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Encyclopedia > Axis of Evil
Bush's "axis of evil" includes Iran, Iraq, and North Korea (darker red)."Beyond the Axis of Evil" includes Cuba, Libya, and Syria (orange).
Bush's "axis of evil" includes Iran, Iraq, and North Korea (darker red).
"Beyond the Axis of Evil" includes Cuba, Libya, and Syria (orange).
  1. Flag of Iraq Iraq
  2. Flag of Iran Iran
  3. Flag of North Korea North Korea
  1. Flag of Cuba Cuba
  2. Flag of Libya Libya
  3. Flag of Syria Syria
  1. Flag of Nazi Germany Nazi Germany
  2. Flag of the Empire of Japan Empire of Japan
  3. Flag of Italy Kingdom of Italy

"Axis of evil" was a term coined by United States President George W. Bush in his State of the Union Address on January 29, 2002 in order to describe governments that he accused of helping terrorism and seeking weapons of mass destruction. Bush named Iraq, Iran, and North Korea in his speech. Bush's presidency has been marked by this notion as a justification for his War on Terrorism. George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq,_1991-2004. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Korea. ... John Robert Bolton (born November 20, 1948), is an jewish American diplomat in several Republican administrations, who served as the Permanent US Representative to the UN from August 2005 until December 2006, on a recess appointment. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Libya. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister  - 1885-1888, 1892-1896, 1898, 1900-1901 Itō Hirobumi  - 1888-1889 Kuroda Kiyotaka  - 1889-1891 Yamagata Aritomo  - 1906-1908, 1911-1912 Saionji Kinmochi... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946). ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... State of the Union redirects here. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Terrorist redirects here. ... For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... The War on Terrorism (also known as the War on Terror) is campaign begun by the Bush administration which includes various military, political, and legal actions taken to ostensibly curb the spread of terrorism following the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States. ...

Contents

Definition

Bush's exact statement was as follows:

[Our goal] is to prevent regimes (terrorist) that sponsor terror from threatening America or our friends and allies with weapons of mass destruction. Some of these regimes have been pretty quiet since September the 11th. But we know their true nature. North Korea is a regime arming with missiles and weapons of mass destruction, while starving its citizens. Iran aggressively pursues these weapons and exports terror, while an unelected few repress the Iranian people's hope for freedom. Iraq continues to flaunt its hostility toward America and to support terror. The Iraqi regime has plotted to develop anthrax, and nerve gas, and nuclear weapons for over a decade. This is a regime that has already used poison gas to murder thousands of its own citizens—leaving the bodies of mothers huddled over their dead children. This is a regime that agreed to international inspections—then kicked out the inspectors. This is a regime that has something to hide from the civilized world. States like these, and their terrorist allies, constitute an axis of evil, arming to threaten the peace of the world. By seeking weapons of mass destruction, these regimes pose a grave and growing danger. They could provide these arms to terrorists, giving them the means to match their hatred. They could attack our allies or attempt to blackmail the United States. In any of these cases, the price of indifference would be catastrophic.

George W. Bush, 2002 State of the Union Address George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The 2002 State of the Union address was one given by the President George W. Bush, in which he reassured our nation, that although just a few months earlier during the September 11th terrorist attacks, our State of the Union had never been stronger. ...

Origins

Yossef Bodansky

A decade before the 2002 State of the Union address, in August 1992, the neoconservative pundit Yossef Bodansky wrote a paper entitled "Tehran, Baghdad & Damascus: The New Axis Pact" [1] while serving as a staffer for a conservative House caucus. Although he did not explicitly apply the epithet evil to his New Axis, Bodansky's axis was otherwise very reminiscent of Frum's axis. Bodansky felt that this new Axis was a very dangerous development. The gist of Bodansky's argument was that Iran, Iraq and Syria had formed a "tripartite alliance" in the wake of Gulf War I, and that this alliance posed an imminent threat that could only be dealt with by invading Iraq a second time and overthrowing Saddam Hussein. Neoconservatism describes several distinct political ideologies which are considered new forms of conservatism. ... Yossef Bodansky (born in Israel) is the Director of Research of the International Strategic Studies Association, and the Director of the Congressional Task Force on Terrorism and Unconventional Warfare of the US House of Representatives and a visiting scholar at the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ...


David Frum

The phrase was attributed to former Bush speechwriter David Frum, originally as the axis of hatred and then evil. Frum explained his rationale for creating the phrase axis of evil in his book The Right Man: The Surprise Presidency of George W. Bush. Essentially, the story begins in late December 2001 when head speechwriter Mike Gerson gave Frum the assignment of articulating the case for dislodging the government of Saddam Hussein in Iraq in only a few sentences for the upcoming State of the Union address. Frum says he began by rereading President Franklin D. Roosevelt's "date which will live in infamy" speech given on December 8, 1941, after the Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor. While Americans needed no convincing about going to war with Japan, Roosevelt saw the greater threat to the United States coming from Nazi Germany, and he had to make the case for fighting a two-ocean war. David J. Frum (born 1960) is a former economic speechwriter for President George W. Bush, and the author of the first insider book about the Bush presidency. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... FDR redirects here. ... President Roosevelt The Infamy Speech was delivered on December 8, 1941 by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt, one day after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... This article is about the actual attack. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


Frum points in his book to a now often-overlooked sentence in Roosevelt's speech which reads in part, "…we will not only defend ourselves to the uttermost but will make very certain that this form of treachery shall never endanger us again." Frum interprets Roosevelt's oratory like this: "For FDR, Pearl Harbor was not only an attack—it was a warning of future and worse attacks from another, even more dangerous enemy." Japan, a country with one-tenth of America's industrial capacity, a dependence on imports for all its food, and already engaged in a war with China, was extremely reckless to attack the United States, a recklessness "that made the Axis such a menace to world peace", Frum says. Saddam Hussein's two wars, against Iran and Kuwait, were just as reckless, Frum believed, and therefore presented the same threat to world peace. Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ...


In his book Frum relates that the more he compared the Axis powers of World War II to modern "terror states", the more similarities he saw. "The Axis powers disliked and distrusted one another", Frum writes. "Had the Axis somehow won the war, its members would quickly have turned on one another." Iran, Iraq, al-Qaeda, and Hezbollah, despite quarrelling among themselves however, "all resented power of the West and Israel, and they all despised the humane values of democracy." There, Frum saw the connection: "Together, the terror states and the terror organizations formed an axis of hatred against the United States." This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ...


Frum tells that he then sent off a memo with the above arguments and also cited some of the atrocities perpetrated by the Iraqi government. He expected his words to be chopped apart and altered beyond recognition, as is the fate of much presidential speechwriting, but his words were ultimately read by Bush nearly verbatim, though Bush changed the term axis of hatred to axis of evil. North Korea was added to the list, he says, because it was attempting to develop nuclear weapons, had a history of reckless aggression, and "needed to feel a stronger hand."[2]


Development

Bolton: "Beyond the Axis of Evil"

John R. Bolton
John R. Bolton

On May 6, 2002 future United States UN Ambassador John R. Bolton gave a speech entitled "Beyond the Axis of Evil." In it he added three more nations to be grouped with the already mentioned "rogue states": Libya, Syria, and Cuba. The criteria for inclusion in this grouping were: "state sponsors of terrorism that are pursuing or who have the potential to pursue weapons of mass destruction (WMD) or have the capability to do so in violation of their treaty obligations." The speech was widely reported as an expansion of the original axis of evil. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... John Robert Bolton (born November 20, 1948), is an jewish American diplomat in several Republican administrations, who served as the Permanent US Representative to the UN from August 2005 until December 2006, on a recess appointment. ... For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ...


Rice: Outposts of Tyranny

In January 2005, at the beginning of Bush's second term as President, the incoming Secretary of State, Condoleezza Rice, made a speech regarding the newly termed outposts of tyranny, a list of six countries deemed most repressive. This included the two remaining Axis members, as well as Cuba, Belarus, Zimbabwe and Myanmar. In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... World map indicating (in green) the countries of Rices outposts of tyranny. The United States is shown in blue. ... Anthem: Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw , Largest city Yangon (Rangoon) Official languages Burmese Recognised regional languages Jingpho, Shan, Karen, Mon, Rakhine Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Senior General Than Shwe  -  Vice Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Vice-Senior General...


Criticism of the term

No coordination

One criticism is that unlike the Axis powers, the three nations mentioned in Bush's speech have not been coordinating public policy, and therefore the term axis is incorrect. Also, while the Axis Powers of World War Two signed diplomatic treaties, such as the Pact of Steel and the Tripartite Pact, with one another that created a military alliance between them, none of the nations that make up the "axis of evil" have taken similar steps. The Pact of Steel, known formally as the Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy, was an agreement between Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany signed on May 22, 1939, by the foreign ministers of each country and witnessed by Count Galeazzo Ciano for Italy and Joachim von Ribbentrop... The Tripartite Treaty (1906) also refers to a 1906 treaty concerning the Nile river (see Hydropolitics in the Nile Basin. ...


No category

In addition, Iran and Iraq fought the long, bloody Iran-Iraq War in the 1980s, under basically the same leadership as that which existed at the time of Bush's speech leading some to believe the linking between the nations under the same banner as misguided. Others argue that each of the three have some special characteristics which are obscured by grouping them together. Anne Applebaum has written about the debate over North Korea's inclusion in the group.[3] Belligerents Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Soldiers and volunteers from different Arab countries. ... Anne Applebaum (born 1964) is a journalist and author who has written extensively about issues related to communism and the development of civil society in Eastern Europe and the USSR / Russia. ...


No facts

Furthermore, other information Bush cited in his state of the union address — primarily dealing with Iraq and its alleged weapons of mass destruction and terror ties — have been labeled false by Senate-appointed committee investigations. Moreover, the bulk of the arguments dealing with the axis of evil members have been shown to be dependent on factually flawed information.[4]


Other Axes

Axis of the willing

By analogy to axis of evil, the term axis of the willing has occasionally been applied to the coalition of the willing (for countries that participated in the 2003 invasion of Iraq). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with multinational force in Iraq. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ...


Axis of terror

In January 2006, Israeli Defense Minister Shaul Mofaz implicated "the axis of terror that operates between Iran and Syria" following a suicide bomb in Tel Aviv.[5] Shaul Mofaz during a meeting with U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld on November 10, 2003. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ...


In April 2006 the phrase axis of terror earned more publicity Israel's UN Ambassador, Dan Gillerman, cautioned of a new axis of terror — Iran, Syria and the Hamas-run Palestinian government; Gillerman repeated the term before the UN over the crisis in Lebanon[6] . Some three months later Israeli senior foreign ministry official Gideon Meir branded the alleged alliance an axis of terror and hate.[7] Dan Gillerman (born in Israel in 1944) is the 13th Israels Permanent Representative to the United Nations. ... Ḥamas (; acronym: , or Ḥarakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement) is a democratically-elected Palestinian Sunni Islamist[1] militant organization and political party which currently holds a majority of seats in the legislative council of the Palestinian Authority. ...


United States, Britain, and Israel

Among his other speeches, Major General Yahya Rahim Safavi the chief commander of the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps of Iran has spoken of a true axis of evil consisting of the United States, Britain and Israel. Major General Yahya Rahim Safavi Major General Yahya Rahim Safavi is the Command in Chief of the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


New Latin Left

The President of Venezuela, Hugo Chávez has described the so-called New Latin Left as an "axis of good" comprising Venezuela, Cuba, Bolivia, Ecuador and Nicaragua (all three countries now governed by leftist leaders) and instead "Washington and its allies" as an "axis of evil".[8] List of Presidents of Venezuela José Antonio Páez (1830-1835) José María Vargas (1835-1837) Carlos Soublette (1837-1839) José Antonio Páez (1839-1843) Carlos Soublette (1843-1847) José Tadeo Monagas (1847-1851) José Gregorio Monagas (1851-1855) José Tadeo Monagas (1855-1858) Julián Castro (1858... Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (pronounced ) (born July 28, 1954) is the current President of Venezuela. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition...


In Media

Parodies

The Economist, May 11, 2006
The Economist, May 11, 2006

Various related pun phrases include: Image File history File links Axisoffeeble. ... Image File history File links Axisoffeeble. ... For other uses, see Pun (disambiguation). ...

The term has also lent itself to various parodies, including the following: The term axis of weasels is a conscious pun made on President of the United States George W. Bushs term axis of evil (coined partly by Bush speechwriter David Frum), frequently (and erroneously) attributed to US Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld. ... For other uses of the term, see Iraq war (disambiguation) The 2003 invasion of Iraq (also called the 2nd or 3rd Persian Gulf War) began on March 20, 2003, when forces belonging primarily to the United States and the United Kingdom invaded Iraq arguably without the explicit backing of the... Axis of Eve is a political organization based in the United States, whose name is a play on words mocking US President George W. Bushs Axis of Evil epithet for Iran, Iraq and North Korea. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a businessman, a U.S. Republican politician, the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ... A sport utility vehicle (SUV) or off-roader is a vehicle that combines the load-hauling and passenger-carrying capacity of a large station wagon or minivan with features designed for off-road driving. ... Fuel efficiency, in its basic sense, is the same as thermal efficiency, meaning the efficiency of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier fuel into kinetic energy or work. ...

SNL redirects here. ... Jonny Moseley Jonny Moseley (born August 27, 1975) is the first Puerto Rican to become a member of the U.S. Ski Team. ... John William Ferrell (born July 16, 1967)[1] is an Emmy- and Golden Globe-nominated American comedian, actor, voice actor, and writer who first established himself as a cast member of Saturday Night Live, and has since gone on to a successful film career, starring in the comedies A Night... Enron Creditors Recovery Corporation (formerly Enron Corporation) (former NYSE ticker symbol: ENE) was an American energy company based in Houston, Texas. ... Thomas Andrew Daschle (born December 9, 1947) is a former U.S. Senator and Senate Majority Leader from South Dakota. ... The phrase Dont Mess with Texas is a slogan for the Texas Department of Transportation designed to reduce littering on Texas roadways used as part of a statewide advertising campaign in 1986. ... Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... Robert Craig Evel Knievel, Jr. ... Dr. Evil is a fictional supervillain played by Mike Myers in the Austin Powers film series. ... Serj Tankian (Armenian: ) (born August 21, 1967 in Beirut, Lebanon[1]) is a Lebanese-born Armenian-American singer, songwriter, poet, activist, and multi-instrumentalist. ... System of a Down (commonly referred to as System or abbreviated as SOAD) are an American heavy metal band, formed in 1995 in Glendale, California. ... Thomas Baptist Morello (born May 30, 1964), is a Grammy Award-winning American guitarist best known for his tenure with the bands Rage Against the Machine and Audioslave, and as the acoustic artist The Nightwatchman, He was featured as one of 20 guitarists in Rolling Stone magazines The Top... Rage Against the Machine, is an American rock band, formed in Los Angeles, California in 1991. ... For the bands self-titled album, see Audioslave (album). ... Axis of Justice is a non-profit organization co-founded by Serj Tankian (of System of a Down) and Tom Morello (from the band Rage Against the Machine and the now defunct Audioslave). ... From 1999 to 2002, SatireWire was one of the most popular humor websites on the Internet. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency...

Star Wars

In the science-fiction Star Wars novel Labyrinth of Evil, Supreme Chancellor Palpatine uses the term the Triad of Evil [1] when referring to the planets Felucia, Mygeeto, and Saleucami in an apparent jab at the Bush administration. Palpatine is the public persona of Darth Sidious, Dark Lord of the Sith, who seeks to take over the galaxy and install an authoritarian Empire. This article is about the series. ... Labyrinth of Evil is a novel by James Luceno set in the fictional Star Wars galaxy. ... Palpatine is a fictional character in George Lucas science fiction saga Star Wars. ... The Bush administration includes President George W. Bush, Vice President Richard Cheney, Bushs Cabinet, and other select officials and advisors. ... Dark Lord of the Sith is a fictional title created by George Lucas for his Star Wars universe. ...


Comedy Tour

In response to the problems Americans of Middle-Eastern descent have in the current climate, a group of comedians have banded together to form the Axis of Evil Comedy Tour. The comedians, Ahmed Ahmed (from Egypt), Maz Jobrani (from Iran), and Aron Kader (whose father is Palestinian), have created a show which currently plays on Comedy Central. They have also included half-Palestinan, half-Italian Dean Obeidallah in some of their acts. Ahmed Ahmed is an Egyptian American comedian. ... Maz Jobrani Maz Jobrani is an Iranian-American comedian who is part of the Axis of Evil comedy group. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the term Palestinian as applied to Jews, see Palestinian Jew. ... Comedy Central is an American cable television and satellite television channel in the United States. ... Dean Obeidallah is an Arab/Italian-American comedian, who was born in Lodi, New Jersey. ...


The group recently took the comedy tour around the Middle East (November - December 2007), performing in the UAE, Egypt, Kuwait, Jordan, and Lebanon to sell-out crowds. UAE redirects here; for other uses of that term, see UAE (disambiguation) The United Arab Emirates is an oil-rich country situated in the south-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, comprising seven emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Quwain. ...


Lullabies

In 2003 the Norwegian record label Kirkelig Kulturverksted published the CD Lullabies from the Axis of Evil containing 14 lullabies from Iran, Iraq, North Korea, Palestine, Syria, Afghanistan and Cuba. Every lullaby is presented in its original form sung by women from these countries, and then a western version with interpretations in English.[11]


Other

Holidays in the Axis of Evil was a documentary series shown on BBC4 in the United Kingdom. ... Behind Enemy Lines II: Axis of Evil is a direct-to-video sequel to 2001s Behind Enemy Lines. ... Team America: World Police Team America: World Police is a 2004 movie by Trey Parker and Matt Stone, the creators of the Comedy Central television program South Park. ...

In cosmology

In cosmology, the Axis of Evil is the name given to a pattern that is left imprinted on the radiation left behind by the Big Bang.[12] The controversial pattern itself is an alignment of hot and cold spots in the Cosmic Microwave Background that seemingly defies the standard isotropic model of the Universe. Discovered and named in 2005 by Kate Land and João Magueijo of Imperial College London, the pattern is controversial and disputed amongst scientists, though two independent studies have confirmed its existence. For other uses, see Big Bang (disambiguation). ... WMAP image of the CMB anisotropy,Cosmic microwave background radiation(June 2003) The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) is a form of electromagnetic radiation that fills the whole of the universe. ...


See also

Concern has been expressed that a self-published source being cited in this article is not legitimately citable as a secondary source in this article but only as a primary source in an article about the source itself, according to the Reliable sources guideline and the Verifiability policy. ... The term evil has been controversially used politically by several governments. ...

References

  1. ^ Yossef Bodansky & Vaughn S. Forrest on behalf of the House Republican Research Committee (1992-08-10). Tehran, Baghdad & Damascus: The New Axis Pact. Retrieved on 2007-05-22.
  2. ^ "Axis of Evil" Authorship Settled! It was Frum and Gerson, and definitely not Bush. Jan. 9, 2003
  3. ^ Anne Applebaum. North Korea: Threat or Menace?. Slate. Retrieved on 2007-05-22.
  4. ^ Jonathon Weisman (2006-09-09). Iraq's Alleged Al-Qaeda TiesWere Disputed Before War. Washington Post. Retrieved on 2007-05-22.
  5. ^ Israel attacks 'axis of terror'. BBC News (2006-01-20). Retrieved on 2007-05-22.
  6. ^ Gillerman fingers 'axis of terror'. Jerusalem Post (2006-02-22). Retrieved on 2007-11-28.
  7. ^ Israel blames Iran and Syria for violence. Gulf Times (2006-07-14). Retrieved on 2007-05-22.
  8. ^ Alba Gil (2006-01-05). Evo Morales hace amigos. AmericaEconomica.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-22.
  9. ^ Andrew Marlatt (2002-02-01). Angered by snubbing, Libya, China Syria form Axis of Just as Evil. SatireWire. Retrieved on 2007-05-22.
  10. ^ George Bush and Tony Blair: The end of a Bush-Blair era. The Economist (2006-05-11). Retrieved on 2007-05-22.
  11. ^ Erik Hillestad. ?. Kirkelig Kulturverksted. Retrieved on 2007-05-22.
  12. ^ Zeeya Marili (2007-04-13). 'Axis of evil' a cause for cosmic concern. New Scientist. Retrieved on 2007-05-22.

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Article about "Axis of evil" in the English Wikipedia on 24-Apr-2004 (1497 words)
The axis of evil is made up of "regimes that sponsor terror", as defined by United States President George W. Bush in his State of the Union Address on January 29, 2002.
The phrase is derived from that of the rogue state, but the term itself is reminiscent of the Axis powers of World War II and of President Reagan's evil empire designation of the Soviet Union.
The term has lent itself to various parodies, including the axis of weasel (France, Germany, and Russia for their opposition to the 2003 Iraq War) the Axis of medieval (The USA for its sometimes-seemingly fundamentalist policies) and several other variations.
Axis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (236 words)
In anatomy, the axis is the second cervical vertebra of the spine.
Axis is an opensource Webservices platform implementation of the Apache foundation
Axis Communications (also known as AXIS) is a swedish manufacturer of network print servers, high-end webcameras and miscellanous IT goods.
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