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Encyclopedia > Avro Vulcan
Avro Vulcan
Type Strategic bomber
Manufacturer Avro
Maiden flight 31 August, 1952
Introduction 1956
Retired March 1984
Primary user Royal Air Force
Produced 1956-1965
Number built 136 (including prototypes)

The Avro Vulcan was a British delta wing subsonic bomber, operated by the Royal Air Force from 1953 until 1984. The Vulcan was part of the RAF's V bomber force, which fulfilled the role of nuclear deterrence against the Soviet Union during the Cold War. It was also used in a conventional bombing role during the Falklands conflict with Argentina. Only one example of the type remains in flying condition. Royal Air Force Vulcan, date unknown. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing, building, testing, selling, and maintaining aircraft, aircraft parts, missiles, rockets, and/or spacecraft. ... Avro 504K. Avro was a British aircraft manufacturer, well known for planes such as the Avro Lancaster which served in World War II. One of the worlds first aircraft builders, A.V.Roe and Company was established at Brownsfield Mills, Manchester, England by Alliot Verdon Roe and his brother... The Maiden flight of an aircraft is the first occasion on which an aircraft leaves the ground of its own accord. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1952: // Events January January 5 - Pan Am commences trans-atlantic freight services. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1956: Events March March 10 - Lt Cdr Peter Twiss sets a new airspeed record in the Fairey Delta FD.2, also becoming the first person to exceed 1,000 mph. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1984: Events February February 21 - 14 hours and 2 minutes after taking off from New York, Air France pilot Patrick Fourticq and his companion, race driver Henry Pescarolo, land their Piper Malibu in Paris, setting a world record for a trans... “RAF” redirects here. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1956: Events March March 10 - Lt Cdr Peter Twiss sets a new airspeed record in the Fairey Delta FD.2, also becoming the first person to exceed 1,000 mph. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1965: Events January January 2 - Denis Healey, the UKs Secretary of Defence cancels the nations fighter and military transport programmes and orders the purchase of the US-built F-4 Phantom and C-130 Hercules in their place. ... The delta-wing is a wing planform in the form of a triangle. ... For other uses, see Bomber (disambiguation). ... “RAF” redirects here. ... The term V bomber was used for the Royal Air Force aircraft during the 1950s and 1960s that comprised the UKs strategic nuclear strike force. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Combatants Argentina United Kingdom Commanders President Leopoldo Galtieri Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo Brigade-General Mario Menéndez Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward Major-General Jeremy Moore Casualties 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner 75 fixed...

Contents

Design and development

Design work began at A. V. Roe in 1947 under Roy Chadwick. The Air Ministry specification B.35/46 required a bomber with a top speed of 500 knots (930 km/h), an operating ceiling of 50,000 ft (15,000 m), a range of 3,000 nautical miles (5500 km) and a bomb load of 10,000 lb (approx 4,550 kg); intended to permit delivery of nuclear missiles deep into Soviet territory. Design work also began at Vickers and Handley Page. All three designs were approved — aircraft that would become the Valiant, the Victor, and the Vulcan. Avro 504K. Avro was a British aircraft manufacturer, well known for planes such as the Avro Lancaster which served in World War II. One of the worlds first aircraft builders, A.V.Roe and Company was established at Brownsfield Mills, Manchester, England by Alliot Verdon Roe and his brother... Roy Chadwick (1893–August 23, 1947) was an aircraft designer for Avro. ... The Air Ministry was formerly a department of the United Kingdom Government, established in 1918 with the responsibility of managing the affairs of the (then newly formed) Royal Air Force. ... This is a partial list of the British Air Ministry specifications for aircraft. ... A knot is a non SI unit of speed equal to one nautical mile per hour. ... A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of length. ... Vickers was a famous name in British engineering that existed through many companies from 1828 until 2004. ... Handley Page logo The Handley Page Aircraft Company was founded by Frederick Handley Page in 1909 as the United Kingdoms first publicly traded aircraft manufacturing company. ... The Vickers Valiant was a British four-jet bomber, once part of the RAFs V bomber force. ... The Handley Page Victor was a British jet bomber aircraft, one of the V bombers intended to carry Britains nuclear arsenal. ...


The Type 698 as first envisaged was a delta wing tailless, almost flying wing design, as Avro felt this would be able to give the required combination of large wing area, sweepback to offset the transonic effects and a thick wing root to embed the engines; these were staggered in the wing with two forward and below and two back and above. Wingtip rudders gave the control. There were two bomb bays one in each wing. This design was reworked in light of Ministry comments and became more conventional adopting a centre fuselage with side-by-side engines and a tail. A Northrop YB-49 flying wing. ...


As the delta wing was an unknown quantity Avro began scale prototype testing in 1948 with the single-seater Type 707 aircraft, and despite the crash of the first prototype on 30 September 1949 work continued. The first full-scale prototype Type 698 made its maiden flight (after its designer was killed in an unrelated aircrash) on 31 August 1952 shortly before appearing at the SBAC Farnborough Air Show. Since the Bristol Olympus engines were not ready it had been built with Rolls-Royce Avons[1]. The Vulcan name was not chosen until 1953 after the Valiant had already been named. The first prototype had a straight leading edge which was subsequently modified to have a kink further out towards the wingtip. The Vulcan bomber in service was not fitted with pure delta wings; but the prototypes models were the first jet bomber design to use a wing of that shape, which was modified in development to give the service machines better flying characteristics than a pure delta can supply. The delta-wing is a wing planform in the form of a triangle. ... Avro 707 at Farnborourgh 1951 The Avro 707 was a British experimental aircraft built to test the delta wing design of the Avro 698 (later to become the Vulcan), and was a scaled-down version of that aircraft. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... On 29 March 1915 a number of British aircraft manufacturers and industrialists met to arrange a standards body and production pooling system known as the Society of British Aircraft Constructors. ... Farnborough 2006 Farnborough 2006 The Red Arrows in formation at Farnborough The Airbus A380, at Farnborough The Farnborough International Airshow is a seven-day international trade fair for the aerospace business which is held biannually in England. ... Rolls-Royce Olympus 593 The Olympus is a high-powered axial-flow turbojet, originally developed at Bristol Aero Engines, later passed to Bristol Siddeley, and finally to Rolls-Royce. ... The Rolls-Royce Avon turbojet was developed by Cyril Lovesey who had previously been in charge of Merlin development at Rolls-Royce. ... The delta-wing is a wing planform in the form of a triangle. ...


Testing the vehicle was relatively crude in those days, for example, recording the instrument readings involved filming the control panel and manually transcribing the results onto graph paper. As well, testing the brakes of the Vulcan included strapping the company photographer Paul Culerne to the front landing gear with the aircraft moving at full landing speed and photographing the brakes in operation.[2]


Despite its large size, it had a relatively small radar cross-section (RCS). It is now known that it had a fortuitously stealthy shape apart from the tail fin. F-117 stealth attack plane Stealth technology is a sub-discipline of electronic countermeasures which covers a range of techniques used with aircraft, ships and missiles, in order to make them less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared and other detection methods. ... The vertical stabilizer or fin of an aircraft is found on its tail, generally pointing straight upward. ...


Avro test pilot Wing Commander (retired) Roly Falk demonstrated the aircraft's high performance in the second production Vulcan, XA890, by performing a barrel-roll immediately after takeoff at the 1955 Farnborough Air Show. [3] A serial number is a unique number that is one of a series assigned for identification which varies from its successor or predecessor by a fixed discrete integer value. ...


The Vulcan used entirely powered control surfaces, this combined with the relatively small space for the pilots meant that a fighter-like stick could be used instead of a control column with the added benefit that ejection could be quicker in an emergency. Power was 100 volts DC electrical supplied from generators on each engine. Backup was from a set of batteries in series to supply the voltage if generators failed. These had little capacity in event of a power loss so the system was revised for the Mark 2 to use a Ram Air Turbine (RAT) that would operate at higher altitude and an Airborne Auxiliary Power Unit (AAPU) which could be started once the aircraft had reached a lower altitude (30,000 ft or less). At the same time the power system was changed to 200 volts at 400 HZ AC from constant frequency generators.


With no view to the rear from the cockpit and with the control surfaces (four elevators and four ailerons in the Mark 1, elevons for the Mark 2) at the extreme rear of the aircraft there was a display board on the pilots control panel that showed the position of all eight so that any non-responding surface could be identified. The AEO also had a periscope that gave a view to the rear so that the bomb bay and the underside could be checked. For other uses, see Elevator (disambiguation). ... For the band with a similar name, see The Ailerons Ailerons are hinged control surfaces attached to the trailing edge of the wing of a fixed-wing aircraft. ... Elevons at the wing trailing edge are used for pitch and roll control of the F-117A Nighthawk ( best seen by clicking on the picture). ...


The two prototypes and some of the Mark 1 production were used to develop the systems and the improvements that led to the Mark 2


Operational history

Although the Vulcan had a normal crew of five (two pilots, two navigators and an Air Electronics Operator (AEO))[4], only the pilot and co-pilot were provided with ejection seats. This feature of the Vulcan has been the basis of significant criticism; there were several instances of the pilot and co-pilot ejecting in an emergency and the "rear crew" being killed because there was not time for them to bail out. US Air Force F/A-22 Raptor ejection seat test using a mannequin. ...


The navigator plotter, navigator radar and AEO bailed out through the crew entrance door in the cockpit floor immediately ahead of the nosewheel, their parachutes opening automatically by static line. As the crew door was immediately forward of the front undercarriage, it was very important that the pilots retracted the gear before bail-out. The method of escape was practised regularly in ground rigs, and successfully used on more than one occasion, with all crew members surviving.


In September 1956, the RAF received its first Vulcan B 1, XA897, which immediately went on a fly-the-flag mission to New Zealand. On 1 October, while approaching Heathrow to complete the tour, XA897 crashed short of the runway in bad weather conditions, the two pilots ejecting successfully although the rear crew were killed. The aircraft Captain was Squadron Leader "Podge" Howard and the co-pilot was Air Marshal Sir Harry Broadhurst (an experienced but out of practice pilot). It appears that due to time delays in the rather primitive Ground-Controlled Approach (GCA) system of the time, the aircraft became too low on the approach without being warned by the GCA system and damaged its undercarriage in an inadvertent touchdown short of the runway threshold. Control was then lost during the subsequent overshoot (go-around). is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Heathrow redirects here. ...


The second Vulcan was not delivered until 1957, and the delivery rate picked up from then. The B 2 variant was first tested in 1957 and entered service in 1960. It had a larger wing with a different leading edge, and better performance than the B 1 and had a distinctive kink in its delta wing to reduce turbulence.[5] In all, 134 production Vulcans were manufactured (45 B 1 and 89 B 2), the last being delivered to the RAF in January 1965. The last operational Vulcan squadron was disbanded in March 1984.


The undercarriage of a Vulcan made heavy contact with the runway during an air show for the opening of Rongotai (Wellington) Airport New Zealand in 1959. Despite one main undercarriage leg being non-functional the aircraft returned to Ohakea and landed safely, toppling onto the grass verge at the end of its run. There was a long delay while it was decided whether to scrap it, ship it back by sea, or repair it in situ. In the end, the aircraft was repaired by the RNZAF - who helpfully applied kiwi roundels. A display at the Ohakea branch of the Royal New Zealand Air Force Museum includes honeycombed skin from the damaged aircraft. For the first Duke of Wellington, see Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ... The Royal New Zealand Air Force or RNZAF is the air operations arm of the New Zealand Defence Force. ... Species See text. ... The modern proportion RAF roundel A roundel in heraldry is any circular shape; in military use it is an emblem of nationality employed on military aircraft and air force flags, generally round and consisting of concentric rings of different colors. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: very short article with no context If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... The Royal New Zealand Air Force Museum is primarily a museum of the Royal New Zealand Air Force, its predecessor, the New Zealand Permanent Air Force and New Zealand squadrons of the Royal Air Force. ...


Nuclear deterrent

As part of Britain's independent nuclear deterrent the Vulcan initially carried Britain's first nuclear weapon, the Blue Danube gravity bomb. Blue Danube was a low-kiloton yield fission bomb designed before the United States detonated the first hydrogen bomb. The British then embarked on their own hydrogen bomb programme, and to bridge the gap until these were ready the V-bombers were equipped with an Interim Megaton Weapon based on the Blue Danube casing and Green Grass, a large pure-fission warhead of 400 kT yield. This bomb was known as Violet Club. Only five were deployed before a better weapon was introduced as Yellow Sun Mk.1. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Blue Danube was the first operational British nuclear weapon. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... A cutaway diagram of a Yellow Sun casing with Red Snow warhead Yellow Sun was the first British operational high-yield strategic nuclear weapon. ... Violet Club was a nuclear weapon deployed by the United Kingdom during the cold war. ... In astronomy, stellar classification is a classification of stars based initially on photospheric temperature and its associated spectral characteristics, and subsequenly refined in terms of other characteristics. ...


A later model, Yellow Sun Mk 2 was fitted with Red Snow, a British-built variant of the US Mk-28 warhead. Yellow Sun Mk 2 was the first British thermonuclear weapon to be deployed, and was carried on both the Vulcan and Victor. All three V-bombers also carried U.S. thermonuclear bombs assigned to NATO under the dual-key arrangements. Red Beard (a smaller, lighter low-kiloton yield) bomb was pre-positioned in Cyprus and Singapore for use by Vulcan and Victor bombers, and from 1962, 26 Vulcan B 2As and the Victor bombers were armed with the Blue Steel missile, a rocket-powered stand-off bomb, which was also armed with the 1.1 megaton yield Red Snow warhead. Red Snow was a British thermonuclear weapon. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... A Red Beard weapon on its bomb trolley, fitted with a bomb-carrier prior to loading into a Canberra bomber. ... Victor is a Latin name that means conqueror. Its a first name normally given to boys. ... Type Nuclear stand-off missile Nationality UK Era Cold War Launch platform Aircraft Target History Builder Avro Date of design Production period Service duration 1963-1970 Operators UK RAF Variants One/mod for low-level delivery Number built 53 operational live rounds Specifications Type Diameter 1. ... A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ...


It was intended to equip the Vulcan with the American Skybolt Air Launched Ballistic Missile to replace the Blue Steel, with Vulcan B 2s carrying two Skybolts under the wings (the last 28 B 2s being modified on the production line to fit pylons to carry the Skybolt[6] ). It was also proposed to build a stretched version of the Vulcan, with increased wing span to carry up to six Skybolts[7]. When the Skybolt missile system was cancelled by US President John F Kennedy on the recommendation of Robert McNamara in 1962, Blue Steel was kept on. To supplement it until the Royal Navy took on the deterrent role, the Vulcan bombers adopted a high-low-high mission profile using a rapidly introduced parachute-retarded "laydown" bomb; WE.177B. After the British Polaris submarines became operational, and Blue Steel was taken out of service in 1970, WE.177B continued in use on the Vulcan in a low-level tactical strike role in support of European NATO ground forces. It would outlive the Vulcan bombers, being used also on Tornado and other low-level strike aircraft until retirement in 1998. The Douglas GAM-87A Skybolt was an air-launched ballistic missile (ALBM) developed during the late 1950s. ... JFK redirects here. ... For the figure skater, see Robert McNamara (figure skater). ... An inert bomb originally used for training, shown here on its trolley in a museum WE.177 was the last British air-launched nuclear bomb. ... The Panavia Tornado is a family of twin-engine fighters, which was jointly developed by the United Kingdom, Germany and Italy. ...


Conventional role

Avro Vulcan from Operation Black Buck at the Museum of Flight (Scotland), showing mission markings.
Avro Vulcan from Operation Black Buck at the Museum of Flight (Scotland), showing mission markings.

Although the primary weapon for the Vulcan was nuclear, Vulcans could carry up to 21 x 1000 lb (454 kg) bombs in a secondary role. The only combat missions involving the Vulcan took place in the 1982 Falklands War with Argentina, when Vulcans, in the Black Buck operations [8][9] flew the 3,380 nautical miles (6,300 km) from Ascension Island to Stanley. There were three missions to bomb the airfield at Stanley; two to attack Argentine radar installations with missiles and two missions were cancelled. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x750, 85 KB) Summary Avro Vulcan from Operation Black Buck at East Fortune, 2002. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x750, 85 KB) Summary Avro Vulcan from Operation Black Buck at East Fortune, 2002. ... The Museum of Flight is an aerospace museum at East Fortune Airfield, East Fortune, East Lothian, Scotland. ... Combatants Argentina United Kingdom Commanders President Leopoldo Galtieri Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo Brigade-General Mario Menéndez Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward Major-General Jeremy Moore Casualties 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner 75 fixed... An Avro Vulcan, as used during Operation Black Buck During the Falklands War, Operations Black Buck 1 to Black Buck 6 were a series of six extremely long-range bombing attacks by Royal Air Force Vulcan bombers against Argentine positions in the Falkland Islands. ... A nautical mile is a unit of distance, or, as physical scientists like to call it, length. ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Capital Georgetown Largest city Georgetown Official languages English Government Dependency of St. ... Map of the Falkland Islands showing position of Stanley. ...


Victor aircraft were used for air-to-air refuelling in a complex scheme and approximately 1.1 million gallons of jet fuel were used in each mission. [10] The Handley Page Victor was a British jet bomber aircraft, one of the V bombers intended to carry Britains nuclear arsenal. ... Aerial refueling, also called in-flight refueling (IFR) or air-to-air refueling (AAR), is the practice of transferring fuel from one aircraft to another during flight. ...


Five Vulcans were selected for the operation: their bomb bays were modified; the flight refuelling system that had long been out of use re-instated; the electronics updated; and wing pylons designed, manufactured, and fitted to carry an ECM pod and Shrike anti-radar missiles where the Skybolt hardpoints remained in the wings The engineering work began on 9 April with the first mission on 30 April1 May 1982. Inspecting an AN/ALQ-184 Electronic Attack Pod Electronic countermeasures (ECM) are a subsection of electronic warfare which includes any sort of electrical or electronic device designed to fool radar, sonar, or other detection systems like IR (infrared) and Laser. ... AGM-45 Shrike is an anti-radiation missile designed to home in on hostile antiaircraft radars. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ...


The first raid cut the runway at Stanley with a single bomb hit (from the 21 bombs dropped, a maximum of two had any chance of hitting the runway because it had been decided to attack from an angle for a greater chance of success).


The second raid failed to arm the bomb load before release, so no damage was done.


The third raid missed the runway completely and did a small amount of collateral damage around the runway, blowing up a jeep and causing one or two casualties.


After this, there were three raids using Shrike missiles. The first fired missiles but the Argentine radar operators turned off their radars when they detected missile release and no damage was done. The second aborted on the return journey and landed in Brazil, while still carrying live munitions. The third destroyed an anti-aircraft radar.


Each mission required use of Sea Harriers from the Hermes and Invincible, providing indirect escort and ground attack support.

Royal Air Force Avro Vulcan XM607 on display at RAF Waddington
Royal Air Force Avro Vulcan XM607 on display at RAF Waddington

At the time these missions held the record for the world's longest distance raids. The planning and execution of the "Black Buck One" raid has been described in Rowland White's book Vulcan 607 [11]. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 1728 pixel, file size: 897 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 1728 pixel, file size: 897 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Waddington-based Hawker-Siddeley (now BAE Systems) Nimrod R.1 RAF Waddington is a Royal Air Force station in Lincolnshire England. ...


Maritime Radar Reconnaissance

On 1 November 1973, the first of nine B 2 (MRR) aircraft was delivered to the No. 27 Sqn at RAF Scampton reforming for its main role of Maritime Radar Reconnaissance. The main external visual difference was the gloss paint finish and the lack of the Terrain Following Radar (TFR) "thimble" from the nose below the air-to-air refuelling probe. The gloss paint finish, which was always with the light grey undersurface, was due to the secondary role of air sampling. As both roles were high altitude the TFR system was removed. is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ...


Only five of the B 2(MRR)s were capable of the air sampling role, those that were included XH558 and XH560. These aircraft could be distinguished by the additional hard points outside of the Skybolt points. These additional points sometimes carried redundant Sea Vixen drop tanks that had the nose section replaced by a newer section of a larger diameter. Another external, but much smaller, piece of equipment was carried just outboard of the port undercarriage main door.


During the late 1970s some of the non-air sampling aircraft were exchanged with other squadrons whose aircraft had a high fatigue usage.


All B 2(MRR) aircraft were equipped with Olympus 201 ECUs. Three of the aircraft, XH534, XH537 and XH538 had the small Mk 1 style of engine air intake. The B 2(MRR) was withdrawn from service on 31 March 1982, some of the aircraft going on to be converted for use as tankers. is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ...


Aerial refuelling role

After the end of the Falklands War, the Vulcan was due to be withdrawn from RAF service. However, the disbandment of 57 Squadron and delays in the operational availability of the TriStar left a gap in the RAF's air to air refuelling capability. As an interim measure, six Vulcan B 2s were converted into AAR tankers and commissioned into service with 50 Squadron from 1982 to 1984. Combatants Argentina United Kingdom Commanders President Leopoldo Galtieri Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo Brigade-General Mario Menéndez Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward Major-General Jeremy Moore Casualties 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner 75 fixed... The Lockheed L-1011 TriStar, commonly referred to as just L-1011 (pronounced ell-ten-eleven), was the third widebody passenger jet airliner to enter operation, following the Boeing 747 and the McDonnell Douglas DC-10. ... No. ...


Experimental configurations

A Vulcan was used as a testbed for the afterburning Olympus 320 for the TSR-2, the planned Concorde engine, the Rolls-Royce/Snecma Olympus 593 and the Rolls-Royce Conway turbofan. While testing the Bristol Olympus for the TSR-2, the engine disintegrated, setting the Vulcan on fire and also the fire tender in attendance. The crew escaped unhurt. In testing the Olympus, one engine was fitted to the bomb bay of a Vulcan. High level flight testing was carried out with the Olympus engine helping the Vulcan fly faster than with just its original engines. The Vulcan was hung on wires in a hangar to allow access to the engine in the bomb bay. The British Aircraft Corporations TSR-2 was an ill-fated cold war project in the early 1960s to create what would, at that time, have been one of the most advanced aircraft in the world. ... For other uses, see Concorde (disambiguation). ... Rolls-Royce Olympus 593 The Olympus is a high-powered axial-flow turbojet, originally developed at Bristol Aero Engines, later passed to Bristol Siddeley, and finally to Rolls-Royce. ... The Rolls-Royce Conway was the first by-pass engine to go into service in the world. ... A cutaway diagram of a hangar. ...


Restoration to flight of Vulcan XH558

The engineering staff of professional company the "Vulcan Operating Company" worked to return Vulcan XH558 to flight; initially they hoped to have the plane ready for a test flight in early 2007. In this, they were supported by the "Vulcan to the Sky" club (or VTSClub), a supporters and fund raising organisation. Though the website carried an announcement on 1 August 2006 that the project was in imminent danger of being abandoned due to lack of finance,[12] the target of raising the remaining £1.2m was achieved on 31 August, thanks to a high-profile publicity campaign orchestrated by the supporters club, Vulcan to the Sky Club (formerly Club Vulcan 558 Club). Time had almost run out for XH558 when Sir Jack Hayward, a British philanthropist, donated £500,000, which topped off the £860,000 already raised by VTSClub and the VTST Friends. Although the aircraft restoration was nearly complete, the aircraft was not ready for the flypast down the Mall in London for the 25th Anniversary of the Falklands conflict on 17 June 2007 or the RAF Waddington Airshow and the Royal International Air Tattoo (RIAT). [13] is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Jack Hayward OBE (born in Wolverhampton, in 1923), is an English property developer and philanthropist. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Waddington-based Hawker-Siddeley (now BAE Systems) Nimrod R.1 RAF Waddington is a Royal Air Force station in Lincolnshire England. ... RIAT 2006 RIAT 2006 The Royal International Air Tattoo (RIAT) is the worlds largest military airshow, held annually over the third weekend in July, usually at RAF Fairford in Gloucestershire, England in support of The Royal Air Force Charitable Trust. ...


The delay in returning the aircraft to flight was mainly down to delays in the return of refurbished flight-critical components, not as previously feared due to corrosion issues.


In August 2007 the VTS Team announced that they expected the Vulcan to fly at at least one UK airshow during the 2007 season.[14]On 14 August 2007 a NOTAM was issued by the CAA, to notify interested aviation concerns that: "Vulcan Test Flight will be undertaken at Bruntingthorpe airfield on AUG 20-24, 28-31, SEP 03-07 0900-1500 E)RESTRICTED AREA(TEMPORARY) FOR VULCAN TEST FLYING AT BRUNTINGTHORPE. RESTRICTION OF FLYING REGULATIONS MADE UNDER ARTICLE 96 OF THE ANO 2005.". However, these dates passed without the flight taking place. is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... NOTAM or NoTAM is the quasi-acronym for a Notice To Airmen. NOTAMs are created and transmitted by government agencies under guidelines specified by Annex 15: Aeronautical Information Services of the International Convention on Civil Aviation. ... The Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) is the public corporation which oversees and regulates all aspects of aviation in the UK. It was established in 1972. ... The Bruntingthorpe Aerodrome and Proving Ground is a privately-owned airport in Leicestershire. ...


On 16 August 2007 the aircraft commenced engine testing on the airfield at Bruntingthorpe. On 17 August 2007, XH558's No.3 Rolls-Royce Olympus 202 jet engine was successfully run for the first time in over 20 years. This is a different engine to that used by XH558 during her final seasons with the RAF's Vulcan Display Flight in 1992. All four of the Vulcan's old Olympus engines have been replaced with unused variants which had been stored since 1982, thereby getting the maximum future life span possible from each engine. The VTS Team also has another four of the type as backups. is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Bruntingthorpe Aerodrome and Proving Ground is a privately-owned airport in Leicestershire. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Rolls-Royce Olympus 593 The Olympus is a high-powered axial-flow turbojet, originally developed at Bristol Aero Engines, later passed to Bristol Siddeley, and finally to Rolls-Royce. ... RAF is an three letter acronym for: Royal Air Force -- the Air Force of the United Kingdom (see also Air Ministry) Red Army Faction (Rote Armee Fraktion) -- a German terror organisation Rigas Autobusu Fabrika -- a factory making buses in Riga, Latvia Rapid Action Force in India Računarski Fakultet RAF... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ...


Another significant milestone in the restoration project was achieved on 22 August 2007, when all four of XH558's Olympus engines were run flawlessly at nearly full power settings, for short intervals. So far, all engine testing has been fault-free. A short video clip of this event is available on YouTube. [15] is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Rolls-Royce Olympus 593 The Olympus is a high-powered axial-flow turbojet, originally developed at Bristol Aero Engines, later passed to Bristol Siddeley, and finally to Rolls-Royce. ... YouTube is a popular video sharing website where users can upload, view and share video clips. ...


The first post-restoration flight took place on Thursday 18 October 2007. [16]. The flight lasted 34 minutes. This the first of the planned three test flights from Bruntingthorpe aerodrome to be made to prove that the aircraft has been restored to airworthy condition.[17] is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Bruntingthorpe Aerodrome and Proving Ground is a privately-owned airport in Leicestershire. ...


Accidents and incidents

  • On 1 August 1956 Vulcan B1 XA897 crashed at London Heathrow Airport after an approach in bad weather. The Vulcan was the first to be delivered to the RAF and was returning from a demonstration flight to Australia and New Zealand. The pilot and co-pilot ejected and survived but the four other occupants were killed. [18]
  • On 20 September 1958, a Rolls Royce test pilot was authorized to fly VX770 on an engine performance sortie with a fly past at RAF Syerston Battle of Britain "At Home" display. The briefing was for the pilot to fly over the airfield twice at 200-300 feet, flying at a speed of 250-300 knots. The Vulcan flew along the main 25/07 runway then started a roll to starboard and climbed slightly. Very shortly a kink appeared in the starboard mainplane leading edge followed by a stripping of the leading edge of the wing. The starboard wingtip then broke followed by a collapse of the main spar and wing structure. Subsequently, the Vulcan went into a dive and began rolling with the starboard wing on fire and struck the ground at the taxiway of the end of runway 07. Three occupants of a controllers' caravan were killed by debris, a fourth being injured. All the crew of the Vulcan were killed. The cause of the crash was pilot error; the captain flew the aircraft over the airfield at 410-420 knots instead of the briefed 250-300 knots he had also descended to a height of 65-70ft. Rolling the Vulcan to starboard while flying at this speed, the aircraft was rolled at a rate of 15-20 degrees/second while pulling up into a 3,000ft a minute climb imposing a strain of between 2-3g where it should have remained below 1.25g. The VX770 was a prototype and was not as strong as later production models, indeed buckling of the leading edge in this plane was a known problem and was the primary reason for low flight performance limits being imposed. [19]
  • On 14 October 1975, Vulcan B 2 XM645 of No.9 Squadron out of RAF Waddington lost its right undercarriage and damaged the airframe when it undershot the runway at Luqa airport in Malta. The pilot decided to do a circuit to crash land on runway 24 after it was covered with fire prevention foam. As the aircraft was turning inbound for the landing, it broke up in mid-air over the village of Zabbar, killing five of its seven crew members. Only the pilot and co-pilot escaped, using their ejection seats. Large pieces of the aircraft fell on the village. One woman (Vincenza Zammit, 48), who was shopping in a street was hit by an electric cable and killed instantly. Some 20 others were injured slightly. [20]

is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Heathrow redirects here. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... RAF Syerston is a Royal Air Force station near Newark, Nottinghamshire. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... No. ... Waddington-based Hawker-Siddeley (now BAE Systems) Nimrod R.1 RAF Waddington is a Royal Air Force station in Lincolnshire England. ... Luqa or Ħal Luqa (meaning poplar in Aramaic) is a village located in the south east of Malta (Europe). ... Żabbar is the fifth largest town in Malta, with a population of just over 18,000 (est. ...

Survivors

Avro Vulcan XL361 on display at CFB Goose Bay in 1988
Former survivors include
  • XL391 Vulcan B2 - Scrapped on site at Blackpool Airport, England. Preservation efforts had discontinued years previously, and the aircraft had irreperably decayed. It was scrapped after its ebay-buyer refused to collect it owing to its poor state.
  • XM569 Vulcan B2 - On display at Wales Aircraft Museum, Cardiff International Airport, Wales from 1983. Scrapped in 1996.
  • XM571 Vulcan B2 - On display at RAF Gibraltar from 1983, scrapped in 1990.
  • XM602 Vulcan B2 - Preserved at RAF St Athan, Wales from 1982, scrapped in 1983.
  • XM603 Vulcan B2 - Stripped for parts to support XH558, XM655 and XL426, then scrapped to release space at Woodford Aerodrome. Previously considered to be one of the best preserved examples.
  • XM656 Vulcan B2 - Preserved at RAF Cottesmore, England from 1982, scrapped in 1983.
  • XJ782 Vulcan B2 - On display at RAF Finningley, England from 1982, scrapped 1988.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Goose Bay, also referred to as 5 Wing Goose Bay or Goose Bay Airport, (IATA: YYR, ICAO: CYYR) is an air force base in eastern Canada, located in the town of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador. ... The Bruntingthorpe Aerodrome and Proving Ground is a privately-owned airport in Leicestershire. ... Carlisle Airport (IATA: CAX, ICAO: EGNC) is located 5 nautical miles (9. ... The Imperial War Museum is a museum in London featuring military vehicles, weapons, war memorabilia, a library, a photographic archive, and an art collection of 20th century and later conflicts, especially those involving Britain, and the British Empire. ... Duxford Aerodrome (IATA: QFO, ICAO: EGSU) is located 8 nautical miles (14. ... An Avro Lancaster in the main hangar of the RAF Museum London The Royal Air Force Museum (RAF Museum) is a museum dedicated to the history of aviation, and the British Royal Air Force in particular. ... North East Aircraft Museum is a volunteer run aviation museum in England situated on the site of the former RAF Usworth/Sunderland Airport. ... The Sir Frank Whittle Jet Heritage Centre at the MAM The Midland Air Museum (MAM) is situated outside Coventry in Warwickshire, England. ... For other uses, see Coventry (disambiguation). ... Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Goose Bay, also referred to as 5 Wing Goose Bay or Goose Bay Airport, (IATA: YYR, ICAO: CYYR) is an air force base in eastern Canada, located in the town of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador. ... A Flightline BAe 146 aircraft lands at London (Heathrow) Airport in July 2004. ... The museums SR-71A Blackbird. ... Ashland is a city located in Saunders County, Nebraska. ... East Midlands Airport[1] (IATA: EMA, ICAO: EGNX) is an airport in the East Midlands of England, near Castle Donington in Leicestershire. ... Newark Air Museum is an air museum located at Newark-on-Trent in Nottinghamshire, England. ... Newark (also Newark-on-Trent) is a town in Nottinghamshire, located on the River Trent. ... The Museum of Flight is an aerospace musuem in East Lothian, Scotland, and part of the National Museums of Scotland. ... An Avro Lancaster in the main hangar of the RAF Museum London The Royal Air Force Museum (RAF Museum) is a museum dedicated to the history of aviation, and the British Royal Air Force in particular. ... Castle Airport (IATA: MER, ICAO: KMER) is a public airport located three miles (4. ... Barksdale Air Force Base is a U.S. military base near Bossier City, Louisiana, USA. Barksdale is the home of the U.S. Air Forces 2nd Bombing Wing and headquarters of the 8th Air Force . ... Waddington-based Hawker-Siddeley (now BAE Systems) Nimrod R.1 RAF Waddington is a Royal Air Force station in Lincolnshire England. ... Gloster Meteor F8 WK654 preserved at the City of Norwich Aviation Museum Handley Page Dart Herald G-ASKK preserved at the City of Norwich Aviation Museum Hawker Hunter F51 (ex. ... Norwich (pronounced IPA: ) is a city in East Anglia, in Eastern England. ... Wellesbourne Mountford Airfield (IATA: N/A, ICAO: EGBW) is located 3. ... Blackpool (Squires Gate) Airport (IATA: BLK, ICAO: EGNH) is a small international airport, 5 km south of Blackpool, Lancashire in north west England. ... RAF Gibraltar is a Royal Air Force station on Gibraltar. ... It has been suggested that St Athan be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the country. ... RAF Cottesmore is a Royal Air Force station in Rutland, England, situated between Cottesmore and Market Overton. ... RAF Finningley was a Royal Air Force station near Doncaster, South Yorkshire, partly within the traditional county boundaries of Nottinghamshire and partly in the West Riding of Yorkshire, now wholly within the Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster. ...

Operators

Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... “RAF” redirects here. ... No. ... No. ... No. ... No. ... No. ... No. ... No. ... No. ... For the video game see The Dam Busters (video game) No. ... No. ...

Variants

Prototypes

Two prototypes were built and subsequently modified for development, gaining the Mark 2 wing and testing engines. They differed in several ways from the later production aircraft. Smaller nose (No H2S radar fitted) and no Flight Refuelling Probe (FRP). VX770 did not have the bomb aimer's blister. Both aircraft had a longer nose undercarriage leg than production aircraft.

B.1

The initial production aircraft, with the straight wing leading edge, with wide undercarriage track and four underwing airbrakes. Early examples finished in silver, later changed to "anti-flash" white.

B.1A

The B.1 with an Electronic countermeasures (ECM) system in a new larger tail cone Inspecting an AN/ALQ-184 Electronic Attack Pod Electronic countermeasures (ECM) are a subsection of electronic warfare which includes any sort of electrical or electronic device designed to fool radar, sonar, or other detection systems like IR (infrared) and Laser. ...

B.2

Developed version of the B.1. Larger, thinner wing than the B.1 and fitted with Olympus 201 or 301 engines. Terrain following radar in nosecone and passive radar warning in tail fin giving it a square top from mid-1970s . Uprated electrics with Airborne Auxiliary Power Unit and emergency Ram Turbine generator. Smiths Military Flight System (MFS). Originally white "anti-flash" finish, from late 1970s dark all over camouflage finish. This article is about the English rock band, for other uses of Smith or Smiths, see Smith The Smiths were a hugely influential British rock group and indie music pioneers. ...

B.2A

Also known as B.2BS. B.2 with Olympus 301 engines to carry Blue Steel in recessed bomb doors. A & E bomb bay tanks only. After the withdrawal of Blue Steel converted back to B.2

B.2 (MMR)

Nine B.2 converted to Maritime Radar Reconnaisannce. given high gloss protective paint to protect against sea spray effects. No Terrain Following Radar (TFR) but given LORAN navigation aid. Five aircraft further modified for Air Sampling Role taking over from 543 Sqn. Victor SR 2. Retained gloss finish with light grey underside when B 2 given matte all surface camouflage LORAN (LOng RAnge Navigation) is a terrestrial navigation system using low frequency radio transmitters that use the time interval between radio signals received from three or more stations to determine the position of a ship or aircraft. ...

K.2

Six B.2 converted for air-to-air refuelling with Mark 17 hose drum below tail cone. ECm removed. Could be fitted with three bomb bay drum tanks (for self-use or tanking)


Specifications

Specifications (Vulcan B.1)

General characteristics

  • Crew: 5 (pilot, co-pilot, AEO, Navigator Radar, Navigator Plotter)
  • Length: 97 ft 1 in (29.59 m)
  • Wingspan: 99 ft (30.18 m)
  • Height: 26 ft 6 in (7.95 m)
  • Wing area: 3554 sq ft (330.2 m2)
  • Empty weight: 83,573 lb[21] (37,144 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 170,000 lb (77,111 kg)
  • Powerplant:Bristol Olympus 101[22] turbojet, 11,000 lb (4,990 kg) each

Performance

Armament

21,000 lbs of conventional bombs or single free-fall nuclear weapon The distance AB is the wing span of this Aer Lingus Airbus A320. ... In aviation, the Maximum Take-Off Weight (or MTOW) is the maximum weight with which an aircraft is allowed to try to achieve flight. ... Rolls-Royce Olympus 593 The Olympus is a high-powered axial-flow turbojet, originally developed at Bristol Aero Engines, later passed to Bristol Siddeley, and finally to Rolls-Royce. ... V speeds are speeds that define certain performance and limiting characteristics of an aircraft. ... The maximal total range is the distance an aircraft can fly between takeoff and landing, as limited by fuel capacity in powered aircraft, or cross-country speed and environmental conditions in unpowered aircraft. ... In aeronautics, the service ceiling is the maximum density altitude where the best rate of climb airspeed will produce a 100 feet per minute climb(twin engine) and 50 feet(single engine) at maximum weight while in a clean configuration with maximum continuous power. ...

Comparison of variants

B.1 B.1A B.2 B.2A (B.2BS) B.2(MRR) or (K)
Wingspan 99 ft 111 ft
Length 92 ft 9 in 99 ft 11 in [24] 99 ft 11 in 99 ft 11 in 99 ft 11 in
Height 26 ft 6 in 27 ft 1 in
Wing area 3,554 sq ft 3,964 sq ft
Maximum takeoff weight. 190,000 lb 204,000 lb
Cruising speed Mach 0.86 (610 mph)
Maximum speed Mach 0.93 (632 mph) Mach 0.92 (625 mph)
Range 3,910 miles (3,395 nm, 6,293 km) 4,600 miles (3,995 nm, 7,402 km)
Service ceiling 55,000 ft 60,000 ft
Engines 4x Bristol Siddeley
Olympus 101, 102 or 104
4x Bristol Siddeley
Olympus 201,202, 203 or 301
4x Bristol Siddeley
Olympus 201,202, 203
4x Bristol Siddeley
Olympus 201,202, 203
Fuel capacity (Avtur/Mains only) 9,250 Imp. Gal. 9,260 Imp. Gal.
Armament nuclear bomb armed with a thermonuclear warhead
or 21 x 1,000 lb bombs
1x Blue Steel nuclear missile or 21 x 1,000 lb bombs
None

Crew (All Mks):
Pilot, Co-Pilot, Navigator Plotter, Navigator Radar and Air Electronics Officer
(two extra seats could be fitted for Crew Chiefs if required, for a total of seven crew). The gallon (abbreviation: gal) is a unit of volume. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Type Nuclear stand-off missile Nationality UK Era Cold War Launch platform Aircraft Target History Builder Avro Date of design Production period Service duration 1963-1970 Operators UK RAF Variants One/mod for low-level delivery Number built 53 operational live rounds Specifications Type Diameter 1. ...


Note: Fuel capacity and range are for main tanks only. Various combinations of extra bomb bay tankage (A, E or Drum) could be fitted dependent on the aircraft sortie requirements.

  • B 1 (early production): --- (included in build total below)
  • B 1 (later production) --- 45 built
  • B 2 --- 89 built
  • B 1a (B 1 converted to B 2 Spec internally.) 28 converted from B 1
  • B 2a --- B 2 conversions
  • B 2 (MRR)/SR 2 --- 11 converted (only 9 in existence at any one time.)
  • B 2 K --- six converted – from three B 2 & three B 2(MRR)
  • Total build 136

Popular culture

  • The Vulcan bomber was featured in the 1965 James Bond movie Thunderball. Agents of SPECTRE hijacked a Vulcan bomber in order to use its two nuclear bombs for a ransom plot against the US and Britain. In the original novel, the bomber is known as the (fictional) Villiers Vindicator.
  • In the 1965 Cold War novel The Penetrators by Hank Searls (writing as Anthony Gray), an RAF officer leads nine Vulcans in a maverick mock attack against the USA in order to prove that the manned bomber is a more flexible deterrent option than ballistic missiles.
  • Parts from two scrapped Vulcan bombers were used to make the set of the spaceship Nostromo from Ridley Scott's 1979 film Alien.[citation needed]
  • The spaceship HMS Camden Lock in the BBC2 comedy series Hyperdrive bears the serial number XH558. The set and prop designer, model maker Andrew Glazebrook is quoted that, "Its registration number XH558 is actually that of the Royal Air Force's 'Avro Vulcan' bomber and was suggested by the show's writers, Andy Riley and Kevin Cecil." This direct involvement with the Avro Vulcan and its role as a military aircraft is clearly connected to its science-fiction counterpart.

007 redirects here. ... For other topics with this name, see Thunderball. ... Spectre, taken from the Battle for Wesnoth computer game. ... The Penetrators by Hank Searls. ... Sir Ridley Scott (born November 30, 1937 in South Shields, South Tyneside) is a British film director and producer. ... This article is about the first film in a series. ... Hyperdrive is a British television science fiction sitcom produced by the BBC created under the working title of Set in 2151 (the same year as the first season of Star Trek: Enterprise), it follows the crew of HMS Camden Lock as they stumble through their heroic mission to protect British...

References

  1. ^ These would be replaced with Armstrong Siddeley Sapphires before the Olympus were ready
  2. ^ Vulcan history
  3. ^ The roll is performed while gently climbing so that a positive g-force is maintained and stresses reduced.
  4. ^ The AEO was responsible for all electrical equipment in a role similar to that of flight engineer on earlier propellor aircraft
  5. ^ The leading edge was forward of the spar and changes were easily incorporated into the production
  6. ^ Laming 2002, p. 88.
  7. ^ Laming 2002, p. 89.
  8. ^ Falklands Vulcan
  9. ^ Falklands
  10. ^ Falklands
  11. ^ White 2006
  12. ^ Vulcan to the Sky Club
  13. ^ BBC News
  14. ^ TV News
  15. ^ "Vulcan XH558 Testing all 4 Engines"
  16. ^ "The Vulcan Bomber returns to the sky"
  17. ^ "First Takeoff Video"
  18. ^ National Archives: Ref no. AIR 20/12396
  19. ^ National Archives: Ref no. BT 233/403
  20. ^ V-Force XM645
  21. ^ Including crew
  22. ^ or 102 or 104, with higher thrust
  23. ^ 607 mph (1040 km/h) at altitude) |cruise speed main=0.86 Mach <ref>at 45,000 ft</li> <li id="_note-23">'''[[#_ref-23|^]]''' 105 ft 6 in with refuelling probe</li></ol></ref>

  • Arnold, Lorna. Britain and the H-Bomb. Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2001. ISBN 0-333-94742-8 (outside North America), ISBN 0-312-23518-6 (North America only).
  • Holmes, Harry. Avro: The History of an Aircraft Company. Wiltshire, UK: Crowood Press, 2004. ISBN 1-86126-651-0.
  • Jackson, A.J. Avro Aircraft since 1908, 2nd edition. London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1990. ISBN 0-85177-834-8.
  • Laming, Tim. The Vulcan Story 1952-2002, Second Edition. Enderby, Leicester, UK: Silverdale Books, 2002. ISBN 1-85605-701-1.
  • Vulcan B.Mk.2 Aircrew Manual (AP101B-1902-15).
  • White, Rowland. Vulcan 607. London: Bantam Press, 2006. ISBN 0-593-05391-5 (cased), ISBN 0-593-05392-3 (pb).
  • Wynn, Humphrey. RAF Strategic Nuclear Deterrent Forces: Origins, Roles and Deployment 1946 - 1969. London: The Stationery Office, 1994. ISBN 0-11-772778-4.

The Sapphire was a jet engine produced by Armstrong Siddeley in the 1950s. ...

Video of the Avro Vulcan

External links

Related content

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Comparable aircraft

Designation sequence

Related lists

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Avro Vulcan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1461 words)
The Avro Vulcan was a British delta-wing subsonic bomber, operated by the Royal Air Force from 1953 until 1984.
The Vulcan was part of the RAF's V bomber force, which fulfilled the role of nuclear deterrence against the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
Avro began scale prototype testing in 1948 with the single-seater Type 707, and despite the crash of the first prototype on 30 September 1949 work continued.
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The Avro 748 was a small short-range turboprop airliner designed by Avro in the late 1950s as a replacement for the now-aged DC-3's then in widespread service as feederliners.
Avro concentrated on performance, notably for STOL operations, and found a dedicated market and 380 aircraft were built.
Avro was not the only company to see the potential for a DC-3 replacement, and by this point the Fokker F27 Friendship was well advanced.
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