 1323 BC
Burial WV23
Monuments Amarna Tomb

Ay was the penultimate Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt's 18th dynasty. He held the throne of Egypt for a brief four-year period (probably 13231319 BC[1] or 13271323 BC, depending on which chronology is followed), although he was a close advisor to two and perhaps three of the pharaohs who ruled before him and was the power behind the throne during Tutankhamun's reign. Ay's prenomen or royal name—Kheperkheperure—means "Everlasting are the Manifestations of Ra" while his birth name Ay it-hetjer reads as 'Ay, Father of the God.'[2] Records and monuments that can be clearly attributed to Ay are rare, not only due to his short length, but also because his successor, Horemheb, instigated a campaign of damnatio memoriae against him and other pharaohs associated with the unpopular Amarna period. For other uses, see AY. Nomen: Itinetjer Ay Gods father, Ay Horus name: Kanakht Tekhenkhau The strong bull, the one of glittering crowns Nebty name: Sekhempehti dersetet Who is mighty of strength, who subdues the Asiatics Golden Horus: Heqamaat sekhepertawy The ruler of truth, who creates the two lands... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (738x1249, 1095 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ay ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, New Kingdom. ... King Tut redirects here. ... Djeserkheperure Setepenre Holy are the Manifestations of Re, Chosen of Re[1] Nomen Horemheb Meryamun Horus is in Jubilation, Beloved of Amun Consort(s) Mutnedjmet, Amenia Died 1292 BC Burial KV57 Djeserkheperure Horemheb was the last Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 18th Dynasty from c. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... Image File history File links Srxtail2. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... Tey was the wife of Kheperkheprure Ay (occasionally Aya), who was a pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 18th dynasty. ... Ankhesenpaaten was the third of six known daughters of the Pharaoh Akhenaten by his wife Nefertiti. ... Bust of Nefertiti from Berlins Altes Museum. ... The Egyptian noblewoman Mutnedjmet (or Mutnodjmet) was the second wife of Horemheb, the last ruler of the Eighteenth Dynasty. ... .. contains a broken sarcophagus and some bad fresco painting of peculiarly short and graceless proportions. ... Southern Tomb 25 at Amarna was intended for the burial of Ay, who later became Pharoah, after Tutankhamun. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, New Kingdom. ... (Redirected from 1324 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC 1330s BC - 1320s BC - 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC 1270s BC Events and Trends Egypt: End of Eighteenth Dynasty, start of Nineteenth Dynasty (1320... (Redirected from 1319 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC - 1310s BC - 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC 1270s BC 1260s BC Events and Trends The Bhagavad Gita is written, according to some Hindu traditions. ... (Redirected from 1327 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC 1330s BC - 1320s BC - 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC 1270s BC Events and Trends Egypt: End of Eighteenth Dynasty, start of Nineteenth Dynasty (1320... (Redirected from 1323 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC 1330s BC - 1320s BC - 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC 1270s BC Events and Trends Egypt: End of Eighteenth Dynasty, start of Nineteenth Dynasty (1320... King Tut redirects here. ... Djeserkheperure Setepenre Holy are the Manifestations of Re, Chosen of Re[1] Nomen Horemheb Meryamun Horus is in Jubilation, Beloved of Amun Consort(s) Mutnedjmet, Amenia Died 1292 BC Burial KV57 Djeserkheperure Horemheb was the last Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 18th Dynasty from c. ... Tondo of the Severan family, with portraits of Septimius Severus, Julia Domna, Caracalla, and Geta. ... Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna) is the name given to an extensive archaeological site that represents the remains of the capital city built by the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the late Eighteenth Dynasty (c. ...

Contents

Origins

Ay is usually believed to be a native Egyptian from Akhmim. During his short reign, he built a rock cut chapel in Akhmim and dedicated it to the local deity there: Min.[3] He may have been the son of Yuya, who served as a member of the priesthood of Min at Akhmin as well as superintendent of herds in this city, and wife Tjuyu.[4] If so, Ay could have been of partial non-Egyptian, perhaps Syrian blood since the name Yuya was uncommon in Egypt and is suggestive of a foreign background.[5] Yuya was an influential nobleman at the royal court of Amenhotep III who was given the rare privilege of having a tomb built for his use in the royal Valley of the Kings presumably because he was the father of Tiye, Amenhotep's chief Queen. There are also noted similarities in the physical likenesses of monuments attributed to Ay and those of the mummy of Yuya, and both held similar names and titles.[6] Akhmim, or Ekhmim, ia a town of Upper Egypt, on the right bank of the Nile, 67 mi by river south of Assiut, and 4 mi above Suhag, on the opposite side of the river where there is railway communication with Cairo and Assuan. ... The Egyptian God Min This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Yuya (sometimes Iouiya) also known as Yaa, Ya, Yiya, Yayi, Yu, Yuyu, Yaya, Yiay, Yia, Yuy[1] was a powerful Egyptian courtier of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt (circa 1390 BC). ... Tjuyu (sometimes transliterated as Thuyu) was an Egyptian noblewoman and descedant of Ahmose-Nefertari. ... Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s... Tiye. ...


Amarna Period

Born a commoner, Ay managed to rise through the hierarchy of Egyptian society under the "heretical" Pharaoh Akhenaten. One version of events maintains that he and his wife Tey were the parents of Akhenaten's chief wife, Nefertiti and that another of their daughters, Mutnedjmet, was the wife and queen of Horemheb, Ay's successor. Another version suggests that he was the son of Yuya and Tjuyu, thus being a brother or half-brother of Tiy, brother-in-law of Amenhotep III and maternal uncle of Akhenaten. For other uses, see Akhenaten (disambiguation). ... Tey was the wife of Kheperkheprure Ay (occasionally Aya), who was a pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 18th dynasty. ... Bust of Nefertiti from Berlins Altes Museum. ... The Egyptian noblewoman Mutnedjmet (or Mutnodjmet) was the second wife of Horemheb, the last ruler of the Eighteenth Dynasty. ... Djeserkheperure Setepenre Holy are the Manifestations of Re, Chosen of Re[1] Nomen Horemheb Meryamun Horus is in Jubilation, Beloved of Amun Consort(s) Mutnedjmet, Amenia Died 1292 BC Burial KV57 Djeserkheperure Horemheb was the last Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 18th Dynasty from c. ... Yuya (sometimes Iouiya) also known as Yaa, Ya, Yiya, Yayi, Yu, Yuyu, Yaya, Yiay, Yia, Yuy[1] was a powerful Egyptian courtier of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt (circa 1390 BC). ... Tjuyu (sometimes transliterated as Thuyu) was an Egyptian noblewoman and descedant of Ahmose-Nefertari. ... Tiy (c. ... Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s...


The two theories are not mutually exclusive, but either relationship would explain the exalted status to which Ay rose (see below), during Akhenaten's Amarna interlude, when the royal family turned their backs on Egypt's traditional gods and experimented, for a dozen years or so, with monotheism; an experiment that, whether out of conviction or convenience, Ay appears to have followed under the reign of Akhenaten. Amarna The site of Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna or incorrectly as Tel el-Amarna; see below) (Arabic: العمارنة al-‘amārnä) is located on the east bank of the Nile River in the modern Egyptian province of al-Minya, some 58 km (38 miles) south of the city of... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God. ...


If Ay was the son of Yuya, who was a senior military officer during the reign of Amenhotep III, then he likely followed in his father's footsteps, finally inheriting his father's military functions upon his death. All that is known for certain was that by the time he was permitted to build a tomb for himself at Akhetaten during the reign of Akhenaten, he had achieved the title of "Overseer of All the Horses of His Majesty", the highest rank in the elite charioteering division of the army, which was just below the rank of General.[7] Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna) is the name given to an extensive archaeological site that represents the remains of the capital city built by the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the late Eighteenth Dynasty (c. ... General is a military rank, in most nations the highest rank, although some nations have the higher rank of Field Marshal. ...


Titles

In his Amarna tomb, Ay's titles are give as Companion, Head of the Companions of the King, Father of the Divinity, Fan-bearer on the Right Side of the King, Acting Scribe of the King, beloved by him, and Overseer of All the Horses of His Majesty. Some of these titles are purely standardised noble ones, but the 'Fan-bearer on the Right Side of the King' is a very important position, and is viewed as showing that the bearer had the 'ear' of the ruler. Southern Tomb 25 at Amarna was intended for the burial of Ay, who later became Pharoah, after Tutankhamun. ...


Tutankhamun

Ay's reign was preceded by that of Tutankhamun, who ascended to the throne at the age of nine or ten, at a time of great tension between the new monotheism and the old polytheism. He was assisted in his kingly duties by his predecessor's two closest advisors: Grand Vizier Ay and General of the Armies Horemheb. Tutankhamun's nine-year reign, largely under Ay's direction, saw the gradual return of the old gods – and, with that, the restoration of the power of the Amun priesthood, who had lost their influence over Egypt under Akhenaten. King Tut redirects here. ... The Ancient Egyptian adminstrator (tjaty) is often translated as Vizier. ... Djeserkheperure Setepenre Holy are the Manifestations of Re, Chosen of Re[1] Nomen Horemheb Meryamun Horus is in Jubilation, Beloved of Amun Consort(s) Mutnedjmet, Amenia Died 1292 BC Burial KV57 Djeserkheperure Horemheb was the last Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 18th Dynasty from c. ... This article is about religious workers. ...


Egyptologist Bob Brier suggested that Ay murdered Tutankhamun in order to usurp the throne, a claim which was based on X-ray examinations of the body done in 1968 that found bone fragments inside Tutankhamun's skull. He also alleged that Ankhesenamen and the Hittite Prince she was about to marry with were also murdered at his orders, and one can speculate he might be also involved at Ankhesenamen's two miscarriages and even at Akhenaten, Nefertiti and Smenkhare's deaths.[8] This murder theory was not accepted by all scholars, and more detailed CT-scans of the mummy undertaken by National Geographic (published in late 2005) suggested that Tutankhamun did not die from a blow to his head as Brier had theorized. The National Geographic forensic researchers instead presented a new theory that Tutankhamun died from an infection caused by a badly broken leg since he is often portrayed as walking with a cane due to spina bifida, a hereditary trait in his family on his father's side.[9] The bone fragments found in Tutankhamun's skull were most likely the result of post-mortem damage caused by Howard Carter's initial examination of the boy king "because they show no evidence of being inundated with the embalming fluid used to preserve the pharaoh for the afterlife."[10] // Background Dr. Robert Brier (b. ... King Tut redirects here. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tutankhamen receives flowers from Ankhesenamun Ankhesenamun (b. ... Miscarriage or spontaneous abortion is the natural or spontaneous end of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or the fetus is incapable of surviving, generally defined in humans at a gestation of prior to 20 weeks. ... CAT apparatus in a hospital Computed axial tomography (CAT), computer-assisted tomography, computed tomography, CT, or body section roentgenography is the process of using digital processing to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around...


When the results of the CT-Scan examination had been published, many scientists accepted its findings, but some still believe the mystery of Tutankhamun's death is far from solved and continue to support the older murder theory. There are books that have subsequently been published that adhere to the original murder theory and dispute the conclusions reached by the CT-Scan team, though also citing other means of murder, such as poisoning.[11] [12] Noted Egyptologist Zahi Hawass believes that Tutankhamun could have been murdered by poison.[13] hi Dr. Zahi Hawass signs an autograph (Aug. ...


Rule as Pharaoh

Tutankhamun's untimely death at the age of 18 or 19, together with his failure to produce an heir, left a power vacuum that his Grand Vizier Ay was quick to fill: Ay is depicted conducting the funerary rites for the deceased monarch and assuming the role of heir. The grounds on which Ay based his successful claim to power are not entirely clear. The Commander of the Army, Horemheb, had actually been designated as the "idnw" or "Deputy of the Lord of the Two Lands" under Tutankhamun and was presumed to be the boy king's heir apparent and successor.[14] It appears that Horemheb was outmaneuvered to the throne by Ay who married Ankhesenamun, the widow of Tutankhamun, in order to legitimise his claim to the throne. Ay was certainly a powerful figure: he was close to the centre of political power at the royal palace for some 25 years under both Tutankhamun and Akhenaten. But this was probably still not enough, however, to legitimize his claims to the throne in the highly hierarchical society of Ancient Egypt, if he was of non-royal birth especially at a time of domestic upheaval without his marriage to Tutankhamun's widow. Since he was already advanced in age upon his accession, Ay ruled Egypt in his own right for only four years. During this period, he consolidated the return to the old religious ways that he had initiated as senior advisor and constructed a mortuary temple at Medinet Habu for his own use. A stela of Nakhtmin (Berlin 2074), a military officer under Tutankhamun and Ay—who was Ay's chosen successor— is dated to Year 4, IV Akhet day 1 of Ay's reign. (Urk IV: 2110) Djeserkheperure Setepenre Holy are the Manifestations of Re, Chosen of Re[1] Nomen Horemheb Meryamun Horus is in Jubilation, Beloved of Amun Consort(s) Mutnedjmet, Amenia Died 1292 BC Burial KV57 Djeserkheperure Horemheb was the last Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 18th Dynasty from c. ... Ankhesenpaaten was the third of six known daughters of the Pharaoh Akhenaten by his wife Nefertiti. ... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... Medinet Habu from the air Medinet-Habu is the mortuary temple of Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses III. It is located on the west bank of the River Nile at Thebes, Egypt, south of the morturary temple of Tutankhamun/Horemheb. ...


Royal Succession

Prior to his death, Ay designated Nakhtmin to succeed him as pharaoh. However, Ay's plan for his succession went awry since Horemheb instead became the last king of Egypt's 18th Dynasty instead of Nakhtmin. The fact that Nakhtmin was Ay's intended heir is strongly implied by an inscription carved on a dyad funerary statue of Nakhtmin and his spouse which was presumably made during Ay's reign. Nakhtmin is clearly given the titles rpat (Crown Prince) and zA nzw (King's Son).[15] The only conclusion which can be drawn here is that Nakhtmin was either a son or an adopted son of Ay and that Ay was grooming Nakhtmin for the royal succession instead of Horemheb. The Egyptologists Aidan Dodson and Dyan Hilton observe that the aforementioned statue:

"is broken after the signs for 'King's Son of', and there has been considerable debate as to whether it continued to say 'Kush', making Nakhtmin a Viceroy of Nubia, or 'of his body', making him an actual royal son. Since there is no other evidence for Nakhtmin as a Viceroy--with another man [Paser I][4]attested in office at this period as well--the latter suggestion seems the most likely. As Nakhtmin donated items to the burial of Tutankhamun without such a title, it follows that he only became a King's Son subsequently, presumably under Ay. This theory is supported by the evidence of intentional damage to Nakhtmin's statue, since Ay was amongst the Amarna pharaohs whose memories were execrated under later rulers."[16]

Manetho's Epitome is believed to attribute a reign of 4 years and 1 month to Ay. hi Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). ...


Aftermath

It appears that one of Horemheb's undertakings as Pharaoh was to eliminate all references to the monotheistic experiment, a process that included expunging the name of his immediate predecessors—especially Ay—from the historical record. Horemheb desecrated Ay's burial and had most of Ay's royal cartouches in his WV23 Tomb Wall paintings erased while his sarcophagus was smashed into numerous fragments.[17] However, the sarcophagus lid was discovered in 1972 by Otto Schaden—the US Egyptologist who opened Tomb KV63 in the Valley of the Kings in 2006—and still preserved Ay's cartouche; it had been buried under debris in this king's tomb.[18] Horemheb also usurped Ay's mortuary temple at Medinet Habu for his own use. Uvo Hölscher (1878-1963) who excavated the temple in the early 1930s provides these details concerning the state of Ay-Horemheb's mortuary temple: .. contains a broken sarcophagus and some bad fresco painting of peculiarly short and graceless proportions. ... Otto J. Schaden is an American Egyptologist, who is currently Field Director, Valley of the Kings, Amenmesse Tomb Project of the University of Memphis. ... KV63 is the most recently opened chamber in Egypts Valley of the Kings pharaonic necropolis. ... Medinet Habu from the air Medinet-Habu is the mortuary temple of Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses III. It is located on the west bank of the River Nile at Thebes, Egypt, south of the morturary temple of Tutankhamun/Horemheb. ...

'Wherever a cartouche has been preserved, the name of Eye [ie: Ay] has been erased and replaced by that of his successor Harmhab. In all but a single instance had it been overlooked and no change made. Thus the temple, which Eye had begun and finished, at least in the rear rooms with their fine paintings, was usurped by his successor and was thenceforth known as the temple of Harmhab. Seals on stoppers of wine jars from the temple magazines read: "Wine from the temple of Harmhab."'[19]

In Fiction

Ay appears as a major character in P. C. Doherty's trilogy of Ancient Egyptian novels, '"An Evil Spirit Out of the West", "The Season of the Hyaena" and "The Year of the Cobra". He is also a character in Mika Waltari's historical novel "The Egyptian" and Wolfgang Hohlbein's Die Prophezeihung (The Prophecy). He is also a major character in Michelle Moran's bestselling novel Nefertiti. Paul C. Doherty (1946) is a British writer, with a doctorate in history from Oxford, who writes historical mysteries and novels under the pennames Anna Apostolou, Michael Clynes, Ann Dukthas, C. L. Grace, Paul Harding, and Mollie Hardwick. ... == == == == Wolfgang Hohlbein es un putoooooo == == == == Wolfgang Hohlbein (* August 11, 1953) is a German writer of fantasy and horror fiction who was born in Weimar, Thuringia and today lives near Neuss, North Rhine-Westphalia with his Family and a large number of cats and dogs. ... Michelle Moran (born August 11, 1980) is a bestselling American author. ...


References

  1. ^ Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss & David Warburton (editors), Ancient Egyptian Chronology (Handbook of Oriental Studies), Brill: 2006, p.493
  2. ^ Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames & Hudson Ltd, 1994. p.136
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ Egypt during the reign of Akhenaton
  5. ^ Yuya's name was analysed by G. Maspero in "The Tomb of Iouiya and Touiyou" by Theodore M. Davis, Archibald Constable and Co. Ltd, 1907, pp.xiii-xiv
  6. ^ Hindley, Marshall. Featured Pharaoh: The God's Father Ay, Ancient Egypt, April/May 2006. p.26
  7. ^ Hindley, Marshall. Featured Pharaoh: The God's Father Ay, Ancient Egypt, April/May 2006. p.27-28.
  8. ^ Hawass, Zahi. "Scanning Tutankhamun", KMT. Volume 16, Number 2. p.33. Summer 2005.
  9. ^ Hawass, Zahi. "Scanning Tutankhamun", KMT. Volume 16, Number 2. p.34. Summer 2005.
  10. ^ [2] [3] King Tut Not Murdered Violently, CT Scans Show, National Geographic, March 8, 2005.
  11. ^ Haywood, John. The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Civilizations p.56. Penguin. 2005. ISBN 0141014482
  12. ^ King, Michael R., Cooper, Gregory M. Who Killed King Tut?: Using Modern Forensics to Solve a 3300-Year-Old Mystery (with New Data on the Egyptian CT Scan), New Ed. 2006. ISBN 1591024013
  13. ^ Hawass, Zahi. Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs, National Geographic Society, 2005. p.54. ISBN 0792238737
  14. ^ Peter J. Brand, The Monuments of Seti I: Epigraphic, Historical and Art Historical Analysis, Brill, NV Leiden, (2000), p.311
  15. ^ Wolfgang Helck, Urkunden der 18. Dynastie: Texte der Hefte 20-21 (Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1984), pp.1908-1910
  16. ^ Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson, (2004), p.151
  17. ^ Bertha Porter, Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyph Texts, Vol 1, Part 2, Oxford Clarendon Press, (1960), Tomb 23, pp.550-551
  18. ^ Otto Schaden, Clearance of the Tomb of King Ay (WV 23), JARCE 21(1984) pp.39-64
  19. ^ Uvo Hölscher, Excavations at Ancient Thebes 1930/31, p. 50-51
  • Jürgen von Beckerath, Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten, MÄS 46 (Philip von Zabern, Mainz: 1997), pp.201

Jürgen von Beckerath (born 19 February 1920) is a prominent German Egyptologist. ...

See also

The Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt family tree is complex and unclear, especially at its end. ...

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