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Encyclopedia > Avro Shackleton
Avro Shackleton
Description
Role Maritime patrol aircraft and airborne early warning
Crew 10
First Flight Entered Service
Manufacturer
Dimensions
Length 87 ft 4 in 26.61 m
Wingspan 120 ft 36.58 m
Height 17 ft 6 in 5.33 m
Wing Area 1421 ft² 132 m²
Weights
Empty 51,400 lb 23,340 kg
Loaded lb kg
Maximum Takeoff 86,000 lb 39,040 kg
Capacity
Powerplant
Engines 4 x Rolls-Royce Griffon 57
Power 4 x 1,960 hp 4 x 1,460 kW
Performance
Maximum Speed 300 mph 480 km/h
Combat Range miles km
Ferry Range miles km
Service Ceiling 20,200 ft 6,200 m
Rate of Climb ft/min m/min
Wing Loading lb/ft² kg/m²
Power/Mass hp/lb kW/kg
Avionics
Avionics
Armament
Guns
Bombs 10,000 lb (4,540 kg) of bombs
Missiles
Rockets
Other

The Shackleton was a Royal Air Force long-range patrol bomber developed from the Avro Lincoln bomber with a new fuselage. It was originally used primarily in the anti-submarine warfare (ASW) and maritime patrol aircraft (MPA) roles, and was later adapted for airborne early warning (AEW), search and rescue (SAR) and other roles from 1951 until 1990. It also served in the South African Air Force from 1957 to 1984. The design is named after the polar explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton. Image File history File links 31_Shackleton_mail_drop_Aug1970. ... Rolls-Royce Griffon The Rolls-Royce Griffon was a 36. ... The Royal Air Force (often abbreviated to RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... A patrol bomber, or patrol aircraft, is an airplane designed to operate for long times over water in an anti-shipping or anti-submarine role. ... Image:Avrolincoln. ... Anti-submarine warfare is a term referring to warfare directed against submarines. ... An Airborne Early Warning (AEW) system is a radar system carried by an aircraft which is designed to detect other aircraft. ... Search and Rescue (acronym SAR) is an operation mounted by emergency services, often well-trained volunteers, to find someone believed to be in distress, lost, sick or injured either in a remote or difficult to access area, such as mountains, desert or forest (Wilderness search and rescue), or at sea... SAAF flag The South African Air Force (SAAF) is the Air Force of South Africa. ... Portrait of Ernest Henry Shackleton Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton CVO (February 15, 1874 – January 5, 1922) was an Anglo-Irish explorer, now chiefly remembered for his Antarctic expedition of 1914–1916 in the ship Endurance. ...

Contents


History

The aircraft was designed by Roy Chadwick as the Avro Type 696. It was clearly based on the successful wartime Avro Lancaster bomber, one of Chadwick's designs and the Lancaster derivative the Avro Lincoln, which was the then current ASW aircraft. The design took the Lincoln's wings and landing gear and mated them with a new fuselage. The engines were Rolls-Royce Griffons with 13 feet (4 m) contra-rotating propellors, creating a distinctive engine noise and adding high-tone deafness to the hazards of the pilots. The first test flight was in March 1949 and front-line aircraft were delivered to Coastal Command in April 1951 and had their operational debut during the Suez Crisis. In the ASW role, the Shackleton carried both types of sonobuoy, ESM, a diesel fume detection system and for a short time an unreliable magnetic anomaly detector (MAD) sytem. Weapons were nine bombs, or three torpedoes or depth-charges, and 20 mm cannon. Roy Chadwick (1893–August 23, 1947) was an aircraft designer for Avro. ... Avro 504K. Avro was a British aircraft manufacturer, well known for planes such as the Avro Lancaster which served in World War II. One of the worlds first aircraft builders, A.V.Roe and Company was established at Brownsfield Mills, Manchester, England by Alliot Verdon Roe and his brother... The Avro Lancaster was a four-engine World War II bomber aircraft made initially by Avro for the Royal Air Force (RAF). ... Image:Avrolincoln. ... Rolls-Royce Griffon The Rolls-Royce Griffon was a 36. ... Categories: Aircraft stubs ... A propeller can be seen as a rotating fin in water or a wing in air. ... Coastal Command was an organization within the Royal Air Force tasked with protecting the United Kingdom from naval threats. ... Combatants Israel, France, United Kingdom Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan (CoS of the IDF) General Sir Charles Keightley (C-in-C), Vice-Admiral Pierre Barjot (Deputy) Gamal Abdel Nasser Strength 45,000 British, 34,000 French, 175,000 Israeli 300,000 Egyptians Casualties 200 Israelis, 107 British, 43 French dead or... A sonobuoy (a portmanteau of sonar and buoy) is a relatively small expendable sonar system that is dropped from military aircraft conducting anti-submarine warfare. ... ESM is an acronym. ... Diesel or Diesel fuel is a specific fractional distillate of fuel oil (mostly petroleum) that is used as fuel in a diesel engine invented by German engineer Rudolf Diesel. ... A magnetic anomaly detector (MAD) is a piece of equipment that is used to detect minute variations in the Earths magnetic field. ... A torpedo in Rail terminology refers to a small explosive device strapped to the top of the rail to alert an approaching train of immediate danger ahead. ... Depth Charge is a character in the Beast Wars: Transformers universe. ...


The MR.2 was improved with feedback from operations and is considered by afficionados to be the definitive type. The radome was moved from the nose to a ventral position, to improve all-round coverage and minimise the risk of bird-strikes. Both the nose and tail sections were lengthened, the tail planes were redesigned and the weak undercarriage was strengthened. Radomes at the Cryptologic Operations Center, Misawa, Japan. ... In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ...


The MR.3 was another redesign in response to crew complaints. A new tricycle undercarriage was introduced, the fuselage was increased in all main dimensions and had new wings with better ailerons and tip tanks. As a sop to the crews on fifteen hour flights the sound deadening was improved and a proper galley and sleeping space were included. Total take-off weight had risen by over 30,000 lb (13,600 kg) (Ph. III) and assistance from Rolls-Royce Viper Mk.203 turbojets was needed on take-off (JATO). This extra strain told on the airframe and the flight life of the Mk. IIIs was sufficiently reduced that they were outlived by the Mk. IIs. A Cessna 152 with a tricycle landing gear Tricycle gear describes a kind of aircraft undercarriage, or landing gear, arranged in a tricycle fashion. ... A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ... The Viper was a turbojet engine developed and produced by Armstrong-Siddeley and then by its successor companies Bristol-Siddeley and Rolls-Royce. ... Turbojets are the simplest and oldest kind of general purpose jet engine. ... JATO is an acronym for Jet Assisted Take Off. ...


All marks suffered from using the Griffon engines - thirsty, noisy and temperamental. They were constantly on the cusp of being replaced, but even the potentially beneficial Napier Nomad re-engine didn't quite happen. The Nomad was a complex Diesel cycle aircraft engine from Napier & Son of the UK. The Nomad used a turbine to recover power from the exhaust of the otherwise conventional Diesel engine, resulting in a specific fuel consumption that remains unmatched today, 50 years later. ...


The need to replace the Shackleton was first raised in the early 1960s. The arrival of the Hawker-Siddeley Nimrod in 1969 was the end for the Shackleton in most roles but it continued as the main SAR aircraft until 1972. The intention to retire the aircraft was then thwarted by the need for AEW coverage in the North Sea and northern Atlantic following the retirement of the Fairey Gannet. With a new design not due until the late 1970s the existing AN/APS-20 radar was installed in Mk. IIs as an interim measure, the AEW.2, from 1972. The disastrous Nimrod AEW replacement program dragged on and on and the eventual successor to the Shackleton did not arrive until the RAF finally gave in and purchased the E-3 Sentry in 1991. The BAE Systems (formerly Hawker-Siddeley) Nimrod maritime patrol aircraft is derived from the De Havilland Comet, the worlds first jet airliner. ... The Fairey Gannet is a carrier-borne Anti-submarine warfare and Airborne Early Warning aircraft of the immediate post World War II-era developed for the Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm. ... The E-3 Sentry is an airborne warning and control system (AWACS) aircraft that provides all-weather surveillance, command, control and communications needed by commanders of U.S., NATO and other allied air defense forces. ...


A total of 185 Shackletons were built from 1951 to 1958: around twelve are still believed to be intact, with one still flying.


Variants

  • Shackleton GR.1 : The Shackleton GR.1 was the first production model for the RAF. It was later redesignated Shackleton MR.1.
  • Shackleton MR.1A : Fitted with four Griffon 57A inline piston engines, plus a chin mount radome. In service from April 1951.
  • Shackleton MR.2 : Longer nose. Radome moved to the ventral position.
  • Shackleton MR.2C
  • Shackleton MR.3 : Maritime reconnaissance, anti-shipping aircraft. The tail wheel was replaced by a tricycle undercarriage configuration. Fitted with wingtip tanks, plus two Viper turbojet engines for assisted take off. Eight exported to South Africa.
  • Shackleton MR.4 Unbuilt project, none built.
  • Shackleton AEW.2 : Airborne early warning aircraft. MR.2s converted to take ex-Fairey Gannet airborne early warning radar.
  • Shackleton T.4 : Converted for use as a navigation trainer.

The Fairey Gannet is a carrier-borne Anti-submarine warfare and Airborne Early Warning aircraft of the immediate post World War II-era developed for the Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm. ...

Specifications

  • Fuel Capacity: 19,357 litres (4,258 imperial gallons, internal)
  • Range: 3,619 km (1980 nautical miles)
  • Endurance: 14.6 hour

Imperial Measure was a former system of measurement used in some Commonwealth nations, most notably the United Kingdom and Canada. ... Image File history File links 31_Shackleton_mail_drop_Aug1970. ... Image File history File links 47_Shackleton_mail_drop_Beira_patrol_July1970. ... Image File history File links 25_Mail_drop_South_African_Air_Force_Shackleton_Atlantic_Aug1971. ... Image File history File links 49_Mail_drop_Beira_Strait_Sept1971. ...

External links

Commons
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Avro Shackleton

Aircraft.co.za - The Complete Aviation Reference Avro Shackleton Site David Gubbins Website with airframe histories Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...


See also

Related content
Related development Avro Lancaster
Similar aircraft
Designation series

685 - 688 - 689 - 691 - 693 - 694 - 696 The Avro Lancaster was a four-engine World War II bomber aircraft made initially by Avro for the Royal Air Force (RAF). ... The Avro York was a passenger and freight transport of the 1940s, in both military and civilian applications. ... The Avro 691 Lancastrian was a passenger and mail transport aircraft of the 1940s. ... Image:Avrolincoln. ...

Related lists

List of aircraft of the RAF Many aircraft types have served in the Royal Air Force since it was formed in 1918 by the merger of the Royal Flying Corps and Royal Naval Air Service. ...



Lists of Aircraft | Aircraft manufacturers | Aircraft engines | Aircraft engine manufacturers This list of aircraft is sorted alphabetically, beginning with the name of the manufacturer (or, in certain cases, designer). ... This is a list of aircraft manufacturers (in alphabetic order). ... List of aircraft engines: // Piston engines Allison V-1710 Alvis Leonides Armstrong-Siddeley Puma Armstrong-Siddeley Cheetah Armstrong-Siddeley Nimbus Bentley BR1 Rotary BMW 801 Bristol Aquila Bristol Centaurus Bristol Hercules Bristol Jupiter Bristol Pegasus Bristol Perseus Bristol Phoenix Bristol Taurus Bristol Titan Bristol Hydra Bristol Mercury Clerget rotary Continental... This is a list of aircraft engine manufacturers both past and present. ...


Airports | Airlines | Air forces | Aircraft weapons | Missiles | Timeline of aviation This is a list of airlines in operation. ... This is a list of Air Forces, sorted alphabetically by country. ... This is a list of aircraft weapons, past and present. ... Below is a list of (links to pages on) missiles, sorted alphabetically by name. ... This is a timeline of aviation history. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Avro Shackleton (1879 words)
The Shackleton was a Royal Air Force long-range patrol bomber developed from the Avro Lincoln bomber with a new fuselage.
It was clearly based on the successful wartime Avro Lancaster bomber, one of Chadwick's designs and the Lancaster derivative the Avro Lincoln, which was the then current ASW aircraft.
Avro was a British aircraft manufacturer, well known for planes such as the Avro Lancaster which served in World War II.
3D lwo Avro Shackleton AEW (184 words)
The Avro Shackleton was one of the best loved aircraft ever to fly with the Royal Air Force, serving all over the world for 40 years, and just about every country has an oil stained patch of tarmac which is forever England.
Two Shackletons are still flying, an MR3 in South Africa and a AEW2 operating from Midland, Texas in the USA.
On a personal note my father was associated with the Shackleton for most of his career with Hawker Siddely and British Aerospace, and as Chief Works superintendant at Bitteswell was largely responsible for re-booming the Shackleton AEW2 in the mid 1970's which kept the Shackleton flying until the 1990's.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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