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Encyclopedia > Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change
Global carbon dioxide emissions 1800–2000
Global carbon dioxide emissions 18002000

Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change: A Scientific Symposium on Stabilisation of Greenhouse Gases was a 2005 international conference that redefined the link between atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration, and the 2°C (3.6°F) ceiling on global warming thought necessary to avoid the most serious effects of global warming. Previously this had generally been accepted as being 550 ppm. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This image shows the instrumental record of global average temperatures as compiled by the Climatic Research Unit of the University of East Anglia and the Hadley Centre of the UK Meteorological Office. ... This image shows the instrumental record of global average temperatures as compiled by the Climatic Research Unit of the University of East Anglia and the Hadley Centre of the UK Meteorological Office. ... The average surface temperature of the earth is defined as the combined temperature of near-surface air temperature over land and sea surface temperature. ... Year 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Global mean surface temperatures 1850 to 2006 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades and the projected... The net impact of global warming so far has been modest, but near-future effects are likely to become significantly negative, with large-scale extreme impacts possible by the end of the century. ... The parts-per notations are used to denote low concentrations of chemical elements. ...


The conference took place under the United Kingdom's presidency of the G8, with the participation of around 200 'internationally renowned' scientists from 30 countries. It was hosted by the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research in Exeter, between 1-3 February.[1] The Group of Eight (G8) is an international forum for the governments of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States. ... The Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, which is part of the Met Office and based at its headquaters in Exeter, provides a focus in the United Kingdom for the scientific issues associated with climate change. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this articles infobox may require cleanup. ...

Contents

Objectives

The conference was called to bring together the latest research into what would be necessary to achieve the objective of the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: UNFCCC logo. ...

to achieve, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.

It was also intended to encourage further research in the area. An initial assessment of the subject had been included in the 2001 IPCC Third Assessment Report, however the topic had received relatively little international discussion.[2] Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Look up anthropogenic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was issued in 2001. ...


Specifically, the conference explored three issues:

  • For different levels of climate change what are the key impacts, for different regions and sectors and for the world as a whole?
  • What would such levels of climate change imply in terms of greenhouse gas stabilisation concentrations and emission pathways required to achieve such levels?
  • What options are there for achieving stabilisation of greenhouse gases at different stabilisation concentrations in the atmosphere, taking into account costs and uncertainties?

Conclusions

Among the conclusions reached, the most significant was a new assessment of the link between the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the increase in global temperature levels. The IPCC had concluded that the most serious consequences of global warming might be avoided if global average temperatures rose by no more than 2°C (3.6°F) above pre-industrial levels (1.4°C above present levels). It had generally been assumed that this would occur if greenhouse gas concentrations rose above 550 ppm carbon dioxide equivalent by volume. This concentration was, for example, informing government in certain countries including the European Union.[3] The net impact of global warming so far has been modest, but near-future effects are likely to become significantly negative, with large-scale extreme impacts possible by the end of the century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The conference concluded that, at the level of 550 ppm, it was likely that 2°C would be exceeded, based on the projections of more recent climate models. Stabilising greenhouse gas concentrations at 450 ppm would only result in a 50% likelihood of limiting global warming to 2°C, and that it would be necessary to achieve stabilisation below 400 ppm to give a relatively high certainty of not exceeding 2°C.[4] Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, and ice. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ...


Based on the current rate of increase - averaging about 2 ppm per year[5] - greenhouse gas concentrations are likely to reach to reach 400 ppm by 2016, 450 ppm by 2041, and 550 ppm by around 2091.


The conference also warned that, if action to reduce emissions is delayed by 20 years, rates of emission reduction may need to be 3 to 7 times greater to meet the same temperature target.


Reaction

As a result of the revised opinion on the 'safe' atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gasses, environmental pressure groups and some political parties are demanding that the UK Government take this into account in the Climate Change Bill, by setting a target to cut emissions by 75% to 80% by 2050.[6] Global carbon dioxide emissions 1800–2000 Countries by carbon dioxide emissions (red the highest) IMF 2005 figures of total GDP of nominal compared to PPP. Absolute, not adjusted for population. ... 2050 (MML) will be a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

Energy Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... Global mean surface temperatures 1850 to 2006 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades and the projected... IPCC is the science authority for the UNFCCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), to evaluate the risk of climate change brought on by humans, based mainly on... Sir Nicholas Stern, author of the report. ... The issue of human-caused, or anthropogenic, climate change (global warming) is becoming a central focus of the Green movement. ... Kyoto Protocol Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ... This is a list of countries by carbon dioxide emissions. ... World energy consumption in TW (=1012 Watt), 1980-2004. ... Adaptation to global warming covers all actions aimed at reducing the negative effects of global warming. ...

External links

The Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research is an organisation based in the United Kingdom that brings together scientists, economists, engineers and social scientists to research, assess and communicate from a distinct trans-disciplinary perspective, the options to mitigate, and the necessities to adapt to, climate change, and to integrate... The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) is Europes largest wildlife conservation charity. ... WWF – World Wide Fund for Nature (formerly the World Wildlife Fund, which is still used by WWF-US and WWF-Canada) is a global environment conservation, research, environmental advocacy and restoration organization. ...

In the media

  • April 19, 2007, Reuters: World needs to axe greenhouse gases by 80% by 2050
  • February 1, 2006, Euractive: UK chief scientific adviser: Keeping CO2 concentration below 450ppm is 'unfeasible'
  • January 30, 2006, BBC: Stark warning over climate change
  • January 30, 2006, BBC: Climate report: the main points
  • January 29, 2006, Washington Post: Debate on Climate Shifts to Issue of Irreparable Change
  • January 1, 2006, Times online: World has only 20 years to stop climate disaster
  • February 4, 2005, Environment News Service: Catastrophic Climate Change Risk Accelerating, Scientists Warn
  • February 3, 2005, Guardian Unlimited: Climate conference hears degree of danger

Further reading

  • Related book: Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change, Editor: Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, Cambridge University Press, February 2006, ISBN-13: 9780521864718, ISBN-10: 0521864712, DOI: 10.2277/0521864712.

References

  1. ^ Climate Stabilisation Conference - Exeter 2005. Government News Network (2004-11-04). Retrieved on 2007 March 15.
  2. ^ Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change - Background. Met Office (2005). Retrieved on 2007 March 16.
  3. ^ Community Strategy on Climate Change - Council Conclusions. Council of the European Union (1996-06-22?). Retrieved on 2007 March 15.
  4. ^ International Symposium on the Stabilisation of greenhouse gas concentrations - Report of the International Scientific Steering Committee. Met Office (2005-05-10). Retrieved on 2007 March 15.
  5. ^ Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved on 2007 March 17.
  6. ^ I Count Campaign know Government can do better. Stop Climate Chaos (2007-03-13?). Retrieved on 2007 March 15.
Part of a series on global warming
Subtopics
Scientific opinionAttribution of causesEffectsMitigationAdaptationControversyPoliticsEconomics
Related articles
Climate changeDeforestationGlobal climate modellingGlobal coolingGlobal dimmingGreenhouse effectGreenhouse gases
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeKyoto ProtocolPeak OilRenewable energyTemperature data

 
 

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