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Encyclopedia > Avogadro's law

Avogadro's law (Avogadro's Hypothesis, or Avogadro's Principle) is a gas law named after Amedeo Avogadro, who in 1811 hypothesized that: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The gas laws are a set of laws that describe the relationship between temperature, pressure and volume of gases. ... Portrait of Amedeo Avogadro Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro, Count of Quaregna and Cerreto (August 9, 1776–July 9, 1856) was an Italian chemist, most noted for his contributions to the theory of molarity and molecular weight. ... 1811 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...

Equal volumes of gases, at the same temperature and pressure, contain the same number of particles, or molecules.

Thus, the number of molecules in a specific volume of gas is independent of the size or mass of the gas molecules. As an example, equal volumes of molecular hydrogen and nitrogen would contain the same number of molecules, as long as they are at the same temperature and pressure. In science, a molecule is a group of atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical bonds. ... The volume of a solid object is the three-dimensional concept of how much space it occupies, often quantified numerically. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ...


The minor aspect of the law can be stated mathematically as:

 qquad {{V} over {n}}= k.

where:

V is the volume of the gas.
n is the number of moles in the gas.
k is a portionnality constant.

However, this above equation is just a trivial one, which is valid for all homogeneous substances, including homogeneous liquids and solids. This relation is easy to deduce; its validity was assumed before Avogadro's work. The mole (symbol: mol) is the SI base unit that measures an amount of substance. ...


The most important consequence of Avogadro's law is the following: The ideal gas constant has the same value for all gases. This means that the constant

frac{p_1cdot V_1}{T_1cdot n_1}=frac{p_2cdot V_2}{T_2 cdot n_2} = const

where:

p is the pressure of the gas
T is the temperature of the gas

has the same value for all gases, independent of the size or mass of the gas molecules. This statement is nontrivial, and it embodies Avogadro's ingenious insight into the nature of ideal gases. It took decades to prove Avogadro's law based on the kinetic theory of gases. [citation needed] The use of water pressure - the Captain Cook Memorial Jet in Lake Burley Griffin in Canberra, Australia. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... An ideal gas or perfect gas is a hypothetical gas consisting of identical particles of zero volume, with no intermolecular forces. ... Kinetic theory attempts to explain macroscopic properties of gases, such as pressure, temperature, or volume, by considering their molecular composition and motion. ...


One mole of an ideal gas occupies 22.4 liters (dm3) at STP, and occupies 24.45 litres at SLC (Standard Laboratory Conditions = 25 degrees C and 1 atm/101.3kPa). This volume is often referred to as the molar volume of an ideal gas. Real gases may deviate from this value. Temperature and air pressure can vary from one place to another on the Earth, and can also vary in the same place with time. ... In chemistry, the molar volume of a substance is the ratio of the volume of a sample of that substance to the amount of substance (usually in mole) in the sample. ...


The number of molecules in one mole is called Avogadro's number: approximately 6.022×1023 particles per mole. Avogadros number, also called Avogadros constant (NA), named after Amedeo Avogadro, is formally defined to be the number of carbon-12 atoms in 12 grams (0. ...


Avogadro's law, together with the combined gas law, forms the ideal gas law. The ideal gas law or equation is the equation of state of an ideal gas. ... Isotherms of an ideal gas The ideal gas law is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas, first stated by Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron in 1834. ...


 
 

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