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Encyclopedia > Avro Lancaster
Avro Lancaster

Royal Air Force Avro Lancaster B I PA474 of the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x1024, 243 KB) Description: Avro Lancaster B I PA474 (Battle of Britain Memorial Flight) Source: photo taken by Kogo Date: 9. ...

Type Heavy bomber
Manufacturer Avro
Designed by Roy Chadwick
Maiden flight 8 January 1941
Introduced 1942
Retired 1963 (Canada)
Primary users Royal Air Force
Royal Canadian Air Force
Number built 7,377
Unit cost £45-50,000 when introduced
≈£1.3-1.5 million in 2005 currency
Developed from Avro Manchester
Variants Avro Lancastrian
Avro Lincoln
Avro York

The Avro Lancaster was a British four-engine Second World War bomber aircraft made initially by Avro for the British Royal Air Force (RAF). It first saw active service in 1942, and together with the Handley-Page Halifax it was one of the main heavy bombers of the RAF, the RCAF and squadrons from other Commonwealth and European countries serving within RAF Bomber Command. The "Lanc" or "Lankie," as it became affectionately known,[1] became the most famous and most successful of the Second World War night bombers, "delivering 608,612 tons of bombs in 156,000 sorties."[2] Although the Lancaster was primarily a night bomber, it excelled in many other roles including daylight precision bombing, and gained worldwide renown as the "Dam Buster" used in the 1943 Operation Chastise raids on Germany's Ruhr Valley dams. The B-52 Stratofortress, a heavy bomber. ... An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing, building, testing, selling, and maintaining aircraft, aircraft parts, missiles, rockets, and/or spacecraft. ... Avro 504K. Avro was a British aircraft manufacturer, well known for planes such as the Avro Lancaster which served in World War II. One of the worlds first aircraft builders, A.V.Roe and Company was established at Brownsfield Mills, Manchester, England by Alliot Verdon Roe and his brother... Roy Chadwick (1893–August 23, 1947) was an aircraft designer for Avro. ... The Maiden flight of an aircraft is the first occasion on which an aircraft leaves the ground of its own accord. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1941: Events Jacqueline Cochran became the first woman to fly a bomber across the Atlantic Ocean. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1942: Events January January 30 - Canadian Pacific Air Lines formed by the acquisition and merger of Arrow Airways and Canadian Airways, along with all the various subsidiaries of the latter. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1963: Events January January 7 - Aeroflot commences direct services between Moscow and Havana February February 14 - the Indian Air Force receives its first batch of Soviet fighters, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21s March March 18 - the Dassault Balzac makes its first transitions... RAF redirects here. ... “RCAF” redirects here. ... GBP may be: short for Game Boy Player the ISO currency code for the British Pound Sterling. ... The Avro 679 Manchester was a twin-engined heavy bomber developed during World War II by the Avro aircraft company in the United Kingdom. ... The Avro 691 Lancastrian was a passenger and mail transport aircraft of the 1940s. ... A line up of Avro Lincoln B.IIs (B.2) The Avro 694 Lincoln was a British 4-engined heavy bomber of World War II, first flying on June 9, 1944 and entering service in August 1945, too late to be used in action. ... The Avro York was a passenger and freight transport of the 1940s, in both military and civilian applications. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A bomber is a military aircraft designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping bombs. ... Avro 504K. Avro was a British aircraft manufacturer, well known for planes such as the Avro Lancaster which served in World War II. One of the worlds first aircraft builders, A.V.Roe and Company was established at Brownsfield Mills, Manchester, England by Alliot Verdon Roe and his brother... RAF redirects here. ... Wingspan Height 20 ft 9 in 6. ... “RCAF” redirects here. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Bomber Command badge RAF Bomber Command was the organisation that controlled the RAFs bomber forces. ... Combatants No. ... Ruhr Area within Germany Map of the Ruhr Area The Ruhr Area, also called simply Ruhr, (German Ruhrgebiet, colloquial Ruhrpott or Kohlenpott) is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, consisting of a number of large formerly industrial cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to...

Contents

Design and development

Profile of the forward section of a Lancaster, showing the FN5 turret, bomb aimer's perspex blister and the Merlin engines
Profile of the forward section of a Lancaster, showing the FN5 turret, bomb aimer's perspex blister and the Merlin engines
Tail-end Charlie's FN20 turret on a Canadian Lancaster
Tail-end Charlie's FN20 turret on a Canadian Lancaster
Diagram comparing the Lancaster with its contemporaries; the Short Stirling and the Handley Page Halifax.
Diagram comparing the Lancaster with its contemporaries; the Short Stirling and the Handley Page Halifax.

The origins of the Lancaster lie in a twin-engined bomber design submitted to meet Specification P.13/36, which was for a new generation of twin-engined medium bombers for "world-wide use", the engine specified as the Rolls-Royce Vulture. The resulting aircraft was the Avro Manchester, which, although a capable aircraft, was troubled by the unreliability of the Vulture. Only 200 Manchesters were built and they were withdrawn from service in 1942. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 1143 KB) Other versions Originally from en. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 1143 KB) Other versions Originally from en. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 795 KB) Other versions Originally from en. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 795 KB) Other versions Originally from en. ... A tail gunner is a crewman on a military aircraft who functions as a gunner defending against attacks from the rear, or tail, of the plane. ... The Stirling was a World War II heavy bomber design built by Short Brothers. ... The Handley Page Halifax was one of the British front-line, four-engine heavy bombers of the Royal Air Force during the Second World War. ... This is a partial list of the British Air Ministry specifications for aircraft. ... The Rolls-Royce Vulture (and the related Peregrine) were aircraft engines, and probably the least successful power units ever produced by Rolls-Royce. ... The Avro 679 Manchester was a twin-engined heavy bomber developed during World War II by the Avro aircraft company in the United Kingdom. ...


Avro's chief designer, Roy Chadwick, was already working on an improved Manchester design using four of the more reliable but less powerful Rolls-Royce Merlin engines on a larger wing. The aircraft was initially designated Avro Type 683 Manchester III, and later re-named the Lancaster. The prototype aircraft BT308 was assembled by Avro's experimental flight department at Manchester's Ringway Airport from where test pilot H.A. "Bill" Thorn took the controls for its first flight on Thursday, 9 January 1941. The aircraft proved to be a great improvement on its predecessor, being "one of the few warplanes in history to be 'right' from the start."[3] Its initial three-finned tail layout, a result of the design being adapted from the Manchester I, was quickly changed on the second prototype DG595 and subsequent production aircraft to the familiar twin-finned specification also used on the later Manchesters (below). Avro 504K. Avro was a British aircraft manufacturer, well known for planes such as the Avro Lancaster which served in World War II. One of the worlds first aircraft builders, A.V.Roe and Company was established at Brownsfield Mills, Manchester, England by Alliot Verdon Roe and his brother... Roy Chadwick (1893–August 23, 1947) was an aircraft designer for Avro. ... The Rolls-Royce Merlin engines were a series of 12 cylinder, 60° V, 27 litre, liquid cooled piston aircraft engines built during World War II by Rolls-Royce, at Ford in Manchester[1] and under licence in the United States by Packard. ... For other uses, see Lancaster. ... A serial number is a unique number that is one of a series assigned for identification which varies from its successor or predecessor by a fixed discrete integer value. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... Manchester International Airport (IATA: MAN, ICAO: EGCC) is an airport in Manchester, England, formerly known as Ringway Airport. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


Some of the later orders for Manchesters were changed in favour of Lancasters; the designs were very similar and both featured the same distinctive greenhouse cockpit, turret nose and twin tail. The Lancaster discarded the stubby central third tail fin of the early Manchesters and used the wider span tailplane and larger elliptical twin fins from the later Manchester IA. A twin tail is a specific type of vertical stabilizer arrangement found on some aircraft. ...


The Lancaster is a mid-wing cantilever monoplane with an oval all-metal fuselage. The wing was constructed in five main sections, the fuselage in five sections. All wing and fuselage sections were built separately and fitted with all the required equipment before final assembly. The tail unit had twin oval fins and rudders. The Lancaster was initially powered by four wing-mounted Rolls-Royce Merlin piston engines with three-bladed airscrews. It had retractable main landing gear and fixed tail-wheel, with the hydraulically operated main landing gear raised into the inner engine nacelles.[4] The Rolls-Royce Merlin engines were a series of 12 cylinder, 60° V, 27 litre, liquid cooled piston aircraft engines built during World War II by Rolls-Royce, at Ford in Manchester[1] and under licence in the United States by Packard. ...


The majority of Lancasters built during the war years were manufactured by Avro at their factory at Chadderton near Manchester and test flown from Woodford Aerodrome in Cheshire. Other Lancasters were built by Metropolitan-Vickers (1080, also tested at Woodford) and Armstrong Whitworth. The aircraft was also produced at the Austin Motor Company works in Longbridge, Birmingham later in the Second World War and postwar by Vickers-Armstrongs at Chester. Only 300 of the Lancaster B II fitted with Bristol Hercules engines were constructed; this was a stopgap modification caused by a shortage of Merlin engines as fighter production was of higher priority. Many BII's were lost after running out of fuel.[citation needed] The Lancaster B III had Packard Merlin engines but was otherwise identical to contemporary B Is, with 3,030 B IIIs built, almost all at A.V. Roe's Newton Heath factory. The B I and B III were built concurrently, and minor modifications were made to both marks as new batches were ordered. Examples of these modifications were the relocation of the pitot head from the nose to the side of the cockpit, and the change from de Havilland "needle blade" propellers to Hamilton Standard or Nash Kelvinator made "paddle blade" propellers.[5] Avro 504K. Avro was a British aircraft manufacturer, well known for planes such as the Avro Lancaster which served in World War II. One of the worlds first aircraft builders, A.V.Roe and Company was established at Brownsfield Mills, Manchester, England by Alliot Verdon Roe and his brother... Statistics Population: 33,001 (2001 Census) Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: SD9005 Administration Metropolitan Borough: Oldham Metropolitan county: Greater Manchester Region: North West England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Greater Manchester Historic county: Lancashire Services Police force: Greater Manchester Police Fire and rescue: {{{Fire}}} Ambulance... Woodford Aerodrome (IATA: N/A, ICAO: EGCD) is located at Woodford in the Metropolitan Borough of Stockport, Greater Manchester. ... For other uses, see Cheshire (disambiguation). ... Metropolitan-Vickers, or Metrovick, was a British heavy industrial firm of the early-to-mid 20th century formerly known as British Westinghouse. ... Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd was a major British manufacturing company of the early years of the 20th century. ... The Austin Motor Company was a British manufacturer of automobiles that rose to be a major motorcar brand, the dominant partner after merger with Morris in 1952 but declining after absorption into the British Leyland Motor Corporation, and its subsequent troubles. ... The Longbridge Plant from the Air, 2005. ... This article is about the British city. ... Vickers-Armstrongs, Limited was a British engineering conglomerate formed by the merger of the assets of Vickers Limited and Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth & Company in 1927. ... For the larger local government district, see Chester (district). ... Bristol Hercules engine The Hercules was a 14_cylinder two_row radial aircraft engine produced by the Bristol Engine Company starting in 1939. ... For people named Packard, see Packard (surname). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Pitot tube is a measuring instrument used to measure fluid flow. ... For other uses, see De Havilland (disambiguation). ... Hamilton Standard, a famous aircraft propeller part supplier, was founded in 1910 by Thomas F. Hamilton. ... Kelvinator Appliance ad from 1951 Nash-Kelvinator Corporation was the result of a merger between Nash Motors and Kelvinator Appliance Company. ...


Of later variants, only the Canadian-built Lancaster B X manufactured by Victory Aircraft in Malton, Ontario was produced in significant numbers. A total of 430 of this type were built, earlier examples differing little from their British-built predecessors, except for using Packard-built Merlin engines and American-style instrumentation and electrics. Late-series models replaced the Frazer Nash mid-upper turret with a differently configured Martin turret, mounted slightly further forward for weight balance. A total of 7,377 Lancasters of all marks were built throughout the duration of the war, each at a 1943 cost of £45-50,000 (approximately equivalent to £1.3-1.5 million in 2005 currency).[6] The Victory Aircraft Limited was formed in 1942 when the Canadian government took over ownership and management of main plant of the National Steel Car Corporation of Montreal at Malton, Ontario (near todays Toronto Pearson International Airport). ... Malton is one of the neighbourhoods within the city of Mississauga, Ontario, Canada, located to the northwest of Toronto. ... For people named Packard, see Packard (surname). ... Nash & Thomson was a British engineering firm that specialised in the production of hydraulically-operated gun turrets for aircraft. ... GBP may be: short for Game Boy Player the ISO currency code for the British Pound Sterling. ...


The test pilot Alex Henshaw is the only known pilot to have barrel rolled a Lancaster bomber, a feat considered almost impossible because of the slow speed of the aircraft.[7] Alexander Adolphus Dumfries Henshaw MBE (7 November 1912 - 24 February 2007) was a British air racer in the 1930s and a test pilot for Vickers Armstrong in the Second World War. ... This article is about the aerial sport. ...


Crew accommodation

In a standard Lancaster as used in the war, the crew were accommodated as follows: starting at the nose, the bomb aimer had two positions to man. His primary location was lying prone on the floor of the nose of the aircraft, where he had access to the controls for the bombsight head in front, with the bombsight computer on his left and bomb release selectors on the right. He would also use his view out of the large transparent perspex nose cupola to assist the navigator with map reading. To man the Frazer Nash FN5 nose turret, he simply had to stand up and he would be in position behind the triggers of his twin Browning .303 guns. The bomb aimer's position contained the nose parachute exit in the floor. The crews of bomber aircraft, historically, included a bombardier, as they were known in the United States, or a bomb aimer, as they were known in other countries, who was responsible for targetting the planes munitions. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: WP is not a dictionary If you can address this concern by improving, copyediting, sourcing, renaming or merging the page, please edit this page and do so. ... A page from the Bombardiers Information File (BIF) that describes the components and controls of the Norden bombsight. ...


Moving backwards, on the roof of the bomb bay the pilot and flight engineer sat side-by-side under the expansive canopy, with the pilot sitting on the left on a raised portion of the floor. The flight engineer sat on a collapsible seat (known as a 'second dicky seat') to the pilot's right, with the fuel selectors and gauges on a panel behind him and to his right. In aviation, a flight engineer (also referred to as systems operator ) is a member of the aircrew of an aircraft who is responsible for checking the aircraft before and after each flight, and for monitoring aircraft systems during flight. ... A dicky seat (dickie seat or dickey seat) is the name given to the third seat in the rear of an early two-seater automobile. ...


Behind these crew members, and behind a curtain fitted to allow him to use light to work, sat the navigator. His position had him facing to port with a large chart table in front of him. An instrument panel showing the airspeed, altitude and other details required for navigation was mounted on the side of the fuselage above the chart table. The title Flight Officer can refer to a functional (occupational) job title as an aircrew member or it can refer to a military rank previously used by the U.S. and the U.K. A flight officer in some terminology is the person onboard an aircraft responsible for its navigation. ...


The radios for the wireless operator were mounted on the left-hand end of the chart table, facing towards the rear of the aircraft. Behind these radios, facing forwards, on a seat at the front of the main spar sat the wireless operator. To his left was a window, and above him was the astrodome, used for visual signalling and also by the navigator for celestial navigation. For the episode of The West Wing, see Celestial Navigation (The West Wing). ...


Behind the wireless operator were the two spars for the wing, which created a major obstacle for crew members moving down the fuselage even on the ground. On reaching the end of the bomb bay the floor dropped down to the bottom of the fuselage, and the mid upper gunner's Frazer Nash FN50 or FN150 turret was reached. His position allowed a 360° view over the top of the aircraft, with two Browning .303 guns to protect the aircraft from above and to the side. In an aircraft, the spar is the main structural member of the wing, running lengthways across the span of the wing, at right angles (or thereabouts) to the fuselage. ...


To the rear of the turret was the side crew door, on the starboard side of the fuselage. This was the main entrance to the aircraft, and also could be used as a parachute exit. At the extreme rear of the aircraft, over the spars for the tailplane, the rear gunner sat in his exposed position in the FN20, FN120 or Rose Rice turret. In the FN20 and FN120 turrets he had four Browning .303 guns, and in the Rose Rice turret he had two .50 Brownings. Neither of the mid upper or rear gunner's positions were heated, and the gunners had to wear electrically heated suits to prevent hypothermia and frostbite. Many rear gunners insisted on having nearly all perspex removed from the turret to give a completely unobstructed view. Hypothermia is a condition in which an organisms temperature drops below that Required fOr normal metabolism and Bodily functionS. In warm-blooded animals, core [[body Temperature]] is maintained nEar a constant leVel through biologic [[homEostasis]]. But wheN the body iS exposed to cold Its internal mechanismS may be unable... This article is about a medical condition. ...


Armament

Defensive

While eight .303 in machine guns were the most common Lancaster armament, twin .50 turrets were later available in both the tail and dorsal positions. A Preston-Green mount was available for a .50 cal mounted in a ventral blister, but this was mostly used in RCAF service. This blister was later the location for the H2S radar. A Nash & Thomson FN-64 periscope-sighted twin .303 ventral turret was also available but rarely fitted as it was hard to sight. (Similar problems afflicted the ventral turret in the North American B-25C and other bombers). Some unofficial mounts for .50 cal or even 20 mm guns were made, firing through ventral holes of various designs. An early H2S picture of the Pembroke and Milford Haven area The H2S radar was used in bombers of RAF Bomber Command. ... Nash & Thomson was a British engineering firm that specialised in the production of hydraulically-operated gun turrets for aircraft. ... The North American B-25 Mitchell (NA-62) was an American twin-engined medium bomber manufactured by North American Aviation. ...


Bombs

An important feature of the Lancaster was its extensive bomb bay, at 33 feet (10.05 m) long. Initially the heaviest bombs carried were 4,000 lb (1,818 kg) "Cookies". Bulged doors were added to allow the aircraft to carry 8,000lb and later 12,000lb "Cookies". Towards the end of the war, attacking special and hardened targets, the B I Specials could carry the 21 foot (6.4 m) long 12,000 lb (5,448 kg) "Tallboy" or 25.5 foot (7.77 m) long 22,000 lb (9,979 kg) "Grand Slam" "earthquake" bombs: the Lancaster was able to deliver the heaviest bombs made. To carry the "Grand Slam" extensive modifications to the aircraft were required which led to them being redesignated as B I (Specials). The modifications included removal of the mid-upper turret, two guns from the rear turret, removal of all of the cockpit armour plating and installation of Rolls-Royce Merlin Mk 24 Engines which had better take-off performance. The bomb-bay doors were removed and the rear end of the bomb bay cut away to clear the tail of the bomb. Later the nose turret was also removed to further improve performance.[8] For other uses, see Bomb (disambiguation). ... A Lancaster drops bundles of incendiary bombs (left), incendiary bombs and a “cookie” (right) on Duisburg on 15 October 1944 Blockbuster or Cookie was the name given to several of the largest conventional bombs used in World War II by the Royal Air Force (RAF). ... The Tallboy was an Earth quake bomb developed by Barnes Wallis and brought into operation by the British in 1944. ... A British 22,000 lb (10,000 kg) Grand Slam bomb The Grand Slam (Earth Quake bomb), was a very large freefall bomb developed by the British aeronautical engineer Barnes Wallis (who also made the bouncing bomb) in late 1944. ...


Bombsights used on Lancasters included:[9]

Mark IX Course-Setting Bombsight (CSBS).
This was an early preset vector bombsight that involved squinting through wires that had to be manually set based on aircraft speed, altitude and bombload. This sight lacked tactical flexibility as it had to be manually adjusted if any of the parameters changed and was soon phased out in favour of the bombsights below.
Mark XIV bombsight
A vector bombsight where the bomb aimer input various details of the bombload, target altitude and wind direction, and the analogue computer then continuously calculated the trajectory of the bombs and projected an inverted sword shape onto a sighting glass on the sighting head. Assuming the sight was set correctly, when the target was in the cross hairs of the sword shape, the bomb aimer would be able to accurately release the bombs.
T1 bombsight
A Mark XIV bombsight modified for mass production and produced in the USA. Some of the pneumatic gyro drives on the Mk XIV sight were replaced with electronic gyros and other minor modifications were made.
Stabilizing Automatic Bombsight
Also known as "SABS", this was an advanced bombsight mainly used by 617 Squadron for precision raids. Like the American Norden bombsight it was a tachometric sight.

The Norden bombsight A page from the Bombardiers Information File (BIF) that describes the components and controls of the Norden Bombsight. ...

Radio, radar and countermeasures equipment

The Lancaster had a very advanced communications system for its time. Most British-built Lancasters were fitted with the R1155 receiver and T1154 transmitter, whereas the Canadian built aircraft and those built for service in the Far East had American radios. These provided radio direction-finding, as well as voice and Morse capabilities. 1922 Chart of the Morse Code Letters and Numerals Morse code is a method for transmitting telegraphic information, using standardized sequences of short and long elements to represent the letters, numerals, punctuation and special characters of a message. ...

H2S
Ground looking navigation radar system - eventually, it could be homed in on by the German night fighters' NAXOS receiver and had to be used with discretion.
Fishpond
An add-on to H2S that provided additional (aerial) coverage of the underside of the aircraft to display attacking fighters on the main H2S screen.
Monica
A rearward-looking radar to warn of night fighter approaches. However, it could not distinguish between attacking enemy fighters and nearby friendly bombers and served as a homing beacon for suitably equipped German night fighters. Once this was realised, it was removed altogether.
GEE
A receiver for a navigation system of synchronized pulses transmitted from the UK - aircraft calculated their position from the time delay between pulses. The range of GEE was 3-400 miles.
Boozer
A system of lights mounted on the aircraft's instrument panel that lit up when the aircraft was being tracked by Würzburg ground radar and Lichtenstein airborne radar. In practice it was found to be more disconcerting than useful, as the lights were often triggered by false alerts in the radar signal-infested skies over Germany.
Oboe
A very accurate navigation system consisting of a receiver/transponder for two radar stations transmitting from widely separated locations in southern England which together determined the range and the bearing on the range. The system could only handle one aircraft at a time, and was fitted to a Pathfinder aircraft, usually a fast and manoeuvrable Mosquito rather than a heavy Lancaster, which marked the target for the main force.
GEE-H
Similar to Oboe but with the transponder on the ground allowing more aircraft to use the system simultaneously. GEE-H aircraft were usually marked with two horizontal yellow stripes on the fins.
Village Inn
A radar-aimed gun turret fitted to some Lancasters in 1944.

An early H2S picture of the Pembroke and Milford Haven area The H2S radar was used in bombers of RAF Bomber Command. ... Naxos radar detector was a World War II German counter measure to centimetric radar produced by a cavity magnetron. ... Fishponds (see water garden) Fishpond is also a term for harmless & humorous taunt, typically a one-liner, which is given to any individual during a group game. ... Monica was a range-only tail warning radar for bombers, introduced by the RAF in June 1943. ... A night fighter is a fighter aircraft adapted for use at night, or in other times of bad visibility. ... ×GEE or AMES Type 7000 was a British radio navigation system used by the Royal Air Force during World War II. GEE was designed to improve aircraft navigation accuracy, thereby increasing the destructiveness of raids by Avro Lancasters and various other bombers. ... The Würzburg radar was the primary ground-based gun laying radar for both the Luftwaffe and Wehrmacht during World War II. Initial development took place before the war, entering service in 1940. ... Lichtenstein radar was a German airborn radar in use during World War II. Early Lichtenstein BC units were not deployed until 1942, and as they operated on the 2 m wavelength they required large antennas. ... The navigators Oboe CRT display Oboe (Observer Bombing Over Enemy) was a British aerial blind bombing targeting system in World War II, based on radio transponder technology. ... The Pathfinder squadrons of the Royal Air Force were elite squadrons of RAF Bomber Command during World War II. At the start of the war Bomber command made many daylight raids but the losses incurred due to lack of escorting fighters when operating over Europe led them to switch the... The de Havilland Mosquito[1] was a British combat aircraft that excelled in a number of roles during the Second World War. ... G-H was a radio navigation system developed by Britain during World War II to aid RAF Bomber Command. ... The AGLT Village Inn FN150 tail turret as fitted on a Lancaster. ...

Operational history

Avro Lancaster B I
Avro Lancaster B I
Avro Lancaster over Hamburg
Avro Lancaster over Hamburg
Avro Lancasters of No. 50 Squadron (No. 5 Group), based at Skellingthorpe, Lincolnshire, UK
Avro Lancasters of No. 50 Squadron (No. 5 Group), based at Skellingthorpe, Lincolnshire, UK

The first RAF squadron to convert to the Lancaster was No. 44 Squadron RAF in early 1942. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 177 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Avro Lancaster Mk 1 Expired Crown Copyright Image by Royal Air Force via the website/www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 177 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Avro Lancaster Mk 1 Expired Crown Copyright Image by Royal Air Force via the website/www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x742, 276 KB)Lancaster over Hamburg. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x742, 276 KB)Lancaster over Hamburg. ... Image File history File links Avro_Lancasters_flying_in_loose_formation. ... Image File history File links Avro_Lancasters_flying_in_loose_formation. ... No. ...


Lancasters flew 156,000 sorties and dropped 608,612 tons of bombs between 1942 and 1945. Just 35 Lancasters completed more than 100 successful operations each, and 3,249 were lost in action. The most successful survivor completed 139 operations, and was scrapped in 1947. For other uses, see Bomb (disambiguation). ...


A famous Lancaster bombing raid was the 1943 mission, codenamed Operation Chastise, to destroy the dams of the Ruhr Valley. The mission was carried out by 617 Squadron in modified Mk IIIs carrying special drum shaped bouncing bombs designed by Barnes Wallis. The story of the mission was later made into a film, The Dam Busters. Also famous was a series of Lancaster attacks using Tallboy bombs against the German battleship Tirpitz, which first disabled and later sank the ship. Combatants No. ... Ruhr Area within Germany Map of the Ruhr Area The Ruhr Area, also called simply Ruhr, (German Ruhrgebiet, colloquial Ruhrpott or Kohlenpott) is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, consisting of a number of large formerly industrial cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to... For the video game see The Dam Busters (video game) No. ... The bouncing bomb was a kind of bomb designed by Barnes Wallis of Vickers-Armstrong at Brooklands, Surrey. ... Sir Barnes Neville Wallis, Kt, CBE, FRS, RDI, FRAeS (September 26, 1887 â€“ October 30, 1979), commonly known as Barnes Wallis, was an English scientist, engineer and inventor. ... The Dam Busters is a 1954 British war film, set during World War II, and documenting the true story of the RAFs 617 Squadron, the development of the bouncing bomb, and Operation Chastise - the attack on the Ruhr dams in Germany. ... Tirpitz was the second Bismarck class battleship of the German Kriegsmarine, sistership of Bismarck. ...


Lancasters from Bomber Command were to have formed the main strength of Tiger Force, the Commonwealth bomber contingent scheduled to take part in Operation Downfall, the codename for the planned invasion of Japan in late 1945, from bases on Okinawa. Tiger Force was the name given to a World War II British Commonwealth long range heavy bomber force, formed in 1945, from squadrons serving with RAF Bomber Command in Europe, for proposed use against targets in Japan. ... Operation Downfall was the overall Allied plan for the invasion of Japan near the end of World War II. The operation was cancelled when Japan surrendered following the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the Soviet Unions declaration of war against Japan. ... This article is about the prefecture. ...


RAF Lancasters dropped food into the Holland region of the occupied Netherlands, with the acquiescence of the occupying German forces, to feed people who were in danger of starvation. Named after the food Manna which miraculously appeared for the Israelites in the book of Exodus, the aircraft involved were from 1, 3 and 8 Groups, and consisted of 145 Mosquitoes and 3,156 Lancasters, flying between them a total of 3,298 sorties. The first of the two RAF Lancasters chosen for the test flight was nicknamed "Bad Penny" from the old expression: "a bad penny always turns up." This bomber, with a crew of seven men (five Canadians including pilot Robert Upcott of Windsor, Ontario), took off in bad weather on the morning of 29 April 1945 without a ceasefire agreement from the German forces, and successfully dropped her cargo. Not to be confused with the rune Mannaz. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... The de Havilland Mosquito[1] was a British combat aircraft that excelled in a number of roles during the Second World War. ... Sortie is a term for deployment of one military aircraft or a ship for the purposes of a specific mission, whether alone, or with other aircraft or vessels. ... Operation Manna took place from 29 April to 8 May 1945, at the end of World War II. Lancaster bombers of the Royal Air Force dropped food into parts of the occupied Netherlands, with the acquiescence of the occupying German forces, to feed people who were in danger of starvation... -1... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


A development of the Lancaster was the Avro Lincoln bomber, initially known as the Lancaster IV and Lancaster V. These two marks became the Lincoln B1 and B2 respectively. There was also a civilian airliner based on the Lancaster, the Lancastrian. Other developments were the York, a square-bodied transport and, via the Lincoln, the Shackleton which continued in airborne early warning service up to 1992. A line up of Avro Lincoln B.IIs (B.2) The Avro 694 Lincoln was a British 4-engined heavy bomber of World War II, first flying on June 9, 1944 and entering service in August 1945, too late to be used in action. ... The Avro 691 Lancastrian was a passenger and mail transport aircraft of the 1940s. ... The Avro York was a passenger and freight transport of the 1940s, in both military and civilian applications. ... The Shackleton was a Royal Air Force long-range patrol bomber developed from the Avro Lincoln bomber with a new fuselage. ...


In 1946, four Lancasters were converted by Avro at Bracebridge Heath, Lincolnshire as freighters for use by British South American Airways, but proved to be uneconomical and were withdrawn after a year in service. Bracebridge Heath is a commuter village approximately 4 km (2. ... For other places with the same name, see Lincolnshire (disambiguation). ... British South American Airways (BSAA) was a British state-run airline of the 1940s. ...


Four Lancaster IIIs were converted by Flight Refuelling Limited as two pairs of tanker and receiver aircraft for development of in-flight refuelling. In 1947, one aircraft was flown non-stop 3,355 miles from London to Bermuda. Later the two tanker aircraft were joined by another converted Lancaster and were used in the Berlin Airlift, achieving 757 tanker sorties. Cobham plc is a British manufacturing company based in Wimborne. ... Boom and receptacle: USAF KC-135R Stratotanker, two F-15s (twin fins) and two F-16s, on an aerial refueling training mission IAF Il-76 MD refueling two Mirage 2000 fighter jets German Luftwaffe Airbus A310 MRTT ready for refueling, shown at the Paris Air Show 2007 Aerial refueling, also... The Soviet Union blocked Western rail and road access to West Berlin from June 24, 1948 - May 11, 1949. ...


During its Argentinian service, Lancasters were used in several military coups. Argentine redirects here. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ...


Variants

Lancaster B I NG128 dropping its load over Duisburg on 14 October 1944. The aircraft is carrying Airborne Cigar (ABC) radio jamming equipment, as shown by the two vertical aerials on the fuselage.
Lancaster B I NG128 dropping its load over Duisburg on 14 October 1944. The aircraft is carrying Airborne Cigar (ABC) radio jamming equipment, as shown by the two vertical aerials on the fuselage.
Avro Lancaster B II
Avro Lancaster B II
B I
The original Lancasters were produced with Rolls-Royce Merlin XX engines and SU carburettors. Minor details were changed throughout the production series - for example the pitot head design was changed from being on a long mast at the front of the nose to a short fairing mounted on the side of the fuselage under the cockpit. Later production Lancasters had Merlin 22 and 24 engines. No designation change was made to denote these alterations.[10]
B I Special
Adapted to take first the super-heavy "Tallboy" and then "Grand Slam" bombs. Upgraded engines with paddle-bladed propellers gave more power, and the removal of gun turrets reduced weight and gave smoother lines. For the Tallboy, the bomb bay doors were bulged; for the Grand Slam, they were removed completely and the area faired over. For some Tallboy raids the mid upper turret was removed. This modification was retained for the Grand Slam aircraft, and in addition the nose turret was later removed. Two airframes (HK541 and SW244) were modified to carry a dorsal "saddle tank" with 1,200 gallons mounted aft of a modified canopy for increasing range. No. 1577 SD Flight tested the aircraft in India and Australia in 1945 for possible use in the Pacific,[11] but the tank adversely affected handling characteristics when full and flight refuelling was later used instead.
PR 1
B 1 modified for photographic reconnaissance, operated by RAF No. 82 and No. 541 Squadrons, wartime. All armament and turrets were removed with a reconfigured nose and a camera carried in the bomb bay. The type was also operated by 683 Squadron from circa 1950 for photographic reconnaissance based at Aden and subsequently Habbaniya in Iraq until disbanded 30 November 1953.
B I (FE)
In anticipation of the needs of the Tiger Force operations against the Japanese in the Far East (FE), a tropicalized variant was based on late production aircraft. The B I (FE) had modified radio, radar, navaids and a 400 gallon tank installed in the bomb bay. The mid-upper turret was also removed.
B II
Bristol Hercules (Hercules VI or XVI engines) powered variant, of which 300 were produced by Armstrong Whitworth. One difference between the two engine versions was that the VI had manual mixture control, requiring an extra lever on the throttle pedestal. These aircraft were almost always fitted with an FN.64 ventral turret and pronounced step in the bulged bomb bay.
B III
These aircraft were fitted with Packard-built Merlin engines and produced at the same time as the B I, the two marks being indistinguishable externally. The minor differences between the two variants were related to the engine installation, and included the addition of slow-running cut-off switches in the cockpit, a requirement due to the Bendix Stromberg pressure-injection carburettors fitted to the Packard Merlin engines.
B III (Special)
Known at the time of modification as the "Type 464 Provisioning"[12] Lancaster, this variant was built to carry the "Upkeep" bouncing bomb for the dam busting raids. The bomb bay doors were removed and Vickers-built struts to carry the bomb were fitted in their place. A hydraulic motor, driven by the pump previously used for the mid upper turret was fitted to spin the bomb. Lamps were fitted in the bomb bay and nose for the simple height measurement system which enabled the accurate control of low-flying altitude at night. The mid-upper turret was removed to save weight, and the gunner moved to the front turret to relieve the bomb aimer from having to man the front guns so that he could assist with map reading.
ASR III/ASR 3
B III modified for air-sea rescue, with three dipole ventral antennas fitted aft of the radome and carrying a lifeboat in the re-configured bomb bay. The armament was often removed and the mid-upper turret faired-over, especially in postwar use. Observation windows were added to both sides of the rear fuselage, a port window just forward of the tailplane, and a starboard window into the rear access door. A number of ASR 3 conversions were fitted with Lincoln-style rudders.[13]
GR 3/MR 3
B III modified for maritime reconnaissance.
B IV
The B IV featured an increased wingspan and lengthened fuselage and new Boulton Paul F turret (two X 0.5in) with re-configured framed "bay window" nose glazing. The prototypes (PW925, PW929 and PW932) were powered by two-stage Merlin 85s inboard and later, Merlin 68s on the outboard mounts. The prototypes became the basis of the renamed Lincoln B 1.
B V
Increased wingspan and lengthened fuselage, two-stage Merlin 85s. Later renamed Lincoln B 2
B VI
Nine aircraft converted from B IIIs. Fitted with Merlin 85s which had two-stage superchargers, giving improved high altitude performance. These aircraft were only used by Pathfinder units, often as "Master Bomber". The dorsal and nose turrets were often removed and faired-over.
B VII
The B VII was the final production version of the Lancaster. The Martin 250CE mid-upper turret was re-positioned slightly further forward than on previous Marks, and the Nash & Thomson FN-82 tail turret with twin Browning 0.5 in machine guns replaced the FN.20 turret with four 0.303 Browning machine guns.
B X
The B X was a Canadian-built B III with Canadian- and US-made instrumentation and electrics. On later batches the heavier Martin 250CE was substituted for the Nash & Thomson FN-50 mid-upper turret, mounted further forward to maintain centre of gravity balance. Canada was a long term operator of the Lancaster, utilising modified aircraft in postwar maritime patrol, search and rescue and photo-reconnaissance roles until 1964.The last RCAF flight of the Avro Lancaster was flown on June 4, 1964 at the Calgary International Air Show. The aircraft captain was F/L Lynn Garrison with F/L Ralph Langemann as co-pilot

ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (894x414, 210 KB) The ABC Lancaster I NG128 coded B-SR of 101 Sqn out of Ludford Magna, dropping its load over Duisburg on Oct 14, 1944. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (894x414, 210 KB) The ABC Lancaster I NG128 coded B-SR of 101 Sqn out of Ludford Magna, dropping its load over Duisburg on Oct 14, 1944. ... Duisburg (IPA: ) is a German city in the western part of the Ruhr Area (Ruhrgebiet) in North Rhine-Westphalia. ... List of World War II electronic warfare equipment and code words Airborne Cigar (A.B.C.) - Jamming transmitter carried by 101 Sqn Lancasters using 8th crew member to monitor and then jam German nightfighter frequencies Berlin - German night fighter radar, introduced April 1945, centrimetic radar (9cm) Boozer - Fighter radar early... A Yagi-Uda beam antenna Short Wave Curtain Antenna (Moosbrunn, Austria) A building rooftop supporting numerous dish and sectored mobile telecommunications antennas (Doncaster, Victoria, Australia) An antenna is a transducer designed to transmit or receive radio waves which are a class of electromagnetic waves. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 117 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Avro Lancaster B Mk II Expired Crown Copyright Image by Royal Air Force via the website/www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 117 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Avro Lancaster B Mk II Expired Crown Copyright Image by Royal Air Force via the website/www. ... The Rolls-Royce Merlin engines were a series of 12 cylinder, 60° V, 27 litre, liquid cooled piston aircraft engines built during World War II by Rolls-Royce, at Ford in Manchester[1] and under licence in the United States by Packard. ... SU carburetteurs (named for Skinners Union, the company which produced them) were a brand of sidedraft carburetor widely used in British (Triumph, MG) and Swedish (Volvo, Saab 99) automobiles for much of the twentieth century. ... The carburetor (or carburettor, carb for short) is a device which mixes air and fuel for an internal_combustion engine. ... A Pitot tube is a measuring instrument used to measure fluid flow. ... The Tallboy was an Earth quake bomb developed by Barnes Wallis and brought into operation by the British in 1944. ... A British 22,000 lb (10,000 kg) Grand Slam bomb The Grand Slam (Earth Quake bomb), was a very large freefall bomb developed by the British aeronautical engineer Barnes Wallis (who also made the bouncing bomb) in late 1944. ... Aerial refueling, also called in-flight refueling (IFR) or air-to-air refueling (AAR), is the practice of transferring fuel from one aircraft to another during flight. ... Port of Aden (around 1910). ... RAF Habbaniya was a Royal Air Force station about 100 miles west of Baghdad in modern day Iraq, near the town and lake of Habbaniya. ... Tiger Force was the name given to a World War II British Commonwealth long range heavy bomber force, formed in 1945, from squadrons serving with RAF Bomber Command in Europe, for proposed use against targets in Japan. ... Bristol Hercules engine The Hercules was a 14_cylinder two_row radial aircraft engine produced by the Bristol Engine Company starting in 1939. ... Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd was a major British manufacturing company of the early years of the 20th century. ... For people named Packard, see Packard (surname). ... The Bendix Corporation was founded in 1924 by the inventor Vincent Bendix. ... Stromberg is the name of: Stromberg (television) - a German television series Stromberg (Hunsrück) - a town in the district of Bad Kreuznach in Rheinland-Pfalz Stromberg (Westfalen) - a place in Oelde Stromberg (Landschaft) - a place in Baden-Württemberg This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that... The bouncing bomb was a kind of bomb designed by Barnes Wallis of Vickers-Armstrong at Brooklands, Surrey. ... Radomes at the Misawa Security Operations Center, Misawa, Japan A radome (a portmanteau of radar and dome) is a structural, weatherproof enclosure used to protect an antenna. ... Boulton Paul Defiant Boulton Paul Aircraft Ltd was a British aircraft manufacturer that operated between 1914 and 1961. ... An M2 machine gun surrounded by spent shell casings The M2 . ... A line up of Avro Lincoln B.IIs (B.2) The Avro 694 Lincoln was a British 4-engined heavy bomber of World War II, first flying on June 9, 1944 and entering service in August 1945, too late to be used in action. ... A line up of Avro Lincoln B.IIs (B.2) The Avro 694 Lincoln was a British 4-engined heavy bomber of World War II, first flying on June 9, 1944 and entering service in August 1945, too late to be used in action. ... The Pathfinder squadrons of the Royal Air Force were elite squadrons of RAF Bomber Command during World War II. At the start of the war Bomber command made many daylight raids but the losses incurred due to lack of escorting fighters when operating over Europe led them to switch the... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Browning M1919 was a . ... In physics, the center of gravity (CoG) of an object is the average location of its weight. ...

Operators

See also: List of Avro Lancaster operators:

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Surviving aircraft

Lancaster B I W4783 G for George
Lancaster B I W4783 G for George
The Lancaster Mk X FM213 of the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum painted as "VR-A" and called the "Mynarski Memorial" Lancaster
The Lancaster Mk X FM213 of the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum painted as "VR-A" and called the "Mynarski Memorial" Lancaster

There are 17 known largely complete Avro Lancasters remaining in the world. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 321 pixelsFull resolution (2659 × 1067 pixel, file size: 475 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) G for George - Australian War Memorial, Canberra If you are a (commercial) publisher and you want me to write you an email or paper mail giving... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 321 pixelsFull resolution (2659 × 1067 pixel, file size: 475 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) G for George - Australian War Memorial, Canberra If you are a (commercial) publisher and you want me to write you an email or paper mail giving... G for George is an Avro Lancaster Mk. ... The Battle of Britain Memorial Flight is a Royal Air Force flight which provides an aerial display group comprising an Avro Lancaster, a Supermarine Spitfire and a Hawker Hurricane. ... F/A-18F at RIAT 2004. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2202x1258, 106 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Avro Lancaster Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2202x1258, 106 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Avro Lancaster Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Museum building with a CF-104 Starfighter mounted as a monument The Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum is one of the major aviation museums in Canada. ...


Two Lancasters remain in airworthy condition:

Lancaster B I PA474 "City of Lincoln"
Operated by the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight since 1973.[14] The paint scheme is periodically changed to represent notable Lancasters, and the aircraft is currently flown as EE139 Phantom of the Ruhr, bearing the codes HW-R on the port side and BQ-B on the starboard side.[15]
Lancaster B X FM213
This aircraft was retired from active duty with the RCAF on 6 November 1963, then stored at Dunnville, ON. FM213 had 4,392.3 hours on the airframe when it was handed over, which was an amazing record for a combat aircraft. It would probably have been sold for scrap metal except for the intervention of The Royal Canadian Legion in Goderich.[16]
The aircraft has been operated by Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum since 1988. The aircraft is flown in the paint scheme of KB726 VR-A[17], and is known as the "Mynarski Memorial Lancaster" in honour of Canadian VC winner Andrew Mynarski.[16]

Only four Lancasters that served in the Bomber Command campaign over Europe survive, none of them airworthy: The Battle of Britain Memorial Flight is a Royal Air Force flight which provides an aerial display group comprising an Avro Lancaster, a Supermarine Spitfire and a Hawker Hurricane. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Museum building with a CF-104 Starfighter mounted as a monument The Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum is one of the major aviation museums in Canada. ... Photo by Terry Macdonald Andrew Charles (Andy) Mynarski, VC (October 14, 1916 - June 12, 1944) was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ...

Lancaster B I R5868 "S-Sugar"
The oldest surviving Lancaster flew 137 operations, originally as "Q-Queenie" with No. 83 Squadron RAF from RAF Scampton and then as "S-Sugar" with No. 463 and No. 467 RAAF Squadrons from RAF Waddington. This aircraft was the first RAF heavy bomber to complete 100 operations (going on to fly 137 sorties[18]). It is now on display at the RAF Museum, Hendon.
Lancaster B I W4783 "G-George"
Was operated by No. 460 Squadron RAAF and completed 90 sorties. It was flown to Australia during the war for fundraising purposes, and was assigned the Australian serial A66-2. The aircraft was later placed on display at the Australian War Memorial, Canberra, and underwent a thorough restoration between 1999 and 2003.
Lancaster Mk 10AR KB839
Built by Victory Aircraft and delivered to No. 419 Squadron RCAF in January 1945. The aircraft completed 26 sorties, wearing the code letters VR-D. It was returned to Canada after the end of the war in Europe, and modified to Mk 10AR Arctic Reconnaissance specification. After being struck off charge, the aircraft was preserved at Greenwood Military Aviation Museum, Nova Scotia, where it is currently displayed outside.[19]
Lancaster Mk 10P KB882
Built by Victory aircraft in 1945 and delivered to Britain, the aircraft joined No. 428 Squadron RCAF in March of that year. Flown on six operational sorties over Germany, the aircraft was returned to Canada in June 1945 and entered storage. In 1952 the aircraft was modified to Mk 10P configuration and flew with No. 408 Squadron RCAF. In 1964 the aircraft was purchased by the City of Edmundston, New Brunswick and has since been on outside display at the Municipal Airport.

The following surviving Lancasters were used as training aircraft or were constructed too late to see operational service in the Second World War: RAF Scampton is a Royal Air Force station situated north of Lincoln in England. ... No. ... No. ... Waddington-based Hawker-Siddeley (now BAE Systems) Nimrod R.1 RAF Waddington is a Royal Air Force station in Lincolnshire England. ... An Avro Lancaster in the main hangar of the RAF Museum London The Royal Air Force Museum (RAF Museum) is a museum dedicated to the history of aviation, and the British Royal Air Force in particular. ... For other places with the same name, see Hendon (disambiguation). ... G for George is an Avro Lancaster Mk. ... Squadron Motto: Strike and Return Aircraft operated: Vickers Wellington, Avro Lancaster 460 Squadron RAAF was raised at RAF Breighton, and operated as part of RAF Bomber Command for the duration of WWII. It was disbanded at RAF Binbrook in 1945 In a speech he made in 2003, Chief of the... The Australian War Memorial is Australias national memorial to the members of all its armed forces and supporting organisations who have died or participated in the wars of the Commonwealth of Australia. ... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... 419 City of Kamloops Squadron is an Air Force unit with the Canadian Forces. ... Motto: Munit Hae et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Largest metro Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto), French Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate... The 408 Tactical Helicopter Squadron is a unit of 1 Canadian Air Divisions 1 Wing. ... Edmundston is a city in Madawaska County at the junction of the Saint John and Madawaska Rivers in northwestern New Brunswick, Canada only a few kilometres from the border with Quebec and on the border with the United States, opposite the town of Madawaska, Maine. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Lancaster Just Jane during taxi run in April 2008
Lancaster Just Jane during taxi run in April 2008
Lancaster B VII NX611 "Just Jane"
Served with the Aeronavale until the 1960s, when it was flown back to Britain. At one stage the aircraft was kept at Blackpool, and following the removal of R5868, served as gate guardian at RAF Scampton. NX611 now resides at the Lincolnshire Aviation Heritage Centre at the former RAF East Kirkby, and is frequently taxied at high speed along a length of the wartime runway.
Lancaster B VII NX622
Served with the Aeronavale until 1962, when it was donated to the RAAF Association. It is now restored and displayed at the RAAF Association museum in Bull Creek, Western Australia
Lancaster B VII NX664
This aircraft served with the Aeronavale until it suffered a heavy landing at Wallis Island. It was recovered in 1984 to Le Bourget and has been under restoration since.
Lancaster B VII NX665
Equipped with H2S radar, is preserved at the Museum of Transport and Technology (aka MOTAT) in Auckland, New Zealand. This aircraft served with the Aeronavale until the 1960s, when it was presented to the museum. The airframe originally lacked the mid-upper turret, having been built with the mountings for a Martin 250CE. An earlier FN50 was retrofitted in the late 1980s which required modifications to the aircraft's structure as the turret mounts had to be moved rearwards.
Lancaster B X KB889
Delivered to Britain in March 1945 and returned to Canada that June without seeing any service, this aircraft was later converted for Maritime Reconnaissance use. Struck off charge by the RCAF in 1965, the aircraft was displayed in Ontario before being sold to prolific warbird collector Doug Arnold in the UK in 1984. The aircraft was put on the UK register as G-LANC, but was never flown. Sold in 1986 to the Imperial War Museum, the aircraft was restored over eight years to static condition, and has been on display since 1994 as NA-I.
Lancaster B X KB944
Built in Canada in 1945 by Victory Aircraft. Later that year, after briefly serving overseas, it was put into stored reserve in Canada where it went on to spend most of the following years, except for a brief period in 1952 serving with 404 Maritime Patrol Squadron at Greenwood, Nova Scotia. In 1964 the RCAF refurbished this aircraft and placed it in the Armed Force’s historical aircraft collection where it is now on display in the Canada Aviation Museum.
Lancaster B X KB976
This aircraft was delivered to Britain in May 1945 but saw no action. Returned to Canada in June 1945, the aircraft was converted to Mk.10 (AR) specification, being struck off charge in 1964. Lancaster KB-976 made the last official flight as an RCAF aircraft on June 4, 1964 at the Calgary International Air Show with F/L Lynn Garrison, as captain, and F/L Ralph Langemann as co-pilot. Lynn Garrison then purchased KB-976 from Crown Assets Disposal Corporation as an addition to his historic collection. He created the Air Museum of Canada in April, 1964. KB-976 was sold for an abortive conversion to a fire bomber. Sold in 1974 to the Strathallan Collection in Scotland, KB976 was flown across the Atlantic and then statically displayed until 1987. Bought by collector Charles Church, the aircraft was moved to Woodford for restoration to airworthy condition, where the airframe was damaged in a hangar collapse. The rebuild was abandoned and the aircraft was later sold to Doug Arnold before finally being bought by Kermit Weeks in 1992. The aircraft has since been stored at his Fantasy of Flight museum in Florida awaiting restoration.
Lancaster B X FM104
Was donated to the City of Toronto in 1964 and placed on a pedestal on Lakeshore Drive. After sitting outside for 36 years, the aircraft was removed from the pedestal and placed on loan to the Toronto Aerospace Museum,[20] in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The aircraft is now under long-term restoration to static display condition. With spare parts from the remainder of FM118, it is planned to be complete as a museum quality piece in 2015.
Lancaster B X FM136
Manufactured in 1945 by Victory Aircraft Ltd., assigned to No. 20th and 30th Maintenance Units in England, never issued to active Squadron. Returned to Canada and converted to Maritime Reconnaissance. Taken on strength by No.404 ‘Buffalo’ (MP) Squadron (Greenwood, Nova Scotia)[1] as RX-136. Transferred to No.407 ‘Demon’ (MP) Squadron (Comox, BC)[2]. Struck off strength April 1961. Lancaster FM-136 was purchased from Crown Assets Disposal Corporation by Lynn Garrison, in 1961. He created The Lancaster Memorial Fund to see the aircraft displayed, in 1962, on a pedestal at McCall Field, Calgary, as a memorial to those who trained under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan. It was subsequently moved to Aerospace Museum of Calgary [3] in 1992. New shelter built for it in 2007.  ;

Lancaster B X FM159: Arrived in Europe after the fighting ended and never saw combat. After returning to Canada and being placed in storage, it served from 1953 to 1955 with the No. 103 Search and Rescue Unit in Greenwood, Nova Scotia before being transferred to Comox, British Columbia to serve as a maritime and ice patrol aircraft. It was withdrawn from RCAF service in 1958 and purchased in 1960 by a trio of men from Nanton, Alberta with a view to building a war museum in their town. The aircraft is currently on display at the Nanton Lancaster Society Air Museum and is one of only two surviving Lancasters to offer guided tours of its interior, the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum also offers guided tours of the Mynarski Lancaster by appointment.[21] The Aviation Navale (Naval Air Force) of the French Navy includes 162 airplanes (138 of them combat-capable) and 6 800 men, both civilians and military personel. ... This article is about the town in England. ... Hawker-Siddeley Harrier plinthed as a gate guardian at RAF Stafford. ... RAF Scampton is a Royal Air Force station situated north of Lincoln in England. ... Lincolnshire Aviation Heritage Centre, founded by the Panton Brothers, Fred and Harold Panton, as a memorial to their brother Pilot Officer Christopher Panton, who along with 55,000 other aircrew of Bomber Command lost their lives during WWII. The centre is sited on the old Royal Air Force East Kirkby. ... RAF East Kirkby opened on the 20th August 1943 as a Bomber Command Station and is situated in Lincolnshire (not far from RAF Coningsby). ... Bull Creek is a suburb of Perth, Western Australia, located within the local government area of the City of Melville. ... Wallis (Uvea) is an island in the Pacific Ocean belonging to the French territory of Wallis and Futuna. ... Le Bourget is a commune of the Seine-Saint-Denis département in France. ... The Museum of Transport and Technology (MOTAT) is a museum located in Western Springs, Auckland, New Zealand. ... For other uses, see Auckland (disambiguation). ... American Air Museum Duxford The Imperial War Museum Duxford in Cambridgeshire, commonly referred to simply as Duxford, houses the Imperial War Museums aircraft collection, as well as having a large collection of tanks, military and naval vehicles. ... The Victory Aircraft Limited was formed in 1942 when the Canadian government took over ownership and management of main plant of the National Steel Car Corporation of Montreal at Malton, Ontario (near todays Toronto Pearson International Airport). ... The Canadian Forces (CF) (French: Forces canadiennes (FC)) are the unified armed forces of Canada, governed by the National Defence Act, which states: The Canadian Forces are the armed forces of Her Majesty raised by Canada and consist of one Service called the Canadian Armed Forces. ... The Canada Aviation Museum (French: Musée de laviation du Canada) is the national aviation history museum, located in Ottawa, Ontario. ... Bombardier CL-415 waterbomber of the Province of Québec Aerial firefighting is a method to combat wildfires using aircraft. ... Kermit Weeks Kermit Weeks (b. ... Fantasy of Flight is an aviation-related attraction in Polk City, Florida, USA. 1400 Broadway Blvd SE Polk City, FL 33868 (863) 984-3500 Located midway between Tampa and Orlando in Polk City, Florida, Fantasy of Flight is an aviation-themed attraction that takes visitors back to Early Flight, World... Greenwood (2001 pop. ... Coordinates: Country Canada Province British Columbia Regional District Comox-Strathcona Incorporated 1953 Government  - Mayor Jim Brass Area  - City 26. ... Nanton is a town in southern Alberta located south of Calgary at the junction of Highway 2 and Highway 533. ... Photo by Terry Macdonald Andrew Charles (Andy) Mynarski, VC (October 14, 1916 - June 12, 1944) was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ...

Lancaster Mk 10P FM212
Withdrawn from RCAF service in 1962 and placed in storage. The City of Windsor, Ontario purchased the aircraft for use as a memorial and mounted it on a pedestal in Jackson Park in 1965. It was damaged by weather and poor maintenance and replaced by Spitfire and Hurricane replicas on 26 May 2005. Currently being restored by the Canadian Historical Aircraft Association, this Lancaster has been renamed "Bad Penny" to commemorate the first RAF Avro Lancaster into Holland during Operation Manna to save the Dutch from starvation in the closing days of World War II, April 29, 1945.[22] On 29 April 2007 (to coincide with the 62nd anniversary of Operation Manna) FM212 was removed from storage in Jackson Park and towed to the Sears parking lot of Devonshire Mall where it was on display and open for tours through the aircraft. On 13 May 2007, FM212 was towed from Devonshire Mall to Windsor Airport where it will again be placed in storage and undergo extensive restoration to return the aircraft back to a taxiable condition over the next few years.

See the link under External links for details of the known survivors.-1... The Supermarine Spitfire was a British single-seat fighter, which was used by the Royal Air Force and many other Allied countries during the Second World War, and into the 1950s. ... The Hawker Hurricane was a British single-seat fighter aircraft designed and predominantly built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Canadian Historical Aircraft Association is a non-profit organization based in Windsor, Ontario which is commited to preserving old planes. ... Operation Manna took place from 29 April to 8 May 1945, at the end of World War II. Lancaster bombers of the Royal Air Force dropped food into parts of the occupied Netherlands, with the acquiescence of the occupying German forces, to feed people who were in danger of starvation... The Dutch (Ethnonym: Nederlanders meaning Lowlanders) are the dominant ethnic group[1] of the Netherlands[2]. They are usually seen as a Germanic people. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Windsor Airport (CYQG/YQG) is located immediately southeast of the city of Windsor, Ontario, Canada. ...


Specifications (Lancaster)

Orthographic projection of the Lancaster B Mk.I, with profiles detailing the B Mk.I (Special) with Grand Slam bomb, Hercules-powered B Mk.II with bulged bomb-bay doors and FN.64 ventral turret and the B Mk.III (Special) with the Upkeep store.
Orthographic projection of the Lancaster B Mk.I, with profiles detailing the B Mk.I (Special) with Grand Slam bomb, Hercules-powered B Mk.II with bulged bomb-bay doors and FN.64 ventral turret and the B Mk.III (Special) with the Upkeep store.

General characteristics

  • Crew: 7: pilot, flight engineer, navigator, bomb aimer, wireless operator, mid-upper and rear gunners
  • Length: 69 ft 5 in (21.18 m)
  • Wingspan: 102 ft (31.09 m)
  • Height: 19 ft 7 in (5.97 m)
  • Wing area: 1,300 ft² (120 m²)
  • Empty weight: 36 828 lb (16,705 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 63,000 lb (29,000 kg)
  • Powerplant:Rolls-Royce Merlin XX V12 engines, 1,280 hp (954 kW) each

Performance A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The distance AB is the wing span of this Aer Lingus Airbus A320. ... Look up pound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Rolls-Royce Merlin engines were a series of 12 cylinder, 60° V, 27 litre, liquid cooled piston aircraft engines built during World War II by Rolls-Royce, at Ford in Manchester[1] and under licence in the United States by Packard. ... Colombo Type 125 Testa Rossa engine in a 1961 Ferrari 250TR Spyder V-12 engine simplified cross-section V12 redirects here. ... hp redirects here. ...

  • Maximum speed: 240 knots (280 mph, 450 km/h) at 15,000 ft (5,600 m)
  • Range: 2,700 NM (3,000 mi, 4,600 km) with minimal bomb load
  • Service ceiling 23,500 ft (8,160 m)
  • Wing loading: 48 lb/ft² (240 kg/m²)
  • Power/mass: 0.082 hp/lb (130 W/kg)

Armament V speeds are speeds that define certain performance and limiting characteristics of an aircraft. ... A knot is a unit of speed abbreviated kt or kn. ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... The maximal total range is the distance an aircraft can fly between takeoff and landing, as limited by fuel capacity in powered aircraft, or cross-country speed and environmental conditions in unpowered aircraft. ... A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of length. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... In aeronautics, a ceiling is the maximum density altitude an aircraft can reach under a set of conditons The service ceiling attempts to capture the maximum usable altitude of an aircraft. ... In aerodynamics, wing loading is the loaded weight of the aircraft divided by the area of the wing. ... Power-to-weight ratio is a measure commonly used when comparing various vehicles (or engines), including automobiles, motorcycles and aircraft. ...

  • Guns: 8× 0.303 in (7.70 mm) Browning machine guns in three turrets, with variations
  • Bombs:
    • Maximum: 22,000 lb (10,000 kg)
    • Typical: 14,000 lb (6,400 kg)

An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The Browning M1919 was a . ...

Noted Lancaster pilots and crew members

Victoria Cross awards

Many Lancaster crew members were highly decorated for actions while flying the aircraft. Amongst those who received the Victoria Cross were: For other uses, see Victoria Cross (disambiguation). ...

Gravesite Ian Willoughby Bazalgette, VC , DFC, (October 19, 1918 - August 4, 1944), was born in Calgary, Alberta, Canada and was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ... Photo from 617 Squadron The dambusters Photo submitted by Roger Shenton - (taken by John Kramer) Photo of the Dambusters Memorial at Woodhall Spa. ... Norman Cyril Jackson (1919 – 1994) was a sergeant in the Royal Air Force who won the Victoria Cross during a bombing raid on Schweinfurt in April 1944. ... The Valiants Bust of Andrew Mynarski unveiled at the Cenotaph War Memorial on 11 November 2006 in Ottawa, Canada. ... John Dering Nettleton was a Rhodesian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ... Robert Anthony Maurice Palmer (VC, DFC & Bar) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ... William Reid, VC, (December 21, 1921 – November 28, 2001) was a Scottish recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ... Group Captain Geoffrey Leonard Cheshire, Baron Cheshire, VC, OM, DSO and Two Bars, DFC (7 September 1917 – 31 July 1992) was a British RAF pilot during the Second World War who received the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that... Major Edwin Swales, (July 3, 1915 – February 23, 1945) was a South African pilot and war hero of the Second World War. ...

Popular culture

The Avro Lancaster featured prominently in the 1954 film, The Dam Busters, and a number of B VII Lancasters in storage were modified to the original configuration of the B III (Special) for use on screen. It also featured in a 1989 British commercial for Carling Black Label lager which reused footage in a Dam Busters parody sequence in which a German soldier on top of a dam was catching the bombs in the manner of a football goalkeeper. The pilot of the attacking Lancaster then delivers the brand slogan: "I bet he drinks Carling Black Label!" The commercial ran for many years, frequently appearing in commercial breaks for both the 1954 film and documentaries about Operation Chastise.[23] The Dam Busters is a 1954 British war film, set during the Second World War, and documenting the true story of the RAFs 617 Squadron, the development of the bouncing bomb, and Operation Chastise - the attack on the Ruhr dams in Germany. ... This article is about Black Label beer. ... Lager is a well attenuated beer brewed in cool conditions using a slow-acting brewers yeast, known as a bottom-fermenting yeast, and then stored (or lagered) for a period in cool conditions to clear away particles and certain flavour compounds to produce a clean taste. ... Soccer redirects here. ... A football goalkeeper leaves the ground to parry a shot on goal In many team sports, a goalkeeper (termed goaltender, netminder, goalie, or keeper in some sports) is a designated player that is charged with directly preventing the opposite team from scoring by defending the goal. ... Combatants No. ...


See also


Related development

Comparable aircraft The Avro 679 Manchester was a twin-engined heavy bomber developed during World War II by the Avro aircraft company in the United Kingdom. ... The Avro York was a passenger and freight transport of the 1940s, in both military and civilian applications. ... The Avro 691 Lancastrian was a passenger and mail transport aircraft of the 1940s. ... A line up of Avro Lincoln B.IIs (B.2) The Avro 694 Lincoln was a British 4-engined heavy bomber of World War II, first flying on June 9, 1944 and entering service in August 1945, too late to be used in action. ...

Related lists The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is an American four-engine heavy bomber aircraft developed for the US Army Air Corps (USAAC). ... The Consolidated B-24 Liberator was an American heavy bomber that was produced in greater numbers than any other American combat aircraft during World War II and still holds the record as the most produced allied aircraft. ... The Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor was a German all-metal four-engined monoplane that entered service as an airliner. ... Wingspan Height 20 ft 9 in 6. ... The Heinkel He 177 Greif (Griffin) was a long-range bomber of the Luftwaffe. ... The Junkers Ju 290 was a long-range transport, maritime patrol aircraft and bomber used by the Luftwaffe late in World War II. The Ju-290 was the only four-engined heavy-duty aircraft used by the Luftwaffe in World War II and was the forerunner of the subsequent transatlantic... The Petlyakov Pe-8, also known as TB-7 was a Soviet bomber aircraft of World War II, the only four-engined bomber the USSR used during the war. ... The Piaggio P.108 was a four engined heavy bomber used by the Italian Regia Aeronautica during World War II. It first flew in 1939 and entered service in 1942 History The only four engined aircraft to be used by the Regia Aeronautica during World War II, the P.108... The Stirling was a World War II heavy bomber design built by Short Brothers. ... The Vickers Windsor was a four-engined British heavy bomber of the world war two period, designed by Barnes Wallis and R.K. Pierson. ... Categories: Stub | German bomber aircraft 1940-1949 | World War II German heavy bombers | World War II German experimental aircraft ...

Many aircraft types have served in the Royal Air Force since it was formed in 1918 by the merger of the Royal Flying Corps and Royal Naval Air Service. ...

References

Notes

  1. ^ Cotter 2005, p. XIII.
  2. ^ Taylor 1969, p. 314.
  3. ^ Winchester 2005, p. 27.
  4. ^ Bridgman, Leonard. Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II. New York: Crescent Books, 1988. ISBN 0-517-67964-7.
  5. ^ "The Design and Development of the Avro Lancaster", Manchester Branch of the Royal Aeronautical Society
  6. ^ Webb, Dominic. "Inflation: The Value of the Pound 1750-2005." House of Commons Library, 13 February 2006. p. 16-17. Retrieved: 14 July 2006.
  7. ^ The Man Himself: A passion for the sky (Alex Henshaw) angelfire.com. Retrieved: 23 February 2008.
  8. ^ The exact weight in kilograms of the "Tall Boy" and "Grand Slam" bombs differs according to source. The figures given are the most common.
  9. ^ Bombsights
  10. ^ Franks 2000, p.83-84.
  11. ^ Franks 2000, p.83.
  12. ^ Avro manufacturing drawing Z2852
  13. ^ Franks 2000, p.87.
  14. ^ Battle of Britain Memorial Flight
  15. ^ Aircraft R of No. 100 Squadron RAF and B of No. 500 Squadron RAF
  16. ^ a b Page 1989
  17. ^ No. 419 Squadron
  18. ^ Winchester 2004, p. 27.
  19. ^ KB-839 March ACAM Newsletter
  20. ^ Toronto Aerospace Museum
  21. ^ Canadian Warplane Heritage
  22. ^ dramatized in a children's book called A Bad Penny Always Comes Back
  23. ^ Carling Black Label

is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... // History No. ...

Bibliography

  • A.P. 22062A-P.N.: Pilot's and Flight Engineer's Notes for Lancaster. Mark I - Four Merlin XX, 22 or 24 Engines. Mark III - Four Merlin 28 or 38 Engines. London: Air Ministry, May 1944. No ISBN.
  • Chant, Christopher. Lancaster: The History of Britain's Most Famous World War II Bomber. Bath, UK: Parragon, 2003. ISBN 0-75258-769-2.
  • Cotter, Jarrod. Living Lancasters: Keeping the Legend Alive. Thrupp, Stroud, UK: Sutton Publishing, 2005. ISBN 0-7509-4192-8.
  • Franks, Norman. Claims to Fame: The Lancaster. London: Arms & Armour Press, 1995. ISBN 1-85409-220-0.
  • Franks, Richard A. The Avro Lancaster, Manchester and Lincoln: A Comprehensive Guide for the Modeller. London: SAM Publications, 2000. ISBN 0-9533465-3-6.
  • Holmes, Harry. Avro Lancaster (Combat Legend series). Shrewsbury, UK: Airlife Publishing Ltd., 2002. ISBN 1-84037-376-8.
  • Jackson, A.J. Avro Aircraft since 1908, 2nd edition. London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1990. ISBN 0-85177-834-8.
  • Jacobs, Peter. The Lancaster Story. London: Arms & Armour Press, 1996. ISBN 1-85409-288-8.
  • Mackay, R.S.G. Lancaster in action. Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications Inc., 1982. ISBN 0-89747-130-X.
  • Moyes, Philip J.R. Avro Lancaster I & II. Kidlington, Oxford, UK: Vintage Aviation Publications Ltd., 1979. ISBN 0-905469-65-8.
  • Page, Bette. Mynarski's Lanc: The Story of Two Famous Canadian Lancaster Bombers K726 & FM213. Erin, Ontario: Boston Mills Press, 1989. ISBN 1-55046-006-4.
  • Robertson, Bruce. Lancaster - The Story of a Famous Bomber. Watford, Hertfordshire, UK: Argus Books Ltd., 1964 (5th impression 1977). ISBN 0-900435-10-0.
  • Sweetman, Bill. Avro Lancaster. London: Jane's Publishing Company Ltd., 1982. ISBN 0-7106-0132-8.
  • Taylor, John W. R. "Avro Lancaster". Combat Aircraft of the World from 1909 to the present. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1969. ISBN 0-425-03633-2.
  • Winchester, Jim. "Avro Lancaster". Aircraft of World War II: The Aviation Factfile. Kent, UK: Grange Books plc, 2004. ISBN 1-84013-639-1.

The Air Ministry was formerly a department of the United Kingdom Government, established in 1918 with the responsibility of managing the affairs of the (then newly formed) Royal Air Force. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Video of Avro Lancasters

  • Video of Lancaster takeoff - filmed from inside the aircraft
  • Video of Lancaster engine start
  • Video of a Lancaster taxying
  • Video of a Lancaster taking off
  • Video of a Lancaster closeup flyby
  • Short video describing the Avro Lancaster
  • Video #1 of Avro Lancaster
  • Video #2 of Avro Lancaster
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Aviation encompasses all the activities relating to airborne devices created by human ingenuity, generally known as aircraft. ... This is a timeline of aviation history. ... This list of aircraft is sorted alphabetically, beginning with the name of the manufacturer (or, in certain cases, designer). ... This is a list of aircraft manufacturers (in alphabetic order). ... List of aircraft engines: // Two- and four-stroke rotary, radial, inline. ... This is a list of aircraft engine manufacturers both past and present. ... This is a list of airlines in operation (by continents and country). ... This is a list of air forces, sorted alphabetically by country, followed by a list of former countries air forces. ... This is an incomplete list of aircraft weapons, past and present. ... Below is a list of (links to pages on) missiles, sorted alphabetically by name. ... A Boeing 720 being flown under remote control as part of NASAs Controlled Impact Demonstration The following is a list of Unmanned aerial vehicles developed and operated by various countries around the world. ... This is a list of experimental aircraft. ... The SR-71 Blackbird is the current record holder. ... Flight distance records without refueling. ... These are the records set for going the highest in the atmosphere from the age of ballooning onward. ... The flight endurance record is the amount of time spent in the air. ... Aircraft with a production run greater than 5,000 aircraft. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Avro Lancaster - Milipedia (530 words)
The Avro Lancaster is regarded by many as the best bomber of either side in the Second World War.
The Avro Lancaster was designated as a heavy bomber, propelled by its four powerful Rolls-Royce Merlin piston engines and started as the Mk I series of aircraft in 1941.
In its wake, the Lancaster outshone all of its heavy bomber contemporaries including the well-received Boeing B-17 Flying Fortresses and Consolidated B-24 Liberators, and would be a considerable reason that the Allies were able to supply such good results in their daytime / nighttime bombing raids over the German-held territories.
Avro Lancaster (2190 words)
Avro Manchester, which, although a capable aircraft, was troubled by the unreliability of the Vulture.
Avro Lincoln bomber, initially known as the Lancaster IV and Lancaster V. These two marks became the Lincoln B1 and B2 respectively.
There are 17 known Avro Lancasters remaining in the world, two of which remain in airworthy condition, although limited flying hours remain on their airframes and actual flying is carefully rationed.
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