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Encyclopedia > Avitus
Avitus
Emperor of the
Western Roman Empire

Avitus on a tremissis.
Reign July 9, 455 - 17 October 456
Full name Marcus Maecilius Flavius Eparchius Avitus
Born c. 395
Died after October 17, 456, 457
Predecessor Petronius Maximus
Successor Majorian
This article is about the Roman Emperor. For the poet, see Avitus of Vienne. Avitus is also a genus of jumping spiders.

Marcus Maecilius Flavius Eparchius Avitus (ca 380 or ca 395-after October 17, 456, 457) was Western Roman Emperor with the designation and name Dominus Noster Flavius Eparchius Avitus Augustus (July 8 or July 9, 455 - October 17, 456). Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... Avitus. ... Julian solidus, ca. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 16 - Valentinian III is murdered by former soldiers of Aëtius in revenge for Valentinians killing of Aëtius the previous year. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Capua is destroyed by the Vandals. ... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Capua is destroyed by the Vandals. ... Events February 7 - Leo I becomes East Roman emperor. ... Petronius Maximus on a coin. ... Majorian on an bronze coin. ... Alcimus Ecdicius Avitus, Saint Avitus, was bishop of Vienne in Gaul (ca 494 - February 5, 523 ?). Avitus was born of a prominent Gallo-Roman family closely related to the Emperor Avitus and other illustrious persons, and in which episcopal honors were hereditary (his father Isychius preceded him as bishop of... Diversity 553 genera, 5025 species Genera See List of Salticidae genera Wikispecies has information related to: Salticidae The jumping spiders (family Salticidae) contains more than 500 described genera and over 5,000 species, making it the largest family of spiders with about 13% of all species. ... This article is about the year 380 AD. For the aircraft, see Airbus A380. ... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Capua is destroyed by the Vandals. ... Events February 7 - Leo I becomes East Roman emperor. ... The Western Roman Empire is the name given to the western half of the Roman Empire after its division by Diocletian. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 16 - Valentinian III is murdered by former soldiers of Aëtius in revenge for Valentinians killing of Aëtius the previous year. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Capua is destroyed by the Vandals. ...


Made magister militum (or Master of Soldiers) by Emperor Petronius Maximus, Avitus was sent on a diplomatic mission to his old student, Theodoric II King of the Visigoths, and was at Theodoric's court in Toulouse when Gaiseric invaded Rome, bringing Petronius Maximus's rule to a sudden end. Theodoric seized the opportunity and urged Avitus to assume the imperial throne, and with the acclamation of a gathering of Gallo-Roman senators, allowed himself to be persuaded. On July 9, 455, he was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers, and reached Rome that September. Magister militum (Latin for Master of the Soldiers) was a top-level command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. ... Petronius Maximus on a coin. ... Theodoric II murdered his older brother Thorismund to become king of the Visigoths in 453 CE. Edward Gibbon writes that he justified this atrocious deed by the design which his predecessor had formed of violating his alliance with the empire. ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... Geiseric (circa 389 – January 25, 477), also spelled as Gaiseric or Genseric, was the King of the Vandals and Alans (428–477) and was one of the key players in the troubles of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... This article covers the culture of Romanized areas of Gaul. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 16 - Valentinian III is murdered by former soldiers of Aëtius in revenge for Valentinians killing of Aëtius the previous year. ...


The Apenninian populace never fully accepted his rule, so when his campaign against the Vandals failed in 456, and they pressed their blockade against Rome, his position became tenuous. Famine in Rome forced him to disband his Gothic bodyguard. But they needed to be paid, and he did not improve his standing with the Roman citizenry when he melted down a number of bronze statues to pay their outstanding wages. Ricimer and Majorian exploited this discontent by starting a general revolt. Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... Capua is destroyed by the Vandals. ... Ricimers monogram is struck on the reverse of this coin by Libius Severus. ... Majorian on an bronze coin. ...


Avitus fled to safety in Arles. A plea for help to Theodoric went unanswered, as the Gothic king was away in Spain campaigning against the Suevians. Avitus raised the best force he could and returned to Italy. He was defeated near Placentia and captured. His life was spared, and was allowed to become bishop of Placentia on October 17 (or October 18), 456; however, he still feared for his life and attempted to escape to safety in Gaul. According to Gregory of Tours, he died on the way there. Other sources have him murdered, either being strangled personally by Ricimer or trapped in his house and starved to death. Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (Subprefecture) Arrondissement Arles Canton Chief town of 2 cantons: Arles-Est and Arles-Ouest Intercommunality Agglomeration community of Arles-Crau-Camargue-Montagnette Mayor Hervé Schiavetti (PS) (2001-2008) Statistics Altitude 0 m–57 m (avg. ... The Suebi or Suevi were a Germanic people whose origin was near the Baltic Sea . ... Piacenza (Placentia in Latin and old-fashioned English, Piasëinsa in the local dialect of Emiliano-Romagnolo) is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Capua is destroyed by the Vandals. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ...


One important source for Avitus' reign was the panegyric composed by his son-in-law, Sidonius Apollinaris, married ca 452 to his daughter Papianilla, born ca 432 or 435. A Panegyric is a formal public speech delivered in high praise of a person or thing, a generally high studied and undiscriminating eulogy. ... Gaius Sollius Modestus Sidonius Apollinaris (c. ... Events Attila, king of the Huns, invades Italy Northern Wei Tai Wu Di is succeeded by Northern Wei Nan An Wang, then by Northern Wei Wen Cheng Di as ruler of the Northern Wei Dynasty in China. ... Events July 31 - Sixtus is elected to succeed Celestine as Pope. ... Events August 3 - Nestorius is exiled by Imperial edict to a monastery in a Sahara oasis. ...


His son was the magister militum Ecdicius Avitus and his grandson was the poet Alcimus Ecdicius Avitus. He was also the father of Agricola (440 – after 507), v. inl., a Priest, whose daughter also named Papianilla (490530) married her relative (?) Parthenius (485548), a Patron in 542 and perhaps a great-grandson of Felix Ennodius. Alcimus Ecdicius Avitus, Saint Avitus, was bishop of Vienne in Gaul (ca 494 - February 5, 523 ?). Avitus was born of a prominent Gallo-Roman family closely related to the Emperor Avitus and other illustrious persons, and in which episcopal honors were hereditary (his father Isychius preceded him as bishop of... Events September 29 - Leo succeeds Sixtus as Pope. ... Events Battle of Vouillé: Clovis I defeats the Visigoths near Poitiers, ends Visigothic power in Gaul. ... This article is about religious workers. ... Events April 1 - The majority of Odoacers army, including his magister militum Tufa, surrenders to Theodoric the Great in Milan. ... Battle of Daras: Belisarius and Hermogenes defeat the Persians in a major battle which blunts a Persian offensive into Roman Mesopotamia. ... Events Peter the Fuller is excommunicated by a synod in Rome. ... Events Belisarius is relieved of command over the Byzantine forces in Italy and replaced with Narses. ... Generally, patronage is the act of supporting or favoring some person, group, or institution. ... Events The plague killed upwards of 100,000 in Constantinople and perhaps two million or more in the rest of the Byzantine Empire (possibly exaggerated). ... Felix Ennodius (400 – before 461) was a Proconsul of Africa in ca 420 or 423. ...


His niece, also named Papianilla, clarissima femina, born ca 415, married the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul Tonantius Ferreolus. Events The Visigoths leave Gallia Narbonensis and relocate in Spain Wallia becomes king of the Visigoths. ... Praetorian prefect (Latin Praefectus praetorio) was the constant title of a high office in the Roman state that changed fundamentally in nature. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ...

Contents

Early life

Avitus was the son of a rich and distinguished family from the Arvernian region in Gaul. His father, perhaps Flavius Julius Agricola, was a Consul of Rome in 421. He first had studied law but soon dedicated himself to a military career instead where by AD 437 had achieved the rank of 'Master of Soldiers' and became praetorian prefect for Gaul. Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... This article is about the highest office of the Roman Republic. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Events February 8 - Constantius III becomes Co_Emperor of the Western Roman Empire June 7 - Roman Emperor Theodosius II marries Aelia Eudocia, formerly known as Athenais. ... Praetorian prefect (Latin Praefectus praetorio) was the constant title of a high office in the Roman state that changed fundamentally in nature. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ...


His Gallic connections served Avitus very well. In the war with Visigoths, it was Avitus who in AD 437 brought about peace between the two sides. In doing so he befriended the Visigoth king Theodoric I, over whom he enjoyed substantial influence thereafter. In AD 451 Avitus helped persuade Theodoric I to join with Aetius in fighting Attila the Hun - an alliance which led to the outstanding victory over the Huns on the Catalaunian Plains. Theodoric I was killed in the battle, but his son and successor Theodoric II by that time also was a close friend of Avitus. Gallic, derived from the name for the ancient Roman province of Gaul, describes the cultural traditions and national characters of the French speaking nations and regions, as Hispanic does for the Hispanophone world, Anglo-Saxon for the Anglophone, and Lusitanic for the Lusophone. ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... Theodoric I, sometimes called Theodorid and in Spanish Teodorico, was the King of the Visigoths from 419–451. ... Attila redirects here. ... Look up Alliance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Battle of Chalons (disambiguation). ... Theodoric II murdered his older brother Thorismund to become king of the Visigoths in 453 CE. Edward Gibbon writes that he justified this atrocious deed by the design which his predecessor had formed of violating his alliance with the empire. ...


In AD 455 Petronius Maximus recalled Avitus out of retirement to once more hold the rank of 'Master of Soldiers'. But this offer came to nothing as this emperor soon later met his violent death. Petronius Maximus on a coin. ...


Reign

However, the news of Petronius Maximus' death reached Avitus, as he was a guest at the court of Theodoric II in AD 455. Theodoric II at once urged him to take the Roman throne. Avitus at first was reluctant to do so, but eventually accepted the proposal. Petronius Maximus on a coin. ... Theodoric II murdered his older brother Thorismund to become king of the Visigoths in 453 CE. Edward Gibbon writes that he justified this atrocious deed by the design which his predecessor had formed of violating his alliance with the empire. ... March 16 - Valentinian III is murdered by former soldiers of Aëtius in revenge for Valentinians killing of Aëtius the previous year. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


A meeting of senators was called at Beaucaire (Ugernum) where Avitus was proclaimed Augustus. More significantly perhaps, on July 9 AD 455, Avitus was hailed emperor by the army. Thereafter the final step in Avitus' accession to the throne was that Marcian, the emperor of the east, also recognized him. The Washington Senators can refer to: The Washington Senators (officially named the Washington Nationals during the 1905–1956 seasons), an American League baseball team based in Washington, D.C. from 1901 to 1960. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 16 - Valentinian III is murdered by former soldiers of Aëtius in revenge for Valentinians killing of Aëtius the previous year. ... Another but lesser Marcian was a son-in-law of Byzantine Emperor Leo I and his queen Verina. ...


Only later that year did Avitus actually travel to Italy to assume his throne. On 1 January 456 he took up the office of Consul. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Capua is destroyed by the Vandals. ... This article is about the highest office of the Roman Republic. ...


But a large faction of the Roman senate strongly disapproved of having a Gallo-Roman on the throne. Not only had their consent not be sought, but their new emperor owed his accession more to the Visigoths than to anyone else. The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... This article covers the culture of Romanized areas of Gaul. ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ...


Fall

Yet a far greater problem at that time was Geiseric, who had, after sacking Rome, remained as hostile as ever and had even left behind a fleet to dominate the coasts of the empire. In order to deal with the Vandal problem Avitus appointed a Sueve called Ricimer as 'Master of Soldiers'.Ricimer owed this promotion most likely due being the maternal grandson of Wallia, the former king of the Visigoths. But Ricimer was indeed not without ability. In Sicily he repelled a Vandal landing at Agrigentum (Agrigento). Then, in AD 456, he won a naval battle off Corsica. Geiseric the Lame (circa 389 – January 25, 477), also spelled as Gaiseric or Genseric the Lame, was the King of the Vandals and Alans (428–477) and was one of the key players in the troubles of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century and created a state in North Africa, centered on the city of Carthage. ... The Suebi or Suevi were a Germanic people whose origin was near the Baltic Sea . ... Ricimers monogram is struck on the reverse of this coin by Libius Severus. ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ...


While these successes stunted the Vandals, Avitus' ally Theodoric II with his Visigoths crushed the Sueves in Spain. Avitus himself was not idle and took to the field in Pannonia. Theodoric II murdered his older brother Thorismund to become king of the Visigoths in 453 CE. Edward Gibbon writes that he justified this atrocious deed by the design which his predecessor had formed of violating his alliance with the empire. ... For other uses, see Pannonia (disambiguation). ...


But all the while in Rome resentment toward the 'foreign' emperor grew. Worse still, the domination of the sea by the Vandal fleet stopped much of the city's grain supply from getting through. A famine loomed over Rome, as stocks quickly depleted. Avitus tried his best to at least reduce the numbers of people to feed, by dismissing the Gallic and German troops whom he had brought with him to Rome. But for this the troops needed to be paid off. Money was scarce and hence some of the city's bronze statues were sold to raise the funds– an act which many Romans viewed as the 'foreigner' Avitus selling Rome's heritage. For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... For the American magazine, see Foreign Policy. ... Gallic, derived from the name for the ancient Roman province of Gaul, describes the cultural traditions and national characters of the French speaking nations and regions, as Hispanic does for the Hispanophone world, Anglo-Saxon for the Anglophone, and Lusitanic for the Lusophone. ... A troop is a military unit. ... Heritage can refer to: Cultural heritage Cultural traditions Heritage tourism Inheritance Kinship and descent Natural heritage A novel in the BBC Books series See also English Heritage UNESCO World Heritage Site This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Ricimer

Ricimer returned to Rome and, together with the senate, deposed Avitus. Most likely Ricimer, who by now was the real power in the western empire, simply didn't want to endanger his own powerful position by associating himself with such an unpopular emperor. But then so too is it possible that Ricimer, a Sueve after all, resented the crushing defeat of the Sueves in Spain by Theodoric II on Avitus' behalf.


Death

Avitus attempted to flee to Gaul with his guard, but they were defeated and he was captured near Placentia (Piacenza). In October AD 456 Ricimer tried to settle matters by granting the deposed emperor the position of bishop of Placentia.


Soon after, Avitus learned that the senate had ordered his execution. He fled toward the Alps, seeking to cross into his homeland of Gaul, hoping to find refuge there. But on the way he died, either from plague or by assassination.


Family tree

  • Avitus of Vienne was a close relative to emperor Avitus.
  • Ecdicius was the son of Avitus

Alcimus Ecdicius Avitus, Saint Avitus, was bishop of Vienne in Gaul (ca 494 - February 5, 523 ?). Avitus was born of a prominent Gallo-Roman family closely related to the Emperor Avitus and other illustrious persons, and in which episcopal honors were hereditary (his father Isychius preceded him as bishop of...

References

  • Christian Settipani, Les Ancêtres de Charlemagne (France: Éditions Christian, 1989).
  • Christian Settipani, Continuite Gentilice et Continuite Familiale Dans Les Familles Senatoriales Romaines A L'epoque Imperiale, Mythe et Realite, Addenda I - III (juillet 2000- octobre 2002) (n.p.: Prosopographica et Genealogica, 2002).

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

External links

  • Commons has media related to Avitus
  • Gibbon chapter XXXVI
  • Latin text of Sidonius's carmen
Preceded by
Petronius Maximus
Western Roman Emperor
455-456
Succeeded by
Majorian

  Results from FactBites:
 
Avitus of Vienne - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (523 words)
Avitus was born of a prominent Gallo-Roman family closely related to the Emperor Avitus and other illustrious persons, and in which episcopal honors were hereditary (his father Isychius preceded him as bishop of Vienne).
The letters of Avitus are of considerable importance for the ecclesiastical and political history of the years between 499 and 518, as primary sources of early Merovingian political, ecclesiastical, and social history.
Avitus is not the author of the so-called Dialogues with King Gundobad, written to defend the Catholic faith against the Arians, which purports to represent the famous Colloquy of Lyon in 449.
Avitus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (330 words)
Made Magister militum (or Master of Soldiers) by the emperor Petronius Maximus, Avitus was sent on a diplomatic mission to his old student, Theodoric II king of the Visigoths, and was at Theodoric's court in Toulouse when Gaiseric invaded Rome, bringing Petronius Maximus's rule to a sudden end.
Theodoric seized the opportunity and urged Avitus to assume the imperial throne, and with the acclamation of a gathering of Gallo-Roman senators, allowed himself to be persuaded.
His grandson was the poet Avitus of Vienne.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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