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Encyclopedia > Axis powers of World War II
Area under Axis control over the course of the war shown in black

The Axis powers, also interpreted as Axis alliance, Axis nations, Axis countries or sometimes just the Axis were those countries opposed to the Allies during World War II. The three major Axis powers, Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Imperial Japan were part of a military alliance on the signing of the Tripartite Pact on September 1940, which officially founded the Axis powers. At their zenith, the Axis powers ruled empires that dominated large parts of Europe, Asia, Africa and the Pacific Ocean, but World War II ended in defeat. Like the Allies, membership of the Axis was fluid, and some nations entered and later left the Axis during the course of the war. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 405 KB) Animation of alliances during the Second World War. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 405 KB) Animation of alliances during the Second World War. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... This article describes a type of political entity. ... A representation of the changes in territory controlled by Allies and Axis powers over the course of the war. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister (many other Prime Ministers preceded the below list)  - 1916–1918 Count Masatake Terauchi  - 1937-1939, 1940-1941 Prince Fumimaro Konoe  - 1941–1944 Hideki... A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ... The Tripartite Pact, also called the Three-Power Pact, Axis Pact, Three-way Pact or Tripartite Treaty was a pact signed in Berlin, Germany on September 27, 1940 by Saburo Kurusu of Imperial Japan, Adolf Hitler of Nazi Germany, and Benito Mussolini of Fascist Italy entering as a military alliance... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...

Contents

Origins

Main article: Tripartite Treaty

The term was first used by Benito Mussolini, in November 1936, when he spoke of a Rome-Berlin axis arising out of the treaty of friendship signed between Italy and Germany on October 25, 1936. Mussolini declared that the two countries would form an "axis" around which the other states of Europe would revolve. This treaty was forged when Italy, originally opposed to Germany, was faced with opposition to its war in Abyssinia from the League of Nations and received support from Germany. Later, in May 1939, this relationship transformed into an alliance, called by Mussolini the "Pact of Steel". The Tripartite Pact, also called the Three-Power Pact, was signed in Berlin on September 27, 1940 by representatives of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Japan. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... The axis of rotation of a rotating body is a line such that the distance between any point on the line and any point of the body remains constant under the rotation. ... Single European Act A treaty is a binding agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919-1920. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ciano, the Italian Foreign Minister. ...


The term "Axis powers" formally took the name after the Tripartite Treaty was signed by Germany, Italy and Japan on September 27, 1940 in Berlin, Germany. The pact was subsequently joined by Hungary (November 20, 1940), Romania (November 23, 1940), Slovakia (November 24, 1940) and Bulgaria (March 1, 1941). The Italian name Roberto briefly acquired a new meaning from "Rome-Berlin-Tokyo" between 1940 and 1945. Its most militarily powerful members were Germany and Japan. These two nations had also signed the Anti-Comintern Pact with each other as allies before the Tripartite Pact in 1936. The Tripartite Pact, also called the Three-Power Pact, was signed in Berlin on September 27, 1940 by representatives of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Japan. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Look up Robert in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and Japan on November 25, 1936. ...


Major Axis powers

The three major Axis powers were the original signatories to the Tripartite Pact: The Tripartite Pact, also called the Three-Power Pact, Axis Pact, Three-way Pact or Tripartite Treaty was a pact signed in Berlin, Germany on September 27, 1940 by Saburo Kurusu of Imperial Japan, Adolf Hitler of Nazi Germany, and Benito Mussolini of Fascist Italy entering as a military alliance...


Germany

Main article: Nazi Germany

Germany was the principal Axis power in Europe and also in the world. Its official name was Deutsches Reich (German Reich), and after 1943, Grossdeutsches Reich (Greater German Reich), but during this period is most commonly known as Nazi Germany after its ruling National Socialist German Workers Party. Germany was headed by Führer and Chancellor Adolf Hitler, a dictator who as Chancellor had seized absolute power in 1934 upon the death of Paul von Hindenburg. Hitler merged the offices of President and Chancellor and declared himself Führer. During the last days of the war, Admiral Karl Dönitz succeeded Hitler as Reichspräsident (but not as Führer). Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...   (IPA: ; German IPA: ), is the German word used most for empire, realm, or nation cognate with Scandinavian rike/rige, Dutch: , Sanskrit: and English: as found in bishopric. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: , or NSDAP, commonly, the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... Nazi propaganda poster. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... Karl Dönitz (IPA pronunciation:  ); September 16, 1891–December 24, 1980) was a German naval leader, who was in command of the Kriegsmarine during World War II and was President of Germany for 23 days after Adolf Hitlers suicide. ...


At the start of the Second World War Germany included Austria, with which it annexed in 1938, the Sudetenland, which was ceded by Czechoslovakia in 1938, and Memelland which was ceded by Lithuania in 1939. The Protectorate of Bohemia-Moravia, created in 1939, was de facto part of Germany, although technically a Czech state under German protection. Ceremonies during the annexation of Hawaii. ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... Sudetenland (Czech and Polish: Sudety) was the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the Western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (in German: Reichsprotektorat Böhmen und Mähren, in Czech: Protektorát Čechy a Morava) was a German protectorate that arose in central parts of Bohemia and Moravia on March 15, 1939 when Germany invaded the western part of former Czechoslovakia, the former...


Germany annexed additional territory during the course of the Second World War. On September 2, 1939, the day after the German invasion of Poland, the pro-Nazi government of the Free City of Danzig voted to reunite with Germany. On October 10, 1939, after the defeat and occupation of Poland, Hitler issued decrees annexing the Polish Corridor, West Prussia and Upper Silesia, all formerly German territories lost to Poland under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. The remainder of Poland was organized into the "Government General for the Occupied Polish Territories" for eventual annexation to the Reich. is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag of Danzig The Free City of Danzig refers to either of two short-lived city-states which were centered on the present-day Baltic port known as Gdańsk (German: Danzig). ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Polish map showing the territory known as the Polish Corridor The Polish Corridor was the name given to a strip of territory which was transferred from Germany to Poland by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. ... One of four districts of East Prussia in 1920 - 1938. ... Map of Upper Silesia, 1746 Upper Silesia (Polish: Górny Śląsk, German: Oberschlesien, Czech: Horní Slezsko) is the south-eastern part of Silesia, a historical and geographical region of Poland (Opole Voivodship and Silesian Voivodship) and of the Czech Republic (Silesian-Moravian Region). ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... The General Government (in full General government for the occupied Polish areas, in German Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete) was the name given by Germany to the governing authority in Poland after its occupation by the Wehrmacht in September and October 1939. ...


On its western frontier, Germany made additional annexations after its defeat of France and occupation of Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg in 1940. Germany immediately annexed the predominantly German Eupen-Malmedy from Belgium in 1940, placing the rest of the country under military occupation. Luxembourg, an independent grand duchy formerly associated with Germany, was formally annexed in 1942. Alsace-Lorraine, a region claimed by both Germany and France for centuries, was likewise annexed in 1942. In the Balkans, Slovenia was annexed in 1941 after Yugoslavia was occupied and dismembered. Once called the redeemed cantons, the “East Cantons” (in German, die Ostkantonen, in French, les Cantons de l’Est), are composed from the former Prussian districts (Kreise in German) of Malmedy, Eupen, increased with the neutral Moresnet. ... Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander...


After the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, Greater Germany was enlarged to include parts of Poland occupied by the Soviet Union in 1939. A Ministry of Eastern Territories was organized to administer the Baltic States, the Ukraine and Russia after they had been seized from the Soviet Union.


Other territories occupied by the Germans were subject to separate civilian commissariats or to direct military rule.


Japan

Main article: Empire of Japan

Japan was the principal Axis power in Asia and the Pacific. Its official name was Dai Nippon Teikoku meaning Empire of Greater Japan, known commonly as Imperial Japan for its imperial ambitions toward Asia and the Pacific. Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister (many other Prime Ministers preceded the below list)  - 1916–1918 Count Masatake Terauchi  - 1937-1939, 1940-1941 Prince Fumimaro Konoe  - 1941–1944 Hideki... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister (many other Prime Ministers preceded the below list)  - 1916–1918 Count Masatake Terauchi  - 1937-1939, 1940-1941 Prince Fumimaro Konoe  - 1941–1944 Hideki... The Pacific Ocean (from the Latin name Mare Pacificum, peaceful sea, bestowed upon it by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan) is the largest of the Earths oceanic divisions. ...


Japan was ruled by emperor Hirohito. The constitution prescribed that "The Emperor is the head of the Empire, combining in Himself the rights of sovereignty, and exercises them, according to the provisions of the present Constitution" (article 4) and that "The Emperor has the supreme command of the Army and the Navy" (article 11). Under the imperial institution were a political cabinet and Imperial General Headquarters with two chief of staff. Fumimaro Konoe and Hideki Tojo, had the longest terms as prime ministers. For the Army and the Navy, Prince Kan'in, Hajime Sugiyama, prince Hiroyasu Fushimi and Osami Nagano occupied the functions of chief of staff for most of the war. An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... The Imperial General Headquarters or Daihonei, as part of the Supreme War Council was the supreme command for Japanese military forces during the World War II era. ... Fumimaro Konoe Prince Fumimaro Konoe (è¿‘è¡ž{è¡› in Shinjitai} 文麿 Konoe Fumimaro) (sometimes Konoye, October 12, 1891–December 16, 1945) was a Japanese politician and the 34th (June 4, 1937–January 5, 1939), 38th (July 22, 1940–July 18, 1941) and 39th (July 18, 1941–October 18, 1941) Prime Minister of Japan. ... Hideki Tojo (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;  ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ... His Imperial Highness Prince Kanin (Kotohito) of Japan (Kanin-no-miya Kotohito Shinnō) (10 November 1865 - 21 May 1945), was a member of the Japanese imperial family and a career army officer who served as chief of staff of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1931 to 1940. ... Hajime Sugiyama (Sujiyama; 1880—September 12, 1945) was a chief of the Japanese General Staff, Inspector-General of military training, minister of war and a Commander-in-Chief of the 1st General Army during World War II. In 1941 Sugiyama confidently told Emperor Hirohito that Japanese operations in the South... Prince Fushimi Hiroyasu ) (16 October 1875 - 16 August 1946) was a scion of the Japanese imperial family and was a career naval officer who served as chief of staff of the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1932 to 1940. ... Osami Nagano ) (15 June 1880 – 5 January 1947) was a Fleet Admiral and General Staff in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War I and World War II. He essentially commanded the Imperial Japanese Navy as Chief of its General Staff. ...


Japan deployed most of its troops fighting in China proper, and was also the enemy of the Americans fighting in the Pacific War, the British fighting in Burma, the Australians, Canadians and Indians as part of the dominion, and the Philippines. The Soviet Union also engaged Japanese forces in Manchukuo in 1939 during the battle of Khalkin Gol and in 1945 in Operation August Storm. Japan's first involvement in World War II was in the Second Sino-Japanese War against the Republic of China, headed by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, on July 7, 1937, started by a harsh invasion with numerous atrocities against civilians such as the Nanking massacre and the Three Alls Policy of scorched earth. Even though not officially involved, many Americans rushed to help the Chinese, and American airmen helped the Chinese air force. The United States also instituted in 1941 an embargo to stop supplying Japan with raw materials needed for the war in China. For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (1932–1945... Combatants Soviet Union Peoples Republic of Mongolia Japan Manchukuo Commanders Georgy Zhukov Michitaro Komatsubara Strength 57,000 30,000 Casualties 6,831 killed, 15,952 wounded (stated estimate) 8,440 killed, 8,766 wounded (stated estimate) The Battle of Khalkhyn Gol (Mongolian: ; Japanese: ノモンハン事件 Nomonhan jiken), named after the river... Combatants Soviet Union Peoples Republic of Mongolia Japan Manchukuo Mengjiang Commanders Aleksandr Vasilevsky Otsuzo Yamada Strength Soviet Union 1,577,225 men, 26,137 artillery, 1,852 sup. ... Combatants China Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Mao Zedong, Peng Dehuai Hirohito, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura, Umezu Yoshijiro, Fumimaro Konoe Strength 58,600,000 4,100,000... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... A generalissimo is a commissioned officer of the highest rank; the word is often translated as Supreme Commander or Commander in Chief. It is an Italian superlative substantive, which grammatically would actually be disallowed in Italian (superlatives can be made with adjectives only). ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the 2007 documentary film about the Nanking Massacre, see Nanking (film). ... The Three Alls Policy (Japanese: 三光作戦, Sankō Sakusen; Chinese: 三光政策, Sánguáng Zhèngcè) was a Japanese scorched earth policy adopted in China during World War II. Although the Chinese characters literally mean three lights policy, in this case, the character for light actually means all. Thus, the term is more... A scorched earth policy is a military tactic which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area. ...


Japan needed more natural resources to fund its territorial expansion. The oil hot spot in the South Pacific was the Dutch East Indies, the source of the Dutch Shell Oil company's oil. The only thing standing in the way of Japan invading the Indies was the U.S. presence in the Philippines. In order to isolate the Philippines, the Imperial General Headquarters authorized Admiral Yamamoto to attack the U.S. Naval Base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on December 7, 1941 while the army invaded Malaysia and Hong Kong. The following day President Franklin D. Roosevelt asked the US Congress to declare war on Japan, saying that December 7 would be "a date which will live in infamy." The Congress willingly complied, and the Pacific War began, lasting until the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Imperial General Headquarters or Daihonei, as part of the Supreme War Council was the supreme command for Japanese military forces during the World War II era. ... Yamamoto (山本 meaning base of the mountain) is one of the most popular Japanese surnames. ... This article is about the harbor in Hawaii. ... FDR redirects here. ... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ...


At its height, Japan's Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere included Manchuria, Inner Mongolia, some of China, Malaysia, French Indochina, Dutch East Indies, The Philippines, Burma, some of India, and various other Pacific Islands (Iwo Jima, Okinawa). Poster of Manchukuo promoting harmony between Japanese, Han Chinese and Manchu. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1887  - Addition of Laos 1893  - Vietnam Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Disestablished 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km2 289,577 sq mi Currency... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Iwo Jima (disambiguation). ... “Okinawa” redirects here. ...


Italy

Main article: Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)
Kingdom of Italy

Italy was the other major European member of the Axis, belonging to the Axis in two incarnations, both under the leadership of the fascist dictator Benito Mussolini. Its first incarnation was officially known as Regno d'Italia meaning Kingdom of Italy. Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946)_crowned. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946)_crowned. ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Dictator is originally the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the state in times of emergency. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ...


The Kingdom of Italy was ruled by Mussolini in the name of King Victor Emmanuel III. Victor Emmanuel III was additionally Emperor of Abyssinia (Ethiopia) and King of Albania. Abyssinia had been occupied by Italian troops after the Second Italo-Abyssinian War in 1936 and incorporated into the Italian colony of Italian East Africa. Albania was occupied by Italian troops in 1939 and joined in "personal union" with Italy when Victor Emmanuel III was offered the Albanian crown. Other Italian colonies included Libya and the Dodecanese Islands. Victor Emmanuel III (Italian: ; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was King of Italy (29 July 1900 – 9 May 1946), Emperor of Ethiopia (1936–43) and King of Albania (1939–43). ... This article needs cleanup. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Italian East Africa (Italian: Africa Orientale Italiana) was an Italian colony in Africa. ... The Dodecanese (Greek: Δωδεκάνησα, Dodekánisa, meaning twelve islands) are a group of Greek islands in the Aegean Sea, off the southwest coast of Turkey. ...


In spite of being one of the founding members of the Axis, Italy did not enter World War II until June 10 1940 in the final stages of the battle of France when it seemed that the war would soon be over. Italy was hence responsible for bringing the war to Africa by way of the colonies of the Italian Empire and also invaded Greece. Combatants  France  United Kingdom  Canada  Czechoslovakia  Poland  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand (French) Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III (Belgian) H.G. Winkelman (Dutch) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... The Italian empire in 1940 The Italian Empire was a 20th century empire, which lasted from 9 May 1936 to September 1943. ... Combatants Italy Greece Commanders Sebastiano Visconti Prasca Ubaldo Soddu Ugo Cavallero Giovanni Messe Alexander Papagos Strength 529,000 men Under 300,000 men Casualties 13,755 dead, 50,874 wounded, 25,067 missing, 12,368 incapacitated by frostbites, ca. ...


The second incarnation of Fascist Italy was officially known as Repubblica Sociale Italiana meaning Italian Social Republic. On July 25, 1943, after Italy had lost control of its African colonies and been subjected to Anglo-American invasion of its mainland, King Victor Emmanuel III dismissed Mussolini, placed him under arrest and began secret negotiations with the Allies. After Italy signed an armistice with the Allies on September 8, 1943 and joined the Western Allies, Mussolini was rescued by the Germans, and later announced the formation of the Italian Social Republic in Northern Italy. Anthem Giovinezza (The Youth)¹ Capital Salò Language(s) Italian Religion Roman Catholicism Government Republic Head of State Benito Mussolini Historical era World War II  - Established September 23, 1943  - Disestablished April 25, 1945 ¹ External link The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a Nazi puppet state led by... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Armistice with Italy is an armistice that occurred on September 8, 1943, during World War II. It was signed by Italy and the Allied armed forces, who were occupying the southern half of the country at the time. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Minor powers

Several minor powers formally adhered to the Tripartite Pact between Germany, Italy and Japan in this order:


Hungary

Kingdom of Hungary

Hungary, ruled by Admiral Miklós Horthy as Regent, was the first power to adhere to the Tripartite Pact of Germany, Italy, and Japan signing the agreement on November 20, 1940. Hungary's foreign policy under Horthy was driven by the ambition to recover the territories lost through the imposition on her of the Trianon Treaty. Hungary drew closer to Germany and Italy largely because of the shared desire to revise the peace settlements made after the First World War. // In Hungary, the Great Depression induced a drop in the standard of living and the political mood of the country shifted further toward the right. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary_1940. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary_1940. ... Map of Hungary before after the Vienna Awards and the invasion of Yugoslavia in World War II. Capital Budapest Language(s) Hungarian Religion Roman Catholic Government Constitutional monarchy King Vacant ¹ Regent Miklós Horthy Prime Minister  - 1920 Sándor Simonyi-Semadam (first)  - 1944 Géza Lakatos (last) Legislature National Assembly... Horthy redirects here. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The negotiations on June 4, 1920. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Hungary was allied to Germany during the First World War by virtue of her being a constituent kingdom of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Hungary suffered much the same fate as Germany, with the victorious powers stripping the kingdom of more than 70 percent of her pre-war sovereign territory, which was then distributed to neighbouring states, some newly created in accordance with the Treaty of Trianon. Horthy, a Hungarian nobleman and Austro-Hungarian naval officer, became Regent in 1920, ruling the kingdom in the absence of an acknowledged king. A constituent is someone who can or does appoint or elect (and often by implication can also remove or recall) another as his agent or representative. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... The negotiations on June 4, 1920. ... The Austro-Hungarian Navy was the naval force of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


Hungary participated in the German partition of Czechoslovakia, signed the Tripartite Pact, and was rewarded by Germany in the Vienna Awards which restored some of the territories taken from her by the Trianon Treaty. Vienna Awards or Vienna Arbitration Awards or Vienna Arbitral Awards or Vienna Diktats or Viennese Arbitrals are various names for two arbitral awards (1938 and 1940) by which arbiters of National Socialist Germany and Fascist Italy sought to enforce peacefully the territorial claims of Revisionist Hungary, ruled by Regent Admiral...


Following political upheaval in Yugoslavia which threatened its continued membership in the Tripartite Pact, Hungary permitted German troops to transit its territory for a military invasion and occupation of that country. On April 11, 1941, five days after Germany invaded Yugoslavia and had largely destroyed the Yugoslav army, Hungary invaded Yugoslavia, occupying border territories. Hungary participated in the partition of Yugoslavia. In response, Great Britain immediately broke off diplomatic relations with Hungary. is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...


Hungary was not asked to participate in the German invasion of the Soviet Union, which began on June 22, 1941 with attacks from German, Finnish and Romanian forces as well as a declaration of war by Italy. Currying favor with Germany, Hungary declared war on the Soviet Union five days later on June 27, 1941. Hungary raised over 200,000 troops for Eastern Front, and all three of its field armies participated in the war against the Soviet Union, although by far the largest and the most significant was the Hungarian Second Army. is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Combatants Soviet Union1 Poland Germany1 Italy (to 1943) Romania Finland (to 1944) Hungary Slovakia Commanders Aleksei Antonov Ivan Konev Rodion Malinovsky Kirill Meretskov Ivan Petrov Alexander Rodimtsev Konstantin Rokossovsky Pavel Rotmistrov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Tolbukhin Aleksandr Vasilevsky Nikolai Vatutin Kliment Voroshilov Andrei Yeremenko Matvei Zakharov Georgy Zhukov Fedor von Bock... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


On November 26, 1941, Hungary was one of 13 signatories to the revived Anti-Comintern Pact. The other sigatories were: Germany, Japan, Italy, Spain, Manchukuo, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, Romania, Slovakia, and the Nanking regime of Wang Chingwei. is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and Japan on November 25, 1936. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (1932–1945... Nanjing (南京, Pinyin: Nánjīng, Wade-Giles: Nan-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Nanking, formerly Jinling 金陵, Jiangning 江宁, and Tianjing 天京) is the central city of downstream Yangtze Basin and is a renowned historical and cultural city. ... Wang Jingwei (Traditional Chinese: 汪精衛, Simplified Chinese: 汪精卫, Hanyu Pinyin: Wāng Jīngwèi, Wade-Giles: Wang Ching-wei) (1883 - November 1944), was a member of the left wing of the Kuomintang and is most noted from breaking with Chiang Kai-Shek and...


On December 6, 1941, Great Britain declared war on Hungary. Several days later, Hungary declared war on Great Britain and the United States of America. The United States declared war on Hungary on June 5 1942. December 6 is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...


Hungarian troops advanced far into Soviet territory, but in the Soviet counteroffensive of 1943, the Hungarian Second Army was almost completely annihilated in fighting near Voronezh on the banks of the Don River. Voronezh (Russian: ) is a large city in southwestern Russia, not far from Ukraine. ... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ...


In 1944, as Soviet troops neared Hungarian territory, German troops occupied Hungary. After the German occupation of Hungary, Horthy was forced to abdicate after his son was kidnapped by the Germans. Hitler and Horthy had disagreed on the way to handle Hungarian Jews. In Horthy's place Ferenc Szalasi, head of the Fascist Arrow Cross, was put in control of Hungary. When Soviet troops entered Budapest he fled to Austria and in 1946 was returned to Hungary and hanged for war crimes. History of the Jews in Hungary concerns the Jews of Hungary and of Hungarian origins. ... Ferenc Szálasi Ferenc Szálasi (January 6, 1897-March 12, 1946) was a Fascist and the Prime Minister of Hungary during the final days of Hungary’s participation in World War II. Born the son of a soldier in Kassa, Szálasi followed in his father’s... Flag of the Arrow Cross Party Senior members of the Arrow Cross Party. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Hungarian First Army continued to fight the Red Army even after Hungary had been completely occupied by the Soviet Union, not disbanding until May 8, 1945. Hungary remained as the last fighting Tripartite ally of Germany-Japan. The Hungarian First Army was a Hungarian field army of World War II. Hungary was an Axis state at the beginning of the European conflict, under Admiral Miklós Horthy. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Romania

Romania, under King Michael and the military government of Ion Antonescu, adhered to the Tripartite Pact on November 23, 1940. In June of 1941, after a brief period of nominal neutrality under King Carol, Romania joined the Axis Powers. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Axis Powers Flag of Romania Categories: Flag images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Axis Powers Flag of Romania Categories: Flag images ... From 1859 to 1877, Romania evolved from a personal union of two vassal principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia) under a single prince to a full-fledged independent kingdom with a Hohenzollern monarchy. ... Office Prime Minister, Conducător of Romania Term of office from September 4, 1940 until August 23, 1944 Profession Soldier, politician Political party none, formally allied with the Iron Guard Spouse Rasela Mendel Date of birth June 15, 1882 Place of birth Piteşti, Romania Date of death June 1... The Tripartite Pact, also called the Three-Power Pact, Axis Pact, Three-way Pact or Tripartite Treaty was a pact signed in Berlin, Germany on September 27, 1940 by Saburo Kurusu of Imperial Japan, Adolf Hitler of Nazi Germany, and Benito Mussolini of Fascist Italy entering as a military alliance... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Romania entered the First World War in 1916 on the Allied side, but called for peace when its ally, the Russian Empire, collapsed in November 1917. Romania became a German vassal under the Treaty of Bucharest, but when Germany itself suffered defeat in the West, the Treaty of Bucharest was voided. Romania then saw its borders greatly enlarged in the peace treaties imposed on Germany and her allies. 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... A French caricature on the treaty: the Kaiser points a dagger at a woman (Romania), while showing her the Peace Treaty Delegates at the Peace of Bucharest The Treaty of Bucharest was a peace treaty which was signed on May 7, 1918 forced by Germany to the Romanian side. ...


Following the blueprints of the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact, the Soviet Union and Germany exploited the fall of France to revise the terms of those peace treaties, reducing Romania in size. On June 28, 1940, the Soviet Union occupied and annexed Bessarabia, Northern Bukovina and Hertza County. Germany forced Romania to cede Northern Transylvania to Hungary on August 30, 1940 in the second Vienna Award. Germany also forced Romania to give up Southern Dobruja to Bulgaria on September 5, 1940. Molotov (left), Ribbentrop (in black) and Stalin The Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, also known as the Hitler-Stalin pact or Nazi-Soviet pact, was a non-aggression treaty between Germany and Russia, or more precisely between the Soviet Union and the Third Reich. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... Bukovina (Bucovina in Romanian; Буковина, Bukovyna in Ukrainian; Buchenland or Bukowina in German; Bukowina in Polish), on the slopes of the Carpathian Mountains, comprises an historic province now split between Romania and Ukraine. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The two Vienna Awards or Vienna Arbitration Awards or Vienna Arbitral Awards or Vienna Diktats or Viennese Arbitrals is the name of two arbitral awards (1938 and 1940), by which arbiters of the National Socialist Germany and of Fascist Italy tried to enforce territorial claims of the Revisionist Hungary ruled... Southern Dobruja (Южна Добруджа (Yuzhna Dobrudzha) in Bulgarian, Dobrogea de sud or Cadrilater in Romanian is an area of north-eastern Bulgaria comprising the administrative districts named for its two principal cities of Dobrich and Silistra. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In an effort to please Hitler and obtain German protection, King Carol II appointed the General Ion Antonescu Prime Minister on September 6, 1940. Two days later, Antonescu forced the king to abdicate, installed the king's young son Michael on the throne, and declared himself Conducător (Leader) with dictatorial powers. Carol II of Romania, (15 October 1893 – 4 April 1953) reigned as King of Romania from June 8, 1930 until September 6, 1940. ... Office Prime Minister, Conducător of Romania Term of office from September 4, 1940 until August 23, 1944 Profession Soldier, politician Political party none, formally allied with the Iron Guard Spouse Rasela Mendel Date of birth June 15, 1882 Place of birth PiteÅŸti, Romania Date of death June 1... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... King Michael I of the Romanians (born October 25, 1921), Prince of Hohenzollern[1][2][3], reigned as King of the Romanians (in Romanian Maiestatea Sa Mihai I Regele Românilor or Majestatea Sa Mihai I Regele Românilor) from July 20, 1927 to June 8, 1930, and again from... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ...


German troops entered the country on 1941, and used it as a base for its invasions of both Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union. Romania was also a key supplier of resources, especially oil and grain.


Romania joined Germany in invading the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941. Not only was Romania a base for the invasion, the country contributed nearly 300,000 troops - more than any other minor Axis power - to the war against the Soviet Union. German and Romanian troops quickly overran Moldova, which was again incorporated into Romania. Romania fought together with the German Army for the control of the Crimea Peninsula and Romanian Armies 3 and 4 were involved even in the battle of Stalingrad. is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) on the map of Ukraine. ... Combatants Germany Romania Italy Hungary Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Garibaldi Gusztav Jany Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovskiy Rodion Malinovskiy Andrei Yeremenko Strength Army Group B: German Sixth Army # German Fourth Panzer...


After the Soviets turned back the German invasion and pushed the front line into Romania, Romania switched to the Allied side on August 23, 1944. is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


Slovak Republic

The Slovak Republic under President Jozef Tiso signed the Tripartite Pact on November 24, 1940. Image File history File links 1stslovakia_flag_large. ... Image File history File links 1stslovakia_flag_large. ... Josef Tiso in photo Monsignor Jozef Tiso (October 13, 1887–April 18, 1947) was a Roman Catholic priest who became a deputy of the Czechoslovak parliament, a member of the Czechoslovak government, and finally the President of Independent Slovak Republic from 1939-1945, allied with Nazi Germany. ... The Tripartite Pact, also called the Three-Power Pact, Axis Pact, Three-way Pact or Tripartite Treaty was a pact signed in Berlin, Germany on September 27, 1940 by Saburo Kurusu of Imperial Japan, Adolf Hitler of Nazi Germany, and Benito Mussolini of Fascist Italy entering as a military alliance... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Slovakia had been closely aligned with Germany almost immediately from its declaration of independence from Czechoslovakia on March 14, 1939. Slovakia entered into a treaty of protection with Germany on March 23, 1939. Slovak troops joined the German invasion of Poland, fighting to reclaim territories lost in 1918. is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Slovakia declared war on the Soviet Union in 1941 and signed the revived Anti-Comintern Pact of 1941. Slovak troops fought on Germany's Eastern Front, with Slovakia furnishing Germany with two divisions totalling 20,000 men. Slovakia declared war on Great Britain and the United States of America in 1942.


Slovakia was spared German military occupation until the Slovak National Uprising, which began on August 29, 1944 and was almost immediately crushed by the Waffen SS and Slovak troops loyal to Jozef Tiso, the Catholic priest-turned-dictator of Slovakia. Combatants Nazi Germany Slovakia Commanders Heinrich Himmler Ferdinand Čatloš Ján Golian† Rudolf Viest† Strength 40,000, later increased to 83,000 18,000 initially, later increased to 78,000 Casualties ≈10,000 ≈10,000 + 5,304 captured and executed Memorial of the Slovak National Uprising in Banska Bystrica The... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Josef Tiso in photo Monsignor Jozef Tiso (October 13, 1887–April 18, 1947) was a Roman Catholic priest who became a deputy of the Czechoslovak parliament, a member of the Czechoslovak government, and finally the President of Independent Slovak Republic from 1939-1945, allied with Nazi Germany. ...


After the war, Tiso was executed and Slovakia was rejoined with Czechoslovakia. Slovakia regained its independence in 1993. Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


Bulgaria

Bulgaria, under its king Boris III, signed the Tripartite Pact on March 1, 1941. Bulgaria had been an ally of Germany in the First World War, and like Germany and Hungary, sought a revision of the peace terms, specifically the restoration of the San Stefano Treaty [citation needed] lands. Adolf Hitler with Tsar Boris III The military history of Bulgaria during World War II embraces a primary period of neutrality until 1 March 1941, a period of alliance with the Axis Powers until 9 September 1944 and a period of alignment with the Allies until the end of the... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria_(1878-1944). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria_(1878-1944). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Tsar Boris III of Bulgaria (January 30, 1894 – August 28, 1943), originally Boris Klemens Robert Maria Pius Ludwig Stanislaus Xaver, son of Ferdinand I, came to the throne in 1918 upon the abdication of his father, following Bulgarias defeat in World War I. This was the countrys second... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Borders of Bulgaria according to the Treaty of San Stefano of March 3rd, 1878 The Treaty of San Stefano was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire at the conclusion of the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78. ...


Bulgaria drew closer to Nazi Germany during the 1930s. In 1940, under the terms of the Treaty of Craiova, Germany forced Romania to return Southern Dobrudja to Bulgaria, ceded in 1913. The Treaty of Craiova was signed on September 7, 1940 between Romania and Bulgaria. ... Dobruja or sometimes Dobrudja (Dobrogea in Romanian, Dobrudzha in Bulgarian, Dobruca in Turkish) is the territory between the lower Danube river and the Black Sea, which includes the Danube Delta and the Romanian sea-shore. ...


Bulgaria participated in the German invasion of Yugoslavia and Greece, and annexed Vardar Banovina (today's Republic of Macedonia) from Yugoslavia and eastern Greek Macedonia and Western Thrace from Greece. In Greek Macedonia, it instituted a policy of forced slavization and ethnic cleansing. Bulgarian armed forces garrisoned in the Balkans battled various resistance movements. The Bulgarian troops also rounded up all Jews in Greek Macedonia and forwarded them to Treblinka. Bulgaria did not join the German invasion of the Soviet Union that began on 22 June 1941 and did not declare war on this country. However, despite the lack of official declarations of war by both sides, the Bulgarian Navy was involved in a number of skirmishes with the Soviet Black Sea Fleet, which attacked Bulgarian shipping. Map of the Vardar Banovina Map showing Yugoslav banovinas in 1929 (The Vardar Banovina is coloured green, on the lower right part of the map) The Vardar Banovina or Vardar Banate or in Serbian: Вардарска бановина/Vardarska banovina) was a province (banovina) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... The region called Macedonia (or Makedonia) in Greece is a large section of the north-northwestern part of the country which collectivally with Thrace, is forming Northern Greece. ... Western or Greek Thrace (Greek Δυτική ή Ελληνική Θράκη,Turkish Batı Trakya) is the part of Thrace located between the rivers Nestos and Evros in northeastern Greece. ... Ethnic cleansing refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory in order to create a supposedly ethnically pure society. ... A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign nation through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. ... Treblinka II was a Nazi extermination camp in German-occupied Poland during World War II. Extermination camps like the one at Treblinka were used in the Holocaust for the systematic genocide of people categorized as sub-humans by the Nazis. ... Combatants Germany, Romania, Finland, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Maresal Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Gariboldi, ARMIR Joseph Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... The Bulgarian Army (Bulgarian: Българска армия) represents the Armed Forces of the Republic of Bulgaria. ... Black Sea Fleet sleeve ensign The Black Sea Fleet (Russian: Черноморский флот, transliterated as Chernomorskij Flot) is a large sub-unit of the Russian (and formerly Soviet) Navy, operating in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea since the late 18th century. ...


The Bulgarian government was forced by the Germans to declare war on the United States and United Kingdom. The 'symbolic' war against the Western Allies, however, turned into a disaster for the citizens of Sofia and other major Bulgarian cities, as they were heavily bombed by the USAAF and RAF in 1943 and 1944. This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was the aviation component of the United States Army primarily during World War II. The title of Army Air Forces succeeded the prior name of Army Air Corps in June 1941 during preparation for expected combat in what came to be known as... “RAF” redirects here. ...


As the Red Army approached the Bulgarian border, on September 9, 1944, a coup brought to power a new government of the pro-Allied Fatherland Front. Bulgaria switched sides and was permitted to keep Southern Dobrudja after the war. For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Fatherland Front (FF) was originally a Bulgarian political resistance movement during World War II. The Zveno movement, the communist Bulgarian Workers Party, a wing of the Agrarian Union and the Bulgarian Social Democratic Party where part of the FF. It was soon dominated by the Bulgarian Communist Party. ... Southern Dobruja (Южна Добруджа (Yuzhna Dobrudzha) in Bulgarian, Dobrogea de sud or Cadrilater in Romanian) is an area of north-eastern Bulgaria comprising the administrative districts named for its two principal cities of Dobrich and Silistra. ...


Yugoslavia

The Kingdom of Yugoslavia, under the regency of Prince Paul, was briefly a member of the Axis in 1941. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... Image:Prince Pavle of Yugoslavia. ...


Prince Paul adhered to the Tripartite Pact on March 25, 1941, but was removed from office two days later by a coup that ended his regency. The new Yugoslav government declared that it would be bound by the treaty, but Hitler suspected that the British were behind the coup against Prince Paul and vowed to destroy the country. is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...


The German invasion began on April 6, 1941, and after two weeks of resistance, the country was completely occupied. Croatian nationalists declared the independence of Croatia on April 10, 1941 as the "Independent State of Croatia" and enthusiastically joined the Axis. The government of Serbia was reorganised as the "National Government of Salvation" under General Milan Nedić on September 1, 1941. Nedić maintained that his Serb government was the lawful successor to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and his troops wore the uniform of the Royal Yugoslav Army, but unlike the generous treatment accorded the Independent State of Croatia, the German treated Nedić's Serbia as a puppet state. is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Capital Zagreb Language(s) Croatian Religion Roman Catholicism Political structure Puppet-state King  - 1941-1943 Tomislav II Poglavnik  - 1941-1945 Ante Pavelić Legislature None Historical era World War II  - Established April 10, 1941  - Disestablished May 8, 1945 Population  - 1941 est. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Milan Nedic was born (2-9-1878) in Grocka, Serbia. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...


The remainder of Yugoslavia was divided among the other Axis powers. Germany annexed Slovenia. Italy annexed Dalmatia, and Albania annexed Montenegro. Hungary annexed border territories, and Bulgaria annexed Macedonia. Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ...


Ivan Mihailov's Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) welcomed the Bulgarian annexation of Vardar Macedonia. In early September 1944, when the Bulgarian government left the Axis, Germany offered Mihailov support to declare Macedonia's independence, but he declined. Ivan Mihailov (Bulgarian: Иван Михайлов), also known as Vanche Mihailov (Bulgarian: Ванче Михайлов), (August 26, 1896, Novo Selo, present-day Republic of Macedonia – September 5, 1990, Rome, Italy) was a Bulgarian revolutionary, leader of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization after 1924. ... For a novel by a similar name, see Imaro (novel). ... Vardar Macedonia (Macedonian: Вардарска Македонија, Vardarska Makedonija; Bulgarian: Вардарска Македония, Vardarska Makedoniya), also known as Southern Serbia]/Old Serbia (Serbian:Јужна Србија / Стара Србија, Južna Srbija / Stara Srbija) is the north-western area of the Macedonia region. ...


Croatia

Declared on April 10, 1941, the Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, abbrev. NDH) was a member of the Axis powers until the end of Second World War, its forces fighting for Germany even after NDH had been overrun by the Allied Yugoslav Partisans. Ante Pavelić, a Croatian nationalist and one of the founders of the Croatian Uprising (Ustaše) Movement, was proclaimed Leader (Poglavnik) of the new state on April 24, 1941. Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia_Ustasa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia_Ustasa. ... Capital Zagreb Language(s) Croatian Religion Roman Catholicism Political structure Puppet-state King  - 1941-1943 Tomislav II Poglavnik  - 1941-1945 Ante Pavelić Legislature None Historical era World War II  - Established April 10, 1941  - Disestablished May 8, 1945 Population  - 1941 est. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Capital Zagreb Language(s) Croatian Religion Roman Catholicism Political structure Puppet-state King  - 1941-1943 Tomislav II Poglavnik  - 1941-1945 Ante Pavelić Legislature None Historical era World War II  - Established April 10, 1941  - Disestablished May 8, 1945 Population  - 1941 est. ... The Rebellion The Yugoslav Partisans were the main resistance movement engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II. // Origins The Yugoslav Partisans went under the official name of Peoples Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia (Narodno-oslobodilačka vojska i partizanski... Ante Pavelić (July 14, 1889 – December 28, 1959) was the leader (Poglavnik) and founding member of the Croatian national socialist/fascist UstaÅ¡e movement in the 1930s and later the leader of the Independent State of Croatia, a puppet state[1] [2] of Nazi Germany during World War II. // Paveli... An UstaÅ¡e guard pose among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp The UstaÅ¡e (also known as Ustashas or Ustashi) was a Croatian extreme nationalist movement. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...


Pavelić led a Croatian delegation to Rome and offered the crown of Croatia to an Italian prince of the House of Savoy, who was crowned Tomislav II, King of Croatia, Prince of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Voivode of Dalmatia, Tuzla and Temun, Prince of Cisterna and of Belriguardo, Marquess of Voghera, and Count of Ponderano. The next day, Pavelić signed the Contracts of Rome with Mussolini, ceding Dalmatia to Italy and fixing the permanent borders between Croatia and Italy. He was also received by the Pope. Prince Aimone Roberto Margherita Maria Giuseppe Torino, 4th Duke of Aosta, was born on 9 March 1900 in Turin. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Canton Tuzla Canton Land area 302,35 km² Population 165,000 Population density 545/km² Coordinates Area code +387 35 Mayor Jasmin Imamović (SDP) Website http://www. ... A cisterna (plural cisternae) comprises a flattened membrane disk which makes up the Golgi apparatus. ... Voghera, called Iria by the Romans, is a town of Lombardy, Italy, in the province of Pavia. ... Ponderano is a municipality with 3833 inhabitants (est. ...


Pavelić formed the Croatian Home Guard (Hrvatsko domobranstvo) as the official military force of Croatia. Originally authorized at 16,000 men, it grew to a peak fighting force of 130,000. The Croatian Home Guard included a small air force and navy, although its navy was restricted in size by the Contracts of Rome. In addition to the Croatian Home Guard, Pavelić also commanded the Ustaše militia. A number of Croats also volunteered for the German Waffen SS.


The Ustaše government declared war on the Soviet Union, signed the Anti-Comintern Pact of 1941 and sent troops to Germany's Eastern Front. Ustaše militia garrisoned the Balkans, battling the Yugoslav Partisans.


During the time of its existence, the Ustaše government applied racial laws on Serbs, Jews and Romas, and after June 1941 deported them to the Jasenovac concentration camp (or to camps in Poland). The exact number of victims of the Ustaše regime is uncertain due to the destruction of documents and varying numbers given by various historians vying for political clout. The total number of victims in Croatia is estimated to be between 360,000 and 420,000.[1] The racial laws were enforced by the Ustaše militia. Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... “Jasenovac” redirects here. ...


Although Ustaše had some support in all parts of Croatia, they were overall not well-liked, and wide popular support was limited to the traditionally most strongly nationalistic regions. The allegiances of the majority of the population were either with the multiethnic Anti-Fascist movement or neutral. State Anti-Fascist Council of Peoples Liberation of Croatia (in Croatian: Zemaljsko antifaÅ¡ističko vijeće narodnog osloboÄ‘enja Hrvatske, abbr. ...


Co-belligerents

Thailand

Thailand was an ally and co-belligerent of Japan. Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ...


In the immediate aftermath of the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japanese forces invaded Thailand's territory on the morning of December 8, 1941. Only hours after the invasion, Field Marshal Phibunsongkhram, the prime minister, ordered the cessation of resistance. On December 21, 1941, a military alliance with Japan was signed and on January 25, 1942 Thailand declared war on Britain and the United States of America. The Thai ambassador to the United States, Mom Rajawongse Seni Pramoj did not deliver his copy of the declaration of war, so although the British reciprocated by declaring war on Thailand and consequently considered it a hostile country, the United States did not. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Field Marshal Plaek Pibulsonggram (July 14, 1897–June 11, 1964) (Thai แปลก พิบูลสงคราม or ป. พิบูลสงคราม, lastname sometimes spelled Phibunsongkhram, Phibul Songkhram or Pibul Songgram) was Prime Minister and military dictator of Thailand from 1938 to 1944 and 1948 to 1957. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Mom Rajawongse Seni Pramoj (May 20, 1905 - July 28, 1997), (Thai: ) was three times prime minister of Thailand and a politician active in the Democrat Party. ...


On May 10, 1942, the Thai Phayap Army entered Burma's Shan State. At one time in the past the area had been part of the Ayutthaya Kingdom. The boundary between the Japanese and Thai operations was generally the Salween. However, that area south of the Shan States known as Karenni States, the homeland of the Karens, was specifically retained under Japanese control. is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Shan State is a state located in Myanmar (Burma), which takes its name from the Shan people, the majority ethnic group in the Shan State. ... The kingdom of Ayutthaya (Thai: ) was a Thai kingdom that existed from 1350 to 1767. ... The Salween River (also spelt Salwin, a. ... The Karenni States is the name formerly given to the three states of Kantarawadi (3161 square miles, pop (1931) 30,677), Kyebogyi (790 square miles, pop (1931) 14,282) and Bawlake (568 square miles, pop (1931) 13,802), located south of the Federated Shan States and east of British Burma. ...


Three Thai infantry and one cavalry division, spearheaded by armoured reconnaissance groups and supported ably by the air force, started their advance on May 10, and engaged the retreating Chinese 93rd Division. Kengtung, the main objective, was captured on May 27. Renewed offensives in June and November evicted the Chinese into Yunnan. is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kengtong, also spelled as Cheingtung and Kengtung is a city in Myanmar. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Yunan redirects here. ...


As the war dragged on, the Thai population came to resent the Japanese presence. In June 1944, Phibun was overthrown in a coup d'état. The new civilian government under Khuang Aphaiwong attempted to aid the resistance while at the same time maintaining cordial relations with the Japanese. // A coup dÉtat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, often through illegal means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... Major Khuang Abhaiwongse (May 17, 1902 - March 15, 1968; Thai ควง อภัยวงศ์) was three times prime minister of Thailand. ...


The Free Thai Movement ("Seri Thai") was established during these first few months. Parallel Free Thai organisations were established in Britain and inside Thailand. Queen Ramphaiphanni was the nominal head of the Britain-based organisation, and Pridi Phanomyong, the regent, headed its largest contingent, which was operating within the country. Aided by elements of the military, secret airfields and training camps were established while OSS and Force 136 agents fluidly slipped in and out of the country. The Free Thai Movement (Thai: ขบวนการเสรีไทย, Khabuankarn Seri Thai) was an underground resistance movement against Japan during World War II. The movement was one of the important sources to the Allies for military intelligence in this region. ... Queen Ramphaiphanni (Somdej Phra Nangchao Ramphaiphanni Phra Boromarajininat - สมเด็จพระนางเจ้ารำไพพรรณี พระบรมราชินี) (December 20, 1904 - May 22, 1984), was the wife and Queen Consort of King Prajadhipok of Siam. ... Pridi Phanomyong Pridi Phanomyong (May 11, 1900 - May 2, 1983) was a Thai politician. ... The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II. It was the wartime intelligence agency and was the predecessor to the Central Intelligence Agency, the Special Forces, and Navy SEALs. ... Force 136 was the general cover name for a branch of the British World War II organisation, the Special Operations Executive. ...


After the war, U.S. influence prevented Thailand from being treated as an Axis country, but Britain demanded three million tons of rice as reparations and the return of areas annexed from the British colony of Malaya during the war and invasion. Thailand also had to return the portions of British Burma and French Indochina that had been taken. Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1887  - Addition of Laos 1893  - Vietnam Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Disestablished 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km2 289,577 sq mi Currency...


Phibun and a number of his associates were put on trial on charges of having committed war crimes, mainly that of collaborating with the Axis powers. However, the charges were dropped due to intense public pressure. Public opinion was favourable to Phibun, since he was thought to have done his best to protect Thai interests.


Finland

Finland was not a part of the Axis powers, but played a part in fighting against the Soviet Union to keep its independence. Having recently fought the Winter War against the Soviets, Finland allowed Germany to use Finnish territory as a base for Operation Barbarossa. Finnish ski troops in Northern Finland in January 1940 The Military history of Finland during World War II covers the history of Finland from 1939 to 1944. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov, later Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 3,000 tanks 3,800 aircraft[3][4] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[5] 126,875 dead... Combatants Germany, Romania, Finland, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Maresal Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Gariboldi, ARMIR Joseph Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor...


After the end of the Winter War against the Soviet Union in March 1940, Finland first sought protection from Great Britain[2][3] and neutral Sweden[4], but was thwarted by Soviet and German actions. This resulted in Finland drawing closer to Germany, first with an intent of enlisting German support as a counterweight to thwart continuing Soviet pressure, but later to help regain its lost territories.


Finland's role in Operation Barbarossa was laid out in German Chancellor Adolf Hitler's Directive 21, "The mass of the Finnish army will have the task, in accordance with the advance made by the northern wing of the German armies, of tying up maximum Russian strength by attacking to the west, or on both sides, of Lake Ladoga. The Finns will also capture Hanko." The directive was given December 18, 1940, over two months before Finnish High Command or civilian leadership received the first tentative hints to upcoming invasion. Hanko (IPA: ) (Hangö in Swedish, or Гангут in Russian), is a small bilingual port city on the south coast of Finland, 130 km west of Helsinki. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In May 1941, at the suggestion of Germany, Finland allowed Germany to recruit Finnish volunteers for SS-Freiwilligen-Bataillon Nordost. This battalion, with an initial strength of 1200 men, was attached to the multinational Wiking Division of Germany's Waffen SS. Later, an additional 200 Finns joined the battalion to cover the losses. Members of the battalion have returned home. ...


In the weeks leading up to Operation Barbarossa, cooperation between Finland and Germany increased, with the exchange of liaison officers and the beginning of preparations for joint military action. On June 7, Germany moved two divisions into the Finnish Lapland. On June 17, 1941, Finland ordered its armed forces to be fully mobilized and sent to the Soviet border. Finland evacuated civilians from border areas which were fortified against Soviet attack. In the opening days of the Operation, Finland permitted German planes returning from bombing runs over Leningrad to refuel at Finnish airfields before returning to bases in German East Prussia. Finland also permitted Germany to use its naval facilities in the Gulf of Finland. June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... Lappi, or the Province of Lapland is one of the Provinces of Finland, and a part of the larger geographical area of Lapland, which spans over four countries. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ...


In his proclamation of war against the Soviet Union issued June 22, 1941, Hitler declared that Germany was joined by Finland and Romania. However, Finland did not declare war until June 25, after the Soviet Union bombed Finnish airfields and towns, including the medieval Turku castle, which was badly damaged. The Soviets cited Finland's cooperation with Germany as provocation for the air raids. Finland countered that it was once again a victim of Soviet aggression. is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Medieval keep of Turku Castle viewed from west Exterior of Castle Bailey, viewed from south The Turku Castle, (Finnish: Turun linna, Swedish: Ã…bo slott) dating from the 1280s, is a monument of Finnish history. ...


Finns refer to the conflict with the Soviet Union as the Continuation War, viewing it as continuation of the Winter War that the Soviets had waged against the Finns. The Finns maintain that their sole objective was to regain the territory lost to the Soviet Union in the Winter War, but on July 10, 1941, Field Marshal Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim issued an Order of the Day declaring that the war aim of the Finns was "to expel the Bolsheviks out of Russian Karelia, to liberate the Karelian nations and to accord to Finland a great future." Combatants  Finland Germany Italy1  Soviet Union Commanders C.G.E. Mannerheim Kirill Meretskov Leonid Govorov Strength 530,000 Finns[1] 220,000 Germans 900,000–1,500,000[2] Casualties 58,715 dead or missing 158,000 wounded 1,500 civilian dead[3] 200,000 dead or missing 385,000... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov, later Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 3,000 tanks 3,800 aircraft[3][4] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[5] 126,875 dead... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... This article is about the Finnish statesman and Commander-in-Chief. ... Mentioned in Despatches (MID) is a military award for gallantry or otherwise commendable service. ... Map showing the parts Karelia is traditionally divided into. ...


Mannerheim's order echoed his Order of the Day issued February 23, 1918, during the Finnish War of Independence, known as the Sword Scabbard Declaration, in which Mannerheim declared he "would not put his sword into the scabbard until East Karelia was free of Lenin's warriors and hooligans." Conquest of Karelia was a historic dream of Finnish nationalists advocating Greater Finland. February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Order of the Day of the Sword Scabbard, or the Sword Scabbard Declaration, actually refers to two related declarations from Mannerheim, Finlands Commander-in-Chief. ... The current borders of modern-day Finland are light blue. ...


In all, Finland mobilized over 530,000 men against the Soviet Union. About 1,700 volunteers from Sweden and 2,600 from Estonia served in the Finnish army. Many of the Swedish volunteers had also fought for Finland in the Winter War.


Diplomatic relations between Great Britain and Finland were severed on August 1, 1941, after the British bombed German forces in the Finnish city of Petsamo. Great Britain repeatedly called on Finland to cease its offensive against the Soviet Union, and on December 6, 1941, declared war on Finland. War was never declared between Finland and the United States. is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... December 6 is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...


Finland signed the revived Anti-Comintern Pact of 1941. Unlike other Axis powers, Finland maintained command of its armed forces and pursued its war objectives independently of Germany. Finland refused German requests to participate in the Siege of Leningrad, stating that capturing Leningrad was not among its goals. Leningrad, now St. Petersburg, lies outside the territory of Karelia claimed for Finland by Mannerheim. Finland also granted asylum to Jews, and Jewish soldiers continued to serve in her army. The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and Japan on November 25, 1936. ... Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm von Leeb Georg von Küchler Agustín Muñoz Grandes Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown Red Army: 332,059 KIA 24,324 non-combat dead 111,142 missing 16,470 civilians 1 million civilians... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and...


The relationship between Finland and Germany more closely resembled an alliance during the six weeks of the Ryti-Ribbentrop Agreement, which was presented as a German condition for help with munitions and air support, as the Soviet offensive coordinated with D-Day threatened Finland with complete occupation. The agreement, signed by President Risto Ryti, but never ratified by the Finnish Parliament, bound Finland not to seek a separate peace. The Ryti-Ribbentrop letter of agreement (Finnish: Ryti-Ribbentrop sopimus) of June 26, 1944, signifies the closest to an alliance Finland and Nazi Germany came during World War II. According to the agreement, Risto Ryti, then President of Finland, undertook not to conclude peace in the Continuation War with the... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustav Emil Mannerheim Karl Lennart Oesch Leonid Govorov Kirill Meretskov Strength 268,000 375,000 Casualties 18,000 killed, 45,000 wounded, 3,000 prisoners 40,000 killed, 130,000 wounded During World War II, in the Continuation War, the Fourth Strategic Offensive was... Risto Heikki Ryti (February 3, 1889 - October 25, 1956) was the president of Finland from 1940 to 1944. ...


Ryti's successor, President Mannerheim, ignored the agreement and opened secret negotiations with the Soviets. On September 19, 1944, Mannerheim signed an armistice with the Soviet Union and Great Britain. Under the terms of the armistice, Finland was obligated to expel German troops from Finnish territory. Finns refer to the skirmishes that followed as the Lapland War. In 1947, Finland signed a peace treaty with the Soviet Union, Great Britain and several British Commonwealth nations acknowledging its "alliance with Hitlerite Germany". C.G.E. Mannerheim Mannerheims equestrian statue by Mannerheimintie, a central road in downtown Helsinki, the capital of Finland C.G.E. Mannerheims autograph This article is about the statesman and Commander-in-Chief, for the noble families, please see Mannerheim (family) Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim (June... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Combatants Germany Finland Commanders Lothar Rendulic Hjalmar Siilasvuo Strength 200,000 60,000 Casualties 950 killed 2,000 wounded 1,300 captured 774 killed 3,000 wounded 262 missing The Lapland War (Finnish: ; German: ; Swedish: ) is a name used for the hostilities between Finland and Germany between September 1944 and... The Paris Peace Conference (July 29 to October 15, 1946) resulted in the Paris peace treaties signed on February 10, 1947. ...


Iraq

Iraq was a co-belligerent of the Axis, fighting the United Kingdom in the Anglo-Iraqi War of 1941. Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq_1924. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq_1924. ... National motto: Allahu Akbar (English: God is Great) Official languages Arabic, Kurdish1 Spoken languages Arabic, Kurdish, Assyrian, Turkmen, Armenian Capital Baghdad2 President Jalal Talabani Prime Minister Ibrahim al-Jaafari Area - Total - % water Ranked 57th 437,072 km2 1. ... Combatants Kingdom of Iraq United Kingdom India Commanders Rashid Ali General Sir Edward Quinan Strength five divisions about two divisions Casualties 2,500 KIA, about 6,000 POWs 1,200 (KIA, MIA, WIA) The Anglo-Iraqi War is the name of hostilities between the United Kingdom and the Iraqi nationalist...


Seizing power on April 3, 1941, the nationalist government of Iraqi Prime Minister Rashid Ali repudiated the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930 and demanded that Britain close its military bases within the country. Ali sought support from Germany, Italy and Vichy France in expelling British forces from Iraq. El-Gaylani Rashid Ali was the Pro-Axis leader of Iraq who fled to Iran when the Allies invaded Iraq. ...


Hostilities between the Iraqi and British forces opened on April 18, 1941 with heavy fighting at the British air base at Lake Habbaniya. Iraq's Axis allies dispatched two air squadrons, one from the German Luftwaffe and the other from the Royal Italian Air Force. The Germans and Italians utilized Vichy French bases in Syria, precipitating fighting between British and French forces in Syria. The Habbaniya, or Habbania, are a Sunni Muslim tribe of the nomadic Bedouin Baggara people in the plains of Sudans Darfur, North Kordofan, and South Kordofan provinces. ...


In early May 1941, Mohammad Amin al-Husayni, the Mufti of Jerusalem and an ally of Ali, declared "holy war" against the United Kingdom and called on Arabs throughout the Middle East to rise up against Britain. On May 25, 1941, Hitler issued his Order 30, stepping up German offensive operations: "The Arab Freedom Movement in the Middle East is our natural ally against England. In this connection special importance is attached to the liberation of Iraq... I have therefore decided to move forward in the Middle East by supporting Iraq." Mohammad Amin al-Husayni Mohammad Amin al-Husayni (ca. ... A Mufti (Arabic: مفتى ) is an Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law (Sharia), capable of issuing fataawa (plural of fatwa). // Role of a Mufti in governments In theocracies like Saudi Arabia and Iran, and in some countries where the constitution is based on sharia law, such... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Sunni Islam, Shia Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism An Arab (Arabic: ) is a member of a complexly defined ethnic group who identifies as such on the basis of one or more of either genealogical, political, or linguistic grounds. ...


Hitler dispatched German air and armored forces to Libya and formed the Deutsches Afrikakorps to coordinate a combined German-Italian offensive against the British in Egypt, Palestine and Iraq. The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi...


Iraqi military resistance ended by May 31, 1941. Rashid Ali and his ally, the Mufti of Jerusalem, fled to Persia, then to Turkey, Italy and finally Germany where Ali was welcomed by Hitler as head of the Iraqi government-in-exile. For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... A government in exile is a political group that claims to be a countrys legitimate government, but for various reasons is unable to exercise its legal power, and instead resides in a foreign country. ...


In propaganda broadcasts from Berlin, the Mufti continued to call on Arabs to rise up against the United Kingdom and aid German and Italian forces. He also recruited Muslim volunteers in the Balkans for the Waffen SS. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


Japanese puppet states

The Empire of Japan created a number of puppet states in the areas occupied by its military, beginning with the creation of Manchukuo in 1932. These puppet states achieved varying degrees of international recognition. A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ...


Manchukuo (Manchuria)

Main article: Manchukuo

Manchukuo was a Japanese puppet state in Manchuria, the northeast region of China. It was nominally ruled by Puyi, the last emperor of the Qing Dynasty, but in fact controlled by the Japanese military, in particular the Kwantung Army. While Manchukuo ostensibly meant a state for ethnic manchus, the region had a Han Chinese majority. Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (1932–1945... Image File history File links Flag_of_Manchukuo. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Manchukuo. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (1932–1945... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (1932–1945... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... PÇ”yí (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ) (February 7, 1906–October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling emperor between 1908 and 1911, and non-ruling emperor between 1911 and 1924), the twelfth emperor of the Qing Dynasty... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... The Kwantung Army or Guandong Army (関東軍 Japanese: Kantōgun) was a unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that originated from a Guandong garrison established in 1906 to defend the Kwantung Leased Territory and the areas adjacent to the South Manchurian Railway. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Languages Chinese languages Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ...


Following the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, the independence of Manchukuo was proclaimed on February 18, 1932 with Puyi as "Head of State." He was proclaimed Emperor of Manchukuo a year later. Twenty three of the League of Nations' eighty members recognised the new Manchu nation, but the League itself declared in 1934 that Manchuria lawfully remained a part of China, precipitating Japanese withdrawal from the League. Germany, Italy, and the Soviet Union were among the major powers recognising Manchukuo. The county was also recognised by Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, El Salvador, and the Vatican. Manchukuo was also recognised by the other Japanese allies and puppet states, including Mengjiang, the Burmese government of Ba Maw, Thailand, the Wang Chingwei regime, and the Indian government of Subhas Chandra Bose. It has been suggested that Manchuria Incident be merged into this article or section. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ba Maw (February 8, 1893 – May 29, 1977) was a Burmese political leader. ... Subhas Chandra Bose, (Bengali: , (January 23, 1897 – presumably August 18, 1945 [although this is disputed]note), generally known as Netaji (lit. ...


The armed forces of Manchukuo numbered between 200,000 and 220,000 men, according to the Soviet intelligence estimates. The Manchukuo Army and Manchukuo Air Force garrisoned Manchukuo under the command of the Japanese Army. The Manchukuo Navy, including river patrol and coastal defense, were under the direct command of the Japanese Third Fleet. The Manchukuo Imperial Guard, numbering 200 men, was under the direct command of the Emperor and served as his bodyguard. The Manchukuo Imperial Guards were the elite unit of the corps of Manchukuoan defense forces. ...


Mengjiang (Inner Mongolia)

Mengjiang (alternatively spelled Mengchiang) was a Japanese puppet state in Inner Mongolia. It was nominally ruled by Prince Demchugdongrub, a Mongol nobleman descended from Genghis Khan, but was in fact controlled by the Japanese military. Mengjiang's independence was proclaimed on February 18, 1936 following the Japanese occupation of the region. Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Mengjiang. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Mengjiang. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N... Prince Demchugdongrub (February 8, 1902 - May 23, 1966) , was the leader of a Mongol independence movement in Inner Mongolia. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... For other uses, see Genghis Khan (disambiguation). ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The Inner Mongolians had several grievances against the central Chinese government in Nanking, with the most important one being the policy of allowing unlimited migration of Han Chinese to this vast region of open plains and desert. Several of the young princes of Inner Mongolia began to agitate for greater freedom from the central government, and it was through these men that Japanese saw their best chance of exploiting Pan-Mongol nationalism and eventually seizing control of Outer Mongolia from the Soviet Union.


Japan created Mengjiang to exploit tensions between ethnic Mongolians and the central government of China which in theory ruled Inner Mongolia. The Japanese hoped to use pan-Mongolism to create a Mongolian ally in Asia and eventually conquer all of Mongolia from the Soviet Union.


When the various puppet governments of China were unified under the Wang Chingwei government in March 1940, Mengjiang retained its separate identity as an autonomous federation. Although under the firm control of the Japanese Imperial Army which occupied its territory, Prince Demchugdongrub had his own army that was, in theory, independent.


Mengjiang vanished in 1945 following Japan's defeat ending World War II and the invasion of Soviet and Red Mongol Armies. As the huge Soviet forces advanced into Inner Mongolia, they met limited resistance from small detachments of Mongolian cavalry, which, like the rest of the army, were quickly brushed aside.


Wang Jingwei Government

Flag of the Wang Jingwei Government. Although it was the same as the flag of Republic of China, an earlier used version had the phrase "anti-communism, peace, nation-building" in a yellow triangle on top of the flag.

A short-lived state was founded on March 29, 1940 by Wang Jingwei, who became Head of State of this Japanese supported collaborationist government based in Nanking. Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... The Wang Jingwei Government was a government under the leadership of Wang Jingwei in the Republic of China, set up by the Empire of Japan in March 1940. ... The Wang Jingwei Government was a government under the leadership of Wang Jingwei in the Republic of China, set up by the Empire of Japan in March 1940. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wang Jingwei * Courtesy name: Jixin (季新) * Alternate name: Zhaoming (兆銘). Wang Jingwei (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Wang Ching-wei) (May 4, 1883 – November 10, 1944), was a Chinese politician. ... Nanjing (南京, Pinyin: Nánjīng, Wade-Giles: Nan-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Nanking, formerly Jinling 金陵, Jiangning 江宁, and Tianjing 天京) is the central city of downstream Yangtze Basin and is a renowned historical and cultural city. ...


During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Japan advanced from its bases in Manchuria to occupy much of East and Central China. Several Japanese puppet states were organised in areas occupied by the Japanese Army, including the Provisional Government of the Republic of China at Peking which was formed in 1937 and the Reformed Government of the Republic of China at Nanking which was formed in 1938. These governments were merged into the Reorganised Government of the Republic of China at Nanking in 1940. The government (known as the Wang Jingwei Government) was to be run along the same lines as the Nationalist regime and adopted symbols of the latter. Combatants China Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Mao Zedong, Peng Dehuai Hirohito, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura, Umezu Yoshijiro, Fumimaro Konoe Strength 58,600,000 4,100,000... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: Běijīng; Wade-Giles: Pei-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Peking), is the capital city of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, etc. ...


The Nanking Government had no real power, and its main role was to act as a propaganda tool for the Japanese. The Nanking Government concluded agreements with Japan and Manchukuo, authorising Japanese occupation of China and recognising the independence of Manchukuo under Japanese protection. The Nanking Government signed the Anti-Comintern Pact of 1941 and declared war on the United States and Great Britain on January 9, 1943. is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The government had a strained relationship with the Japanese from the beginning. Wang's insistence on his regime being the true Nationalist government of China and in replicating all the symbols of the Kuomintang (KMT) led to frequent conflicts with the Japanese, the most prominent being the issue of the regime's flag, which was identical to that of the Republic of China. The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ...


The worsening situation for Japan from 1943 onwards meant that the Nanking Army was given a more substantial role in the defence of occupied China than the Japanese had initially envisaged. The army was almost continuously employed against the communist New Fourth Army. The New Fourth Army (新四軍 Pinyin: xin-si-jun) and the Eighth Route Army were the two main communist forces from 1938. ...


Wang Jingwei died in a Tokyo clinic on November 10, 1944, and was succeeded by his deputy Chen Gongbo. Chen had little influence and the real power behind the regime was Zhou Fohai, the mayor of Shanghai. Wang's death dispelled what little legitimacy the regime had. The state stuttered on for another year and continued the display and show of a fascist regime. is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Chen Gongbo (1892-1946) Chinese politician, was the Head of the Legislative Yuan of the Wang Jingweis puppet state, the Nanjing Nationalist Government. ... Zhou Fohai (1897-1948, 周佛海), Chinese politician, and second in command of Wang Jingweis collaborationist Nanjing Nationalist Government Executive Yuan. ...


On September 9, 1945, following the defeat of Japan, the area was surrendered to General He Yingqin, a nationalist general loyal to Chiang Kai-shek. The Nanking Army generals quickly declared their alliance to the Generalissimo, and were subsequently ordered to resist Communist attempts to fill the vacuum left by the Japanese surrender. Chen Gongbo was tried and executed in 1946. is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... He Yingqin He Yingqin (何应钦 in Chinese) (April 2, 1890 - October 21, 1987), was one of the senior generals of Kuomintang in early stage, and a close ally of Chiang Kai-shek. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ...


Burma (Ba Maw regime)

Burmese nationalist leader Ba Maw formed a Japanese puppet state in Burma on August 1, 1942 after the Japanese Army seized control of the nation from the United Kingdom. The Ba Maw regime organised the Burma Defence Army (later renamed the Burma National Army), which was commanded by Aung San. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... When the Japanese invaded Burma in 1942 they released Ba Maw from prison and convinced him to head a puppet government, the Burmese Executive Administration being set up in Rangoon on August 1, 1942. ... The Japanese occupation of Burma refers to the period between 1942 and 1945 during World War II, when Burma was a part of the Empire of Japan. ... Ba Maw (February 8, 1893 – May 29, 1977) was a Burmese political leader. ... The Japanese occupation of Burma refers to the period between 1942 and 1945 during World War II, when Burma was a part of the Empire of Japan. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Burma National Army served as the armed forces of the Burmese government created by the Japanese during World War II and fought in the Burma Campaign. ... General Aung San (Bogyoke Aung San in Burmese) (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: ); February 13, 1915 – July 19, 1947) was a Burmese revolutionary, nationalist, general, and politician. ...


Philippines (Second Republic)

Jose P. Laurel was the President of the Second Republic of the Philippines, a Japanese puppet state organised on the Philippine Islands in 1942. In 1943, the Philippine National Assembly declared the Philippines an independent republic and elected Laurel as President. The Second Republic ended with the Japanese surrender. Laurel was arrested and charged with treason by the US government, but was granted amnesty and continued playing politics, ultimately winning a seat in the Philippine Senate. Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Flag Anthem: Himno Nacional Filipino Location of the Philippines in Asia Capital Manila Baguio Tokyo, Japan Language(s) Japanese/Nihonggo (official), Filipino Government Unitary Republic President  - 1943-1945 Jose P. Laurel Historical era World War II  - Establishment October 14 1943  - Disestablishment August 17 1945 Area  - 1945 300,000 km2 115... PRESIDENT OF THE PHILIPPINES Jose P. Laurel José Paciano Laurel y García (March 9, 1891 - November 6, 1959) was the president of the Japanese-sponsored Republic of the Philippines from 1943 to 1945. ... Flag Anthem: Himno Nacional Filipino Location of the Philippines in Asia Capital Manila Baguio Tokyo, Japan Language(s) Japanese/Nihonggo (official), Filipino Government Unitary Republic President  - 1943-1945 Jose P. Laurel Historical era World War II  - Establishment October 14 1943  - Disestablishment August 17 1945 Area  - 1945 300,000 km2 115...


India (Provisional Government of Free India)

Provisional Government of Free India

The Provisional Government of Free India was a shadow government led by Subhas Chandra Bose, an Indian nationalist who rejected Gandhi's nonviolent methods for achieving independence. It operated only in those parts of India which came under Japanese control. Image File history File links 1931_Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links 1931_Flag_of_India. ... Flag of the Provisional Government of Free India. ... Flag of the Provisional Government of Free India. ... A shadow government is a government-in-waiting that remains in waiting with the intent to take control of the government in response to some event. ... Subhas Chandra Bose, (Bengali: , (January 23, 1897 – presumably August 18, 1945 [although this is disputed]note), generally known as Netaji (lit. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: , Hindi: , IAST: mohandās karamcand gāndhī, IPA: ) (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948), was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. ...


A former president of the India National Congress, Bose was arrested by Indian authorities at the outset of the Second World War. In January 1941 he escaped from house arrest and eventually reached Germany and then to Japan where he formed the Indian National Army, mostly from Indian prisoners of war. The Indian National Army (I.N.A) or Azad Hind Fauj was the army of the Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind (The Provisional Government of Free India ) which fought along with the Japanese 15th Army during the Japanese Campaign in Burma, and in the Battle of Imphal, during the Second...


Bose and A.M.Sahay, another local leader, received ideological support from Mitsuru Toyama, chief of the Dark Ocean Society along with Japanese Army advisers. Other Indian thinkers in favour of the Axis cause were Asit Krishna Mukherji, a friend of Bose and husband of Savitri Devi Mukherji, one of the women thinkers in support of the German cause, and the Pandit Rajwade of Poona. Bose was helped by Rash Behari Bose, founder of the Indian Independence League in Japan. Bose declared India's independence on October 21, 1943. The Japanese Army assigned to the Indian National Army a number of military advisors, among them Hideo Iwakuro and Saburo Isoda. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Genyosha (玄洋社) (or Dark Ocean Society) is a Japanese criminal society formed in 1881 by Toyama Mitsura. ... Asit Krishna Mukherji (1898-March 21, 1977) was a Bengali Brahmin with National Socialist convictions who published pro-Axis journals. ... Savitri Devi Mukherji (September 30, 1905 - October 22, 1982) was a white French woman, of mixed English, Lombard, and Greek ethnicity, who became enamoured with Hinduism and Nazism, trying to synthesise Hinduism with Nazi philosophy and racial ideology and proclaiming Adolf Hitler an avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu. ... Pune, formerly called Poona, is the second largest city (after Mumbai) in the state of Maharashtra, India. ... Rashbehari Bose (1885-1945) was a revolutionary leader against the British Raj in India and was one of the organisers of the Indian National Army. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hideo Iwakuro (岩畔豪雄, Iwakuro Hideo) (1897-1970) was a Japanese general. ...


With its provisional capital at Port Blair on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands after they fell to the Japanese, the state would last two more years until August 18, 1945 when it officially became defunct. In its existence it received recognition from nine governments: Germany, Japan, Italy, Croatia, Manchukuo, China (under the Nanking Government of Wang Chingwei), Thailand, Burma (under the regime of Burmese nationalist leader Ba Maw, and the Philippines under de facto (and later de jure) president José Laurel. Map of Andaman and Nicobar Islands with an extra detailed area around Port Blair Port Blair   (Hindi: पोर्ट ब्लेयर) (coordinates: ) is the largest town and a municipal council in Andamans district in the Andaman Islands and the capital of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands union territory of India. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Andaman Islands. ... The Andaman and Nicobar Islands (8,293 sq km on 139 islands), are a group of islands situated in the Bay of Bengal at about 780 miles from Kolkata, 740 miles from Chennai and 120 miles from Cape Nargis in Burma. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Ba Maw (February 8, 1893 – May 29, 1977) was a Burmese political leader. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Indian National Army saw plenty of action (as did their Burmese equivalent). The highlight of the force's campaign in Burma was the planting of the Indian national flag by the 'Bose Battalion' during the battle of Frontier Hill in 1944, although it was Japanese troops from the 55th Cavalry, 1/29th Infantry and 2/143rd Infantry who did most of the fighting. This battle also had the curious incidence of three Sikh companies of the Bose Battalion exchanging insults and fire with two Sikh companies of the 7/16th Punjab Regiment (British Indian Army)[citation needed]. The Punjab Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Pakistan Army. ... A group of native Indian Muslim soldiers posing for volley firing orders. ...


The Indian National Army was encountered again during the Second Arakan Campaign, where they deserted in large numbers back to their old 'imperial oppressors' and again during the crossing of the Irrawaddy in 1945, where a couple of companies put up token resistance before leaving their Japanese comrades to fight off the assault crossing by 7th Indian Division.


Vietnam

The Empire of Vietnam was a short-lived Japanese puppet state that lasted from March 11 to August 23, 1945. Image File history File links Old_Flag_Of_Vietnam. ... Image File history File links Old_Flag_Of_Vietnam. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


When the Japanese seized control of French Indochina, they allowed Vichy French administrators to remain in nominal control. This ruling ended on March 9, 1945 when the Japanese officially took control of the government. Soon after, Emperor Bảo Đại voided the 1884 treaty with France and Trần Trọng Kim, a historian, became prime minister. Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1887  - Addition of Laos 1893  - Vietnam Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Disestablished 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km2 289,577 sq mi Currency... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Emperor Bao Dai Bảo Đại (保大帝、22 October 1913 – 30 July 1997) was the last Emperor of Vietnam, the 13th and last Emperor of the Nguyá»…n Dynasty. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Despite the state's short existence, it suffered through a famine and had succeeded in replacing French-speaking schools with Vietnamese language schools taught by Vietnamese scholars. The Vietnamese Famine of 1945 (Vietnamese: Nạn đói Ất Dậu - Famine of the At Dau year) was a famine that occurred in northern Vietnam during the Japanese occupation of the country. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... Vietnamese (tiếng Việt, or less commonly Việt ngữ[2]), formerly known under the French colonization as Annamese (see Annam), is the national and official language of Vietnam. ...


Cambodia

The Kingdom of Cambodia was a short-lived Japanese puppet state that lasted from March 9, 1945 to April, 15 1945. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


In mid-1941, the Japanese entered Cambodia, but allowed Vichy French officials to remain in administrative posts. The Japanese calls of an "Asia for the Asiatics" won over many Cambodian nationalists, despite Tokyo's policy of keeping the colonial government in nominal control.


This policy changed during the last months of the war. The Japanese wanted to gain local support, so they dissolved French colonial rule and pressured Cambodia to declare its independence within the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. Four days later, King Sihanouk declared Kampuchea (the original Khmer pronunciation of Cambodia) independent. Co-editor of the Nagaravatta, Son Ngoc Thanh, returned from Tokyo in May and was appointed foreign minister. Time in office: Apr. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Son Ngoc Thanh (December 7, 1908–1977) was a Cambodian nationalist with a longtime history as a rebel and (for brief periods) a government minister. ...


On the date of Japanese surrender, a new government was proclaimed with Son Ngoc Thah as prime minister. However, in October, when the Allies occupied Phnom Penh, Son Ngoc Thanh was arrested for collaborating with the Japanese and was exiled to France. Some of his supporters went to north-western Cambodia, which had been under Thai control since the French-Thai War of 1940, where they banded together as one faction in the Khmer Issarak movement, originally formed with Thai encouragement in the 1940s. Phnom Penh (Khmer: ; official Romanization: Phnum Pénh; IPA: ) is the largest, most populous and capital city of Cambodia. ... Combatants Vichy France Thailand Commanders Jean Decoux Plaek Phibunsongkhram Strength 50,000 men, 20 tanks, ~100 aircraft 60,000 men, 134 tanks, 140 aircraft, 18 vessels Casualties 321 KIA and WIA, 178 MIA, 222 captured, 22 aircraft 54 KIA, 307 WIA, 21 captured, 8-13 aircraft The French-Thai War... The Khmer Issarak was an anti-French, Khmer nationalist political movement formed in 1945 with the backing of the goverment of Thailand. ...


Laos

Fears of Thai irredentism led to the formation of the first Lao nationalist organisation, the Movement for National Renovation, in January 1941, led by Prince Phetxarāt and supported by local French officials, though not by the Vichy authorities in Hanoi. This group wrote the current Lao national anthem and designed the current Lao flag, while paradoxically pledging support for France. The country declared its independence in 1945. Image File history File links Flag_of_Laos. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Laos. ... Motto ສັນຕິພາບ ເອກະລາດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ເອກະພາບ ວັດທະນາຖາວອນ Peace, Independence, Democracy, Unity and Prosperity Anthem Pheng Xat Lao Capital (and largest city) Vientiane Official languages Lao Government Socialist Republic  -  President Lt. ... Prince Phetsarath Rattanavongsa was prime minister of Laos from 1942 to 1945, and was the first and last vice-king of the Kingdom of Laos. ... Hanoi (Vietnamese: Hà Ná»™i, Hán Tá»±: 河内)  , estimated population 3,145,300 (2005), is the capital of Vietnam. ... Pheng Xat Lao was composed by Dr. Thongdy Sounthonevichit (1905-1968) in 1941 and adopted as the national anthem of the Kingdom of Laos in 1947. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The flag of Laos was adopted on December 2, 1975. ...


There matters rested until the liberation of France in 1944, bringing Charles de Gaulle to power. This meant the end of the alliance between Japan and the Vichy French administration in Indochina. The Japanese had no intention of allowing the Gaullists to take over, and in late 1944 they staged a military coup in Hanoi. Some French units fled over the mountains to Laos, pursued by the Japanese, who occupied Viang Chan in March 1945 and Luang Phrabāng in April. King Sīsavāngvong was detained by the Japanese, but his son Crown Prince Savāngvatthanā called on all Lao to assist the French, and many Lao died fighting against the Japanese occupiers. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Royal palace museum of Luang Prabang. ...


Prince Phetxarāt, however, opposed this position, and thought that Lao independence could be gained by siding with the Japanese, who made him Prime Minister of Luang Phrabāng, though not of Laos as a whole. In practice the country was in chaos and Phetxarāt's government had no real authority. Another Lao group, the Lao Sēri (Free Lao), received unofficial support from the Free Thai movement in the Isan region. For other uses, see Isan (disambiguation). ...


Italian puppet states

Albania

Albania was an Italian puppet state, joined in personal union with Italy under Victor Emmanuel III, whose full title was King of Italy, Albania, and Emperor of Ethiopia. Albania was a constituent of the New Roman Empire envisioned by Italy's fascist dictator, Il Duce Benito Mussolini, and was in fact ruled by Mussolini. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Flag Anthem Himni i Flamurit Capital Tirana Language(s) Albanian Religion none Government Constitutional monarchy King  - 1939-1943 Victor Emmanuel III Lieutenant-general  - 1939-1943 Francesco Jacomoni di San Savino  - 1943 Alberto Pariani Historical era World War II  - Italian Invasion April 7, 1939  - Disestablished July 25, 1943 Currency frang ar... World War II and the Rise of Communism (1941-1944) Between 1941 and 1944, communist partisans and nationalist guerrillas fought Italian and German occupation forces, and more often each other, in a brutal struggle to take control of Albania. ... It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ... Victor Emmanuel III (Italian: ; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was King of Italy (29 July 1900 – 9 May 1946), Emperor of Ethiopia (1936–43) and King of Albania (1939–43). ... King of Italy is a title adopted by many rulers after the fall of the Roman Empire. ... The Emperor (Geez ንጉሠ ነገሥት, , King of Kings) of Ethiopia was the hereditary ruler of Ethiopia until the abolition of the monarchy in 1975. ... The Italian empire in 1940 The Italian Empire was a 20th century empire, which lasted from 9 May 1936 to September 1943. ...


Albania had been in Italian orbit since the First World War when it was occupied by Italy as a "protectorate" in accordance with the London Pact. Italian troops were withdrawn after the war, but throughout the 1920s and 1930s, Albania became increasingly dependent on Italy. The Albanian government and economy were subsidised by Italian loans, the Albanian army was trained by Italian military instructors, and Italian colonial settlement was encouraged. London Pact (Italian Patto di Londra) was a secret pact between Italy and Triple Entente, signed in London on April 26, 1915 by Italy, Great Britain, France and Russia. ...


With the major powers of Europe distracted by Germany's occupation of Czechoslovakia, Mussolini issued an ultimatum to the Albanian King Zog on March 25, 1939, demanding that Zog permit the country to be occupied by Italy as a protectorate. Zog refused. On April 7, 1939, Italian troops landed in Albania. Zog, his wife and newborn son immediately fled the country. Five days after the invasion, on April 12, the Albanian parliament voted to depose Zog and join the nation to Italy "in personal union" by offering the Albanian crown to Victor Emmanuel III. The parliament elected Albania's largest landowner, Shefqet Bey Verlaci, as Prime Minister. Verlaci additionally served as head of state for five days until Victor Emmanuel III formally accepted the Albanian crown in a ceremony at the Quirinale place in Rome. Victor Emmanuel III appointed Francesco Jacomoni di San Savino as Lieutenant-General to represent him in Albania as viceroy. King Zog of Albania King Zog (October 8, 1895–April 9, 1961) was an Albanian politician and the first king of Albania from 1928 to 1939. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... An etching of the Hill, crowned by the mass of the Palazzo del Quirinale, from a series I Sette Colli di Roma antica e moderna published in 1827 by Luigi Rossini (1790 - 1857): his view, from the roof of the palazzo near the Trevi Fountain that now houes the Accademia...


On April 15, 1939, Albania withdrew from the League of Nations, from which Italy had resigned in 1937. On June 3, 1939, the Albanian foreign ministry was merged into the Italian foreign ministry, and the Albanian Foreign Minister, Xhemil Bej Dino, was given the rank of an Italian ambassador. is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Albanian military was placed under Italian command and formally merged into the Italian Army in 1940. Additionally, the Italian Blackshirts formed four legions of Albanian Militia, initially recruited from Italians living in Albania but later from ethnic Albanians. For the University of Nebraska–Lincoln Cornhuskers Football Team, see Blackshirts (football). ... MVSN Albanian Militia was formed in 1939 following Italys invasion and annexation of Italians living in Albania and later on Albanians were also recruited. ...


Albania followed Italy into war with Britain and France on June 10, 1940. Albania served as the base for the Italian invasion of Greece in 1941, and Albanian troops participated in the Greek campaign. Albania was enlarged by the annexation of Montenegro from the former Yugoslavia in 1941. Victor Emmanuel III as "King of Albania" declared war on the Soviet Union in 1941 and the United States in 1942. is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Victor Emmanuel III abdicated as King of Albania in 1943 when Italy left the Axis to join the Allies as a co-belligerent against Germany. German troops immediately occupied Albania. Many Albanian volunteers served Germany as members of the SS Skanderberg Division.


Montenegro (Drljević regime)

Independent State of Montenegro

The leader of the Montenegrin Federalists, Sekula Drljević formed the Provisional Administrative Committee of Montenegro on July 12, 1941. The Committee originally tried to collaborate with the Italians. After Italy switched sides in 1943, the country came under German occupation. Image File history File links Flag_of_Montenegro_(1941-1944). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Montenegro_(1941-1944). ... Flag Capital Cetinje Language(s) Serbian Political structure Client state High Commissioner  - 1941 Serafino Mazzolini  - 1941 - 1943 Alessandro Pirzio Biroli  - 1943 Curio Barbasetti di Prun  - 1943 - 1944 Theodor Geib  - 1944 Wilhelm Keiper Historical era World War II  - Invasion of Yugoslavia 1941  - Disestablished 1944 Currency Italian lira Montenegro existed as the... Sekula Drljević (Секулa Дрљевић) (1884 – 1945) was a Montenegrin politician, lawyer, and author. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...


Drljević's Montenegrin Federalists fought a confusing civil war alongside Axis forces against Yugoslav Partisans and Chetniks. Alliances were constantly formed and broken during the bitter fighting. It has been suggested that Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland be merged into this article or section. ...


In October 1941, Drljević was exiled from Montenegro and in 1944, he formed the Montenegrin State Council located in the Independent State of Croatia. It acted as the Federalists' government in exile. Later that year, the Montenegrin People's Army was forcedly formed by Ante Pavelić and Drljević out of defeated Chetnik troops formerly led by Pavle Đurišić.


German puppet states

Italy (Salò regime)

Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini formed the Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana in Italian) on September 23, 1943, succeeding the Kingdom of Italy as a member of the Axis. Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Anthem Giovinezza (The Youth)¹ Capital Salò Language(s) Italian Religion Roman Catholicism Government Republic Head of State Benito Mussolini Historical era World War II  - Established September 23, 1943  - Disestablished April 25, 1945 ¹ External link The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a Nazi puppet state led by... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ... Anthem Giovinezza (The Youth)¹ Capital Salò Language(s) Italian Religion Roman Catholicism Government Republic Head of State Benito Mussolini Historical era World War II  - Established September 23, 1943  - Disestablished April 25, 1945 ¹ External link The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a Nazi puppet state led by... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Mussolini had been removed from office and arrested by King Victor Emmanuel III on July 25, 1943. The King publicly reaffirmed his loyalty to Germany but authorized secret armistice negotiations with the Allies. In a spectacular raid led by German paratrooper Otto Skorzeny, Mussolini was rescued from arrest. Victor Emmanuel III Victor Emmanuel III (Italian: Vittorio Emanuele III) (November 11, 1869 - December 28, 1947), nicknamed The Soldier, was the King of Italy (July 29, 1900 - May 9, 1946), and claimed the titles Emperor of Ethiopia (1936 - 1943) and King of Albania (1939 - 1943). ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... After Operation Greif, Otto Skorzeny was labelled the most dangerous man in Europe Otto Skorzeny (June 12, 1908 - July 6[1] 1975) was an Obersturmbannführer in the German Waffen-SS during World War II. After fighting on the Eastern Front, he is known as the commando leader who rescued...


Once safely escounced in German occupied Salò, Mussolini declared that the King was deposed, that Italy was a republic and that he was the new president. He functioned as a German puppet for the duration of the war. Salo (Italian: Salò) is a small town in the Province of Brescia in the region of Lombardy in northern Italy on the banks of Lake Garda. ...


Serbia (Nedić regime)

Kingdom of Serbia

Serbian General Milan Nedić formed the National Government of Salvation in German-occupied Serbia on September 1, 1941. Nedić served as prime minister of the puppet government which recognized the former Yugoslav regent, Prince Paul, as head of state. Image File history File links National_flag_of_Serbia. ... Image File history File links National_flag_of_Serbia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Milan Nedić Serbian Cyrillic Милан Недић (September 2, 1878 – 1946) was a Serbian soldier and politician who was a major collaborator during World War II. Nedić was born in Grocka, Serbia. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...


Nedić's armed forces, the Serbian State Guards and Serbian Volunteer Corps, wore the uniform of the Royal Yugoslav Army. Nedić's forces fought with the Germans against the Yugoslav Partisans. Unlike Hitler's Nordic collaborators who sent troops to fight the Soviet Union, Nedić's Slavic troops were confined to duty in Serbia. Serbian State Guard (SDS) also known as nedićevci was the name of the military force that was used to complement the civil police units within Nedićs Serbia. ... SDK Amblem . ...


Several concentration camps were formed in Serbia and at the 1942 Anti-Freemason Exhibition in Belgrade the city was pronounced Judenfrei. A Serbian Gestapo was formed. This is a list of Internment and Concentration camps, organized by country. ... Antimason exhibition stamps Grand Anti-Masonic Exhibition (Serbian: Antimasonska izložba) was the name of an antisemitic exhibition that was opened in Belgrade on October 22, 1941. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... German map showing Estonia as Judenfrei. Judenrein (also Judenfrei) was a term used by Nazis during the Holocaust to designate an area free of Jewish presence. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Axis collaborator states

France (Vichy regime)

France and its colonial empire, under the so-called Vichy regime of Marshal Pétain, collaborated with the Axis from 1941 until 1944 when the regime was dissolved. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... For the French colonial postage stamps, see French Colonies. ... Vichy France (French: now called Régime de Vichy or Vichy; called itself at the time État Français, or French State) was the French state of 1940-1944 which was a puppet government under Nazi influence, as opposed to the Free French Forces, based first in London and later... Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French general, later Chief of State of Vichy France (Chef de lÉtat Français), from 1940 to 1944. ...


Pétain became the last Prime Minister of the French Third Republic on June 16, 1940 as the battle of France following the German invasion army entering Paris on June 14. Pétain sued for peace with Germany and six days later, on June 22, 1940, his government concluded an armistice with Hitler. Under the terms of the agreement, Germany occupied approximately two thirds of France, including Paris. Pétain was permitted to keep an "armistice army" of 100,000 men within the unoccupied southern zone. This number includes neither the army based in French colonial empire nor the French fleet. In French North Africa and French Equatorial Africa, the Vichy were permitted to maintain 127,000 men under arms after the Gabon defected to the Free French[5]. The French also maintained substantial garrisons at the French mandated territory of Syria and Lebanon, the French colony of Madagascar and in the French Somaliland. The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants  France  United Kingdom  Canada  Czechoslovakia  Poland  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand (French) Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III (Belgian) H.G. Winkelman (Dutch) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R... June 14 is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Second Armistice at Compiègne, France was signed on June 22, 18:50, 1940, between Nazi Germany and France. ... It has been suggested that List of visitor attractions in Paris be merged into this article or section. ... Location of French Equatorial Africa. ... Free French Forces under review during the Battle of Normandy. ... This article is about the country. ...


After the armistice, relations between France and the UK quickly deteriorated. Fearful that the powerful French fleet might fall into German hands, the British launched several naval attacks, the major one against the Algerian harbour of Mers el-Kebir on July 3, 1940. Though Churchill would defend his controversial decisions to attack the French Fleet, the French people themselves were less accepting of these decisions. German propaganda was able to trumpet these actions as an absolute betrayal of the French people by their former allies. France broke relations with the United Kingdom after the attack and considered declaring war. Combatants United Kingdom France Commanders James Somerville Marcel-Bruno Gensoul Strength 1 aircraft carrier 3 battleships 2 light cruisers 11 destroyers 4 battleships 6 destroyers 1 seaplane tender Casualties 3 Blackburn Skua 3 Fairey Swordfish 2 dead 1 battleship sunk 2 battleships heavily damaged 1 destroyer damaged 1,297 dead... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On July 10, 1940, Petain was given emergency "full powers" by a majoritary vote of the French National Assembly. The following day approval of the new constitution by the Assembly effectively created the French State (l'État Français) replacing the French Republic and unoficially called Vichy France for the resort town of Vichy where Petain chose to maintain his seat of government. The new government continued to be recognised as the lawful government of France by the United States until 1942. Racial laws were introduced in France and its colonies and many French Jews were deported to Germany. On a side note, Albert Lebrun, last President of the Republic, did not leave the presidential office when he moved to Vizille in July 10, 1940. By April 25, 1945, during Petain's trial, Lebrun argued he thought he would be able to return to power after the fall of Germany since he had not resigned.[6] is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The French state either designs the Republic of France (i. ... Vichy (Occitan: Vichèi) is a French commune, situated in the département of Allier and the région of Auvergne. ... The current Jewish community in France numbers around 606,561, according to the World Jewish Congress and 500,000 according to the Appel Unifié Juif de France (France Jewish community main organism), and is found mainly in the metropolitan areas of Paris, Marseille and Strasbourg. ... The village of Vizille is home to the Musée de la Révolution Française, a rich depository of archival and rare materials devoted to the French Revolution. ...


In September 1940, Vichy France allowed Japan to occupy French Indochina, a federation of the French colonial possessions and protectorates roughly encompassing the territory of modern day Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. The Vichy regime continued to administer the colony under Japanese military occupation. French Indochina was the base for the Japanese invasions of Thailand, Malaya and Borneo. In 1945, under Japanese sponsorship, the Empire of Vietnam and the Kingdom of Cambodia were proclaimed as Japanese puppet states. Combatants Empire of Japan Vichy France Commanders Lt. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Kalimantan. ...


The UK permitted French General Charles de Gaulle to headquarter his Free French movement in London in a largely unsuccessful effort to win over the French colonial empire. On September 26, 1940, de Gaulle led an attack by Allied forces on the Vichy port of Dakar in French West Africa. Forces loyal to Pétain fired on de Gaulle and repulsed the attack after two days of heavy fighting. Public opinion in France was further outraged, and Vichy France drew closer to Germany. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia Free France Netherlands Vichy France Commanders Andrew Cunningham Charles De Gaulle Pierre François Boisson Strength 2 battleships, 1 aircraft carrier, 4 cruisers, 10 destroyers 1 battleship, 2 cruisers, destroyers, coastal emplacements Casualties 2 battleships and 2 cruisers damaged >2 destroyers damaged, 2 submarines sunk The... Location of French West Africa French West Africa (French: ) was a federation of eight French territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea (now Guinea), Côte dIvoire, Niger, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) and Dahomey (now Benin). ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval...


Vichy France assisted Iraq in the Anglo-Iraqi War of 1941, allowing Germany and Italy to utilize air bases in the French mandate of Syria to support the Iraqi revolt against the British. Allied forces responded by attacking Syria and Lebanon in 1941. Vichy forces in the French Somolialand also fought alongside Italian forces in Italian East Africa. In 1942, Allied forces attacked the French colony of Madagascar. Combatants Kingdom of Iraq United Kingdom India Commanders Rashid Ali General Sir Edward Quinan Strength five divisions about two divisions Casualties 2,500 KIA, about 6,000 POWs 1,200 (KIA, MIA, WIA) The Anglo-Iraqi War is the name of hostilities between the United Kingdom and the Iraqi nationalist... Combatants Australia U.K. British India British Palestine  Czechoslovakia Government-in-Exile Free France Vichy France Mandate of Syria Mandate of Lebanon Commanders Henry Maitland Wilson Henri Dentz Strength Approximately 35,000 troops Australian: 18,000 British: 9,000 Indian: 2,000 Free French: 5,000 Between 35,000 and... Combatants United Kingdom South Africa Vichy France Empire of Japan Commanders Robert Sturges Armand Léon Annet Strength 10,000-15,000 (land forces) 8,000 (land forces)[1] Casualties 107 killed in action; 280 wounded;[2] 620 casualties in total (including deaths from disease) 150 killed in action; 500...


Vichy France, staunchly anti-Communist, enthusiastically sided with Germany in its war with the Soviet Union. Vichy France signed the Anti-Comintern Pact of 1941. Almost 7,000 volunteers joined the anti-communist Légion des Volontaires Français (LVF) from 1941 to 1944 and some 7,500 formed the Division Charlemagne, a Waffen-SS unit, from 1944 to 1945. Both the LVF and the Division Charlemagne fought on the eastern front. Hitler never accepted that France could become a full military partner [7], and constantly prevented the buildup of Vichy's military strength. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ...


Other than political, Vichy's collaboration with Germany essentially was industrial, with French factories providing many vehicles to the German armed forces.


In November 1942, Vichy French troops briefly but fiercely resisted the landing of Allied troops in French North Africa, but were unable to prevail. Admiral François Darlan negotiated a local ceasefire with the Allies. In response to the landings, and Vichy's inability to defend itself, German troops occupied southern France and Tunisia, a French protectorate that formed part of French North Africa. The Bey of Tunis formed a government friendly to the Germans. Combatants United States United Kingdom Free French Forces Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham François Darlan Strength 73,500 60,000 Casualties 479+ dead 720 wounded 1,346+ dead 1,997 wounded Operation Torch (initially called Operation Gymnast) was the British-American invasion of French North Africa in... François Darlan (August 7, 1881 – December 24, 1942) was a French naval officer. ... The Bey of Tunis is the title of the Head of state of Tunisia. ...


In mid-1943, former Vichy authorities in North Africa came to an agreement with the Free French and setup a temporary French government in Algiers, known as the Comité Français de Libération Nationale, with De Gaulle eventually emerging as the leader. The CFLN raised new troops, and re-organized, re-trained and re-equipped the French military under Allied supervision. “Alger” redirects here. ...


However, the Vichy government continued to function in mainland France until late 1944, but had lost most of its territorial sovereignty and military assets, with the exception of forces stationed in French Indochina.


Controversial cases of relations with the Axis

States listed in this section were not officially members of Axis, but had controversial relations with one or more Axis members at some point during the war. Area under Axis control over the course of the war shown in black. ...


Denmark

Main article: Occupation of Denmark

On May 31, 1939, Denmark and Germany signed a treaty of non-aggression, which did not contain any military obligations for either party.[8] On April 9, 1940, citing intended British mining of Norwegian and Danish waters as a pretext, Germany invaded both countries. King Christian X and the Danish government, worried about German bombings if they resisted occupation, accepted "protection by the Reich" in exchange for nominal independence under German military occupation. Three successive Prime Ministers, Thorvald Stauning, Vilhelm Buhl and Erik Scavenius, maintained this samarbejdspolitik ("cooperation policy") of collaborating with Germany. Headquarters of the Schalburgkorps, a Danish SS unit, after 1943. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Operation Wilfred was a British scheme to mine the waters between Norway and her islands in order to prevent German convoys fom using the neutral waters to transport high grade Swedish iron ore. ... Combatants Germany Denmark Norway Operation Weserübung was the German codename for Nazi Germanys assault on Denmark and Norway during World War II and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign. ... Christian X of Denmark (Christian Carl Frederik Albert Alexander Vilhelm) (September 26, 1870 – April 20, 1947) was King of Denmark from 1912 to 1947 and of Iceland between 1918 and 1944. ... Thorvald Stauning (26 October 1873 - 3 May 1942) was the first Social Democrat Prime Minister of Denmark. ... Vilhelm Buhl (16 October 1881 - 18 December 1954) was Prime Minister of Denmark from 4 May 1942 to 9 November 1942 as head of the unity government Cabinet of Vilhelm Buhl I during the German occupation of Denmark of World War II, until the nazis ordered him removed. ... Erik Scavenius with German plenipotentiary of Denmark, Dr. Werner Best. ...

  • Denmark coordinated its foreign policy with Germany, extending diplomatic recognition to Axis collaborator and puppet regimes and breaking diplomatic relations with the "governments-in-exile" formed by countries occupied by Germany. Denmark broke diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union and signed the Anti-Comintern Pact of 1941.[9]
  • In 1941, a Danish military corps, Frikorps Danmark was created at the initiative of the SS and the Danish Nazi Party, to fight alongside the Wehrmacht on Germany's Eastern Front. The government's following statement was widely interpreted as a sanctioning of the corps.[10] Frikorps Danmark was open to members of the Danish Royal Army and those who had completed their service within the last ten years. [11] Between 4,000 and 10,000 Danish citizens joined the Frikorps Danmark, including 77 officers of the Royal Danish Army. An estimated 3,900 of these soldiers died fighting for Germany during the Second World War.
  • Denmark transferred six torpedo boats to Germany in 1941, although the bulk of its navy remained under Danish command until the declaration of martial law in 1943.
  • Denmark supplied agricultural and industrial products to Germany as well as loans for armaments and fortifications. The German presence in Denmark, including the construction of the Danish part of the Atlantic Wall fortifications, was paid from an account in Denmark's central bank, Nationalbanken. The Danish government had been promised that these expenses would be repaid later, but this never happened. The construction of the Atlantic Wall fortifications in Jutland cost 5 billion Danish kroner.

The Danish protectorate government lasted until August 29, 1943, when the cabinet resigned following a declaration of martial law by occupying German military officials. The Danish navy managed to scuttle 32 of its larger ships to prevent their use by Germany. Germany succeeded in seizing 14 of the larger and 50 of the smaller vessels and later to raise and refit 15 of the sunken vessels. During the scuttling of the Danish fleet, a number of vessels were ordered to attempt an escape to Swedish waters, and 13 vessels succeeded in this attempt, four of which were larger ships.[12][13] By the autumn of 1944, these ships officially formed a Danish naval flotilla in exile[14] In 1943, Swedish authorities allowed 500 Danish soldiers in Sweden to train themselves as "police troops". By the autumn of 1944, Sweden raised this number to 4,800 and recognized the entire unit as a Danish military brigade in exile.[15] Danish collaboration continued on an administrative level, with the Danish bureaucracy functioning under German command. The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and Japan on November 25, 1936. ... Schalburg Cross Frikorps Danmark (Free Corps Denmark) was a Danish volunteer army corps established to fight against the Soviet Union during the fighting in the USSR. On the 29th of June, 1941, days after the invasion of the USSR, it was set up at the initiative of the SS and... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... DNSAPs logo. ... Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky... German coastal artillery in the Pas-de-Calais area, with laborers at work on casemate. ... Danmarks Nationalbank (English: National Bank of Denmark - in Danish often simply Nationalbanken) is the central bank of Denmark. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Royal Danish Navy (or Kongelige Danske Marine in Danish) is the sea-based branch of The Danish Defence force. ... A flotilla (from Spanish, meaning a flota of small ships, and this from French flotte), or naval flotilla, is a formation of small warships that may be part of a larger fleet. ... In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. ...


Active resistance to the German occupation among the populace, virtually nonexistent before 1943, increased after the declaration of martial law. The intelligence operations of the Danish resistance was described as "second to none" by Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery after the liberation of Denmark.[16] The Danish Resistance Movement was an underground insurgency movement to resist the German occupation of Denmark during World War II. Due to the unusually lenient terms given to Denmark by the Nazi occupation authority, the movement was slower to develop effective tactics on a wide scale than in some other... Field Marshal Viscount Slim in his Field Marshals uniform, holding a marshals baton. ... Bernard Law Montgomery Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein (November 17, 1887 - March 24, 1976) was a British military officer during World War II often referred to as Monty. ...


Portugal

António de Oliveira Salazar of Portugal was personally sympathetic to the Axis, but Portugal and the United Kingdom were bound by the world's oldest defence treaty, the Treaty of Windsor. After the UK invoked the treaty, a major Allied air and naval base was established in the Azores. Portugal, particularly Lisbon, was one of the last European exit points to the US, and a huge number of refugees found shelter in Portugal. Siding with the Axis would have meant that Portugal would have been at war with the United Kingdom, which would have threatened Portuguese colonies, while siding with the Allies might prove to be a threat to Portugal itself. Portugal continued to export tungsten and other goods to both the Axis (partly via Switzerland) and Allied countries. History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... António de Oliveira Salazar, pron. ... The English–Portuguese alliance was renewed in 1386 with the Treaty of Windsor and the marriage of João I of Aviz with Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt. ... Motto (Portuguese for Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem  (national)  (local) Capital Ponta Delgada1 Angra do Heroísmo2 Horta3 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Carlos César Establishment  -  Settled 1439   -  Autonomy 1976  Area  -  Total 2,333 km² (n/a) 911 sq mi... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Grande Lisboa  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Carmona Rodrigues  - Party PSD Area 84. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ...


Portugal protested the occupation of Portuguese Timor by Allied forces in 1942, but did not actively resist. The colony was subsequently occupied by Japan. Timorese and Portuguese civilians assisted Allied commandos in resisting the Japanese. Portuguese Timor is the former name (1596 - 1975) of East Timor when it was under Portuguese control. ... For other uses, see Commando (disambiguation). ... Combatants Australia Netherlands United Kingdom United States Empire of Japan Commanders William Leggatt; William Veale; Alexander Spence; Bernard Callinan Sadashichi Doi (invasion); Yuitsu Tsuchihashi (later campaign) Strength approx. ...


Soviet Union

See also: Soviet-German relations before 1941

Relations between the Soviet Union and the major Axis powers were generally hostile before 1939. In the Spanish Civil War, the Soviet Union gave military aid to the Second Spanish Republic, against Spanish Nationalist forces, which were assisted by Germany and Italy. However the Nationalist forces were victorious. In 1938 and 1939, the USSR fought and defeated Japan in two separate border wars, at Lake Khasan and Khalkhin Gol. The Soviets suffered another political defeat when an ally, Czechoslovakia, was partitioned and partially annexed, by Germany, Hungary and Poland — with the agreement of Britain and France — in 1938-39. Signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Cooperation between Germany and Soviet Union dates to the aftermath of the First World War. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Soviet redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War be merged into this article or section. ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Surrender to Franco April 1, 1939 Currency Spanish peseta... Flag Motto Una Grande Libre Anthem Marcha Real Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Religion Roman Catholic Church Government Monarchy Head of State¹  - 1939-1975 Francisco Franco  - 1975-1978 Juan Carlos I Legislature Cortes Generales Historical era Cold War  - Spanish Civil War 1936-1939  - Republic defeated April 4, 1939  - Death of... Combatants Soviet Union Empire of Japan Commanders Vasily Blyukher Nikolai Berzarin Kotoku Sato Strength 22,950 20,000+ Casualties 717 killed, 75 missing 525 killed, 913 wounded Soviet-Japanese Border Wars Lake Khasan – Khalkhin Gol The Battle of Lake Khasan ( July 29, 1938 – August 11, 1938) and also known as... Combatants Soviet Union Mongolian Peoples Republic Empire of Japan Manchukuo Commanders Georgy Zhukov Michitaro Komatsubara Strength 57,000 30,000 (initially), 60,000 (as positions reinforced) Casualties Archival research 7,974 killed, 15,251 wounded[1] Japanese government claim 8,440 killed, 8,766 wounded Soviet claim 60,000... For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy Chamberlain holds the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ...


There were talks between Soviet Union and United Kingdom and France for an alliance against the growing power of Germany but these talks failed. As a result, on August 23, 1939, the Soviet Union and Germany signed the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, which included a secret protocol whereby the independent countries of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Romania were divided into spheres of interest of the parties. is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... A sphere of influence is a metaphorical region of political influences surrounding a country. ...


On September 1, barely a week after the pact had been signed, the partition of Poland commenced with the German invasion. The Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east on September 17. is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Poland Germany Soviet Union Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-Śmigły Fedor von Bock (Army Group North), Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South), Mikhail Kovalev (Belorussian Front), Semyon Timoshenko (Ukrainian Front), Ferdinand Čatloš (Field Army Bernolák) Strength 39 divisions, 16 brigades, 4,300 guns, 880 tanks, 400 aircraft Total... Combatants Poland Germany Soviet Union Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-Śmigły Fedor von Bock (Army Group North), Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South), Mikhail Kovalev (Belorussian Front), Semyon Timoshenko (Ukrainian Front), Ferdinand Čatloš (Field Army Bernolák) Strength 39 divisions, 16 brigades, 4,300 guns, 880 tanks, 400 aircraft Total... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Soon after that, the Soviet Union occupied Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, in addition, it annexed Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina from Romania. The Soviet Union attacked Finland on November 30, 1939 which started the Winter War. Finnish defence prevented an all-out invasion, but Finland was forced to cede strategically important border areas near Leningrad. This term is generally used for the Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) in the first phases of World War II. // History of the occupation Before the beginning of World War II Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union signed an ostensible non-aggression treaty known as... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... Bukovina (Ukrainian: , Bukovyna; Romanian: Bucovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov, later Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 3,000 tanks 3,800 aircraft[3][4] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[5] 126,875 dead... Leningrad (Russian: Ленинград) may mean: St. ...


The Soviet Union supported Germany in the war effort against Western Europe through the German-Soviet Commercial Agreement with exports of raw materials (phosphates, chromium and iron ore, mineral oil, grain, cotton, rubber). These and other export goods were being transported through Soviet and occupied Polish territories and allowed Germany to circumvent the British naval blockade. Germany ended the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact by invading the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa on June 22, 1941. That resulted in the Soviet Union becoming one of the main members of Allies. The German-Soviet Commercial Agreement was an economic arrangement between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany signed on September 28, 1939. ... material is the substance or matter from which something is or can be made, or also items needed for doing or creating something. ... In chemistry, a phosphate is a polyatomic ion or radical consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen. ... General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... Mineral oil or liquid petrolatum is a by-product in the distillation of petroleum to produce gasoline. ... This article is about cereals in general. ... Cotton ready for harvest. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Germany, Romania, Finland, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Maresal Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Gariboldi, ARMIR Joseph Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A representation of the changes in territory controlled by Allies and Axis powers over the course of the war. ...


Germany then revived its Anti-Comintern Pact enlisting many European and Asian countries in opposition to the Soviet Union.


The Soviet Union and Japan remained neutral towards each other for most of the war by Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact. The Soviet Union ended the Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact by invading Manchukuo in Operation August Storm on August 8, 1945. The Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact refers to a pact between the Soviet Union and Japan signed on April 13, 1941, two years after the Soviet-Japanese Border War (1939). ... Combatants Soviet Union Peoples Republic of Mongolia Japan Manchukuo Mengjiang Commanders Aleksandr Vasilevsky Otsuzo Yamada Strength Soviet Union 1,577,225 men, 26,137 artillery, 1,852 sup. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Spain

Main article: Spain in World War II

Generalísimo Francisco Franco's Spanish State gave moral, economic, and military assistance to the Axis powers, while nominally maintaining neutrality. Franco described Spain as a "nonbelligerent" member of the Axis and signed the Anti-Comintern Pact of 1941 with Hitler and Mussolini. While officially neutral during the Second World War, General Francos Spanish State gave considerable material, economic, and military assistance to the Axis Powers. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Spain_Under_Franco. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Spain_Under_Franco. ... Flag Motto Una Grande Libre Anthem Marcha Real Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Religion Roman Catholic Church Government Monarchy Head of State¹  - 1939-1975 Francisco Franco  - 1975-1978 Juan Carlos I Legislature Cortes Generales Historical era Cold War  - Spanish Civil War 1936-1939  - Republic defeated April 4, 1939  - Death of... General Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 - November 20, [1] 1975), commonly abbreviated to Francisco Franco (pron. ... Flag Motto Una Grande Libre Anthem Marcha Real Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Religion Roman Catholic Church Government Monarchy Head of State¹  - 1939-1975 Francisco Franco  - 1975-1978 Juan Carlos I Legislature Cortes Generales Historical era Cold War  - Spanish Civil War 1936-1939  - Republic defeated April 4, 1939  - Death of... War economy is the term used to describe the contingencies undertaken by the modern state to mobilize its economy for war production. ... Neutrality: Neutrality in international law is the status of a nation that refrains from participation in a war between other states and maintains an impartial attitude toward the belligerents. ...


Franco had won the Spanish Civil War with the help of Germany and Italy. Spain owed Germany over $212 million for supplies of matériel during the Spanish Civil War, and Italian combat troops had actually fought in Spain on the side of Franco's Nationalists. It has been suggested that Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War be merged into this article or section. ... Matériel (from the French for equipment or hardware, related to the word material) is a term used in English to refer to the equipment and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ...


When Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941, Franco immediately offered to form a unit of military volunteers to join the invasion. This was accepted by Hitler and, within two weeks, there were more than enough volunteers to form a division - the Blue Division (División Azul in Spanish) under General Agustín Muñoz Grandes. The Blue Division (Spanish División Azul, German: ), or 250. ... Major General Muñoz Grandes. ...


Additionally, over 100,000 Spanish civilian workers were sent to Germany to help maintain industrial production to free up able bodied German men for military service.


References

  • Weinberg, Gerhard L. (2005). A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II, 2nd edition, NY: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521853168.  Provides a scholarly overview.
  • Dear, Ian C. B.; Foot, Michael Richard Daniell (eds.) (2005). The Oxford Companion to World War II. Oxford University Press. ISBN 019280670X.  A reference book with encyclopedic coverage of all military, political and economic topics.
  • Kirschbaum, Stanislav (1995). A History of Slovakia: The Struggle for Survival. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-10403-0.  Entails Slovakia's involvement during the World War II.
  1. ^ Jasenovac United States Holocaust Memorial Museum web site
  2. ^ Seppinen, Ilkka: Suomen ulkomaankaupan ehdot 1939-1940 (Conditions of Finnish foreign trade 1939-1940), 1983, ISBN 951-9254-48-X
  3. ^ British Foreign Office Archive, 371/24809/461-556
  4. ^ Jokipii, Mauno: Jatkosodan synty (Birth of the Continuation War), 1987, ISBN 951-1-08799-1
  5. ^ Christian Bachelier, L'armée française entre la victoire et la défaite, in La France des années noires, dir. Azéma & Bédarida, Le Seuil, édition 2000, coll. points-histoire, Tome 1, p.98
  6. ^ Albert Lebrun's biography, French Republic Presidential official website
  7. ^ Robert O. Paxton, 1993, "La Collaboration d'État" in La France des Années Noires, Ed. J. P. Azéma & François Bédarida, Éditions du Seuil, Paris
  8. ^ http://www.navalhistory.dk/Danish/Historien/1939_1945/IkkeAngrebsPagt.htm (Danish)
  9. ^ Trommer, Aage. "Denmark". The Occupation 1940-45. Foreign Ministry of Denmark. Retrieved on 2006-09-20.
  10. ^ Lidegaard, Bo (2003). Dansk Udenrigspolitisk Historie, vol. 4. Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 461-463. ISBN 87-7789-093-0.  (Danish)
  11. ^ Danish Legion Military and Feldpost History. Retrieved on 2006-09-20.
  12. ^ http://www.marinehistorie.dk/Danish/Tidslinie/Maanedsvis/08_Aug.htm
  13. ^ http://www.navalhistory.dk/danish/Historien/1939_1945/dk_efter29august.htm
  14. ^ http://www.marinehistorie.dk/Danish/Historien/1939_1945/DenDanskeFlotille.htm
  15. ^ http://www.danforce.dk/article/articleview/2/1/1/
  16. ^ http://befrielsen1945.emu.dk/temaer/befrielsen/jubel/index.html (Danish)

Michael Richard Daniell Foot (born 1919), usually known as M.R.D. Foot, is a British historian. ... Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark (Danish: Udenrigsministeriet) handles Denmarks foreign affairs. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gyldendalske Boghandel, Nordisk Forlag A/S, in Denmark usually referred to simply as Gyldendal, is a Danish publishing house. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

General information

Pacts and treaties Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A representation of the changes in territory controlled by Allies and Axis powers over the course of the war. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of Native Pro-Axis Leaders and Governments or Direct Control in Occupied Territories, including: territories with some indigenous pro-Axis leaders collaborating local administrations direct administration by occupying pro-Axis forces Albania (until 1945) Austria (until 1945) Czech Republic (until 1945) Ruthenia (until 1944) Belgium (until... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Expansion operations and planning of the Axis Powers. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Area under Axis control over the course of the war shown in black. ... // Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler, the leaders of the two main Axis powers in Europe. ... Greatest extent of Italian control of the Mediterranean littoral and seas (within green line & dots) in summer/fall 1942. ...

The Tripartite Pact, also called the Three-Power Pact, Axis Pact, Three-way Pact or Tripartite Treaty was a pact signed in Berlin, Germany on September 27, 1940 by Saburo Kurusu of Imperial Japan, Adolf Hitler of Nazi Germany, and Benito Mussolini of Fascist Italy entering as a military alliance... Ciano, the Italian Foreign Minister. ... The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and Japan on November 25, 1936. ... The Ryti-Ribbentrop letter of agreement (Finnish: Ryti-Ribbentrop sopimus) of June 26, 1944, signifies the closest to an alliance Finland and Nazi Germany came during World War II. According to the agreement, Risto Ryti, then President of Finland, undertook not to conclude peace in the Continuation War with the... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ...

External links

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