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Encyclopedia > Avro York
Avro York
Description
Role Passenger/freight transport
Crew 5
Passengers 24
First flight July 5, 1942
Entered service
Manufacturer A V Roe
Dimensions
Length 78 ft 6 in 23.9 m
Wingspan 102 ft 0 in 31.1 m
Height 16 ft 6 in 5 m
Wing area 1,205 ft² 111.9 m²
Weights
Empty 33,200 lb 15,060 kg
Loaded 65,000 lb 29,480 kg
Maximum takeoff lb kg
Powerplant
Engine 4 × Rolls-Royce Merlin XX
Power (each) 1,280 hp 950 kW
Performance
Maximum speed 298 mph @ 21,000 ft 479 km/h @ 6,400 m
Combat range 3,000 miles 4,830 km
Service ceiling 23,000 ft 7,010 m
Rate of climb 820 ft/min 250 m/min

The Avro York was a passenger and freight transport of the 1940s, in both military and civilian applications. Initially designated the Avro type 685 it combined the wings and undercarriage of the Lancaster bomber with a much larger rectangular fuselage. The increased forward area necessitated fitting a third fin to retain control. Avro York Transport Photograph published in: Aircraft of the Fighting Powers Vol V Ed: H J Cooper, O G Thetford and D A. Russell Harborough Publishing Co, Leicester, England 1944. ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 179 days remaining. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1942: Events January January 30 - Canadian Pacific Air Lines formed by the acquisition and merger of Arrow Airways and Canadian Airways, along with all the various subsidiaries of the latter. ... Avro 504K. Avro was a British aircraft manufacturer, well known for planes such as the Avro Lancaster which served in World War II. One of the worlds first aircraft builders, A.V.Roe and Company was established at Brownsfield Mills, Manchester, England by Alliot Verdon Roe and his brother... The Merlin was a 12 cylinder, 60° V, 27 litre, liquid cooled piston aircraft engine built during World War II by Rolls-Royce. ... The Avro Lancaster was a four-engine World War II bomber aircraft made initially by Avro for the Royal Air Force (RAF). ...


The first civilian York was delivered to BOAC in 1944. One of the prototypes became a flying conference room for Winston Churchill - it was named Ascalon and flew Churchill to the Yalta Conference in 1945. Other Yorks were provided for the use of Lord Mountbatten when Viceroy of India, the Duke of Gloucester when Governor-General of Australia, and South African leader Jan Smuts. In RAF Transport Command service the York was used on the England-India route. After technical problems with the Comet, BOAC resumed jet service with imported Boeing 707s. ... The Rt Hon. ... The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea Conference and codenamed the Argonaut Conference, was the wartime meeting from February 4 to 11, 1945 between the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union. ... Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, KG, PC, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, GCVO, DSO (25 June 1900 – 27 August 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... The Governor-General of India (or Governor-General and Viceroy of India) was the head of the British administration in India. ... The Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester (Henry William Frederick Albert), (31 March 1900 – 10 June 1974) was a member of the British Royal Family, the third son of King George V of the United Kingdom and Queen Mary. ... Michael Jeffery, Governor-General of Australia The Governor-General of Australia is the representative in Australia of Australias head of state, Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, who lives in the United Kingdom. ... Jan Smuts Jan Christiaan Smuts, OM (May 24, 1870 – September 11, 1950) was a prominent South African statesman and general. ... The Royal Air Force (often abbreviated to RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the British Isles Languages English (de facto) Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st...


50 civilian Yorks were delivered, and 208 to the RAF - many of which subsequently passed into civilian hands. During the Berlin Airlift, Yorks flew over 58,000 sorties - close to half of the British contribution, alongside the DC-3 and Handley Page Hastings. The Soviet Union blocked Western rail and road access to West Berlin from June 24, 1948 - May 11, 1949. ... Douglas DC-3 VH-AES at Avalon in 2003. ... The Handley Page HP 67 Hastings was a troop-carrier and freight transport of the Royal Air Force. ...


In the post-war years, BOAC used Yorks on their Cairo to Durban service, which had previously been worked by Shorts flying-boats. They were also used by British South American Airways and many private operators. Cairo (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) is the capital city of Egypt (and previously the United Arab Republic) and has a metropolitan area population of approximately 15. ... Central area of Durban Durban is a city in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa (29°53′S 31°03′E). ... Short Brothers, almost universally referred to simply as Shorts, is a British aerospace company now based in Belfast. ... British South American Airways (BSAA) was a British state-run airline of the 1940s. ...


Survivors

While there are no flying examples of the Avro York, there are two complete examples on display. At the RAF Cosford Collection is Avro 685 York C1, TS798 (cn 1223) which was delivered new to the RAF as TS798, then to BOAC and Skyways (G-AGNV), then to Staverton, Brize Norton and Shawbury. RAF Cosford is a Royal Air Force station in Shropshire, just to the northwest of Wolverhampton and next to Albrighton. ... The Royal Air Force (often abbreviated to RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... After technical problems with the Comet, BOAC resumed jet service with imported Boeing 707s. ... Brize Norton is a village and civil parish in the West Oxfordshire district of Oxfordshire, England. ...


Another example on public display is held at the Imperial War Museum Duxford: Avro 685 York C1, G-ANTK is an ex Dan-Air London aircraft. This airframe was built at Yealdon, near Leeds, in January 1946 and entered RAF service with 242 Squadron as MW232 that August. It joined the fleet of Allied aircraft engaged in the Berlin Airlift and in May 1947 the York moved to 511 Squadron at Lyneham, where it served until May 1950 when it was used by Fairy Aviation for flight refuelling research. It then retired to 12 Maintenance Unit at Kirkbride for storage prior to disposal.


In July 1954 MW232 became G-ANTK with Dan-Air and it was used for freight work until its retirement in May 1964. It was ferried to Lasham and used as a bunk house by the local Air Scouts until 1974. The Dan-Air preservation group took it over and began to restore the aircraft in their spare time.


In the mid 80's Dan-Air realised the impracticality of the restoration work being undertaken and began negotiations with The Duxford Aviation Society. In May 1986 the aircraft was dismantled and on the 23rd of May made its journey to Duxford on seven low loaders.


Specials

The Avro York was, like its stablemates, the Lancaster and Lincoln, a very versatile aircraft. To illustrate the point a special version was made for the personal transport of Prime Minister Winston Churchill.


More interestingly, Avro York LV633 'Ascalon' was to be fitted with a special pressurised 'egg' so that VIP passengers could be carried without their having to use an oxygen mask.


Made of aluminium alloy it had eight perspex windows to reduce claustrophobia. It also had a telephone, instrument panel, drinking facilities and an ashtray with room for cigars, thermos, newspapers, books.


Testing at RAE Farnborough found the egg to work satisfactorily. However, Avro said it was too busy with the new Lancaster IV (Avro Lincoln) work so it was never actually installed in the Ascalon. It was considered for installation in the successor aircraft, a Douglas C-54B but contractor Armstrong Whitworth decided it was impractical and the project was shelved. A line up of Avro Lincoln B.IIs (B.2) The Avro 694 Lincoln was a British 4-engined heavy bomber of World War II, first flying on June 9, 1944 and entering service in August 1945, too late to be used in action. ...


The whereabouts of 'Churchill's Egg' are presently unknown.


[From an article in Aeroplane Monthly, January 1983].


Two further Yorks are of note:


MW104 "Endeavour" flew to Australia in 1945 to become the personal aircraft of HRH The Duke of Gloucester, Australia's then Governor-General. It became the only Avro York operated by the Royal Australian Air Force. 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...


Another aeroplane was fitted out as a "flying office" for Lord Mountbatten, then C-in-C South East Asia Command. The aeroplane was painted duck egg green, a shade intended to cool down the aeroplane, instead of the normal camoflauge colour scheme. South East Asia Command (SEAC) was the body set up to be in overall charge of Allied operations in the South-East Asian Theatre during World War II. The initial supreme commander of the theatre was General Sir Archibald Wavell, initially as head of the American-British-Dutch-Australian Command...


Military Operators

  • Australia, France, South Africa, United Kingdom.
Related content
Related development Avro Lancaster
Similar aircraft
Designation series

652A - 679 - 683 - 685 - 688 - 689 - 691 The Avro Lancaster was a four-engine World War II bomber aircraft made initially by Avro for the Royal Air Force (RAF). ... The Avro Anson was a twin-engine, multi-role aircraft that served with the Royal Air Force, Fleet Air Arm and numerous other air forces during World War II and afterwards. ... The Avro 679 Manchester was a twin-engined heavy bomber developed during World War II by the Avro aircraft company in the United Kingdom. ... The Avro Lancaster was a four-engine World War II bomber aircraft made initially by Avro for the Royal Air Force (RAF). ... The Avro 691 Lancastrian was a passenger and mail transport aircraft of the 1940s. ...

Related lists

List of aircraft of the RAF Many aircraft types have served in the Royal Air Force since it was formed in 1918 by the merger of the Royal Flying Corps and Royal Naval Air Service. ...


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  Results from FactBites:
 
Avro York - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (751 words)
The Avro York was a passenger and freight transport of the 1940s, in both military and civilian applications.
At the RAF Cosford Collection is Avro 685 York C1, TS798 (cn 1223) which was delivered new to the RAF as TS798, then to BOAC and Skyways (G-AGNV), then to Staverton, Brize Norton and Shawbury.
More interestingly, Avro York LV633 'Ascalon' was to be fitted with a special pressurised 'egg' so that VIP passengers could be carried without their having to use an oxygen mask.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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