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Encyclopedia > Axis powers
Axis Powers
Military alliance
1940 – 1945
Location of Axis Powers
Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers
Capital Not applicable
Political structure Military alliance
Historical era World War II
 - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940
 - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936
 - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939
 - Dissolved 1945

The Axis powers, also interpreted as Axis alliance, Axis nations, Axis countries or sometimes just the Axis were those countries opposed to the Allies during World War II. The three major Axis powers, Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Imperial Japan were part of a military alliance on the signing of the Tripartite Pact in September 1940, which officially founded the Axis powers. At their zenith, the Axis powers ruled empires that dominated large parts of Europe, Africa, East and Southeast Asia and the Pacific Ocean, but World War II ended with their total defeat. Like the Allies, membership of the Axis was fluid, and some nations entered and later left the Axis during the course of the war. [1] A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... For the government in parliamentary systems, see Executive (government) A government is a body that has the power to make and the authority to enforce rules and laws within a civil, corporate, religious, academic, or other organization or group . ... A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Tripartite Treaty (1906) also refers to a 1906 treaty concerning the Nile river (see Hydropolitics in the Nile Basin. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and Japan on November 25, 1936. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Pact of Steel, known formally as the Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy, was an agreement between Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany signed on May 22, 1939, by the foreign ministers of each country and witnessed by Count Galeazzo Ciano for Italy and Joachim von Ribbentrop... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the connotation of the term relating to chemistry, see Solvation. ... Map of the World with the Participants in World War II. The western allies are shown in blue, the eastern allies in red, the Axis Powers in black, and neutral countries in grey. ... This article describes a type of political entity. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister  - 1885-1888, 1892-1896, 1898, 1900-1901 Itō Hirobumi  - 1888-1889 Kuroda Kiyotaka  - 1889-1891 Yamagata Aritomo  - 1906-1908, 1911-1912 Saionji Kinmochi... A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ... The Tripartite Treaty (1906) also refers to a 1906 treaty concerning the Nile river (see Hydropolitics in the Nile Basin. ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...

Contents

Origins

Tripartite Pact signing. Seated on the left starting with Saburo Kurusu, Galeazzo Ciano and Adolf Hitler.
Main article: Tripartite Pact

The term was first used by Benito Mussolini, in November 1936, when he spoke of a Rome-Berlin axis arising out of the treaty of friendship signed between Italy and Germany on October 25, 1936. Mussolini declared that the two countries would form an "axis" around which the other states of Europe would revolve. This treaty was forged when Italy, originally opposed to Germany, was faced with opposition to its war in Abyssinia from the League of Nations and received support from Germany. Later, in May 1939, this relationship transformed into an alliance, called by Mussolini the "Pact of Steel". Saburo Kurusu, (1886-1954), Japanese career diplomat. ... Gian Galeazzo Ciano, Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari (March 18, 1903 – January 11, 1944), was Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs and Benito Mussolinis son-in-law. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The Tripartite Treaty (1906) also refers to a 1906 treaty concerning the Nile river (see Hydropolitics in the Nile Basin. ... Mussolini redirects here. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... The axis of rotation of a rotating body is a line such that the distance between any point on the line and any point of the body remains constant under the rotation. ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Kingdom of Italy Ethiopian Empire Commanders Benito Mussolini Emilio De Bono Pietro Badoglio Rodolfo Graziani Haile Selassie Ras Imru Strength 800,000 combatants (only ~330,000 mobilized) ~250,000 combatants Casualties 10,000 killed1 (est. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... The Pact of Steel, known formally as the Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy, was an agreement between Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany signed on May 22, 1939, by the foreign ministers of each country and witnessed by Count Galeazzo Ciano for Italy and Joachim von Ribbentrop...


The term "Axis powers" formally took the name after the Tripartite Pact was signed by Germany, Italy and Japan on September 27, 1940 in Berlin, Germany. The pact was subsequently joined by Hungary (November 20, 1940), Romania (November 23, 1940), Slovakia (November 24, 1940) and Bulgaria (March 1, 1941). The Italian name Roberto briefly acquired a new meaning from "Rome-Berlin-Tokyo" between 1940 and 1945. Its most militarily powerful members were Germany, Italy, and Japan. These two nations had also signed the Anti-Comintern Pact with each other as allies before the Tripartite Pact in 1936. is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Look up Robert in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and Japan on November 25, 1936. ...


Participating nations

Major Axis powers

Three major Axis powers were the original signatories to the Tripartite Pact: The Tripartite Treaty (1906) also refers to a 1906 treaty concerning the Nile river (see Hydropolitics in the Nile Basin. ...


Germany

Main article: Nazi Germany

Germany was the principal Axis power in Europe. Its official name was Deutsches Reich (German Reich) and after 1943, Grossdeutsches Reich (Greater German Reich), but during this period is most commonly known as Nazi Germany after its ruling National Socialist German Workers' Party. Germany was headed by Führer and Chancellor Adolf Hitler, a dictator who as Chancellor had seized absolute power in 1934 upon the death of President Paul von Hindenburg. Hitler merged the offices of President and Chancellor and declared himself Führer. During the last days of the war, Admiral Karl Dönitz succeeded Hitler as Reichspräsident (but not as Führer). Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... This article is about the German word Reich, and in particular to its historical and political implications. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Nazi swastika symbol The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... Nazi propaganda poster. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... Hitler redirects here. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... Karl Dönitz (IPA pronunciation:  ) (born 16 September 1891; died 24 December 1980) was a German naval leader, who commanded the German Navy (Kriegsmarine) during the second half of World War II. Dönitz was also President of Germany for 23 days after Adolf Hitlers suicide. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with President of Germany. ...


Germany's motive for the war was avenging the perceived humiliation suffered in 1919 at the Treaty of Versailles at the end of World War I and pursuing the Nazi plan of creating a vast German empire across Europe in which inferior races would be eliminated, such as Jews, and Slavs, all to be replaced by the Germans of the so-called "Aryan Race". This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... The Aryan race is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ...


The Treaty of Versailles forced Germany to cede all of its overseas colonies and to make major land concessions to its neighbors, especially Poland. The German province of East Prussia was separated from mainland Germany due to the creation of the so-called Polish Corridor, a section of land with a minority population of Germans and majority of Poles linking Poland to the Baltic Sea. Also, the Treaty of Versailles forbade German-populated Austria or the German-populated Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia from unifying with Germany, to the frustration of the popular Pan-German nationalist movement. The Polish Corridor was a contentious issue for Germany in 1939, as Germans were minority in the area. East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Polish Corridor (German: ; Polish: ) was the term used between the World Wars to refer to the Polish territory which separated the German exclave of East Prussia from the German province of Pomerania. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... Sudetenland (Czech and Polish: Sudety) was the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the Western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ... Pan-Germanism, one of the ethnically-charged political movements of the 19th century for unity of the German-speaking peoples of Europe. ...


The creation of the Free City of Danzig was another controversy, as it was separated from Germany even though it was overwhelmingly populated by Germans. Further, the city had been run by a Nazi regime since 1933, which wished to join Germany in opposition to the desire of Poland for it to remain separate. In 1939, Germany demanded that Poland allow Danzig to join Germany as well as concede the Polish Corridor. The Polish government refused. Finally on September 1, 1939, German agents disguised themselves as Polish soldiers and "raided" a German town, in which they broadcast a variety of anti-German phrases in Polish via radio. The "raiders" were then officially arrested and later released. The Nazi regime used the incident as a pretext, claiming that Poland had declared war on Germany. The invasion of Poland quickly followed, precipitating World War II. Flag of Danzig The Free City of Danzig refers to either of two short-lived city-states which were centered on the present-day Baltic port known as Gdańsk (German: Danzig). ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


At the start of the Second World War Germany included Austria, which it annexed in 1938, the Sudetenland, which was ceded by Czechoslovakia in 1938, and Memelland which was ceded by Lithuania in 1939. The Protectorate of Bohemia-Moravia, created in 1939, was a part of the Nazis' Greater Germany, although it was autonomous and had a Czech civil government below the German-led position of Reichsprotektor. Ceremonies during the annexation of Hawaii. ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... Sudetenland (Czech and Polish: Sudety) was the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the Western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (in German: Reichsprotektorat Böhmen und Mähren, in Czech: Protektorát Čechy a Morava) was a German protectorate that arose in central parts of Bohemia and Moravia on March 15, 1939 when Germany invaded the western part of former Czechoslovakia, the former Austrian provinces Bohemia and... Grossdeutschland (literally Greater Germany) is a term that has been used in two separate contexts over history. ... Protector is historical title with multiple meanings; this article also includes a few litteral equivalents thus rendered // Political & Administrative Heads of State in Europe in Iceland: one Sovereign was styled Beskytter af hele e Island (Protector of Land of Iceland) 25 Jun - 22 Aug 1809 (an intermezzo between Danish Governors...


Germany annexed additional territory during the course of the Second World War. On September 2, 1939, the day after the German invasion of Poland, the pro-Nazi government of the Free City of Danzig voted to reunite with Germany. On October 10, 1939, after the defeat and occupation of Poland, Hitler issued decrees annexing the Polish Corridor, West Prussia and Upper Silesia, all formerly German territories lost to Poland under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. The remainder of Poland was organized into the "Government General for the Occupied Polish Territories" for eventual annexation to the Reich. is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag of Danzig The Free City of Danzig refers to either of two short-lived city-states which were centered on the present-day Baltic port known as Gdańsk (German: Danzig). ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Polish Corridor (German: ; Polish: ) was the term used between the World Wars to refer to the Polish territory which separated the German exclave of East Prussia from the German province of Pomerania. ... One of four districts of East Prussia in 1920 - 1938. ... Map of Upper Silesia, 1746 Upper Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Latin: Silesia Superior; Polish: ; Silesian: Gůrny Ślůnsk) is the southeastern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia; Lower Silesia is to the northwest. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... The General Government (in full General government for the occupied Polish areas, in German Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete) was the name given by Germany to the governing authority in Poland after its occupation by the Wehrmacht in September and October 1939. ...


On its western frontier, Germany made additional annexations after its defeat of France and occupation of Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg in 1940. Germany immediately annexed the predominantly German Eupen-Malmedy from Belgium in 1940, placing the rest of the country under military occupation. Luxembourg, an independent grand duchy formerly associated with Germany, was formally annexed in 1942. Alsace-Lorraine, a region claimed by both Germany and France for centuries, was likewise annexed in 1942. In the Balkans, Slovenia was annexed in 1941 after Yugoslavia was occupied and dismembered. Once called the redeemed cantons, the “East Cantons” (in German, die Ostkantonen, in French, les Cantons de l’Est), are composed from the former Prussian districts (Kreise in German) of Malmedy, Eupen, increased with the neutral Moresnet. ... Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander...


After the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, Greater Germany was enlarged to include parts of Poland occupied by the Soviet Union in 1939. A Ministry of Eastern Territories was organized to administer the Baltic States, the Ukraine and Russia after they had been seized from the Soviet Union. State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None (Russian in practice) Capital Moscow Chairman of the Supreme Council Boris Yeltsin Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 1st in former Soviet Union 17,075,200 km² 0,5% Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked 1st in the former...


Other territories occupied by the Germans were subject to separate civilian commissariats or to direct military rule. Occupied Europe or Fortress Europe was the name given to the countries of Europe which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945. ... US General Douglas MacArthur (left), military ruler of Japan 1945-1952, next to Japans defeated Emperor, Hirohito Military rule may mean: Militarism as an ideology of government Military occupation (or Belligerent occupation), when a country or area is conquered after invasion List of military occupations Martial law, where military...


Japan

Main article: Empire of Japan

Japan was the principal Axis power in Asia and the Pacific; officially known as Dai Nippon Teikoku, meaning “Empire of Greater Japan”, known commonly as Imperial Japan for its imperial ambitions toward Asia and the Pacific. Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister  - 1885-1888, 1892-1896, 1898, 1900-1901 Itō Hirobumi  - 1888-1889 Kuroda Kiyotaka  - 1889-1891 Yamagata Aritomo  - 1906-1908, 1911-1912 Saionji Kinmochi... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister  - 1885-1888, 1892-1896, 1898, 1900-1901 Itō Hirobumi  - 1888-1889 Kuroda Kiyotaka  - 1889-1891 Yamagata Aritomo  - 1906-1908, 1911-1912 Saionji Kinmochi... Pacific redirects here. ...


Japan was ruled by emperor Hirohito. The constitution prescribed that "The Emperor is the head of the Empire, combining in Himself the rights of sovereignty, and exercises them, according to the provisions of the present Constitution" (article 4) and that "The Emperor has the supreme command of the Army and the Navy" (article 11). Under the imperial institution were a political cabinet and Imperial General Headquarters with two chiefs of staff. Fumimaro Konoe and Hideki Tojo, had the longest terms as prime ministers. For the Army and the Navy, Prince Kan'in, Hajime Sugiyama, prince Hiroyasu Fushimi and Osami Nagano occupied the functions of chief of staff for most of the war. An emperorrefers to Nick Herringshaw, a title, empress may only indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... The Imperial General Headquarters or Daihonei, as part of the Supreme War Council was the supreme command for Japanese military forces during the World War II era. ... Fumimaro Konoe Prince Fumimaro Konoe (è¿‘è¡ž{è¡› in Shinjitai} 文麿 Konoe Fumimaro) (sometimes Konoye, October 12, 1891–December 16, 1945) was a Japanese politician and the 34th (June 4, 1937–January 5, 1939), 38th (July 22, 1940–July 18, 1941) and 39th (July 18, 1941–October 18, 1941) Prime Minister of Japan. ... Hideki Tojo (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;  ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ... His Imperial Highness Prince Kanin (Kotohito) of Japan (Kanin-no-miya Kotohito Shinnō) (10 November 1865 - 21 May 1945), was a member of the Japanese imperial family and a career army officer who served as chief of staff of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1931 to 1940. ... Hajime Sugiyama (Sujiyama; 1880—September 12, 1945) was a chief of the Japanese General Staff, Inspector-General of military training, minister of war and a Commander-in-Chief of the 1st General Army during World War II. In 1941 Sugiyama confidently told Emperor Hirohito that Japanese operations in the South... Prince Fushimi Hiroyasu ) (16 October 1875 - 16 August 1946) was a scion of the Japanese imperial family and was a career naval officer who served as chief of staff of the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1932 to 1940. ... In this Japanese name, the family name is Nagano Fleet Admiral Osami Nagano , 15 June 1880 – 5 January 1947) was a career naval officer in the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1934. ...


Japan's first major belligerent action was in the Second Sino-Japanese War against the Republic of China. The Japanese invasion and harsh occupation resulted in numerous atrocities against civilians such as the Nanking massacre and the Three Alls Policy of scorched earth. Even though not officially involved, many Americans rushed to help the Chinese, and American airmen helped the Chinese. The United States also instituted in 1941 an embargo against Japan, cutting off the supply of raw materials and oil needed for its industry and war effort. Belligerents China United States1 Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army2 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Albert Wedemeyer Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Rape of Nanking redirects here. ... The Three Alls Policy (Japanese: 三光作戦, Sankō Sakusen; Chinese: 三光政策, Sánguáng Zhèngcè) was a Japanese scorched earth policy adopted in China during World War II. Although the Chinese characters literally mean three lights policy, in this case, the character for light actually means all. Thus, the term is more... For the computer game, see Scorched Earth (computer game). ...


As a result, Japan had a large number of troops fighting in China against the Nationalists, but also engaged the Americans, the Canadians, the British (together with Australians and Indians), and the Philippines in the wider Pacific War. The Soviet Union also fought skirmishes with Japanese forces in Manchukuo in 1938 and 1939. The Soviets formally declared war in August 1945 and engaged Japanese forces in Manchuria and northeast China during Operation August Storm. For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... Combatants Soviet Union Peoples Republic of Mongolia Japan Manchukuo Commanders Georgy Zhukov Michitaro Komatsubara Strength 57,000 30,000 Casualties 6,831 killed, 15,952 wounded (stated estimate) 8,440 killed, 8,766 wounded (stated estimate) The Battle of Khalkhyn Gol (Mongolian: ; Japanese: ノモンハン事件 Nomonhan jiken), named after the river... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... Combatants Soviet Union Peoples Republic of Mongolia Japan Manchukuo Mengjiang Commanders Aleksandr Vasilevsky Otsuzo Yamada Strength Soviet Union 1,577,225 men, 26,137 artillery, 1,852 sup. ...


Japan's reasons for joining the axis were firstly its needs to be a self-sufficient world power by acquiring more natural resources and secondly to expand its imperialist ambitions in the form of territorial expansion. Japan needed raw materials and also oil, the oil fields in the South East Asia - specifically the Dutch East Indies. With European colonial powers focused with the war in Europe, Japan sought to acquire their colonies. Only the United States stood to oppose Japanese ambitions, with American embargoes being a major factor. In order to isolate American forces in the Philippines and American naval power, the Imperial Japanese Navy attacked the U.S. Naval Base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on December 7, 1941. The Japanese also invaded Malaysia and Hong Kong. The following day President Franklin D. Roosevelt asked the US Congress to declare war on Japan, saying that December 7 would be "a date which will live in infamy." The Japanese initially were able to inflict a series of defeats against the allies, however by 1943 American industrial strength was made apparent and the Japanese were pushed back towards the home islands. The Pacific War lasting until the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For Combined Fleet, please see that article. ... This article is about the harbor in Hawaii. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... FDR redirects here. ... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ...


At its height, Japan's Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere included Manchuria, Inner Mongolia, large parts of China, Malaysia, French Indochina, Dutch East Indies, The Philippines, Burma, some of India, and various other Pacific Islands - specifically in the central union. Poster of Manchukuo promoting harmony between Japanese, Han Chinese and Manchu. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Italy

Main article: Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)
Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy

Italy was the other European member of the Axis with two incarnations, both under the leadership of the fascist dictator Benito Mussolini. Its first incarnation was officially known as Regno d'Italia meaning Kingdom of Italy. The impact of the war on the country has indicated that Italy was the weakest of the three major Axis powers. Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946). ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... A dictator is an authoritarian, often totalitarian ruler (e. ... Mussolini redirects here. ...


Italy's motive for war was its Fascist regime's intention to create a "New Roman Empire" in which Italy would dominate the Mediterranean Sea. During the Roman Empire the Mediterranean had been called Mare Nostrum (Latin for "Our Sea"), fascists and many Italian nationalists again desired an Italian controlled Mediterranean. In the late 19th century after the reunification, a nationalist movement grew around the concept of Italia irredenta which advocated the incorporation of Italian-speaking areas under foreign rule into Italy. The irredenta agenda would be a factor in the Italian Fascist government to regain Dalmatia held by Yugoslavia. Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... The New Roman Empire (Italian: Nuovo Impero Romano, Latin: Novum Imperium Romanum) was the new state created by Benito Mussolini to describe the Italian colonial empire, especially following Italys 1935-36 conquest of Abyssinia. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Greatest extent of Italian control of the Mediterranean littoral and seas (within green line & dots) in summer/fall 1942. ... A 1935 map of the Regions claimed as irredente by Fascist Italy. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ...


Italian nationalists also wished to establish a colonial empire in order to raise the country's prestige. First, Tunisia was considered because of its geographical proximity to Italy, however the French were able to establish their rule in 1881. Many Italians were angered by this move, the loss of a potential colony and became wary of French intentions. The homeland of the Italian monarchy, Savoy, had been to be given to the French in 1860 in exchange for French recognition of the new Italian state. This caused tension between the monarchy and France. However Italy was able to establish colonies in Africa such as in the present day countries of Libya, Eritrea, and Somalia (except a portion called British Somaliland). Italy's failure to capture Ethiopia in the late 1800s was another national humiliation which the future Fascist government promised to avenge. Flag of Savoy This article is about the historical region of Savoy. ... Flag Capital Aden Religion Islam Political structure Protectorate History  - Established 1884  - Independence June 26, 1960  - Somaliland established 18 May, 1991 Currency British pound British Somaliland was a British protectorate in the north part of the Horn of Africa, and later part of Somalia and presently the unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ...


At the end of World War I in 1919, however, although Italy, which had allied against Germany and Austria-Hungary, made only minor gains rather than the large concessions promised to Italy by the London Pact. Italy gained the Italian-populated territories of Trentino and Istria, it received only a miniscule portion of Dalmatia situated in the city of Zadar, and a few small Adriatic islands. The London pact was nullified with the treaty of Versailles. Italian nationalists and the public saw this as an injustice and an outrage, there had been over 600,000 Italian casualties. Nationalist paramilitaries seized the Yugoslav town of Fiume following the war, this resentment together with internal discontent and an economic downturn allowed the Italian Fascists under Benito Mussolini to rise to power in 1922. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... London Pact (Italian Patto di Londra) was a secret pact between Italy and Triple Entente, signed in London on April 26, 1915 by Italy, Great Britain, France and Russia. ... For other uses, see Zadar (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... Rijeka (Fiume in Italian and Hungarian; Rijeka and Fiume both mean river) is the principal seaport of Croatia, located on the Kvarner Bay, an inlet of the Adriatic Sea. ... Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Mussolini redirects here. ...


The Kingdom of Italy was then ruled by Benito Mussolini in the name of King Victor Emmanuel III. The Fascists promised to regain Italy's honor and rhetoric was used for the long held a desire for a new Italian Empire, reminiscent of the powerful Roman Empire, Mussolini's new empire was to rule over the Mediterranean and North Africa. This new empire would also avenge past the betrayal of the Versailles treaty. Promised to the Italian people was "a place in the sun", to compete with the large colonial empires possessed by the United Kingdom and France at the time. The Fascist regime was quite popular amongst Italians in the lead up to war with its nationalist agenda. Victor Emmanuel III (Italian: ; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was King of Italy (29 July 1900 – 9 May 1946), Emperor of Ethiopia (1936–43) and King of Albania (1939–43). ... The Italian empire in 1941 The Italian Empire (Italian: Impero Italiano) was a 19th and 20th century colonial empire, which lasted from 1889 to 1943. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


In 1935, Italy invaded Ethiopia in order to incorporate into its empire, acquire its resources and avenge the defeat at the Battle of Adwa in 1896. The League of Nations protested, however no serious action was taken, though Italy faced diplomatic isolation by many countries with the important exception of Germany which supported Italy's war. The conquest was complete on May 7, 1936 with Victor Emmanuel III being crowned the Emperor of Ethiopia on May 9. In 1936, Italian Somaliland, Eritrea and Ethiopia were joined and incorporated into the newly formed Italian East Africa. In 1937 Italy left the League of Nations. Combatants Kingdom of Italy Ethiopian Empire Commanders Benito Mussolini Emilio De Bono Pietro Badoglio Rodolfo Graziani Haile Selassie Ras Imru Strength 800,000 combatants (only ~330,000 mobilized) ~250,000 combatants Casualties 10,000 killed1 (est. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Italian East Africa Italian East Africa or Empire of Italian East Africa (Italian: Africa Orientale Italiana, AOI) was a short-lived (1936-1941) Italian colony in Africa consisting of Ethiopia (recently occupied after the Second Italo-Abyssinian War) and the colonies of Italian Somaliland and Eritrea. ...


In public, Mussolini showed support of Hitler and the affinity of Fascism to Nazism, in private Mussolini and the Italian Fascists showed dissapproval of the Nazi regime, and only saw it as useful as expanding fascism through Europe, but wanted it to remain a subordinate partner. In 1934, Italy almost went to war with Germany over the issue of Austrian independence. However Italy's diplomatic isolation after the war with Ethiopia and Germany's rising influence caused Mussolini to reluctantly pursue closer ties with Germany as a means to maintain Italian influence on the international stage. In 1937, Italy joined the Anti-Comintern Pact which was signed by Germany and Japan the preceding year. mutual disdain by both leaders of the Treaty of Versailles and the two countries' isolation in the diplomatic arena, brought Hitler and Mussolini together, putting away previous tensions between the two regimes over the issue of Austrian independence, the status of the German of South Tyrol and the issue anti-Semitism which the Italian Fascists and most Italians did not sympathize with (as a number of Fascists were Jewish). In 1938, the regimes of Germany and Italy synthesized their agendas, with Fascist Italy reluctantly adopting anti-Semitism in 1938 in which a number of Jewish ex-Fascists were arrested, followed by Nazi Germany abandoning all political ties with the Germans of South Tyrol, saying that all the Germans of Italy would have to accept Italianization or leave Italy entirely. With this achieved, Germany and Italy had no remaining disputes and the alliance became secure. Italians also served with German Volunteers during the Spanish Civil War. The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and Japan on November 25, 1936. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... The Autonomous Province of Bolzano-Bozen[1][2] (Italian: Provincia autonoma di Bolzano; German: Autonome Provinz Bozen; Ladin: Provinzia autonòma de Balsan), also called Alto Adige/Südtirol (Italian: Alto Adige; German: Südtirol; Ladin: Adesc Aut[3][4] or Sudtirol; English: Alto Adige or South Tyrol), is an... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ...


In March/April 1939 Italian troops invaded and occupied Albania. Albania become a de facto protectorate and was joined in a "personal union" with Italy when Victor Emmanuel III was crowned the King of Albania. Germany and Italy also signed the Pact of Steel on May 22. The Pact of Steel, known formally as the Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy, was an agreement between Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany signed on May 22, 1939, by the foreign ministers of each country and witnessed by Count Galeazzo Ciano for Italy and Joachim von Ribbentrop... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Italy entered World War II on June 10, 1940, in the final stages of the battle of France when it seemed that the war would soon be over. Italy invaded southern France, the territories of Savoy and Nice to given to Italy by the newly formed Vichy France. In September 1940, Germany Italy and Japan signed the Tripartite Pact.(Also known as the Axis Pact) is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Belligerents France United Kingdom Canada Czechoslovakia Poland Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III H.G. Winkelman WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Sikorski Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... The Tripartite Treaty (1906) also refers to a 1906 treaty concerning the Nile river (see Hydropolitics in the Nile Basin. ...


The Italians also launched two invasions, one against the British in Egypt the other against Greece. The Italians hoped to join up to their colonies in East Africa by way of Egypt and annex Greece as part of the new Italian Empire. However, by 1941, the Italians had suffered multiple military failures, it was only through German intervention in Yugoslavia, the Operation Marita and North Africa (German Africa Corps) that Italy managed avert a major defeat. Belligerents Italy Albania Greece Commanders Sebastiano Visconti Prasca Ubaldo Soddu Ugo Cavallero Giovanni Messe Alexander Papagos Strength 529,000 men, 463 aircraft[1] Under 300,000 men, 77 aircraft[1] Casualties and losses 63,000[2][3][4] dead, 100,000+[2] wounded, 25,067 missing, 12,368 incapacitated by... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Balkan redirects here. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Deutsches Afrikakorps (often just Afrika Korps or DAK) was the corps-level headquarters controlling the German Panzer divisions in Libya and Egypts Western Desert during the North African Campaign of World War II. Since there was little turnover in the units attached to the corps the term is...


Italy organized puppet Independent State of Montenegro and quisling Province of Ljubljana and from the territories that were either under the administration or annexation. Italy and Germany organized the creation of the Independent State of Croatia led by extreme nationalist Ante Pavelic, leader of the Ustashe movement and a long time Croatian exile who lived in Rome while Fascist Italy allowed his forces to train for war with Yugoslavia in Italy. With this alliance, Croatia ceded central sections of Dalmatia with large Italian populations to the Italian territorial administration called Governatorato di Dalmazia (Governorship of Dalmatia). In exchange, Croatia was allowed to annex all of modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. Flag Capital Cetinje Language(s) Serbian Organizational structure Client state President  - 1941 Serafino Mazzolini  - 1941 - 1943 Alessandro Pirzio Biroli  - 1943 Curio Barbasetti di Prun  - 1943 - 1944 Theodor Geib  - 1944 Wilhelm Keiper Historical era World War II  - Invasion of Yugoslavia 1941  - Disestablished 1944 Currency Italian lira Montenegro existed as a separate... Capital Zagreb Language(s) Croatian Religion Roman Catholicism Political structure Puppet-state King  - 1941-1943 Tomislav II Poglavnik  - 1941-1945 Ante Pavelić Legislature None Historical era World War II  - Established April 10, 1941  - Disestablished May 8, 1945 Population  - 1941 est. ... The title given to this article lacks diacritics because of certain technical limitations. ... The Ustaše (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular Ustaša or Ustasha) was a Croatian right-wing organisation put in charge of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ...


With the occupation Vichy France in 1942, Italy gained parts of southeastern France including Nice and Corsica. However this was not to last, the Italian people had lost faith in Mussolini and no longer supported the war; Italy had lost its colonies, the allies had taken North Africa in May 1943 and Sicily had been invaded in July 1943. Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... This article is about the French city. ... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ...


On July 25, 1943, King Victor Emmanuel III dismissed Mussolini, placed him under arrest, and began secret negotiations with the Allies. Italy signed an armistice with the Allies on September 8, 1943 and later joined the Western Allies as a co-belligerent. The Italians soon fielded a co-belligerent Army, Navy, and Air Force. is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Armistice with Italy is an armistice that occurred on September 8, 1943, during World War II. It was signed by Italy and the Allied armed forces, who were occupying the southern half of the country at the time. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Co-belligerence is waging the war in cooperation against a common enemy without the formal treaty of military alliance. ... The Italian Co-Belligerent Army was the army of the Italian royalist forces fighting on the side of the Allies in southerm Italy after the Allied armistice with Italy in September 1943. ... The Italian Co-Belligerent Navy was the navy of the Italian royalist forces fighting on the side of the Allies in southerm Italy after the Allied armistice with Italy in September 1943. ... The Italian Co-Belligerent Air Force was an air force formed in 1943 in Southern Italy, whose pilots flew with the Allies after the Italian Armistice. ...


On September 12, 1943, Mussolini was rescued by the Germans (Operation Oak) and soon a puppet state with him as its figurehead was formed in northern Italy (see "German puppet states" below). Mussolini exercised little real power and Italy continued as a member of the Axis Tripartite Pact in name only. Mussolini's resurrected Fascist state was known as the Salò Republic (Repubblica di Salò) or the Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana, or RSI). is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Operation Eiche (German for Oak) was the daring rescue of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini by German special forces in World War II. It was planned by General Kurt Student. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... The Tripartite Treaty (1906) also refers to a 1906 treaty concerning the Nile river (see Hydropolitics in the Nile Basin. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Anthem Giovinezza (The Youth)¹ From the Gustav Line to the Gothic Line Capital Salò Language(s) Italian Religion None defined. ... Anthem Giovinezza (The Youth)¹ From the Gustav Line to the Gothic Line Capital Salò Language(s) Italian Religion None defined. ...


Minor powers

Several minor powers formally adhered to the Tripartite Pact between Germany, Italy and Japan in this order:


Hungary

Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary

Hungary, ruled by Admiral Miklós Horthy as Regent, was the first power to adhere to the Tripartite Pact of Germany, Italy, and Japan. Hungary signed the agreement on 20 November 1940. // In Hungary, the Great Depression induced a drop in the standard of living and the political mood of the country shifted further toward the right. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary_1940. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary_1940. ... Map of Hungary before after the Vienna Awards and the invasion of Yugoslavia in World War II. Capital Budapest Language(s) Hungarian Religion Roman Catholic Government Constitutional monarchy King Vacant ¹ Regent Miklós Horthy Prime Minister  - 1920 Sándor Simonyi-Semadam (first)  - 1944 Géza Lakatos (last) Legislature National Assembly... Horthy redirects here. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Hungary's foreign policy under Horthy was driven by the ambition to recover the territories lost through the imposition on her of the Trianon Treaty. Hungary drew closer to Germany and Italy largely because of the shared desire to revise the peace settlements made after the First World War. The negotiations on June 4, 1920. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Hungary's motive for war was like that of Germany: the country suffered territorial losses when Austria-Hungary collapsed. As a kingdom within a dual-monarchy, Hungary had vast territories including all of Slovakia, Transylvania and parts of Croatia which connected Hungary to the Mediterranean Sea. After the war, Hungary became a landlocked country, and lost territories containing Hungarians to Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Yugoslavia. Political instability razed the country until a regency was established by Miklos Horthy, a Hungarian nobleman and Austro-Hungarian naval officer, became Regent in 1920, ruling the kingdom in the absence of an acknowledged king. In Hungary, nationalism was strong as well as anti-Semitism which drew Hungarian nationalists to support the Nazi regime in Germany. Hungary became allied to the Axis powers in 1940, but had received favourable territorial settlements since 1938 to 1939 from Germany in the Vienna Awards, during the collapse of Czechoslovakia. Hungary entered the Axis powers largely in the fear than Germany may take favour to Romania if it did not; Romania itself would become an Axis member one year later. In 1940, Hungary was rewarded further by being granted sections of Transylvania from Romania. Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Admiral Horthy inspecting the German fleet with Adolf Hitler Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya (Vitéz Nagybányai Horthy Miklós in Hungarian) (June 18, 1868–February 9, 1957) was a Hungarian Admiral and statesman and served as the Regent of Hungary from March 1, 1920 until October 15, 1944. ... This article is about the Royal Navy of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Vienna Awards or Vienna Arbitration Awards or Vienna Arbitral Awards or Vienna Diktats or Viennese Arbitrals are various names for two arbitral awards (1938 and 1940) by which arbiters of National Socialist Germany and Fascist Italy sought to enforce peacefully the territorial claims of Revisionist Hungary, ruled by Regent Admiral...


Following political upheaval in Yugoslavia which threatened its continued membership in the Tripartite Pact, Hungary permitted German troops to transit its territory for a military invasion and occupation of that country. On 11 April 1941, five days after Germany invaded Yugoslavia and the German armed forces (Wehrmacht) had largely destroyed the Yugoslav army, Hungary invaded Yugoslavia. Hungarian forces made limited advances. However, Hungary did participate in the partition of Yugoslavia. In response, Great Britain immediately broke off diplomatic relations with Hungary. is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ...


Hungary was not asked to participate in Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union. This operation was launched on 22 June 1941 with attacks from German, Finnish, and Romanian forces as well as a declaration of war by Italy. Five days later, on 27 June, in an attempt to curry favor with Germany, Hungary declared war on the Soviet Union. Hungary raised over 500,000 troops for the Eastern Front. While all five of Hungary's field armies ultimately participated in the war against the Soviet Union, the largest and the most significant contribution by far was made by the Second Army. Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


On 26 November 1941, Hungary was one of thirteen signatories to the revived Anti-Comintern Pact. The other sigatories were: Germany, Japan, Italy, Spain, Manchukuo, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, Romania, Slovakia, and the Nanking regime of Wang Chingwei. is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and Japan on November 25, 1936. ... The ensign of Imperial Japanese Navy was a prominent symbol of Imperial Japan. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... The Slovak Republic (Slovak: Slovenská republika) was an independent national Slovak state and ally of National Socialist (Nazi) Germany during World War II on the territory of present-day Slovakia (with the exception of the southern and eastern parts of present-day Slovakia. ... Nanjing (南京, Pinyin: Nánjīng, Wade-Giles: Nan-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Nanking, formerly Jinling 金陵, Jiangning 江宁, and Tianjing 天京) is the central city of downstream Yangtze Basin and is a renowned historical and cultural city. ... Wang Jingwei (Traditional Chinese: 汪精衛, Simplified Chinese: 汪精卫, Hanyu Pinyin: Wāng Jīngwèi, Wade-Giles: Wang Ching-wei) (1883 - November 1944), was a member of the left wing of the Kuomintang and is most noted from breaking with Chiang Kai-Shek and forming a Japanese supported collaborationist government in Nanjing. ...


On 6 December 1941, Great Britain declared war on Hungary. Several days later, Hungary declared war on Great Britain and the United States of America. The United States declared war on Hungary on 5 June 1942. is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Hungarian troops advanced far into Soviet territory. But in the Soviet counter-offensive around Stalingrad from late 1942 to early 1943, the Hungarian Second Army was almost completely annihilated. The Second Army was destroyed in fighting near Voronezh on the banks of the Don River. Belligerents Germany Romania Italy Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Wolfram von Richthofen Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Gariboldi Gusztáv Vitéz Jány Josef Stalin Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovskiy Rodion Malinovskiy Andrei Yeremenko Strength Army Group B... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Voronezh (Russian: ) is a large city in southwestern Russia, not far from Ukraine. ... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ...


On 19 March 1944, as Soviet troops neared Hungarian territory, the Hungarian military fought fiercely. However, Soviet soldiers beat the Hungarians and moved to Budapest. The Soviets captured the city after fierce fighting. Hungary was occupied, but Hungarian forces retreated to Italy and Germany. They fought here until the end of the war. is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Romania

Romania, under King Michael and the military government of Ion Antonescu, adhered to the Tripartite Pact on November 23, 1940. In June of 1941, after a brief period of nominal neutrality under King Carol, Romania joined the Axis Powers. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... From 1859 to 1877, Romania evolved from a personal union of two vassal principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia) under a single prince to a full-fledged independent kingdom with a Hohenzollern monarchy. ... Office Prime Minister, Conducător of Romania Term of office from September 4, 1940 until August 23, 1944 Profession Soldier, politician Political party none, formally allied with the Iron Guard Spouse Rasela Mendel Date of birth June 15, 1882 Place of birth Piteşti, Romania Date of death June 1... The Tripartite Treaty (1906) also refers to a 1906 treaty concerning the Nile river (see Hydropolitics in the Nile Basin. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Romania entered the First World War in 1916 on the Allied side, but called for peace when its ally, the Russian Empire, collapsed in November 1917. Romania became a German vassal under the Treaty of Bucharest, but when Germany itself suffered defeat in the West, the Treaty of Bucharest was voided. Romania then saw its borders greatly enlarged in the peace treaties imposed on Germany and her allies, but all the regions in Romania were just liberated after a long foreign invasion. Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... A French caricature on the treaty: the Kaiser points a dagger at a woman (Romania), while showing her the Peace Treaty Delegates at the Peace of Bucharest The Treaty of Bucharest was a peace treaty which was signed on May 7, 1918 forced by Germany to the Romanian side. ...


Following the blueprints of the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact, the Soviet Union and Germany exploited the fall of France to revise the terms of those peace treaties, reduced Romania in size. On June 28, 1940, the Soviet Union occupied and annexed Bessarabia, Northern Bukovina and Hertza County. Germany forced Romania to cede Northern Transylvania to Hungary on August 30, 1940, in the second Vienna Award. Germany also forced Romania to give up Southern Dobruja to Bulgaria on September 5, 1940. Molotov (left), Ribbentrop (in black) and Stalin The Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, also known as the Hitler-Stalin pact or Nazi-Soviet pact, was a non-aggression treaty between Germany and Russia, or more precisely between the Soviet Union and the Third Reich. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... Bukovina (Bucovina in Romanian; Буковина, Bukovyna in Ukrainian; Buchenland or Bukowina in German; Bukowina in Polish), on the slopes of the Carpathian Mountains, comprises an historic province now split between Romania and Ukraine. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The two Vienna Awards or Vienna Arbitration Awards or Vienna Arbitral Awards or Vienna Diktats or Viennese Arbitrals is the name of two arbitral awards (1938 and 1940), by which arbiters of the National Socialist Germany and of Fascist Italy tried to enforce territorial claims of the Revisionist Hungary ruled... Southern Dobruja (Южна Добруджа, Yuzhna Dobrudzha in Bulgarian, Dobrogea de sud or Cadrilater in Romanian) is an area of north-eastern Bulgaria comprising the administrative districts named for its two principal cities of Dobrich and Silistra. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In an effort to please Hitler and obtain German protection, King Carol II appointed the General Ion Antonescu Prime Minister on September 6, 1940. Two days later, Antonescu forced the king to abdicate, installed the king's young son Michael on the throne, and declared himself Conducător (Leader) with dictatorial powers. Carol II of Romania, (15 October 1893 – 4 April 1953) reigned as King of Romania from June 8, 1930 until September 6, 1940. ... Office Prime Minister, Conducător of Romania Term of office from September 4, 1940 until August 23, 1944 Profession Soldier, politician Political party none, formally allied with the Iron Guard Spouse Rasela Mendel Date of birth June 15, 1882 Place of birth PiteÅŸti, Romania Date of death June 1... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... King Michael I of the Romanians (born October 25, 1921), Prince of Hohenzollern[1][2][3], reigned as King of the Romanians (in Romanian Maiestatea Sa Mihai I Regele Românilor or Majestatea Sa Mihai I Regele Românilor) from July 20, 1927 to June 8, 1930, and again from... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ...


German troops entered the country on 1941, and used it as a base for its invasions of both Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union. Romania was also a key supplier of resources, especially oil and grain.


Romania joined Germany in invading the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941. Not only was Romania a base for the invasion, the country contributed nearly 800,000 troops - more than any other minor Axis power - to the war against the Soviet Union. German and Romanian troops liberate Moldova, which was incorporated back into Romania. Romania fought together with the German Army for the control of the Crimea Peninsula and Romanian Armies 3 and 4 were involved even in the battle of Stalingrad. is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... Belligerents Germany Romania Italy Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Wolfram von Richthofen Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Gariboldi Gusztáv Vitéz Jány Josef Stalin Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovskiy Rodion Malinovskiy Andrei Yeremenko Strength Army Group B...


After the Soviets turned back the Axis invasion and pushed the front line into Romania, Romania surrendered on August 23, 1944. {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Bulgaria

Bulgaria, under its king Boris III, signed the Tripartite Pact on March 1, 1941. Bulgaria had been an ally of Germany in the First World War, and like Germany and Hungary, sought a revision of the peace terms, specifically the restoration of territories lost in Macedonia and Aegean Thrace. Macedonian Bulgarians greeting the Germans in Sofia in 1941 as future liberators of occupied Macedonia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria_(1878-1944). ... The Treaty of San Stefano of March 3, 1878 provided for an independent Bulgarian state, which spanned over the geographical regions of Moesia, Thrace and Macedonia. ... Tsar Boris III of Bulgaria (January 30, 1894 – August 28, 1943), originally Boris Klemens Robert Maria Pius Ludwig Stanislaus Xaver, son of Ferdinand I, came to the throne in 1918 upon the abdication of his father, following Bulgarias defeat in World War I. This was the countrys second... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


Bulgaria drew closer to Nazi Germany during the 1930s. In 1940, under the terms of the Treaty of Craiova, Germany forced Romania to return Southern Dobrudja to Bulgaria, ceded in 1913. The Treaty of Craiova was signed on September 7, 1940 between Romania and Bulgaria. ... Dobruja or sometimes Dobrudja (Dobrogea in Romanian, Dobrudzha in Bulgarian, Dobruca in Turkish) is the territory between the lower Danube river and the Black Sea, which includes the Danube Delta and the Romanian sea-shore. ...


Bulgaria participated in the German invasion of Yugoslavia and Greece, and annexed Vardar Banovina (today's Republic of Macedonia) from Yugoslavia and eastern Greek Macedonia and Western Thrace from Greece. Bulgarian armed forces garrisoned in the Balkans battled various resistance movements. Despite mounting German pressure, Bulgaria did not join the German invasion of the Soviet Union that began on 22 June 1941 and never declared war on this country. However, despite the lack of official declarations of war by both sides, the Bulgarian Navy was involved in a number of skirmishes with the Soviet Black Sea Fleet, which attacked Bulgarian shipping. Map of the Vardar Banovina Map showing Yugoslav banovinas in 1929 (The Vardar Banovina is coloured green, on the lower right part of the map) The Vardar Banovina or Vardar Banate or in Serbian: Вардарска бановина/Vardarska banovina) was a province (banovina) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... The region called Macedonia (or Makedonia) in Greece is a large section of the north-northwestern part of the country which collectivally with Thrace, is forming Northern Greece. ... Thrace or Greek Thrace or West Thrace or Western Thrace (Greek Θράκη or Ελληνική Θράκη or Δυτική Θράκη, Thrákı or Ellınıki Thrákı or Dıtıki Thrákı; Turkish Trakya or Yunan Trakyası or Batı Trakya) is the part of Thrace located between the rivers Nestos and Evros in northeastern Greece. ... A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign nation through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. ... Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... The Bulgarian Army (Bulgarian: Българска армия) represents the Armed Forces of the Republic of Bulgaria. ... Black Sea Fleet sleeve ensign The Black Sea Fleet (Russian: Черноморский флот) is a large sub-unit of the Russian (and formerly Soviet) Navy, operating in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea since the early 18th century. ...


The Bulgarian government was forced by the Germans to declare war on the United States and United Kingdom. The 'symbolic' war against the Western Allies, however, turned into a disaster for the citizens of Sofia and other major Bulgarian cities, as they were heavily bombed by the USAAF and RAF in 1943 and 1944. This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was the aviation component of the United States Army primarily during World War II. The title of Army Air Forces succeeded the prior name of Army Air Corps in June 1941 during preparation for expected combat in what came to be known as... RAF redirects here. ...


As the Red Army approached the Bulgarian border, on September 2, 1944, a coup brought to power a new government which sought peace with the Allies. However, on September 5 the Soviet Union declared war on Bulgaria and the Red Army marched into the country, meeting no resistance. A new government of the Fatherland Front took power on September 9 and Bulgarian troops fought on the Allies' side throughout the rest of the war. Bulgaria kept Southern Dobrudja but lost the occupied parts of the Aegean region and Vardar Macedonia, with 150,000 Bulgarians being expelled from Western Thrace. For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fatherland Front (FF) was originally a Bulgarian political resistance movement during World War II. The Zveno movement, the communist Bulgarian Workers Party, a wing of the Agrarian Union and the Bulgarian Social Democratic Party where part of the FF. It was soon dominated by the Bulgarian Communist Party. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Southern Dobruja (Южна Добруджа (Yuzhna Dobrudzha) in Bulgarian, Dobrogea de sud or Cadrilater in Romanian) is an area of north-eastern Bulgaria comprising the administrative districts named for its two principal cities of Dobrich and Silistra. ...


Yugoslavia

For about two days in 1941, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Kraljevina Jugoslavija) was briefly a member of the Axis. On 25 March 1941, fearing that Yugoslavia would be invaded otherwise, Regent Prince Paul signed the Tripartite Pact with Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Imperial Japan. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Image:Prince Pavle of Yugoslavia. ... The Tripartite Treaty (1906) also refers to a 1906 treaty concerning the Nile river (see Hydropolitics in the Nile Basin. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... The ensign of Imperial Japanese Navy was a prominent symbol of Imperial Japan. ...


Two days later, after uprisings in the streets, Prince Paul was removed from office by a coup d'état. 17-year-old Prince Peter was proclaimed to be of age and crowned king. The new Yugoslavian government under King Peter II, still fearful of invasion, attempted to indicate that it would remain bound by the Tripartite Pact. But German dictator Adolf Hitler suspected that the British were behind the coup against Prince Paul and vowed to destroy the country. Coup redirects here. ... Peter II of Yugoslavia, locally known as Kralj Petar II KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević (Serbian Cyrillic: Краљ Петар II Карађорђевић) (6 September 1923 – 3 November 1970), was the second, as well as the last, King of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. ... Peter II of Yugoslavia, locally known as Kralj Petar II KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević (Serbian Cyrillic: Краљ Петар II Карађорђевић) (6 September 1923 – 3 November 1970), was the second, as well as the last, King of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. ... Hitler redirects here. ...


The German invasion began on 6 April 1941. Yugoslavia was a multi-ethnic country from its creation and was heavily dominated by the Serbs. It also had unresolved questions of national identity so most of the peoples were not motivated to fight. Resistance crumbled in less than two weeks and an unconditional surrender was signed in Belgrade on 17 April. By this time, King Peter II and much of the Yugoslavian government had already fled. is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


While the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was no longer capable of being a member of the Axis, several Axis-aligned puppet states emerged after the kingdom was dissolved. Local governments were set up in Serbia, Croatia, and Montenegro. The remainder of Yugoslavia was divided among the other Axis powers. Germany annexed Slovenia. Italy annexed coastal parts of Croatia (Dalmatia and the islands). Hungary annexed several border territories. Bulgaria annexed Macedonia. A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ...


Ivan Mihailov's Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) welcomed the Bulgarian annexation of Vardar Macedonia. In early September 1944, when the Bulgarian government left the Axis, Germany offered Mihailov support to declare Macedonia's independence, but he declined. Ivan Mihailov (Bulgarian: Иван Михайлов), also known as Vanche Mihailov (Bulgarian: Ванче Михайлов), (August 26, 1896, Novo Selo, present-day Republic of Macedonia – September 5, 1990, Rome, Italy) was a Bulgarian revolutionary, leader of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization after 1924. ... For a novel by a similar name, see Imaro (novel). ... Vardar Macedonia (Macedonian: Вардарска Македонија, Vardarska Makedonija; Bulgarian: Вардарска Македония, Vardarska Makedoniya), also known as Southern Serbia]/Old Serbia (Serbian:Јужна Србија / Стара Србија, Južna Srbija / Stara Srbija) is the north-western area of the Macedonia region. ... For other uses, see September (disambiguation). ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Thailand

Thailand was a formal ally of Japan from January 25, 1942. Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the immediate aftermath of the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japanese forces invaded Thailand's territory on the morning of December 8, 1941. Only hours after the invasion, Field Marshal Phibunsongkhram, the prime minister, ordered the cessation of resistance. On December 21, 1941, a military alliance with Japan was signed. Thailand declared war on the UK and the United States of America. The Thai ambassador to the United States, Mom Rajawongse Seni Pramoj did not deliver his copy of the declaration of war, so although the British reciprocated by declaring war on Thailand and consequently considered it a hostile country, the United States did not. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Field Marshal Plaek Pibulsonggram (July 14, 1897–June 11, 1964) (Thai แปลก พิบูลสงคราม or ป. พิบูลสงคราม, lastname sometimes spelled Phibunsongkhram, Phibul Songkhram or Pibul Songgram) was Prime Minister and military dictator of Thailand from 1938 to 1944 and 1948 to 1957. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Thai royal and noble titles signify relationship to the King. ... Mom Rajawongse Seni Pramoj (May 20, 1905 - July 28, 1997), (Thai: ) was three times prime minister of Thailand and a politician active in the Democrat Party. ...


On May 10, 1942, the Thai Phayap Army entered Burma's Shan State. At one time in the past the area had been part of the Ayutthaya Kingdom. The boundary between the Japanese and Thai operations was generally the Salween. However, that area south of the Shan States known as Karenni States, the homeland of the Karens, was specifically retained under Japanese control. is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Shan State is a state located in Myanmar (Burma), which takes its name from the Shan people, the majority ethnic group in the Shan State. ... The kingdom of Ayutthaya (Thai: ) was a Thai kingdom that existed from 1350 to 1767. ... The Salween River (also spelt Salwin, a. ... The Karenni States is the name formerly given to the three states of Kantarawadi (3161 square miles, pop (1931) 30,677), Kyebogyi (790 square miles, pop (1931) 14,282) and Bawlake (568 square miles, pop (1931) 13,802), located south of the Federated Shan States and east of British Burma. ...


Three Thai infantry and one cavalry division, spearheaded by armoured reconnaissance groups and supported ably by the air force, started their advance on May 10, and engaged the retreating Chinese 93rd Division. Kengtung, the main objective, was captured on May 27. Renewed offensives in June and November evicted the Chinese into Yunnan. is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kengtong, also spelled as Cheingtung and Kengtung is a city in Myanmar. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the tea from this region, see Yunnan tea. ...


As the war dragged on, the Thai population came to resent the Japanese presence. In June 1944, Phibun was overthrown in a coup d'état. The new civilian government under Khuang Aphaiwong attempted to aid the resistance while at the same time maintaining cordial relations with the Japanese. Coup redirects here. ... Major Khuang Abhaiwongse (May 17, 1902 - March 15, 1968; Thai ควง อภัยวงศ์) was three times prime minister of Thailand. ...


The Free Thai Movement ("Seri Thai") was established during these first few months. Parallel Free Thai organisations were established in the UK and inside Thailand. Queen Ramphaiphanni was the nominal head of the British-based organisation, and Pridi Phanomyong, the regent, headed its largest contingent, which was operating within the country. Aided by elements of the military, secret airfields and training camps were established while OSS and Force 136 agents fluidly slipped in and out of the country. The Free Thai Movement (Thai: ขบวนการเสรีไทย, Khabuankarn Seri Thai) was an underground resistance movement against Japan during World War II. The movement was one of the important sources to the Allies for military intelligence in this region. ... Queen Ramphaiphanni (Somdej Phra Nangchao Ramphaiphanni Phra Boromarajininat - สมเด็จพระนางเจ้ารำไพพรรณี พระบรมราชินี) (December 20, 1904 - May 22, 1984), was the wife and Queen Consort of King Prajadhipok of Siam. ... Pridi Phanomyong Pridi Phanomyong (May 11, 1900 - May 2, 1983) was a Thai politician. ... The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II. It was the wartime intelligence agency and was the predecessor to the Central Intelligence Agency, the Special Forces, and Navy SEALs. ... Force 136 was the general cover name for a branch of the British World War II organisation, the Special Operations Executive. ...


After the war, U.S. influence prevented Thailand from being treated as an Axis country, but the UK demanded three million tons of rice as reparations and the return of areas annexed from the British colony of Malaya during the war and invasion. Thailand also had to return the portions of British Burma and French Indochina that had been taken. British Malaya was a set of states that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French...


Phibun and a number of his associates were put on trial on charges of having committed war crimes, mainly that of collaborating with the Axis powers. However, the charges were dropped due to intense public pressure. Public opinion was favourable to Phibun, since he was thought to have done his best to protect Thai interests.


Co-belligerents

Finland

Finland, which never signed the Tripartite Pact, was not a part of the Axis powers, but played a part in fighting against the Soviet Union. Having recently been under Soviet aggression in the Winter War, Finland allowed Germany to use Finnish territory as a base for Operation Barbarossa. Finnish ski troops in Northern Finland in January 1940 The Military history of Finland during World War II covers the history of Finland from 1939 to 1944. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875 dead... Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von...


After the end of the Winter War against the Soviet Union in March 1940, Finland first sought protection from Great Britain[2][3] and neutral Sweden,[4] but was thwarted by Soviet and German actions. This resulted in Finland drawing closer to Germany, first with the intent of enlisting German support as a counterweight to thwart continuing Soviet pressure, but later to help regain its lost territories.


Finland's role in Operation Barbarossa was laid out in German Chancellor Adolf Hitler's Directive 21, "The mass of the Finnish army will have the task, in accordance with the advance made by the northern wing of the German armies, of tying up maximum Russian strength by attacking to the west, or on both sides, of Lake Ladoga. The Finns will also capture Hanko." The directive was given December 18, 1940, over two months before Finnish High Command or civilian leadership received the first tentative hints to upcoming invasion. The word Hanko may refer to Hanko, Finland, town and municipality Hanko Peninsula Hanko, a Japanese signature stamp Hanko is sometimes a misspelling of Hankou (汉口), China This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In May 1941, at the suggestion of Germany, Finland allowed Germany to recruit Finnish volunteers for SS-Freiwilligen-Bataillon Nordost. This battalion, with an initial strength of 1200 men, was attached to the multinational Wiking Division of Germany's Waffen SS. Later, an additional 200 Finns joined the battalion to cover the losses. Members of the battalion have returned home. ...


In the weeks leading up to Operation Barbarossa, cooperation between Finland and Germany increased, with the exchange of liaison officers and the beginning of preparations for joint military action. On June 7, Germany moved two divisions into the Finnish Lapland. On June 17, 1941, Finland ordered its armed forces to be fully mobilized and sent to the Soviet border. Finland evacuated civilians from border areas which were fortified against Soviet attack. In the opening days of the Operation, Finland permitted German planes returning from bombing runs over Leningrad to refuel at Finnish airfields before returning to bases in German East Prussia. Finland also permitted Germany to use its naval facilities in the Gulf of Finland. is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Lappi, or the Province of Lapland is one of the Provinces of Finland, and a part of the larger geographical area of Lapland, which spans over four countries. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ...


In his proclamation of war against the Soviet Union issued June 22, 1941, Hitler declared that Germany was joined by Finland and Romania. However, Finland did not declare war until June 25, after the Soviet Union bombed Finnish airfields and towns, including the medieval Turku castle, which was badly damaged. The Soviets cited Finland's cooperation with Germany as provocation for the air raids. Finland countered that it was once again a victim of Soviet aggression. is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Medieval keep of Turku Castle viewed from west Exterior of Castle Bailey, viewed from south The Turku Castle, (Finnish: Turun linna, Swedish: Ã…bo slott) dating from the 1280s, is a monument of Finnish history. ...


Finns refer to the conflict with the Soviet Union as the Continuation War, viewing it as continuation of the Winter War that the Soviets had waged against the Finns. The Finns maintain that their sole objective was to regain the territory lost to the Soviet Union in the Winter War, but on July 10, 1941, Field Marshal Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim issued an Order of the Day declaring that the war aim of the Finns was "to expel the Bolsheviks out of Russian Karelia, to liberate the Karelian nations and to accord to Finland a great future." Belligerents Finland Germany Italy1 Soviet Union  United Kingdom2 Commanders C.G.E. Mannerheim Kirill Meretskov Leonid Govorov Strength 530,000 Finns[1] 220,000 Germans 900,000–1,500,000 Soviets[2] Casualties and losses 58,715 dead or missing 158,000 wounded 1,500 civilian deaths[3] 3401 captured... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875 dead... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Finnish statesman and Commander-in-Chief. ... Mentioned in Despatches (MID) is a military award for gallantry or otherwise commendable service. ... Map showing the parts Karelia is traditionally divided into. ...


Mannerheim's order echoed his Order of the Day issued February 23, 1918, during the Finnish War of Independence, known as the Sword Scabbard Declaration, in which Mannerheim declared he "would not put his sword into the scabbard until East Karelia was free of Lenin's warriors and hooligans." Conquest of Karelia was a historic dream of Finnish nationalists advocating Greater Finland. is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Order of the Day of the Sword Scabbard, or the Sword Scabbard Declaration, actually refers to two related declarations from Mannerheim, Finlands Commander-in-Chief. ... The current borders of modern-day Finland are light blue. ...


In all, Finland mobilized over 530,000 men against the Soviet Union. About 1,700 volunteers from Sweden and 2,600 from Estonia served in the Finnish army. Many of the Swedish volunteers had also fought for Finland in the Winter War.


Diplomatic relations between Great Britain and Finland were severed on August 1, 1941, after the British bombed German forces in the Finnish city of Petsamo. Great Britain repeatedly called on Finland to cease its offensive against the Soviet Union, and on December 6, 1941, declared war on Finland. War was never declared between Finland and the United States. is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


Finland signed the revived Anti-Comintern Pact of 1941. Unlike other Axis powers, Finland maintained command of its armed forces and pursued its war objectives independently of Germany. Finland refused German requests to participate in the Siege of Leningrad, stating that capturing Leningrad was not among its goals. Leningrad, now St. Petersburg, lies outside the territory of Karelia claimed for Finland by Mannerheim. Finland also granted asylum to Jews, and Jewish soldiers continued to serve in her army. The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and Japan on November 25, 1936. ... Belligerents Nazi Germany Finland[1][2][3] Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm von Leeb Georg von Küchler Carl Gustaf Mannerheim[4][5][6] Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Leonid Govorov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties and losses Wehrmacht (est. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...


The relationship between Finland and Germany more closely resembled an alliance during the six weeks of the Ryti-Ribbentrop Agreement, which was presented as a German condition for help with munitions and air support, as the Soviet offensive coordinated with D-Day threatened Finland with complete occupation. The agreement, signed by President Risto Ryti, but never ratified by the Finnish Parliament, bound Finland not to seek a separate peace. The Ryti-Ribbentrop letter of agreement (Finnish: Ryti-Ribbentrop sopimus) of June 26, 1944, signifies the closest to an alliance Finland and Nazi Germany came during World War II. According to the agreement, Risto Ryti, then President of Finland, undertook not to conclude peace in the Continuation War with the... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustav Emil Mannerheim Karl Lennart Oesch Leonid Govorov Kirill Meretskov Strength 268,000 375,000 Casualties 18,000 killed, 45,000 wounded, 3,000 prisoners 40,000 killed, 130,000 wounded During World War II, in the Continuation War, the Fourth Strategic Offensive was... Risto Heikki Ryti (February 3, 1889 - October 25, 1956) was the president of Finland from 1940 to 1944. ...


Ryti's successor, President Mannerheim, ignored the agreement and opened secret negotiations with the Soviets. On September 19, 1944, Mannerheim signed an armistice with the Soviet Union and Great Britain. Under the terms of the armistice, Finland was obligated to expel German troops from Finnish territory. Finns refer to the skirmishes that followed as the Lapland War. In 1947, Finland signed a peace treaty with the Soviet Union, Great Britain and several British Commonwealth nations acknowledging its "alliance with Hitlerite Germany". C.G.E. Mannerheim Mannerheims equestrian statue by Mannerheimintie, a central road in downtown Helsinki, the capital of Finland C.G.E. Mannerheims autograph This article is about the statesman and Commander-in-Chief, for the noble families, please see Mannerheim (family) Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim (June... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Germany Finland Commanders Lothar Rendulic Hjalmar Siilasvuo Strength 200,000 60,000 Casualties 950 killed 2,000 wounded 1,300 captured 774 killed 3,000 wounded 262 missing The Lapland War (Finnish: ; German: ; Swedish: ) is a name used for the hostilities between Finland and Germany between September 1944 and... The Paris Peace Conference (July 29 to October 15, 1946) resulted in the Paris peace treaties signed on February 10, 1947. ...


Iraq

Iraq was a co-belligerent of the Axis, fighting the United Kingdom in the Anglo-Iraqi War of 1941. Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq_1924. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq_1924. ... National motto: Allahu Akbar (English: God is Great) Official languages Arabic, Kurdish1 Spoken languages Arabic, Kurdish, Assyrian, Turkmen, Armenian Capital Baghdad2 President Jalal Talabani Prime Minister Ibrahim al-Jaafari Area - Total - % water Ranked 57th 437,072 km2 1. ... Combatants Kingdom of Iraq United Kingdom India Commanders Rashid Ali General Sir Edward Quinan Strength five divisions about two divisions Casualties 2,500 KIA, about 6,000 POWs 1,200 (KIA, MIA, WIA) The Anglo-Iraqi War is the name of hostilities between the United Kingdom and the Iraqi nationalist...


Seizing power on April 3, 1941, the nationalist government of Iraqi Prime Minister Rashid Ali al-Gaylani repudiated the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930 and demanded that Britain close its military bases within the country. Ali sought support from Germany, Italy and Vichy France in expelling British forces from Iraq. is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Rashid Ali al-Gaylani (Arabic: ) also spelled Sayyad Rashid Ali al-Gillani or Sayyad Rashid Ali al-Gailani , son of Sayyad Abdul Wahhab al-Gillani ‎ (1892–1965) served as prime minister of Iraq on three occasions: March 20, 1933 – October 29, 1933 March 31, 1940 – January 31, 1941 April 3...


Hostilities between the Iraqi and British forces opened on April 18, 1941, with heavy fighting at the British air base at Lake Habbaniya. Iraq's Axis allies dispatched two air squadrons, one from the German Luftwaffe and the other from the Royal Italian Air Force. The Germans and Italians utilized Vichy French bases in Syria, precipitating fighting between British and French forces in Syria. is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... The Habbaniya, or Habbania, are a Sunni Muslim tribe of the nomadic Bedouin Baggara people in the plains of Sudans Darfur, North Kordofan, and South Kordofan provinces. ...


In early May 1941, Mohammad Amin al-Husayni, the Mufti of Jerusalem and an ally of Ali, declared "holy war" against the United Kingdom and called on Arabs throughout the Middle East to rise up against Britain. On May 25, 1941, Hitler issued his Order 30, stepping up German offensive operations: "The Arab Freedom Movement in the Middle East is our natural ally against England. In this connection special importance is attached to the liberation of Iraq... I have therefore decided to move forward in the Middle East by supporting Iraq." Mohammad Amin al-Husayni (ca. ... A Mufti (Arabic: مفتى ) is an Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law (Sharia), capable of issuing fataawa (plural of fatwa). // Role of a Mufti in governments In theocracies like Saudi Arabia and Iran, and in some countries where the constitution is based on sharia law, such... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


Hitler dispatched German air and armored forces to Libya and formed the Deutsches Afrikakorps to coordinate a combined German-Italian offensive against the British in Egypt, Palestine and Iraq. A 2003 satellite image of the region. ...


Iraqi military resistance ended by May 31, 1941. Rashid Ali and his ally, the Mufti of Jerusalem, fled to Persia, then to Turkey, Italy and finally Germany where Ali was welcomed by Hitler as head of the Iraqi government-in-exile. is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... A government in exile is a political group that claims to be a countrys legitimate government, but for various reasons is unable to exercise its legal power, and instead resides in a foreign country. ...


In propaganda broadcasts from Berlin, the Mufti continued to call on Arabs to rise up against the United Kingdom and aid German and Italian forces. He also recruited Muslim volunteers in the Balkans for the Waffen SS. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


Japanese puppet states

The Empire of Japan created a number of puppet states in the areas occupied by its military, beginning with the creation of Manchukuo in 1932. These puppet states achieved varying degrees of international recognition. A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ...


Manchukuo (Manchuria)

Main article: Manchukuo

Manchukuo was a Japanese puppet state in Manchuria, the northeast region of China. It was nominally ruled by Puyi, the last emperor of the Qing Dynasty, but in fact controlled by the Japanese military, in particular the Kwantung Army. While Manchukuo ostensibly meant a state for ethnic manchus, the region had a Han Chinese majority. Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... Image File history File links Flag_of_Manchukuo. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Manchukuo. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Puyi (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ) (February 7, 1906–October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling as the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) between 1908 and 1911, and non-ruling emperor between 1911 and 1924), the twelfth emperor of the... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... The Kwantung Army ), also known as the Guandong Army simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kwan-tung chün; Korean: ), was an army group of the Imperial Japanese Army in the early twentieth century. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ...


Following the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, the independence of Manchukuo was proclaimed on February 18, 1932, with Puyi as "Head of State." He was proclaimed Emperor of Manchukuo a year later. Twenty three of the League of Nations' eighty members recognised the new Manchu nation, but the League itself declared in 1934 that Manchuria lawfully remained a part of China, precipitating Japanese withdrawal from the League. Germany, Italy, and the Soviet Union were among the major powers recognising Manchukuo. The county was also recognised by the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, El Salvador, and the Vatican. Manchukuo was also recognised by the other Japanese allies and puppet states, including Mengjiang, the Burmese government of Ba Maw, Thailand, the Wang Chingwei regime, and the Indian government of Subhas Chandra Bose. Combatants National Revolutionary Army, Republic of China Imperial Japanese Army, Empire of Japan Commanders Zhang Xueliang, Ma Zhanshan, Feng Zhanhai Shigeru Honjo, Jiro Minami Strength 160,000 30,000 - 66,000 Casualties  ?  ? The Mukden Incident of September 18, 1931, known in Japanese as the Manchurian Incident, occurred in southern Manchuria... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ba Maw (February 8, 1893 – May 29, 1977) was a Burmese political leader. ... Subhas Chandra Bose, (Bengali: , (January 23, 1897 – presumably August 18, 1945 [although this is disputed]note), generally known as Netaji (lit. ...


The armed forces of Manchukuo numbered between 200,000 and 220,000 men, according to the Soviet intelligence estimates. The Manchukuo Army and Manchukuo Air Force garrisoned Manchukuo under the command of the Japanese Army. The Manchukuo Navy, including river patrol and coastal defense, were under the direct command of the Japanese Third Fleet. The Manchukuo Imperial Guard, numbering 200 men, was under the direct command of the Emperor and served as his bodyguard. The Manchukuo Imperial Guards were the elite unit of the corps of Manchukuoan defense forces. ...


Mengjiang (Inner Mongolia)

Mengjiang (alternatively spelled Mengchiang) was a Japanese puppet state in Inner Mongolia. It was nominally ruled by Prince Demchugdongrub, a Mongol nobleman descended from Genghis Khan, but was in fact controlled by the Japanese military. Mengjiang's independence was proclaimed on February 18, 1936, following the Japanese occupation of the region. Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Mengjiang. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Mengjiang. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Prince Demchugdongrub (February 8, 1902 - May 23, 1966) , was the leader of a Mongol independence movement in Inner Mongolia. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... This article is about the person. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Inner Mongolians had several grievances against the central Chinese government in Nanking, with the most important one being the policy of allowing unlimited migration of Han Chinese to this vast region of open plains and desert. Several of the young princes of Inner Mongolia began to agitate for greater freedom from the central government, and it was through these men that Japanese saw their best chance of exploiting Pan-Mongol nationalism and eventually seizing control of Outer Mongolia from the Soviet Union.


Japan created Mengjiang to exploit tensions between ethnic Mongolians and the central government of China which in theory ruled Inner Mongolia. The Japanese hoped to use pan-Mongolism to create a Mongolian ally in Asia and eventually conquer all of Mongolia from the Soviet Union.


When the various puppet governments of China were unified under the Wang Chingwei government in March 1940, Mengjiang retained its separate identity as an autonomous federation. Although under the firm control of the Japanese Imperial Army which occupied its territory, Prince Demchugdongrub had his own army that was, in theory, independent.


Mengjiang vanished in 1945 following Japan's defeat ending World War II and the invasion of Soviet and Red Mongol Armies. As the huge Soviet forces advanced into Inner Mongolia, they met limited resistance from small detachments of Mongolian cavalry, which, like the rest of the army, were quickly brushed aside.


Wang Jingwei Government

Flag of the Wang Jingwei Government. Although it was the same as the flag of Republic of China, an earlier used version had the phrase "anti-communism, peace, nation-building" in a yellow triangle on top of the flag.
Flag of the Wang Jingwei Government. Although it was the same as the flag of Republic of China, an earlier used version had the phrase "anti-communism, peace, nation-building" in a yellow triangle on top of the flag.

A short-lived state was founded on March 29, 1940 by Wang Jingwei, who became Head of State of this Japanese supported collaborationist government based in Nanking. Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... The Wang Jingwei was a government under the leadership of Wang Jingwei in the Republic of China, set up by the Empire of Japan in March 1940. ... The Wang Jingwei was a government under the leadership of Wang Jingwei in the Republic of China, set up by the Empire of Japan in March 1940. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wang Jingwei * Courtesy name: Jixin (季新) * Alternate name: Zhaoming (兆銘). Wang Jingwei (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Wang Ching-wei) (May 4, 1883 – November 10, 1944), was a Chinese politician. ... Nanjing (南京, Pinyin: Nánjīng, Wade-Giles: Nan-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Nanking, formerly Jinling 金陵, Jiangning 江宁, and Tianjing 天京) is the central city of downstream Yangtze Basin and is a renowned historical and cultural city. ...


During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Japan advanced from its bases in Manchuria to occupy much of East and Central China. Several Japanese puppet states were organised in areas occupied by the Japanese Army, including the Provisional Government of the Republic of China at Peking which was formed in 1937 and the Reformed Government of the Republic of China at Nanking which was formed in 1938. These governments were merged into the Reorganised Government of the Republic of China at Nanking in 1940. The government (known as the Wang Jingwei Government) was to be run along the same lines as the Nationalist regime and adopted symbols of the latter. Belligerents China United States1 Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army2 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Albert Wedemeyer Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: Běijīng; Wade-Giles: Pei-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Peking), is the capital city of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, etc. ...


The Nanking Government had no real power, and its main role was to act as a propaganda tool for the Japanese. The Nanking Government concluded agreements with Japan and Manchukuo, authorising Japanese occupation of China and recognising the independence of Manchukuo under Japanese protection. The Nanking Government signed the Anti-Comintern Pact of 1941 and declared war on the United States and Great Britain on January 9, 1943. is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The government had a strained relationship with the Japanese from the beginning. Wang's insistence on his regime being the true Nationalist government of China and in replicating all the symbols of the Kuomintang (KMT) led to frequent conflicts with the Japanese, the most prominent being the issue of the regime's flag, which was identical to that of the Republic of China. The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ...


The worsening situation for Japan from 1943 onwards meant that the Nanking Army was given a more substantial role in the defence of occupied China than the Japanese had initially envisaged. The army was almost continuously employed against the communist New Fourth Army. The New Fourth Army (新四軍 Pinyin: xin-si-jun) and the Eighth Route Army were the two main communist forces from 1938. ...


Wang Jingwei died in a Nagoya hospital on November 10, 1944, and was succeeded by his deputy Chen Gongbo. Chen had little influence and the real power behind the regime was Zhou Fohai, the mayor of Shanghai. Wang's death dispelled what little legitimacy the regime had. The state stuttered on for another year and continued the display and show of a fascist regime. Nagoya ) is the fourth largest city in Japan. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chen Gongbo (1892-1946) Chinese politician, was the Head of the Legislative Yuan of the Wang Jingweis puppet state, the Nanjing Nationalist Government. ... Zhou Fohai (1897-1948, 周佛海), Chinese politician, and second in command of Wang Jingweis collaborationist Nanjing Nationalist Government Executive Yuan. ...


On September 9, 1945, following the defeat of Japan, the area was surrendered to General He Yingqin, a nationalist general loyal to Chiang Kai-shek. The Nanking Army generals quickly declared their alliance to the Generalissimo, and were subsequently ordered to resist Communist attempts to fill the vacuum left by the Japanese surrender. Chen Gongbo was tried and executed in 1946. is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... He Yingqin He Yingqin (何应钦 in Chinese) (April 2, 1890 - October 21, 1987), was one of the senior generals of Kuomintang in early stage, and a close ally of Chiang Kai-shek. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ...


Burma (Ba Maw regime)

The Japanese Army seized control of Burma from the United Kingdom during 1942. A Japanese puppet state in Burma was then formed on August 1 under the Burmese nationalist leader Ba Maw. The Ba Maw regime established the Burma Defence Army (later renamed the Burma National Army), which was commanded by Aung San. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... When the Japanese invaded Burma in 1942 they released Ba Maw from prison and convinced him to head a puppet government, the Burmese Executive Administration being set up in Rangoon on August 1, 1942. ... The Japanese occupation of Burma refers to the period between 1942 and 1945 during World War II, when Burma was a part of the Empire of Japan. ... The Japanese occupation of Burma refers to the period between 1942 and 1945 during World War II, when Burma was a part of the Empire of Japan. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthem Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw Largest city Yangon Official languages Burmese Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Than Shwe  -  Prime Minister Soe Win  -  Acting Prime Minister Thein Sein Establishment  -  Bagan 849–1287   -  Taungoo Dynasty 1486–1752   -  Konbaung Dynasty 1752–1885   -  Colonial rule... Ba Maw (February 8, 1893 – May 29, 1977) was a Burmese political leader. ... The Burma National Army served as the armed forces of the Burmese government created by the Japanese during World War II and fought in the Burma Campaign. ... General Aung San (Bogyoke Aung San in Burmese) (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: ); February 13, 1915 – July 19, 1947) was a Burmese revolutionary, nationalist, general, and politician. ...


Philippines (Second Republic)

Jose P. Laurel was the President of the Second Republic of the Philippines, a Japanese puppet state organised on the Philippine Islands in 1942. In 1943, the Philippine National Assembly declared the Philippines an independent republic and elected Laurel as President. The Second Republic ended with the Japanese surrender. Laurel was arrested and charged with treason by the US government, but was granted amnesty and continued playing politics, ultimately winning a seat in the Philippine Senate. Image File history File links Philippines_flag_original. ... Image File history File links Philippines_flag_original. ... Flag Anthem Himno Nacional Filipino awit sa paglikha ng bagong Pilipinas Location of the Philippines in Asia Capital Manila, Baguio, Tokyo Language(s) Filipino (official), Japanese, English Government Republic President Jose P. Laurel Historical era World War II  - Established October 14, 1943  - Disestablished August 17, 1945 Area  - 1945 300,000... PRESIDENT OF THE PHILIPPINES Jose P. Laurel José Paciano Laurel y García (March 9, 1891 - November 6, 1959) was the president of the Japanese-sponsored Republic of the Philippines from 1943 to 1945. ... Flag Anthem Himno Nacional Filipino awit sa paglikha ng bagong Pilipinas Location of the Philippines in Asia Capital Manila, Baguio, Tokyo Language(s) Filipino (official), Japanese, English Government Republic President Jose P. Laurel Historical era World War II  - Established October 14, 1943  - Disestablished August 17, 1945 Area  - 1945 300,000...


India (Provisional Government of Free India)

Provisional Government of Free India
Provisional Government of Free India

The Provisional Government of Free India was a shadow government led by Subhas Chandra Bose, an Indian nationalist who rejected Gandhi's nonviolent methods for achieving independence. Its authority existed only in those parts of India which came under Japanese control. Image File history File links 1931_Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links 1931_Flag_of_India. ... Flag of the Provisional Government of Free India. ... Flag of the Provisional Government of Free India. ... A shadow government is a government-in-waiting that remains in waiting with the intent to take control of the government in response to some event. ... Subhas Chandra Bose, (Bengali: , (January 23, 1897 – presumably August 18, 1945 [although this is disputed]note), generally known as Netaji (lit. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ...


A former president of the India National Congress, Bose was arrested by British authorities at the outset of the Second World War. In January 1941 he escaped from house arrest, eventually reaching Germany and then in 1942 to Japan where he formed the Indian National Army, made up largely from Indian prisoners of war. The Indian National Army (I.N.A) or Azad Hind Fauj was the army of the Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind (The Provisional Government of Free India ) which fought along with the Japanese 15th Army during the Japanese Campaign in Burma, and in the Battle of Imphal, during the Second...


Bose and A.M. Sahay, another local leader, received ideological support from Mitsuru Toyama, chief of the Dark Ocean Society along with Japanese Army advisers. Other Indian thinkers in favour of the Axis cause were Asit Krishna Mukherji, a friend of Bose, his wife Savitri Devi, a French writer admiring Hitler, and the Pandit Rajwade of Poona. Bose was helped by Rash Behari Bose, founder of the Indian Independence League in Japan. Bose declared India's independence on October 21, 1943. The Japanese Army assigned to the Indian National Army a number of military advisors, among them Hideo Iwakuro and Saburo Isoda. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Genyosha (玄洋社) (or Dark Ocean Society) is a Japanese criminal society formed in 1881 by Toyama Mitsura. ... Asit Krishna Mukherji (1898-March 21, 1977) was a Bengali Brahmin with National Socialist convictions who published pro-Axis journals. ... Savitri Devi (September 30, 1905 - October 22, 1982) was a Franco-Greek woman who became enamored with Hinduism and National Socialism, linking the Aryan invasion theory to Adolf Hitler, and proclaiming him an avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu. ... Pune, formerly called Poona, is the second largest city (after Mumbai) in the state of Maharashtra, India. ... Rashbehari Bose (1885-1945) was a revolutionary leader against the British Raj in India and was one of the organisers of the Indian National Army. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hideo Iwakuro (岩畔豪雄, Iwakuro Hideo) (1897-1970) was a Japanese general. ...


The provisional capital was located at Port Blair on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, these islands fallen to the Japanese. The government would last two more years until August 18, 1945, when it officially became defunct. During its existence it received recognition from nine governments: Germany, Japan, Italy, Croatia, Manchukuo, China (under the Nanking Government of Wang Chingwei), Thailand, Burma (under the regime of Burmese nationalist leader Ba Maw, and the Philippines under de facto (and later de jure) president José Laurel. Map of Andaman and Nicobar Islands with an extra detailed area around Port Blair Port Blair   (Hindi: पोर्ट ब्लेयर) (coordinates: ) is the largest town and a municipal council in Andamans district in the Andaman Islands and the capital of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands union territory of India. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Andaman Islands. ... The Andaman and Nicobar Islands (8,293 sq km on 139 islands), are a group of islands situated in the Bay of Bengal at about 780 miles from Kolkata, 740 miles from Chennai and 120 miles from Cape Nargis in Burma. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Ba Maw (February 8, 1893 – May 29, 1977) was a Burmese political leader. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Indian National Army saw plenty of action (as did their Burmese equivalent). The highlight of the force's campaign in Burma was the planting of the Indian national flag by the "Bose Battalion" during the battle of Frontier Hill in 1944, although it was Japanese troops from the 55th Cavalry, 1/29th Infantry and 2/143rd Infantry who did most of the fighting. This battle also had the curious incidence of three Sikh companies of the Bose Battalion exchanging insults and fire with two Sikh companies of the 7/16th Punjab Regiment (British Indian Army)[citation needed]. The Punjab Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Pakistan Army. ... A group of native Indian Muslim soldiers posing for volley firing orders. ...


The Indian National Army was encountered again during the Second Arakan Campaign, where they deserted in large numbers back to their old "imperial oppressors" and again during the crossing of the Irrawaddy in 1945, where a couple of companies put up token resistance before leaving their Japanese comrades to fight off the assault crossing by 7th Indian Division.


Vietnam

The Empire of Vietnam was a short-lived Japanese puppet state that lasted from March 11 to August 23, 1945. Image File history File links Old_Flag_Of_Vietnam. ... Image File history File links Old_Flag_Of_Vietnam. ... Flag Capital Huế Language(s) Vietnamese Political structure Client state Prime Minister Trần Trọng Kim Historical era World War II  - Established March 11, 1945  - Disestablished August 23, 1945 Tây SÆ¡n Dynasty (1778–1802) Nguyá»…n Dynasty (1802–1945) Western Imperialism (1887–1945) Empire of Vietnam (1945... Flag Capital Huế Language(s) Vietnamese Political structure Client state Prime Minister Trần Trọng Kim Historical era World War II  - Established March 11, 1945  - Disestablished August 23, 1945 Tây SÆ¡n Dynasty (1778–1802) Nguyá»…n Dynasty (1802–1945) Western Imperialism (1887–1945) Empire of Vietnam (1945... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


When the Japanese seized control of French Indochina, they allowed Vichy French administrators to remain in nominal control. This ruling ended on March 9, 1945 when the Japanese officially took control of the government. Soon after, Emperor Bảo Đại voided the 1884 treaty with France and Trần Trọng Kim, a historian, became prime minister. Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Emperor Bao Dai Bảo Đại (保大帝、22 October 1913 – 30 July 1997) was the last Emperor of Vietnam, the 13th and last Emperor of the Nguyá»…n Dynasty. ... Trần Trọng Kim (1883-1953) was a Vietnamese scholar and politician who served as the Prime Minister of the short-lived Empire of Vietnam, a puppet state created by Imperial Japan in 1945. ...


Despite the state's short existence, it suffered through a famine and had succeeded in replacing French-speaking schools with Vietnamese language schools taught by Vietnamese scholars. The Vietnamese Famine of 1945 (Vietnamese: Nạn đói Ất Dậu - Famine of the At Dau year) was a famine that occurred in northern Vietnam during the Japanese occupation of the country. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... Vietnamese (tiếng Việt, or less commonly Việt ngữ[2]), formerly known under the French colonization as Annamese (see Annam), is the national and official language of Vietnam. ...


Cambodia

The Kingdom of Cambodia was a short-lived Japanese puppet state that lasted from March 9, 1945 to April 15, 1945. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


In mid-1941, the Japanese entered Cambodia, but allowed Vichy French officials to remain in administrative posts. The Japanese calls of an "Asia for the Asiatics" won over many Cambodian nationalists, despite Tokyo's policy of keeping the colonial government in nominal control.


This policy changed during the last months of the war. The Japanese wanted to gain local support, so they dissolved French colonial rule and pressured Cambodia to declare its independence within the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. Four days later, King Sihanouk declared Kampuchea (the original Khmer pronunciation of Cambodia) independent. Co-editor of the Nagaravatta, Son Ngoc Thanh, returned from Tokyo in May and was appointed foreign minister. Time in office: Apr. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Son Ngoc Thanh (December 7, 1908–1977) was a Cambodian nationalist with a longtime history as a rebel and (for brief periods) a government minister. ...


On the date of Japanese surrender, a new government was proclaimed with Son Ngoc Thah as prime minister. However, in October, when the Allies occupied Phnom Penh, Son Ngoc Thanh was arrested for collaborating with the Japanese and was exiled to France. Some of his supporters went to north-western Cambodia, which had been under Thai control since the French-Thai War of 1940, where they banded together as one faction in the Khmer Issarak movement, originally formed with Thai encouragement in the 1940s. Nickname: Location of Phnom Penh, Cambodia Coordinates: , Country Province Settled 1372 Became Capital 1865 Government  - Type Municipality  - Mayor & Governor H.E. Keb Chutema (Khmer: )  - Vice Governors H.E. Than Sina, H.E. Map Sarin, H.E. Seng Tong Area  - Total 376 km² (145. ... Combatants Vichy France Thailand Commanders Jean Decoux Plaek Phibunsongkhram Strength 50,000 men, 20 tanks, ~100 aircraft 60,000 men, 134 tanks, 140 aircraft, 18 vessels Casualties 321 KIA and WIA, 178 MIA, 222 captured, 22 aircraft 54 KIA, 307 WIA, 21 captured, 8-13 aircraft The French-Thai War... The Khmer Issarak was an anti-French, Khmer nationalist political movement formed in 1945 with the backing of the goverment of Thailand. ...


Laos

Fears of Thai irredentism led to the formation of the first Lao nationalist organization, the Movement for National Renovation, in January 1941, led by Prince Phetxarāt and supported by local French officials, though not by the Vichy authorities in Hanoi. This group wrote the current Lao national anthem and designed the current Lao flag, while paradoxically pledging support for France. The country declared its independence in 1945. Image File history File links Flag_of_Laos. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Laos. ... LAOS redirects here. ... Prince Phetsarath Rattanavongsa was prime minister of Laos from 1942 to 1945, and was the first and last vice-king of the Kingdom of Laos. ... For the puzzle, see Tower of Hanoi. ... Pheng Xat Lao was composed by Dr. Thongdy Sounthonevichit (1905-1968) in 1941 and adopted as the national anthem of the Kingdom of Laos in 1947. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The flag of Laos was adopted on December 2, 1975. ...


There matters rested until the liberation of France in 1944, bringing Charles de Gaulle to power. This meant the end of the alliance between Japan and the Vichy French administration in Indochina. The Japanese had no intention of allowing the Gaullists to take over, and in late 1944 they staged a military coup in Hanoi. Some French units fled over the mountains to Laos, pursued by the Japanese, who occupied Viang Chan in March 1945 and Luang Phrabāng in April. King Sīsavāngvong was detained by the Japanese, but his son Crown Prince Savāngvatthanā called on all Lao to assist the French, and many Lao died fighting against the Japanese occupiers. This article is about the person. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Royal palace museum of Luang Prabang. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Savang Vatthana (full name Samdach Brhat Chao Maha Sri Vitha Lan Xang Hom Khao Phra Rajanachakra Lao Parama Sidha Khattiya Suriya Varman Brhat Maha Sri Savangsa Vadhana) (13 November 1907 − 13 May (?), 1978 or 1984) was the last king of the Kingdom of Laos. ...


Prince Phetxarāt, however, opposed this position, and thought that Lao independence could be gained by siding with the Japanese, who made him Prime Minister of Luang Phrabāng, though not of Laos as a whole. In practice the country was in chaos and Phetxarāt's government had no real authority. Another Lao group, the Lao Sēri (Free Lao), received unofficial support from the Free Thai movement in the Isan region. For other uses, see Isan (disambiguation). ...


Italian puppet states

Croatia

On 10 April 1941, the Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, or NDH) was declared to be a member of the Axis. The NDH remained a member of the Axis until the end of Second World War, its forces fighting for Germany even after NDH had been overrun by Yugoslav Partisans. On 24 April 1941, Ante Pavelić, a Croatian nationalist and one of the founders of the Croatian Uprising (Ustaše) Movement, was proclaimed Leader (Poglavnik) of the new state. Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia_Ustasa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia_Ustasa. ... Capital Zagreb Language(s) Croatian Religion Roman Catholicism Political structure Puppet-state King  - 1941-1943 Tomislav II Poglavnik  - 1941-1945 Ante Pavelić Legislature None Historical era World War II  - Established April 10, 1941  - Disestablished May 8, 1945 Population  - 1941 est. ... (Redirected from 10 April) April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Capital Zagreb Language(s) Croatian Religion Roman Catholicism Political structure Puppet-state King  - 1941-1943 Tomislav II Poglavnik  - 1941-1945 Ante Pavelić Legislature None Historical era World War II  - Established April 10, 1941  - Disestablished May 8, 1945 Population  - 1941 est. ... The Rebellion The Yugoslav Partisans were the main resistance movement engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II. // Origins The Yugoslav Partisans went under the official name of Peoples Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia (Narodno-oslobodilačka vojska i partizanski... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Ante Pavelić (July 14, 1889 – December 28, 1959) was the leader (Poglavnik) and founding member of the Croatian national socialist/fascist UstaÅ¡e movement in the 1930s and later the leader of the Independent State of Croatia, a puppet state[1] [2] of Nazi Germany during World War II. // Paveli... An UstaÅ¡e guard pose among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp The UstaÅ¡e (also known as Ustashas or Ustashi) was a Croatian extreme nationalist movement. ...


The Ustaše was actively supported by the Fascist regime of Benito Mussolini in Italy which gave the movement training grounds to prepare for war against Yugoslavia as well as accepting Pavelić as an exile and allowed him to reside in Rome. Italy intended to use the movement to destroy Yugoslavia, which would allow Italy to expand its power through the Adriatic Sea. In Germany, the idea of creating any Slavic puppet state was not welcomed by Hitler who saw all Slavs, including Croats as racially inferior. Also Hitler did not want to engage in a war in the Balkans until the Soviet Union was defeated. But the Italian occupation of Greece was performing badly, Mussolini wanted Germany to invade Yugoslavia to save the Italian forces in Greece. Hitler reluctantly submitted and Yugoslavia was invaded, and the Italian agenda to set up a puppet Croatian state was achieved with the creation of the Independent State of Croatia. Relations between Germany and Croatia would improve as the Ustaše proved effective at violently repressing Serb Chetniks and the communist Yugoslav Partisans of Joseph Broz Tito. A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... The Rebellion The Yugoslav Partisans were the main resistance movement engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II. // Origins The Yugoslav Partisans went under the official name of Peoples Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia (Narodno-oslobodilačka vojska i partizanski...


Pavelić led a Croatian delegation to Rome and offered the crown of Croatia to an Italian prince of the House of Savoy, who was crowned Tomislav II, King of Croatia, Prince of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Voivode of Dalmatia, Tuzla and Temun, Prince of Cisterna and of Belriguardo, Marquess of Voghera, and Count of Ponderano. The next day, Pavelić signed the Contracts of Rome with Mussolini, ceding Dalmatia to Italy and fixing the permanent borders between Croatia and Italy. Furthermore, Italian armed forces were allowed to control all of Croatia's coastline, effectively giving Italy total control of the Adriatic Sea coastline. Prince Aimone Roberto Margherita Maria Giuseppe Torino, 4th Duke of Aosta, was born on 9 March 1900 in Turin. ... For other uses, see Tuzla (disambiguation). ... A cisterna (plural cisternae) comprises a flattened membrane disk which makes up the Golgi apparatus. ... Voghera is a town and municipality (It. ... Ponderano is a municipality with 3833 inhabitants (est. ...


Its ruling fascist Ustaše movement utilized the motive that Croatians had been oppressed by the Serb-dominated Kingdom of Yugoslavia, and that Croatians deserved to have an independent nation after years of domination by foreign empires, to draw support to their radical agenda. The Ustaše perceived Serbs to be racially inferior to Croats and saw them as infiltrators who were occupying Croatian lands, and saw the extermination of Serbs as necessary to racially purify Croatia. An UstaÅ¡e guard pose among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp The UstaÅ¡e (also known as Ustashas or Ustashi) was a Croatian extreme nationalist movement. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander...


While in Yugoslavia, many Croatian nationalists violently opposed the Serb-dominated Yugoslav monarchy and assassinated Yugoslavia's King Alexander together with Macedonian VMRO organization. The regime enjoyed support amongst radical Croatian nationalists. Ustashe forces fought against Serbian Chetnik and communist Yugoslav Partisan guerrillas throughout the war. Regular forces Croatian Home Guard (domobran) usually fought against Serbian Chetnik and often joined or surrendered with weapons to antifascist Partisans. Chetniks (Serbian Četnici, Четници) were an organization of Yugoslavs (mostly Serbs) who supported the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and formed a notable resistance force during World War II. The name is derived from the Serbian word četa which means company (of about 100 men). ... Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Yugoslav Partisans were the main resistance movement engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II, the Yugoslav Peoples Liberation War. ... Croatian Home Guard (Croatian: Hrvatsko domobranstvo, often abbr. ... Croatian Home Guard (Croatian: Hrvatsko domobranstvo, often abbr. ... Chetniks (Serbian Četnici, Четници) were an organization of Yugoslavs (mostly Serbs) who supported the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and formed a notable resistance force during World War II. The name is derived from the Serbian word četa which means company (of about 100 men). ...


Upon coming to power, Pavelić formed the Croatian Home Guard (Hrvatsko domobranstvo) as the official military force of Croatia. Originally authorized at 16,000 men, it grew to a peak fighting force of 130,000. The Croatian Home Guard included a small air force and navy, although its navy was restricted in size by the Contracts of Rome. In addition to the Croatian Home Guard, Pavelić also commanded the Ustaše militia. Some Croats also volunteered for the German Waffen SS.


The Ustaše government declared war on the Soviet Union, signed the Anti-Comintern Pact of 1941 and sent troops to Germany's Eastern Front. Ustaše militia garrisoned the Balkans, battling the Partisans.


During the time of its existence, the Ustaše government applied racial laws on Serbs, Jews and Romas, and after June 1941 deported them to the Jasenovac concentration camp (or to camps in Poland). The exact number of victims of the Ustaše regime is uncertain due to the destruction of documents and varying numbers given by various historians vying for political clout. The total number of victims in Jasenovac is estimated to be between 56,000 and 97,000.[5] The racial laws were enforced by the Ustaše militia. Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Language(s) Romani, languages of native region Religion(s) Romanipen, combined with assimilations from local religions Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) This article is about the Indo-Aryan ethnic group. ... “Jasenovac” redirects here. ...


Although Ustaše had some support in all parts of Croatia, their wide popular support was limited to the traditionally most strongly nationalistic regions.


Greece

The Hellenic State, formed in 1941 as a puppet state of both Italy and Germany. Initially, Italy had wished to annex Greece, but pressure from Germany to avoid civil unrest as what was seen in Bulgarian annexed areas resulted in Italy accepting to create a puppet state with the support of Germany. Most of Greece was held by Italian forces. The puppet state was still technically ruled by King George II of Greece, who was related to German aristocracy, but held deep reservations over the occupation by Germany and Italy. Greece lost further land to Italian-held Albania, and opposition to the puppet regime was strong from 1942 onward. After the ousting of Mussolini in Italy, the Italian occupied lands were taken by the German armed forces, making Greece a German puppet state from 1943 until the puppet state's end in 1944. Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... German soldiers raising the Reich War Flag over the Acropolis. ... German soldiers raising the Reich War Flag over the Acropolis. ... German soldiers raising the Reich War Flag over the Acropolis. ... George II, King of the Hellenes (Greek: Γεώργιος Β [Geōrgios] Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων) (20 July 1890–1 April 1947) ruled Greece from 1922 to 1924 and from 1935 to 1947. ...


Montenegro

Kingdom of Montenegro
Kingdom of Montenegro

Sekula Drljević and the core of the Montenegrin Federalist Party formed the Provisional Administrative Committee of Montenegro on July 12, 1941, and proclaimed on the Saint Peter's Congress the "Kingdom of Montenegro" under protectorate of the Fascist Kingdom of Italy. The country served Italy as part of its goal fragmenting the former Kingdom of Yugoslavia, expanding the Italian Empire throughout the Adriatic Sea, and both Italy's and Germany's drive to end pan-Slavism. The country was mostly caught by the rebellion of the Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland and Drljevic was already in October 1941 expelled from Montenegro which became under direct Italian control with the remainder of the Montenegrin collaborators. In 1943 with the Italian capitulation, Montenegro became a direct sector of occupation of Nazi Germany. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Sekula Drljević (Секулa Дрљевић) (1884 – 1945) was a Montenegrin politician, lawyer, and author. ... The Montenegrin Federalist Party (also known as the Montenegrin Party) (locally Crnogorska federalistička stranka) was a Montenegrin political party in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... The Italian empire in 1941 The Italian Empire (Italian: Impero Italiano) was a 19th and 20th century colonial empire, which lasted from 1889 to 1943. ... Pan-Slavism was a movement in the mid 19th century aimed at unity of all the Slavic people. ... The Chetniks (Serbian: Четници, ÄŒetnici) were a Royalist paramilitary formations operating in the Balkans before and during World Wars. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


In 1944, Drljević formed a pro-Ustaše Montenegrin State Council in exile based in the Independent State of Croatia with the aims of restoring rule over Montenegro. It subsequently formed a Montenegrin People's Army out of various Montenegrin nationalist troops. By then the Partisans already liberated most of Montenegro, which became a Federal Unit of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia. Montenegro endured intense air bombing by the Allied air forces in 1944. The regime is responsible for the deaths of thousands of innocent people. An UstaÅ¡e guard pose among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp The UstaÅ¡e (also known as Ustashas or Ustashi) was a Croatian extreme nationalist movement. ...


Pindus and Macedonia

Principality of Pindus and the Voivodship of Macedonia
Principality of Pindus and the Voivodship of Macedonia

The Principality of Pindus and the Voivodship of Macedonia was an Italian client state formed in 1941 in northern Greece in the regions of Epirus, Thessaly and West Macedonia.[6] It was set up as a nation for the Aromanian speaking peoples. The Principality of Pindus and Voivodship of Macedonia (also Pindo or Pindos, sometimes Pindus and Moglena; Aromanian: Printsipat di la Pind, Macedonian: Војводство Македонија) was an autonomous state set up under fascist Italian control in northwest Greece during World War II. The Principalty was initially promoted by Alchiviad Diamandi di Samarina, since... The Principality of Pindus and Voivodship of Macedonia (also Pindo or Pindos, sometimes Pindus and Moglena; Aromanian: Printsipat di la Pind, Macedonian: Војводство Македонија) was an autonomous state set up under fascist Italian control in northwest Greece during World War II. The Principalty was initially promoted by Alchiviad Diamandi di Samarina, since... According to the notion of client states, just as a client of a corporation remains dependent on the corporation for a continued supply of products, and just as it is in the companys interest to make expendable products which need to be replaced regularly, client states of the two... The name Epirus, from the Greek Ήπειρος meaning continent may refer to: // Epirus (region) - a historical and geographical region of the southwestern Balkans, straddling modern Greece and Albania Epirus (periphery) - one of the thirteen peripheries (administrative divisions) of Greece. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... West Macedonia is one of the thirteen peripheries of Greece, consisting of the western part of Greek Macedonia. ... Aromanian (also known as Macedo-Romanian, Arumanian or Vlach in most other countries; in Aromanian: limba armãneascã, armãneshce or armãneashti) is an Eastern Romance language spoken in Southeastern Europe. ...


The state adopted certain anti-Greek policies but never was anti-semitic. Jews from Kastoria, Veria, and Ioannina were in top positions in the hierarchy of the Principality. Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... Kastoria is a city in northern Greece in the periphery of West Macedonia. ... Veria is also a settlement in the prefecture of Laconia, see Veria, Laconia, and a commune in France, see Véria, Jura. ... This article is about the Greek city. ...


German puppet states

Slovakia (Tiso regime)

The Slovak Republic under President Jozef Tiso signed the Tripartite Pact on November 24, 1940. The Slovak Republic (Slovak: Slovenská republika) was an independent national Slovak state and ally of National Socialist (Nazi) Germany during World War II on the territory of present-day Slovakia (with the exception of the southern and eastern parts of present-day Slovakia. ... Josef Tiso in photo Monsignor Jozef Tiso (October 13, 1887–April 18, 1947) was a Roman Catholic priest who became a deputy of the Czechoslovak parliament, a member of the Czechoslovak government, and finally the President of Independent Slovak Republic from 1939-1945, allied with Nazi Germany. ... The Tripartite Treaty (1906) also refers to a 1906 treaty concerning the Nile river (see Hydropolitics in the Nile Basin. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Slovakia had been closely aligned with Germany almost immediately from its declaration of independence from Czechoslovakia on March 14, 1939. Slovakia entered into a treaty of protection with Germany on March 23, 1939. Slovak troops joined the German invasion of Poland, fighting to reclaim territories lost in 1918. is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Slovakia declared war on the Soviet Union in 1941 and signed the revived Anti-Comintern Pact of 1941. Slovak troops fought on Germany's Eastern Front, with Slovakia furnishing Germany with two divisions totalling 20,000 men. Slovakia declared war on Great Britain and the United States of America in 1942.


Slovakia was spared German military occupation until the Slovak National Uprising, which began on August 29, 1944, and was almost immediately crushed by the Waffen SS and Slovak troops loyal to Jozef Tiso, the Catholic priest-turned-dictator of Slovakia. Combatants Nazi Germany Slovakia Commanders Heinrich Himmler Ferdinand Čatloš Ján Golian† Rudolf Viest† Strength 40,000, later increased to 83,000 18,000 initially, later increased to 78,000 Casualties ≈10,000 ≈10,000 + 5,304 captured and executed Memorial of the Slovak National Uprising in Banska Bystrica The... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Recruitment poster of the Waffen-SS. (Enlistment at the fulfillment of the 17th year of age, meaning at the age of 18) The Waffen-SS (German for Armed SS, literally Weapons SS) was the combat arm of the Schutzstaffel (Protective Squadron) or SS. In contrast to the Wehrmacht, Germanys... Josef Tiso in photo Monsignor Jozef Tiso (October 13, 1887–April 18, 1947) was a Roman Catholic priest who became a deputy of the Czechoslovak parliament, a member of the Czechoslovak government, and finally the President of Independent Slovak Republic from 1939-1945, allied with Nazi Germany. ...


After the war, Tiso was executed and Slovakia was rejoined with Czechoslovakia. Slovakia and the Czech Republic finally separated into independent states in 1993.


Italy (Salò regime)

Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini formed the Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana in Italian) on September 23, 1943, succeeding the Kingdom of Italy as a member of the Axis. Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Anthem Giovinezza (The Youth)¹ From the Gustav Line to the Gothic Line Capital Salò Language(s) Italian Religion None defined. ... Mussolini redirects here. ... Anthem Giovinezza (The Youth)¹ From the Gustav Line to the Gothic Line Capital Salò Language(s) Italian Religion None defined. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Mussolini had been removed from office and arrested by King Victor Emmanuel III on July 25, 1943. The King publicly reaffirmed his loyalty to Germany, but authorized secret armistice negotiations with the Allies. In a spectacular raid led by German paratrooper Otto Skorzeny, Mussolini was rescued from arrest. is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Otto Skorzeny (June 12, 1908 – July 6, 1975[1]) was a Standartenführer[2] in the German Waffen-SS during World War II. After fighting on the Eastern Front, he is known as the commando leader who rescued Italian dictator Benito Mussolini from imprisonment after his overthrow. ...


Once safely ensconced in German occupied Salò, Mussolini declared that the King was deposed, that Italy was a republic and that he was the new president. He functioned as a German puppet for the duration of the war. Salo (Italian: Salò) is a small town in the Province of Brescia in the region of Lombardy in northern Italy on the banks of Lake Garda. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Albania (under German control)

Albanian Kingdom
Albanian Kingdom

After Benito Mussolini was overthrown by his own Italian Grand Council, a void of power opened up in Albania. The Italian occupying forces could do nothing as the communists took control of the south and the National Liberation Movement (NLM) took control of the north. Albanians in the Italian army scurried to join the guerrilla forces. In September 1943, the guerrillas moved to can take the capitol of Tirana, but before they could, German paratroopers dropped into the city and sent the guerrillas running to the hills and to the south. Soon after, German High Command announced that they would recognize the independence of a neutral Albania and organized an Albanian government, police, and military. The country retained the official name the Albanian Kingdom and existed in borders set by Italy in 1941. Since King Zog I was in absentia, a High Council of Regency was created to carry out the functions of a head of state, while the government was headed mainly by Albanian conservative politicians. The Germans didn't exert heavy control over Albania's administration. Instead, they attempted to gain popular appeal by giving the Albanians want they wanted, including the annexation of Kosovo. Given their autonomy, the Albanian government refused to hand over their Jewish population. However, the Nazis did have success in cooperating with some Balli Kombëtar units in suppressing the communists. In addition, several Balli Kombëtar leaders held postions in the regime. Many Albanian collaborators joined the Skanderbeg SS Division which expelled and killed Serbs living in Kosovo. Albania was completely liberated on November 28, 1944. This article is about the Albanian Kingdom in the 20th century. ... Wars of national liberation were conflicts fought by indigenous military groups against an imperial power in an attempt to remove that powers influence. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Albania Founded 1614 Elevation 295 ft (90 m) Population (2005 est)[1]  - City 585,756  - Metro 700,000 Tirana (Albanian: Tiranë or Tirana) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Albania. ... This article is about the Albanian Kingdom in the 20th century. ... King Zog of Albania King Zog (October 8, 1895–April 9, 1961) was an Albanian politician and the first king of Albania from 1928 to 1939. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Balli Kombetar was a nationalist organization of Albanians fighting for an Ethnic Albania during the World War II. After the Mukje Agreement, Balli Kombëtar was forced into a Civil War with the communists and was defeated by them. ... The 21st SS Division Skanderbeg was a Waffen SS Mountain division set up by Heinrich Himmler in March 1944, officially under the title of the 21st Waffen-Gebirgs Division der SS Skanderbeg (Albanische Nr. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Hungary (Szálasi regime)

Hungarian State
Hungarian State

After relations between Germany and the regency of Miklos Horthy collapsed in Hungary in 1944, Horthy was forced to abdicate after German armed forces held his son hostage. Following Horthy's abdication, Hungary was politically reorganized into a totalitarian fascist country called the Hungarian State in December 1944 led by Ferenc Szálasi who had been Prime Minister of Hungary since October 1944 and was leader of the anti-Semitic fascist Arrow Cross Party. In power, his government was a Quisling regime with little authority other than to obey Germany's orders. Also, days after its inception, the capital of Budapest was surrounded by the Soviet Red Army. German and fascist Hungarian forces tried in vain to hold off the Soviet advance but failed. In March 1945, Szálasi fled Hungary for Germany to run the state in exile until the surrender of Germany in May 1945. Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary_1940. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary_1940. ... Admiral Horthy inspecting the German fleet with Adolf Hitler Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya (Vitéz Nagybányai Horthy Miklós in Hungarian) (June 18, 1868–February 9, 1957) was a Hungarian Admiral and statesman and served as the Regent of Hungary from March 1, 1920 until October 15, 1944. ... Ferenc Szálasi Ferenc Szálasi (January 6, 1897-March 12, 1946) was a Fascist and the Prime Minister of Hungary during the final days of Hungarys participation in World War II. Born the son of a soldier in Kassa, Szálasi followed in his fathers footsteps and... Flag of the Arrow Cross Party The Arrow Cross Party (Hungarian: Nyilaskeresztes Párt – Hungarista Mozgalom, literally Arrow Cross Party-Hungarist Movement) was a pro-German anti-Semitic national socialist party led by Ferenc Szálasi which ruled Hungary from October 15, 1944 to January 1945. ... Quisling, after Norwegian fascist politician Vidkun Quisling, is a term used to describe traitors and collaborationists. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ...


Axis collaborator states

France (Vichy regime)

France and its colonial empire, under the so-called Vichy regime of Marshal Pétain, collaborated with the Axis from 1941 until 1944 when the regime was dissolved. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... For the French colonial postage stamps, see French Colonies. ... Vichy France (French: now called Régime de Vichy or Vichy; called itself at the time État Français, or French State) was the French state of 1940-1944 which was a puppet government under Nazi influence, as opposed to the Free French Forces, based first in London and later in Algiers. ... Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French general, later Chief of State of Vichy France (Chef de lÉtat Français), from 1940 to 1944. ...


Pétain became the last Prime Minister of the French Third Republic on June 16, 1940 as the battle of France following the German invasion army entering Paris on June 14. Pétain sued for peace with Germany and six days later, on June 22, 1940, his government concluded an armistice with Hitler. Under the terms of the agreement, Germany occupied approximately two thirds of France, including Paris. Pétain was permitted to keep an "armistice army" of 100,000 men within the unoccupied southern zone. This number includes neither the army based in French colonial empire nor the French fleet. In French North Africa and French Equatorial Africa, the Vichy were permitted to maintain 127,000 men under arms after the Gabon defected to the Free French.[7] The French also maintained substantial garrisons at the French mandated territory of Syria and Lebanon, the French colony of Madagascar and in the French Somaliland. Motto Liberté, égalité, fraternité (Liberty, equality, brotherhood) Anthem La Marseillaise The French Third Republic, pre-World War I Capital Paris Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism, protestantism and judaism official religions (until 1905), None (from 1905 until 1940) (Law on the separation of Church and State of 1905) Government Republic... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Belligerents France United Kingdom Canada Czechoslovakia Poland Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III H.G. Winkelman WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Sikorski Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Second Armistice at Compiègne, France was signed on June 22, 18:50, 1940, between Nazi Germany and France. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Location of French Equatorial Africa. ... Flag De Jure territory Capital Paris Capital-in-exile London, Algiers Government Republic Leader Charles de Gaulle Historical era World War II  - de Gaulles appeal June 18, 1940  - Liberation of Paris August, 1944 The Free French Forces (French: , FFL) were French fighters in World War II, who decided to... This article is about the country. ...


After the armistice, relations between France and the UK quickly deteriorated. Fearful that the powerful French fleet might fall into German hands, the British launched several naval attacks, the major one against the Algerian harbour of Mers el-Kebir on July 3, 1940. Though Churchill would defend his controversial decisions to attack the French Fleet, the French people themselves were less accepting of these decisions. German propaganda was able to trumpet these actions as an absolute betrayal of the French people by their former allies. France broke relations with the United Kingdom after the attack and considered declaring war. Combatants United Kingdom France Commanders James Somerville Marcel-Bruno Gensoul Strength 1 aircraft carrier 3 battleships 2 light cruisers 11 destroyers 4 battleships 6 destroyers 1 seaplane tender Casualties 3 Blackburn Skua 3 Fairey Swordfish 2 dead 1 battleship sunk 2 battleships heavily damaged 1 destroyer damaged 1,297 dead... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On July 10, 1940, Petain was given emergency "full powers" by a majority vote of the French National Assembly. The following day approval of the new constitution by the Assembly effectively created the French State (l'État Français) replacing the French Republic and unofficially called Vichy France for the resort town of Vichy where Petain chose to maintain his seat of government. The new government continued to be recognised as the lawful government of France by the United States until 1942. Racial laws were introduced in France and its colonies and many French Jews were deported to Germany. On a side note, Albert Lebrun, last President of the Republic, did not leave the presidential office when he moved to Vizille in July 10, 1940. By April 25, 1945, during Petain's trial, Lebrun argued he thought he would be able to return to power after the fall of Germany since he had not resigned.[8] is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The French state either designs the Republic of France (i. ... Vichy (Occitan: Vichèi) is a French commune, situated in the département of Allier and the région of Auvergne. ... The current Jewish community in France numbers around 606,561, according to the World Jewish Congress and 500,000 according to the Appel Unifié Juif de France (France Jewish community main organism), and is found mainly in the metropolitan areas of Paris, Marseille and Strasbourg. ... The village of Vizille is home to the Musée de la Révolution Française, a rich depository of archival and rare materials devoted to the French Revolution. ...


In September 1940, Vichy France allowed Japan to occupy French Indochina, a federation of the French colonial possessions and protectorates roughly encompassing the territory of modern day Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. The Vichy regime continued to administer the colony under Japanese military occupation. French Indochina was the base for the Japanese invasions of Thailand, Malaya and Borneo. In 1945, under Japanese sponsorship, the Empire of Vietnam and the Kingdom of Cambodia were proclaimed as Japanese puppet states. Combatants Empire of Japan Vichy France Commanders Akihito Nakamura Takuma Nishimura Maurice Martin Strength 34,000 men 2,000 men Casualties  ? 800 The Invasion of French Indochina ), also known as the Vietnam Expedition, the Japanese Invasion of Vietnam, was an attempt by the Empire of Japan, during the Second Sino... Φ Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ...


The UK permitted French General Charles de Gaulle to headquarter his Free French movement in London in a largely unsuccessful effort to win over the French colonial empire. On September 26, 1940, de Gaulle led an attack by Allied forces on the Vichy port of Dakar in French West Africa. Forces loyal to Pétain fired on de Gaulle and repulsed the attack after two days of heavy fighting. Public opinion in France was further outraged, and Vichy France drew closer to Germany. This article is about the person. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia Free France Vichy France Commanders John Cunningham Charles De Gaulle Pierre François Boisson Strength 2 battleships, 1 aircraft carrier, 5 cruisers, 10 destroyers 1 battleship, 2 cruisers, 4 destroyers, coastal emplacements Casualties 2 battleships and 2 cruisers damaged 1 destroyer sunk, 2 submarines sunk The... Location of French West Africa French West Africa (French: ) was a federation of eight French territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea (now Guinea), Côte dIvoire, Niger, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) and Dahomey (now Benin). ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval...


Vichy France assisted Iraq in the Anglo-Iraqi War of 1941, allowing Germany and Italy to utilize air bases in the French mandate of Syria to support the Iraqi revolt against the British. Allied forces responded by attacking Syria and Lebanon in 1941. Vichy forces in the French Somolialand also fought alongside Italian forces in Italian East Africa. In 1942, Allied forces attacked the French colony of Madagascar. Combatants Kingdom of Iraq United Kingdom India Commanders Rashid Ali General Sir Edward Quinan Strength five divisions about two divisions Casualties 2,500 KIA, about 6,000 POWs 1,200 (KIA, MIA, WIA) The Anglo-Iraqi War is the name of hostilities between the United Kingdom and the Iraqi nationalist... Combatants Australia U.K. British India British Palestine  Czechoslovakia Government-in-Exile Free France Vichy France Mandate of Syria Mandate of Lebanon Commanders Henry Maitland Wilson Henri Dentz Strength Approximately 35,000 troops Australian: 18,000 British: 9,000 Indian: 2,000 Free French: 5,000 Between 35,000 and... Combatants  United Kingdom  Rhodesia British East African colonies South Africa  Australia (naval only) Vichy France Japan (naval only) Commanders Robert Sturges Armand Léon Annet Strength 10,000-15,000 (land forces) 8,000 (land forces)[1] Casualties 107 killed in action; 280 wounded;[2] 620 casualties in total (including...


Vichy France, staunchly anti-Communist, enthusiastically sided with Germany in its war with the Soviet Union. Vichy France signed the Anti-Comintern Pact of 1941. Almost 7,000 volunteers joined the anti-communist Légion des Volontaires Français (LVF) from 1941 to 1944 and some 7,500 formed the Division Charlemagne, a Waffen-SS unit, from 1944 to 1945. Both the LVF and the Division Charlemagne fought on the eastern front. Hitler never accepted that France could become a full military partner,[9] and constantly prevented the buildup of Vichy's military strength. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ...


Other than political, Vichy's collaboration with Germany essentially was industrial, with French factories providing many vehicles to the German armed forces.


In November 1942, Vichy French troops briefly but fiercely resisted the landing of Allied troops in French North Africa, but were unable to prevail. Admiral François Darlan negotiated a local ceasefire with the Allies. In response to the landings, and Vichy's inability to defend itself, German troops occupied southern France and Tunisia, a French protectorate that formed part of French North Africa. The Bey of Tunis formed a government friendly to the Germans. Combatants United States United Kingdom Free French Forces Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham François Darlan Strength 73,500 60,000 Casualties 479+ dead 720 wounded 1,346+ dead 1,997 wounded Operation Torch (initially called Operation Gymnast) was the British-American invasion of French North Africa in... François Darlan (August 7, 1881 – December 24, 1942) was a French naval officer. ... The Bey of Tunis is the title of the Head of state of Tunisia. ...


In mid-1943, former Vichy authorities in North Africa came to an agreement with the Free French and setup a temporary French government in Algiers, known as the Comité Français de Libération Nationale, with De Gaulle eventually emerging as the leader. The CFLN raised new troops, and re-organized, re-trained and re-equipped the French military under Allied supervision. This article is about the capital of Algeria. ...


However, the Vichy government continued to function in mainland France until late 1944, but had lost most of its territorial sovereignty and military assets, with the exception of forces stationed in French Indochina.


Axis autonomous territories

Territories held directly under with Axis states which had a different nationality then the ruling state and technically had autonomous governments within the Axis states.


Albania (under Italian control)

Albania was an Italian protectorate as it had little if no independence from Italy. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Flag Anthem Himni i Flamurit Capital Tirana Language(s) Albanian Religion none Government Constitutional monarchy King  - 1939-1943 Victor Emmanuel III Lieutenant-general  - 1939-1943 Francesco Jacomoni di San Savino  - 1943 Alberto Pariani Historical era World War II  - Italian Invasion April 7, 1939  - Disestablished July 25, 1943 Currency frang ar... World War II and the Rise of Communism (1941-1944) Between 1941 and 1944, communist partisans and nationalist guerrillas fought Italian and German occupation forces, and more often each other, in a brutal struggle to take control of Albania. ...


Though Albania was physically separated from Italy and had a majority Albanian population, it was ruled in personal union as a protectorate with Italy under Victor Emmanuel III, whose full title was King of Italy, Albania, and Emperor of Ethiopia, indicating Albania's subordination as only a part of the Italian Empire. Furthermore Albania's government was led by Italian governors appointed by Italy after 1939, and an agenda was pursued to "Italianize" the Albanian population. On June 3, 1939, the Albanian foreign ministry was merged into the Italian foreign ministry, and the Albanian Foreign Minister, Xhemil Bej Dino, was given the rank of an Italian ambassador. The Italian language and history was learned in school in place of the Albanian language and history. It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... Victor Emmanuel III (Italian: ; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was King of Italy (29 July 1900 – 9 May 1946), Emperor of Ethiopia (1936–43) and King of Albania (1939–43). ... King of Italy is a title adopted by many rulers after the fall of the Roman Empire. ... The Emperor (Geez ንጉሠ ነገሥት, , King of Kings) of Ethiopia was the hereditary ruler of Ethiopia until the abolition of the monarchy in 1975. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Before 1939, Albania had been in Italian orbit since the First World War when it was pressured by Italy to become a "protectorate" in accordance with the London Pact. From the 1920s to 1939, Albania had its own King and its own government. Italian troops were withdrawn from the city of Vlora where the Patriots fought. But throughout the 1920s and 1930s, Albania became increasingly dependent on Italy. The Albanian government and economy were subsidised by Italian loans, the Albanian army was trained by Italian military instructors, and Italian colonial settlement was encouraged. The Albanian military was placed under Italian command and formally merged into the Italian Army in 1940. Additionally, the Italian Blackshirts formed four legions of Albanian Militia, initially recruited from Italians living in Albania, but later from ethnic Albanians. London Pact (Italian Patto di Londra) was a secret pact between Italy and Triple Entente, signed in London on April 26, 1915 by Italy, Great Britain, France and Russia. ... Vlora (Photo by Marc Morell) Vlorë (Albanian: Vlorë or Vlora) is the second largest port city of Albania, after Durrës, with a population of about 85,000 (2003 estimate). ... For the University of Nebraska–Lincoln Cornhuskers Football Team, see Blackshirts (football). ... MVSN Albanian Militia was formed in 1939 following Italys invasion and annexation of Italians living in Albania and later on Albanians were also recruited. ...


With the major powers of Europe distracted by Germany's occupation of Czechoslovakia, Mussolini issued an ultimatum to the Albanian King Zog on March 25, 1939, demanding that Zog permit the country to be occupied by Italy as a protectorate. Zog refused. On April 7, 1939, Italy invaded Albania. Zog, his wife and newborn son immediately fled the country. After the war they were declared traitors. Five days after the invasion, on April 12, the Albanian parliament voted to depose Zog and join the nation to Italy "in personal union" by offering the Albanian crown to Victor Emmanuel III. The parliament elected Albania's largest landowner, Shefqet Bej Vërlaci, as Prime Minister. Verlaci additionally served as head of state for five days until Victor Emmanuel III formally accepted the Albanian crown in a ceremony at the Quirinale place in Rome. Victor Emmanuel III appointed Francesco Jacomoni di San Savino as Lieutenant-General to represent him in Albania as viceroy. King Zog of Albania King Zog (October 8, 1895–April 9, 1961) was an Albanian politician and the first king of Albania from 1928 to 1939. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Italy Albania Commanders Alfredo Guzzoni Zog I The Italian invasion of Albania (April 7 – April 12, 1939) was a military campaign by Fascist Italy against the Albanian Kingdom. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Shefqet Bej Verlaci (December 15, 1877, Elbasan, Albania – July 21, 1946, Zürich, Switzerland) was Prime Minister of Albania in 1924 and during the Italian occupation from 1939 to 1941. ... An etching of the Hill, crowned by the mass of the Palazzo del Quirinale, from a series I Sette Colli di Roma antica e moderna published in 1827 by Luigi Rossini (1790 - 1857): his view, from the roof of the palazzo near the Trevi Fountain that now houes the Accademia...


Albania automatically followed Italy into the war with Britain and France on June 10, 1940. Albania served as the base for the Italian invasion of Greece in 1941, and Albanian troops participated in the Greek campaign. Albania was enlarged by the annexation of Montenegro from the former Yugoslavia in 1941. is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Bohemia and Moravia (under German control)

The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was created in 1939 following the German occupation of Czechoslovakia. The region was part of a Greater Germany[10][11] and ruled by a German administrator called a "Reichsprotektor". The region had its own currency, and a Czech civil government. Bohemia and Moravia was intended to be eventually colonized by Germans. Image File history File links Flag_of_Bohmen_und_Mahren. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bohmen_und_Mahren. ... Capital Prague Language(s) Czech, German Political structure Protectorate Reichsprotektor  - 1939-1941 Konstantin von Neurath  - 1941-1942 Reinhard Heydrich (acting)  - 1942-1943 Kurt Daluege (acting)  - 1943-1945 Wilhelm Frick Staatspräsident  - 1939-1945 Emil Hácha Historical era World War II  - Occupation March 15, 1939  - Fall of Prague May 13... Capital Prague Language(s) Czech, German Political structure Protectorate Reichsprotektor  - 1939-1941 Konstantin von Neurath  - 1941-1942 Reinhard Heydrich (acting)  - 1942-1943 Kurt Daluege (acting)  - 1943-1945 Wilhelm Frick Staatspräsident  - 1939-1945 Emil Hácha Historical era World War II  - Occupation March 15, 1939  - Fall of Prague May 13... Grossdeutschland (literally Greater Germany) is a term that has been used in two separate contexts over history. ... Protector is historical title with multiple meanings; this article also includes a few litteral equivalents thus rendered // Political & Administrative Heads of State in Europe in Iceland: one Sovereign was styled Beskytter af hele e Island (Protector of Land of Iceland) 25 Jun - 22 Aug 1809 (an intermezzo between Danish Governors...


Initially, considerable autonomy was allowed for the Czech population but after 1941 the territory increasingly came under repressive rule after the appointment of Reinhard Heydrich as Reichsprotektor. In 1941, all Czech cultural organizations were ordered to be shut down. Following the assasination of Heydrich, mass arrests of Czechs took place. Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (7 March 1904 – 4 June 1942) was an SS-Obergruppenführer, chief of the Reich Security Main Office (including the Gestapo, SD and Kripo Nazi police agencies) and Reichsprotektor (Reich Protector) of Bohemia and Moravia. ...


Controversial cases

See also: Cases of controversial relations with the Axis of World War II

States listed in this section were not officially members of Axis, but had controversial relations with one or more Axis members at some point during the war. Area under Axis control over the course of the war shown in black. ...


Denmark

Main article: Occupation of Denmark

On May 31, 1939, Denmark and Germany signed a treaty of non-aggression, which did not contain any military obligations for either party.[12] On April 9, 1940, citing intended British mining of Norwegian and Danish waters as a pretext, Germany invaded both countries. King Christian X and the Danish government, worried about German bombings if they resisted occupation, accepted "protection by the Reich" in exchange for nominal independence under German military occupation. Three successive Prime Ministers, Thorvald Stauning, Vilhelm Buhl and Erik Scavenius, maintained this samarbejdspolitik ("cooperation policy") of collaborating with Germany. Headquarters of the Schalburgkorps, a Danish SS unit, after 1943. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Operation Wilfred was a British scheme to mine the waters between Norway and her islands in order to prevent German convoys fom using the neutral waters to transport high grade Swedish iron ore. ... Combatants Germany Denmark Norway Operation Weserübung was the German codename for Nazi Germanys assault on Denmark and Norway during World War II and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign. ... Christian X (Christian Carl Frederik Albert Alexander Vilhelm) (26 September 1870 – 20 April 1947) was King of Denmark from 1912 to 1947 and of Iceland between 1918 and 1944. ... Thorvald Stauning (26 October 1873 - 3 May 1942) was the first Social Democrat Prime Minister of Denmark. ... Vilhelm Buhl (16 October 1881 - 18 December 1954) was Prime Minister of Denmark from 4 May 1942 to 9 November 1942 as head of the unity government Cabinet of Vilhelm Buhl I during the German occupation of Denmark of World War II, until the nazis ordered him removed. ... Erik Scavenius with German plenipotentiary of Denmark, Dr. Werner Best. ...

  • Denmark coordinated its foreign policy with Germany, extending diplomatic recognition to Axis collaborator and puppet regimes and breaking diplomatic relations with the "governments-in-exile" formed by countries occupied by Germany. Denmark broke diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union and signed the Anti-Comintern Pact of 1941.[13]
  • In 1941, a Danish military corps, Frikorps Danmark was created at the initiative of the SS and the Danish Nazi Party, to fight alongside the Wehrmacht on Germany's Eastern Front. The government's following statement was widely interpreted as a sanctioning of the corps.[14] Frikorps Danmark was open to members of the Danish Royal Army and those who had completed their service within the last ten years.[15] Between 4,000 and 10,000 Danish citizens joined the Frikorps Danmark, including 77 officers of the Royal Danish Army. An estimated 3,900 of these soldiers died fighting for Germany during the Second World War.
  • Denmark transferred six torpedo boats to Germany in 1941, although the bulk of its navy remained under Danish command until the declaration of martial law in 1943.
  • Denmark supplied agricultural and industrial products to Germany as well as loans for armaments and fortifications. The German presence in Denmark, including the construction of the Danish part of the Atlantic Wall fortifications, was paid from an account in Denmark's central bank, Nationalbanken. The Danish government had been promised that these expenses would be repaid later, but this never happened. The construction of the Atlantic Wall fortifications in Jutland cost 5 billion Danish kroner.

The Danish protectorate government lasted until August 29, 1943, when the cabinet resigned following a declaration of martial law by occupying German military officials. The Danish navy managed to scuttle 32 of its larger ships to prevent their use by Germany. Germany succeeded in seizing 14 of the larger and 50 of the smaller vessels and later to raise and refit 15 of the sunken vessels. During the scuttling of the Danish fleet, a number of vessels were ordered to attempt an escape to Swedish waters, and 13 vessels succeeded in this attempt, four of which were larger ships.[16][17] By the autumn of 1944, these ships officially formed a Danish naval flotilla in exile[18] In 1943, Swedish authorities allowed 500 Danish soldiers in Sweden to train themselves as "police troops". By the autumn of 1944, Sweden raised this number to 4,800 and recognized the entire unit as a Danish military brigade in exile.[19] Danish collaboration continued on an administrative level, with the Danish bureaucracy functioning under German command. The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and Japan on November 25, 1936. ... Frikorps Danmark (Free Corps Denmark) was a Danish volunteer army corps created by the Danish Nazi Party in cooperation with Germany, to fight the Soviet Union during the Second World War. ... SS redirects here. ... Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky... German coastal artillery in the Pas-de-Calais area, with laborers at work on casemate. ... Danmarks Nationalbank (English: National Bank of Denmark - in Danish often simply Nationalbanken) is the central bank of Denmark. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Royal Danish Navy (or Kongelige Danske Marine in Danish) is the sea-based branch of The Danish Defence force. ... A flotilla (from Spanish, meaning a flota of small ships, and this from French flotte), or naval flotilla, is a formation of small warships that may be part of a larger fleet. ... In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. ...


Active resistance to the German occupation among the populace, virtually nonexistent before 1943, increased after the declaration of martial law. The intelligence operations of the Danish resistance was described as "second to none" by Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery after the liberation of Denmark.[20] The Danish Resistance Movement was an underground insurgency movement to resist the German occupation of Denmark during World War II. Due to the unusually lenient terms given to Denmark by the Nazi occupation authority, the movement was slower to develop effective tactics on a wide scale than in some other... Field Marshal Viscount Slim in his Field Marshals uniform, holding a marshals baton. ... Bernard Law Montgomery Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein (November 17, 1887 - March 24, 1976) was a British military officer during World War II often referred to as Monty. ...


Serbia

Main article: Serbia (1941-1944)
Government of National Salvation

The status of Serbia within Axis occupied Europe is controversial. Evidence shows that there was indeed a Serbian government, but there is also evidence that Serbia was under the direct rule of military governors. Serbian General Milan Nedić was instructed to form the "Government of National Salvation" in German-occupied Serbia. Nedić served as Prime Minister of the puppet government which recognized the former Yugoslavian Regent, Prince Paul, as its head of state. But Germany named the territory "Militärverwaltung in Serbien" and dictated the policies that Serbia would undertake. Mass killings of Serbs were undertaken in the region by the Germans without the sanctioning of the Serbian civil administration. A military governor was in charge of all armed forces, German and Serb within the territory. The region had its own currency, but so did the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia which was a German-run administration. It is possible that much like Norway under Quisling (which was a Reichskommissariat, not an independent state), Nedić's government wanted to be recognized by Germany as an independent state, but was not granted. Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian, German (in Banat) Political structure Military administration Military Commander  - 1941 Franz Böhme  - 1941-1944 (?) (Unknown) Serbian government leader  - 1941 Milan Aćimović  - 1941-1944 Milan Nedić Historical era World War II  - Invasion of Yugoslavia April 1, 1941  - Military defeat May, 1944 Currency Serbian Dinar... Image File history File links National_flag_of_Serbia. ... Image File history File links National_flag_of_Serbia. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian, German (in Banat) Political structure Military administration Military Commander  - 1941 Franz Böhme  - 1941-1944 (?) (Unknown) Serbian government leader  - 1941 Milan Aćimović  - 1941-1944 Milan Nedić Historical era World War II  - Invasion of Yugoslavia April 1, 1941  - Military defeat May, 1944 Currency Serbian Dinar... Milan Nedić Serbian Cyrillic Милан Недић (September 2, 1878 – 1946) was a Serbian soldier and politician who was a major collaborator during World War II. Nedić was born in Grocka, Serbia. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian, German (in Banat) Political structure Military administration Military Commander  - 1941 Franz Böhme  - 1941-1944 (?) (Unknown) Serbian government leader  - 1941 Milan Aćimović  - 1941-1944 Milan Nedić Historical era World War II  - Invasion of Yugoslavia April 1, 1941  - Military defeat May, 1944 Currency Serbian Dinar... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Capital Prague Language(s) Czech, German Political structure Protectorate Reichsprotektor  - 1939-1941 Konstantin von Neurath  - 1941-1942 Reinhard Heydrich (acting)  - 1942-1943 Kurt Daluege (acting)  - 1943-1945 Wilhelm Frick Staatspräsident  - 1939-1945 Emil Hácha Historical era World War II  - Occupation March 15, 1939  - Fall of Prague May 13... Reichskommissariat Moskau Reichskommissariat Ostland Reichskommissariat Ukraine Reichskommissariat Kaukasus See also Reichskommissar Category: ...


Nedić's armed forces, the Serbian State Guards and the Serbian Volunteer Corps, which were initially largely members of the fascist Yugoslav National Movement "Zbor" (Jugoslovenski narodni pokret "Zbor", or ZBOR) party. These forces wore the uniform of the Royal Yugoslav Army as well as helmets and uniforms purchased from Italy. Nedić's forces fought under German control and support against the resistance movements in Serbia. Unlike Hitler's Nordic collaborators who sent troops to fight the Soviet Union, Nedić's Slavic troops were confined to duty in Serbia. Several concentration camps were formed in Serbia and at the 1942 Anti-Freemason Exhibition in Belgrade the city was pronounced to be free of Jews (Judenfrei). On 1 April 1942, a Serbian Gestapo was formed. Serbian State Guard (SDS) also known as nedićevci was the name of the military force that was used to complement the civil police units within Nedićs Serbia. ... SDK Amblem . ... Jugoslovenski narodni pokret Zbor (Yugoslav National Movement Zbor, commonly known as ZBOR) was the name of the movement formed in 1935 by Dimitrije Ljotić through the merger of a number of right-wing nationalist parties. ... Jugoslovenski narodni pokret Zbor (Yugoslav National Movement Zbor, commonly known as ZBOR) was the name of the movement formed in 1935 by Dimitrije Ljotić through the merger of a number of right-wing nationalist parties. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign nation through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. ... This is a list of Internment and Concentration camps, organized by country. ... Antimason exhibition stamps Grand Anti-Masonic Exhibition (Serbian: Antimasonska izložba) was the name of an antisemitic exhibition that was opened in Belgrade on October 22, 1941. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... German map showing Estonia as Judenfrei. Judenrein (also Judenfrei) was a term used by Nazis during the Holocaust to designate an area free of Jewish presence. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The evidence shows that there was an organized Serb civil administration, and armed forces, but there were Dutch, Norwegian, and Estonian governments and armed forces which did not constitute states.


Soviet Union

See also: Soviet-German relations before 1941

Relations between the Soviet Union and the major Axis powers were generally hostile before 1939. In the Spanish Civil War, the Soviet Union gave military aid to the Second Spanish Republic, against Spanish Nationalist forces, which were assisted by Germany and Italy. However, the Nationalist forces were victorious. In 1938 and 1939, the USSR fought and defeated Japan in two separate border wars, at Lake Khasan and Khalkhin Gol. The Soviets suffered another political defeat when an ally, Czechoslovakia, was partitioned and partially annexed, by Germany, Hungary and Poland — with the agreement of Britain and France — in 1938-39. Signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Cooperation between Germany and Soviet Union dates to the aftermath of the First World War. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Republic in exile dissolved July 15, 1977 Currency Spanish... Flag Motto Una Grande Libre Anthem Marcha Real Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Religion Roman Catholic Church Government Monarchy Head of State¹  - 1939-1975 Francisco Franco  - 1975-1978 Juan Carlos I Legislature Cortes Generales Historical era Cold War  - Spanish Civil War 1936-1939  - Republic defeated April 4, 1939  - Death of... Combatants Soviet Union Empire of Japan Commanders Vasily Blyukher Nikolai Berzarin Kotoku Sato Strength 22,950 20,000+ Casualties 717 killed, 75 missing 525 killed, 913 wounded Soviet-Japanese Border Wars Lake Khasan – Khalkhin Gol The Battle of Lake Khasan ( July 29, 1938 – August 11, 1938) and also known as... Combatants Soviet Union Mongolian Peoples Republic Empire of Japan Manchukuo Commanders Georgy Zhukov Michitaro Komatsubara Strength 57,000 30,000 (initially), 60,000 (as positions reinforced) Casualties Archival research 7,974 killed, 15,251 wounded[1] Japanese government claim 8,440 killed, 8,766 wounded Soviet claim 60,000... For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy The Munich Agreement (Czech: ; Slovak: ; German: ) was an agreement regarding the Sudetenland Crisis among the major powers of Europe after a conference held in Munich, Germany in 1938 and signed in the early hours of...


There were talks between Soviet Union and United Kingdom and France for an alliance against the growing power of Germany but these talks failed. As a result, on August 23, 1939, the Soviet Union and Germany signed the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, which included a secret protocol whereby the independent countries of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Romania were divided into spheres of interest of the parties. {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... A sphere of influence is a metaphorical region of political influences surrounding a country. ...


On September 1, barely a week after the pact had been signed, the partition of Poland commenced with the German invasion. The Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east on September 17 and on September 28 signed secret treaty with Nazi Germany on joint coordination in fight against any potential Polish resistance [3]. is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Soviet Unions military action against Poland under the same alliance, see Soviet invasion of Poland (1939). ... For the Soviet Unions military action against Poland under the same alliance, see Soviet invasion of Poland (1939). ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Soon after that, the Soviet Union occupied Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, in addition, it annexed Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina from Romania. The Soviet Union attacked Finland on November 30, 1939 which started the Winter War. Finnish defence prevented an all-out invasion, but Finland was forced to cede strategically important border areas near Leningrad. This term is generally used for the Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) in the first phases of World War II. // History of the occupation Before the beginning of World War II Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union signed an ostensible non-aggression treaty known as... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... Bukovina (Ukrainian: , Bukovyna; Romanian: Bucovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875 dead... Leningrad (Russian: Ленинград) may mean: St. ...


The Soviet Union supported Germany in the war effort against Western Europe through the German-Soviet Commercial Agreement with exports of raw materials (phosphates, chromium and iron ore, mineral oil, grain, cotton, rubber). These and other export goods were being transported through Soviet and occupied Polish territories and allowed Germany to circumvent the British naval blockade. Germany ended the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact by invading the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa on June 22, 1941. That resulted in the Soviet Union becoming one of the main members of Allies. The German-Soviet Commercial Agreement was an economic arrangement between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany signed on September 28, 1939. ... material is the substance or matter from which something is or can be made, or also items needed for doing or creating something. ... In chemistry, a phosphate is a polyatomic ion or radical consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... Mineral oil or liquid petrolatum is a by-product in the distillation of petroleum to produce gasoline. ... Grain redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ...


Soviet Union were involved in the Tripartite Pact. The Tripartite Treaty (1906) also refers to a 1906 treaty concerning the Nile river (see Hydropolitics in the Nile Basin. ...


Germany then revived its Anti-Comintern Pact enlisting many European and Asian countries in opposition to the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union and Japan remained neutral towards each other for most of the war by Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact. The Soviet Union ended the Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact by invading Manchukuo in Operation August Storm on August 8, 1945. The Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact refers to a pact between the Soviet Union and Japan signed on April 13, 1941, two years after the Soviet-Japanese Border War (1939). ... Combatants Soviet Union Peoples Republic of Mongolia Japan Manchukuo Mengjiang Commanders Aleksandr Vasilevsky Otsuzo Yamada Strength Soviet Union 1,577,225 men, 26,137 artillery, 1,852 sup. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Spain

Main article: Spain in World War II

Generalísimo Francisco Franco's Spanish State gave moral, economic, and military assistance to the Axis powers, while nominally maintaining neutrality. Franco described Spain as a "nonbelligerent" member of the Axis and signed the Anti-Comintern Pact of 1941 with Hitler and Mussolini. While officially neutral during the Second World War, General Francos Spanish State gave considerable material, economic, and military assistance to the Axis Powers. ... The Spanish Civil War officially ended on 1 April 1939, the day Francisco Franco announced the end of hostilities. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... Flag Motto Una Grande Libre Anthem Marcha Real Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Religion Roman Catholic Church Government Monarchy Head of State¹  - 1939-1975 Francisco Franco  - 1975-1978 Juan Carlos I Legislature Cortes Generales Historical era Cold War  - Spanish Civil War 1936-1939  - Republic defeated April 4, 1939  - Death of... War economy is the term used to describe the contingencies undertaken by the modern state to mobilize its economy for war production. ... A neutral country takes no side in a war between other parties, and in return hopes to avoid being attacked by either of them. ...


Franco had won the Spanish Civil War with the help of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy which were eager to establish another fascist state in Europe. Spain owed Germany over $212 million for supplies of matériel during the Spanish Civil War, and Italian combat troops had actually fought in Spain on the side of Franco's Nationalists. Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... Matériel (from the French for equipment or hardware, related to the word material) is a term used in English to refer to the equipment and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ...


When Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941, Franco immediately offered to form a unit of military volunteers to join the invasion. This was accepted by Hitler and, within two weeks, there were more than enough volunteers to form a division - the Blue Division (División Azul in Spanish) under General Agustín Muñoz Grandes. The Blue Division (Spanish División Azul, German: ), or 250. ... Major General Muñoz Grandes. ...


Additionally, over 100,000 Spanish civilian workers were sent to Germany to help maintain industrial production to free able-bodied German men for military service.


German and Japanese World War II cooperation

Yosuke Matsuoka visits Adolf Hitler in Berlin on March 1941
Yosuke Matsuoka visits Adolf Hitler in Berlin on March 1941

Nazi Germany's and Imperial Japan's cooperation was largely twofold during and little before World War II. First cooperation was the opposition to communism through the Anti-Comintern Pact and second one is on military alliance through the Tripartite Pact. Both nations had been adversaries during World War I and these agreements settled previous animosity between the nations through Yosuke Matsuokas visit to Berlin, a German delegation sent to Tokyo to celebrate the Tripartite Pact's signing, and through the Japanese ambassador to Germany Hiroshi Oshima among others correspondences. Yosuke Matsuoka Japans Foreign Minister Yosuke Matsuoka (front middle), Japanese ambassador Hiroshi Oshima and Adolf Hitler in Berlin waving to the parade . Yosuke Matsuoka (松岡 洋右 Matsuoka Yōsuke, March 3, 1880 – June 26, 1946) was a prominent Japanese Foreign Minister shortly before World War II. Born in Japan in 1880... Hitler redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and Japan on November 25, 1936. ... Yosuke Matsuoka Japans Foreign Minister Yosuke Matsuoka (front middle), Japanese ambassador Hiroshi Oshima and Adolf Hitler in Berlin waving to the parade . Yosuke Matsuoka (松岡 洋右 Matsuoka Yōsuke, March 3, 1880 – June 26, 1946) was a prominent Japanese Foreign Minister shortly before World War II. Born in Japan in 1880... Baron Hiroshi Oshima (男爵 大島 ひろし Danshaku Ōshima Hiroshi) (1886 - 1975) was the Japanese ambassador to Nazi Germany during World War II — and unknowingly a major source of communications intelligence for the Allies. ...


Germany's declaration of war further solidified German-Japanese relations and showed Germany's solidarity with Japan and encouraged Japanese cooperation against Britain. Both envisioned a partnered linkage running across the Indian subcontinent that would allow for the transfer of weaponry as well as other possibilities. The failed Indian revolt against British rule and a deteriorating Axis position forced exchanges to be made across the high seas. While it is likely that the Germans expected little reciprocation in the Soviet Far East, eyes were focused directly on India, the Middle East and the Mediterranean region, all vital to the British war effort. Earlier Nazi Germany's government included the Japanese people after the Anti-Comintern Pact in their concept of "honorary Aryans" [4]. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a declaration of war against the Empire of Japan on December 8, 1941, one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. ... Languages Japanese Religions Shinto, Buddhism, large secular groups      The Japanese people ) is the ethnic group that identifies as Japanese by culture or ancestry, or both. ... Honorary Aryan (German: Ehrenarier) is a term from Nazi Germany; it was a status granted by the Nazi Bureau of Race Research to people who were not considered to be biologically part of the Aryan race as conceived by the Nazis (or enemy nationals who joined Hitler or the Nazis...


There was general mistrust between the two countries because of the ideological differences[citation needed] and political reasons as it would further probably antagonize and create mistrust with America, Britain, Netherlands and therefore several prominent Japanese military commanders were reluctant to an alliance, for instance being Fleet Admiral and navy commander in chief Isoroku Yamamoto, Lieutenant-General Tadamichi Kuribayashi, etc. However in the beginning of the worldwide conflict, most of the militant leaders were in top position, one of the most prominent being Prime Minister and General Hideki Tojo. A Fleet Admiral or a Admiral Of The Fleet, as it was first coined, is a military officer of very high rank and is a generic term for a senior admiral in command of a large group of ships, comprising a fleet or, in some cases, a group of fleets. ... In this Japanese name, the family name is Yamamoto Fleet Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto ) (4 April 1884 – 18 April 1943) was Commander-in-Chief of the Combined Fleet during World War II, graduate of Imperial Japanese Naval Academy and an alumnus of U.S. Naval War College and Harvard University (1919... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Tadamichi Kuribayashi (Japanese: 栗林忠道 Kuribayashi Tadamichi) (July 7, 1891 in Nagano city, Japan – March 23, 1945 on Iwo Jima, Japan) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army, best known as overall commander of the Japanese garrison during most of the Battle of Iwo Jima in World War II. Assigned by... Hideki Tojo (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;  ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ...


In the end Japan and Germany might have viewed each other as capable nations and military allies in "struggle" (as is termed in the Tripartite Pact and Anti-Comintern Pact) against the United States and Britain. Both nations had been humiliated by the Treaty of Versailles and subsequent post-war agreements which stripped Germany of its military power and forced Japan to cede its gains in the Pacific. Both nations desired overseas empires and both lacked the resources or international prestige to pursue these ambitions. Neither country had militarily or economically powerful allies. Many German and Japanese statesmen viewed the Western democracies as their chief obstacle to attaining national glory. The ruling classes in Berlin and Tokyo, even before the rise of fascism, feared Communist influence, and people in both countries had been indoctrinated with a strict sense of nationalism, even under democractic rule. Politicians in both nations played on a sense of victimization that justified national aggression and war. Confronted with the international influence of Britain and France, the great wealth of the United States, and the ideological aggression of the Soviet Union, Germany and Japan were really natural allies[citation needed]. International sanctions imposed once they began their march toward world power, such as the Anschluss or the occupation of Manchuria, only reinforced this perception. For instance according to Fumimaro Konoe, the Prime Minister of Japan earlier at that time said: This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... International sanctions are actions taken by countries against others for political reasons, either unilaterally or multilaterally. ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Fumimaro Konoe Prince Fumimaro Konoe (近衞{衛 in Shinjitai} 文麿 Konoe Fumimaro) (sometimes Konoye, October 12, 1891–December 16, 1945) was a Japanese politician and the 34th (June 4, 1937–January 5, 1939), 38th (July 22, 1940–July 18, 1941) and 39th (July 18, 1941–October 18, 1941) Prime Minister of Japan. ... Emblem of the Office of Prime Minister of Japan Kantei, Official residence of PM The Prime Minister of Japan ) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ...

The peace that the Anglo-American leaders are urging on us amounts to no more than maintaining a status quo that suits their interests. … The true nature of the present conflict [WWI] is a struggle between the established powers and powers not yet established…. At an early stage, Britain and France colonized the ‘less civilized’ regions of the world, and monopolized their exploitation. As a result, Germany and all the late-coming nations also, were left with no land to acquire and no space to expand...Should their policy prevail, Japan, which is small, resource-poor, and unable to consume all its own industrial products, would have no resort but to destroy the status quo for the sake of self-preservation, just like Germany. … We must require all the powers to open the doors of their colonies to others, so that all nations will have equal access to the markets and natural resources of the colonial areas.

Germany's and Italy's declaration of war against the United States

On December 7, Japan attacked the naval bases in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. According to the stipulation of the Tripartite Pact, Nazi-Germany was required to come to the defense of her allies only if they were attacked. Since Japan had made the first move and attacked, Germany was not obliged to aid her. Nevertheless, on December 11, Hitler ordered the Reichstag to formally declare war on the United States along with the Italian Empire. is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the actual attack. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ...


Hitler made a speech in the Reichstag on December 11, 1941 three days after the United States declaration of war on the Empire of Japan saying that Reichstag may refer to: Reichstag (institution), the Diets or parliaments of the Holy Roman Empire, of the Austrian-Hungarian monarchy and of Germany from 1871 to 1945 Reichstag building, Berlin location where the German legislature met from 1894 to 1933 and again since 1999 The Reichstag fire in 1933, which... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... President Roosevelt The Infamy Speech was delivered on December 8, 1941 by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt, one day after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister  - 1885-1888, 1892-1896, 1898, 1900-1901 Itō Hirobumi  - 1888-1889 Kuroda Kiyotaka  - 1889-1891 Yamagata Aritomo  - 1906-1908, 1911-1912 Saionji Kinmochi...

The fact that the Japanese Government, which has been negotiating for years with this man [ Franklin D. Roosevelt ], has at last become tired of being mocked by him in such an unworthy way, fills us all, the German people, and all other decent people in the world, with deep satisfaction...Germany and Italy have been finally compelled, in view of this, and in loyalty to the Tri-Partite Pact, to carry on the struggle against the U.S.A. and England jointly and side by side with Japan for the defense and thus for the maintenance of the liberty and independence of their nations and empires...As a consequence of the further extension of President Roosevelt's policy, which is aimed at unrestricted world domination and dictatorship, the U.S.A. together with England have not hesitated from using any means to dispute the rights of the German, Italian and Japanese nations to the basis of their natural existence...Not only because we are the ally of Japan, but also because Germany and Italy have enough insight and strength to comprehend that, in these historic times, the existence or non-existence of the nations, is being decided perhaps forever.[21]

This declaration of war against the United States is believed to be one of the mistakes made by the Axis powers [22] as it allowed the United States to join the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union in war against Germany without any limitation. Consequently, Americans participated in both the strategic bombardment of Germany and the invasion of the continent, effectively ending German domination in Western Europe. However, Hitler was aware of such plans and skeptical of American Neutrality even before the war began. Based on the information at their disposal, the Germans were well aware of Rainbow Five and the proposed American military buildup that was issued at the start of the war. As a result, the Germans expected war with the United States no later than 1943. A large naval expansion program also was initiated.[23] As was the case in 1917, American war industries were already engaged in keeping Britain afloat in 1941, the same year that mass military recruitment also commenced. There is still dispute as to whether Japan is a constitutional monarchy or a republic. ... FDR redirects here. ... (UTC):This page is about loyalty as faithfulness to a cause. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... During the 1920s, the United States Army developed a number of Color-coded War Plans to outline potential U.S. strategies for a variety of hypothetical war scenarios. ...


Still, Germany's and Italy's early war policy reflected the belief that to avoid confrontation with the United States. Every effort was made to prevent a potential Lusitania and incite the American public. However, the isolationists gradually lost their hold over the country due in large part to the influence of the media. Hitler's decision to declare war may have been nothing more than a showing of solidarity with Japan within the context of a seemingly inevitable future conflict with the United States. It was also widely believed that it would take some time for the Americans to mobilize and make a greater contribution to the war than they had thus far. At the time of Pearl Harbor, a quick victory over the Soviet Union also still seemed likely. Victory in the Soviet Union would have led to a Eurasian sphere of influence greatly dominated by Japan, Germany, and little by Italy due to location. Supposedly Hitler wanted to finish conquering Europe first to establish a balance of power and then eventually confront the United States after a victory over the Soviet Union among others, and he was not really happy that the US was now a full combatant in the war at the same time that the war was going on with the Soviet Union. RMS Lusitania was a British luxury ocean liner owned by the Cunard Steamship Company and built by John Brown and Company of Clydebank, Scotland. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ...

Hitler said upon awarding Japanese ambassador to Nazi Germany Hiroshi Oshima the Grand Cross of the Order of the German Eagle (1st class) after the attack on Pearl Harbor that For other uses, see Baron (disambiguation). ... Baron Hiroshi Oshima (男爵 大島 ひろし Danshaku Ōshima Hiroshi) (1886 - 1975) was the Japanese ambassador to Nazi Germany during World War II — and unknowingly a major source of communications intelligence for the Allies. ... Baron Hiroshi Oshima (男爵 大島 ひろし Danshaku Ōshima Hiroshi) (1886 - 1975) was the Japanese ambassador to Nazi Germany during World War II — and unknowingly a major source of communications intelligence for the Allies. ... asdfsdfasasdfasdfasdsssd This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...

You gave the right declaration of war. This method is the only proper one. Japan pursued it formerly and it corresponds with his own system, that is, to negotiate as long as possible. But if one sees that the other is interested only in putting one off, in shaming and humiliating one, and is not willing to come to an agreement, then one should strike as hard as possible, and not waste time declaring war.[24]

Yanagi Missions

The I-8 arriving in Brest, France, in 1943.
The I-8 arriving in Brest, France, in 1943.

These Yanagi(Willow) were missions enabled under the Tripartite Pact to provide for an exchange of strategic materials and manufactured goods between Germany and Japan[25]. The allies often sought to exchange knowledge and other raw materials. Germany needed rubber, metals such as copper and bismuth, and medicines such as quinine while Japan needed steel, mercury and optical glass. In addition, the two nations were interested in each other’s latest military hardware, including prototypes of the latest weapons and blueprints for research.[26] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1174x831, 634 KB) Summary Japanese submarine I-8 in Brest. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1174x831, 634 KB) Summary Japanese submarine I-8 in Brest. ... The Japanese submarine I-8 was a World War II Junsen Type J-3 Imperial Japanese Navy submarine, famous for completing a technology exchange mission to German-occupied France and back to Japan in 1943. ... Brest is a city in Brittany, or the Bretagne région, north-west France, sous-préfecture of the Finistère département. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Initially, cargo ships the exchanges, but when this was no longer possible, submarines were used. The missions were extremely perilous with a number of vessels being lost to allied anti-submarine patrols.[27]


Joint Operations in the Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean was considered strategically important, the region not only contained India, Britain’s most prized possession, but also the shipping routes and raw materials that Britain vitally needed for its war effort. In the early years of the war German raiders and capital ships, operating in the Indian Ocean, had sunk a number of merchant ships, however as the war progressed it become more difficult for them to operate in the area and by 1942 most were either sunk or dispersed. From 1941, U-boats were also considered, however with the period known as the Happy Times, in part due to the successes achieved by U-boats in the Atlantic, it was decided that sending U-boats to the Indian Ocean would be an unnecessary diversion. There were also no foreign bases in which units could operate from and be resupplied, hence they would be operating at the limits of their range. As a result the Germans concentrated their U-boat campaign in the North Atlantic. U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ...


Japan’s entrance into the war in 1941/42 led to the capture of European South-east Asian colonies such as British Malaya and the Dutch East Indies. In May-June, 1942, Japanese submarines began operating in the Indian Ocean and had engaged British forces in Madagascar. The British had invaded the Vichy controlled island in order to prevent it from falling into Japanese hands. British Malaya was a set of states that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants  United Kingdom  Rhodesia British East African colonies South Africa  Australia (naval only) Vichy France Japan (naval only) Commanders Robert Sturges Armand Léon Annet Strength 10,000-15,000 (land forces) 8,000 (land forces)[1] Casualties 107 killed in action; 280 wounded;[2] 620 casualties in total (including... Vichy (Occitan: Vichèi) is a French commune, situated in the département of Allier and the région of Auvergne. ...


In 1943, the Germans agreed to send a number of U-boats to the Far East that would operate from Japanese occupied ports in the region against the then lucrative, relatively unprotected shipping in the area. The U-178 was the first, arriving at the former British seaplane base in Penang in August 1943. The idea of stationing U-boats in Malaya and the East Indies for operations in the Indian Ocean was first proposed by the Japanese in December 1942. As no supplies were available at either location the idea was turned down although a number of U-boats from the first wave operated around the Cape of Good Hope at the time.[28] Penang, situated on the west coast of Malayan Peninsula was selected as the main U-boat base. A second base was established at Kobe, Japan, and small repair bases were located at Singapore, Jakarta and Surabaya. Eventually more than half a dozen U-boats operated from these bases these U-boats known as the Monsun Gruppe under the command of Captain Wilhelm Dommes[29]. Altogether 41 U-boats of all types including transports would be sent, a large number of these however, were lost and only a small fraction returned to Europe.[30][31] State motto: Bersatu dan Setia (United and Loyal) (formerly Let Penang Lead) State anthem: Untuk Negeri Kita (For Our State) Capital George Town Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang Di-Pertua Negeri Tuan Yang Terutama Abdul Rahman bin Haji Abbas  - Ketua Menteri Tan Sri Dr. Koh Tsu Koon History    - Ceded by... For other uses, see Cape of Good Hope (disambiguation). ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... Location of Surabaya in Indonesia Coordinates: , Country Province Area  - Total 459. ...


The Japanese already started operating in the Arabian Sea by August 1943 and certain arrangements were made to avoid incidents between U-boats and Japanese submarines - attacks on other submarines were strictly forbidden. The Indian Ocean was the only place where German and Japanese forces fought in the same theatre.[32]


Racism and Anti-Semitism

Beth Israel Synagogue in Nagasaki, Japan
Beth Israel Synagogue in Nagasaki, Japan

Imperial Japan was regarded as one of the safest places for Jewish people and their heritage[citation needed], for instance through the Fugu Plan. Inspired by anti-Semitic works such as Mein Kampf, the Japanese hoped to use the supposed Jewish economic prowess and influence to the benefit of Imperial Japan, creating a plan in the 1930s to relocate many Jewish residents to Japan from Germany. Throughout the war, the Japanese government continually rejected requests from the German government to establish anti-Semitic policies[citation needed]. At war's end, about half these Jews later moved on to the Western Hemisphere (such as the United States and Canada) and the remainder moved to other parts of the world, many to Palestine. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Megane-bashi (Spectacles Bridge) Nagasaki   listen? (長崎市; -shi, literally long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture located at the south-western coast of Kyushu, Japan. ... The word Jew (Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or a member of the Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... This article or section cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle) is a book by the German-Austrian politician Adolf Hitler, which combines elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers National Socialist political ideology. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ...


In terms of anti-Semitic policies of Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany, foreign minister of Japan Yosuke Matsuoka at one point said on December 31, 1940 to a group of Jewish businessmen that he was The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Look up policy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Yosuke Matsuoka Japans Foreign Minister Yosuke Matsuoka (front middle), Japanese ambassador Hiroshi Oshima and Adolf Hitler in Berlin waving to the parade . Yosuke Matsuoka (松岡 洋右 Matsuoka Yōsuke, March 3, 1880 – June 26, 1946) was a prominent Japanese Foreign Minister shortly before World War II. Born in Japan in 1880... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

the man responsible for the alliance with Hitler, but nowhere have I promised that we would carry out his anti-Semitic policies in Japan. This is not simply my personal opinion, it is the opinion of Japan, and I have no compunction about announcing it to the world.[33]

In spite of this fact, the Japanese preached racial superiority and racialist theories. Some of the atrocities committed by the Imperial Japanese Army on countries like China, Korea, The Philippines, Australia, the Soviet Union, and others, were motivated through extreme prejudice and were equally, if not more, destructive and brutal. The Imperial army established concentration camps such as Unit 731 throughout China, where biological weapons were researched and inmates and prisoners-of-war were regularly experimented upon, resulting in as many as 200,000 casualties. Body disposal at Unit 731 Unit 731 was a covert biological warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried...


During the Holocaust, Italy took in many Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany. However, with the creation of the Nazi-backed puppet Italian Social Republic, about 20% of Italy's Jews were killed, despite the Fascist government's initial refusal to deport Jews to Nazi death camps. For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Anthem Giovinezza (The Youth)¹ From the Gustav Line to the Gothic Line Capital Salò Language(s) Italian Religion None defined. ...


References

  • Weinberg, Gerhard L. (2005). A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II, 2nd edition, NY: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521853168.  Provides a scholarly overview.
  • Dear, Ian C. B.; Foot, Michael Richard Daniell (eds.) (2005). The Oxford Companion to World War II. Oxford University Press. ISBN 019280670X.  A reference book with encyclopedic coverage of all military, political and economic topics.
  • Kirschbaum, Stanislav (1995). A History of Slovakia: The Struggle for Survival. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-10403-0.  Entails Slovakia's involvement during the World War II.
  1. ^ Hakim, Joy (1995). A History of Us: War, Peace and all that Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509514-6. 
  2. ^ Seppinen, Ilkka: Suomen ulkomaankaupan ehdot 1939-1940 (Conditions of Finnish foreign trade 1939-1940), 1983, ISBN 951-9254-48-X
  3. ^ British Foreign Office Archive, 371/24809/461-556
  4. ^ Jokipii, Mauno: Jatkosodan synty (Birth of the Continuation War), 1987, ISBN 951-1-08799-1
  5. ^ Jasenovac United States Holocaust Memorial Museum web site
  6. ^ Poulton, Hugh. 2000. Who are the Macedonians? Indiana University Press. Pp. 111
  7. ^ Christian Bachelier, L'armée française entre la victoire et la défaite, in La France des années noires, dir. Azéma & Bédarida, Le Seuil, édition 2000, coll. points-histoire, Tome 1, p.98
  8. ^ Albert Lebrun's biography, French Republic Presidential official website
  9. ^ Robert O. Paxton, 1993, "La Collaboration d'État" in La France des Années Noires, Ed. J. P. Azéma & François Bédarida, Éditions du Seuil, Paris
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ [2]
  12. ^ http://www.navalhistory.dk/Danish/Historien/1939_1945/IkkeAngrebsPagt.htm (Danish)
  13. ^ Trommer, Aage. "Denmark". The Occupation 1940-45. Foreign Ministry of Denmark. Retrieved on 2006-09-20.
  14. ^ Lidegaard, Bo (2003). Dansk Udenrigspolitisk Historie, vol. 4. Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 461-463. ISBN 87-7789-093-0.  (Danish)
  15. ^ Danish Legion Military and Feldpost History. Retrieved on 2006-09-20.
  16. ^ Søværnets mærkedage - August
  17. ^ Flåden efter 29. august 1943
  18. ^ Den danske Flotille 1944-1945
  19. ^ Den Danske Brigade DANFORCE - Den Danske Brigade "DANFORCE" Sverige 1943-45
  20. ^ http://befrielsen1945.emu.dk/temaer/befrielsen/jubel/index.html (Danish)
  21. ^ German Declaration of War
  22. ^ AJP Taylor (1974),History of World War II, Octopus Books Limited
  23. ^ United States Navy and WW2
  24. ^ Trial transcripts at Nuremberg 11 December 1945. More details of the exchanges at the meeting are available online at nizkor.org
  25. ^ Felton Mark(2005),Yanagi: The Secret Underwater Trade between Germany and Japan 1942-1945, Leo Cooper Ltd
  26. ^ German-Japanese Co-operation
  27. ^ Uboats in the Far East
  28. ^ Pre-Monsun Boats
  29. ^ Monsun boats
  30. ^ Fate of the Far Eastern Boats
  31. ^ Monsun boats Evacuation
  32. ^ Paterson Lawrence(2006), Hitler's Grey Wolves: U-boats in the Indian Ocean
  33. ^ "The Jews of Japan" by Daniel Ari Kapner and Stephen Levine

Michael Richard Daniell Foot (born 1919), usually known as M.R.D. Foot, is a British historian. ... Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark (Danish: Udenrigsministeriet) handles Denmarks foreign affairs. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gyldendalske Boghandel, Nordisk Forlag A/S, in Denmark usually referred to simply as Gyldendal, is a Danish publishing house. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

General information

Pacts and treaties This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Map of the World with the Participants in World War II. The western allies are shown in blue, the eastern allies in red, the Axis Powers in black, and neutral countries in grey. ... This is a list of Native Pro-Axis Leaders and Governments or Direct Control in Occupied Territories, including: territories with some indigenous pro-Axis leaders collaborating local administrations direct administration by occupying pro-Axis forces Albania (until 1945) Austria (until 1945) Czech Republic (until 1945) Ruthenia (until 1944) Belgium (until... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Expansion operations and planning of the Axis Powers. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Area under Axis control over the course of the war shown in black. ... The Axis leaders of World War II were the important political and military figures during the war. ... Greatest extent of Italian control of the Mediterranean littoral and seas (within green line & dots) in summer/fall 1942. ...

The Tripartite Treaty (1906) also refers to a 1906 treaty concerning the Nile river (see Hydropolitics in the Nile Basin. ... The Pact of Steel, known formally as the Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy, was an agreement between Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany signed on May 22, 1939, by the foreign ministers of each country and witnessed by Count Galeazzo Ciano for Italy and Joachim von Ribbentrop... The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and Japan on November 25, 1936. ... The Ryti-Ribbentrop letter of agreement (Finnish: Ryti-Ribbentrop sopimus) of June 26, 1944, signifies the closest to an alliance Finland and Nazi Germany came during World War II. According to the agreement, Risto Ryti, then President of Finland, undertook not to conclude peace in the Continuation War with the... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ...

External links

Look up Axis Powers in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Axis Powers (804 words)
The Axis was extended to include the Empire of Japan as a result of the Tripartite Treaty of September 27 1940.
Axis forces in North Asian lands during the Pacific War considered the organization of a client state in the Soviet Far East, similar to the Far Eastern Republic.
Japan was the principal Axis power in Asia and the Pacific.
Axis Powers (4060 words)
The Axis was extended to include the Empire of Japan as a result of the Tripartite Treaty of September 27 1940.
Membership of the Axis is the subject of continuing dispute, especially among nations that joined the Axis under coercion or sometimes outright military occupation.
Axis forces in North Asian lands during the Pacific War considered the organization of a client state in the Soviet Far East, similar to the Far Eastern Republic.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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