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Encyclopedia > Avignon Papacy
The Papal palace in Avignon
The Papal palace in Avignon

In the history of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven popes, all French, resided in Avignon: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 153 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 153 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... The facade of the Palais des Papes The Palais des Papes in Avignon, France is one of the largest and most important medieval Gothic buildings in Europe. ... The History of the Roman Catholic Church covers a period of just under two thousand years, making the Church one of the oldest continuously existing religious institutions in history. ... Events August 15 - The city of Rhodes surrenders to the forces of the Knights of St. ... // Events January 17 – Pope Gregory XI enters Rome. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Département Vaucluse (préfecture) Arrondissement Avignon Canton Chief town of 4 cantons Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération du Grand Avignon Mayor Marie-Josée Roig...

In 1378, Gregory XI moved the papal residence back to Rome and died there. Due to a dispute over the subsequent election, a faction of cardinals set up an antipope back in Avignon: Clement V, born Bertrand de Goth (also occasionally spelled Gouth and Got) (1264 – April 20, 1314), was Pope from 1305 to his death. ... Events August 5 - English troops capture William Wallace Wenceslas III becomes king of Bohemia Archbishop of Bordeaux, Bertrand de Got, was elected as Pope Clement V. Philip IV of France accused the Knights Templar of heresy. ... Events June 24 - Battle of Bannockburn. ... Pope John XXII, born Jacques Duèze or dEuse (1249 – December 4, 1334), was the son of a shoemaker in Cahors. ... Events Pope John XXII elected to the papacy. ... Events Births January 4 - Amadeus VI of Savoy, Count of Savoy (died 1383) January 13 - King Henry II of Castile (died 1379) May 25 - Emperor Suko of Japan, third of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders (died 1398) August 30 - King Peter I of Castile (died 1369) James I of Cyprus (died... Benedict XII, né Jacques Fournier ( 1280s – April 25, 1342), was Pope from 1334 to 1342. ... Events Births January 4 - Amadeus VI of Savoy, Count of Savoy (died 1383) January 13 - King Henry II of Castile (died 1379) May 25 - Emperor Suko of Japan, third of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders (died 1398) August 30 - King Peter I of Castile (died 1369) James I of Cyprus (died... Events May - Pope Clement VI elected John III Comnenus becomes emperor of Trebizond Louis becomes king of Sicily and duke of Athens Constantine IV becomes king of Armenia Patriarch of Antioch transferred to Damascus under Ignatius II Kitzbühel becomes part of Tyrol Louis I becomes king of Hungary Births... Clement VI, né Pierre Roger (1291 – December 6, 1352), the fourth of the Avignon Popes, was elected in May 1342, and reigned until his death. ... Events May - Pope Clement VI elected John III Comnenus becomes emperor of Trebizond Louis becomes king of Sicily and duke of Athens Constantine IV becomes king of Armenia Patriarch of Antioch transferred to Damascus under Ignatius II Kitzbühel becomes part of Tyrol Louis I becomes king of Hungary Births... Events June 4 - Glarus joins the Swiss Confederation. ... Innocent VI, né Étienne Aubert (1282 or 1295 – September 12, 1362), Pope at Avignon from 1352 to 1362, the successor of Pope Clement VI (1342–52), was a native of the hamlet of Les Monts, diocese of Limoges (today part of the commune of Beyssac, département of Corrèze... Events June 4 - Glarus joins the Swiss Confederation. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 - 1362 - 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 See also: 1362 state leaders Events Under Edward III, English replaces French as Englands national language, for the... Blessed Urban V, né Guillaume Grimoard (1310 – December 19, 1370), Pope from 1362 to 1370, was a native of Grizac in Languedoc (today part of the commune of Le Pont-de-Montvert, département of Lozère). ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 - 1362 - 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 See also: 1362 state leaders Events Under Edward III, English replaces French as Englands national language, for the... Events Beginning of the rule of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... Pope Gregory XI (c. ... Events Beginning of the rule of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... The coat of arms of a Cardinal are indicated by a red galero (wide-brimmed hat) with 15 tassels on each side (the motto and escutcheon are proper to the individual Cardinal). ... For the book by Robert Rankin, see The Antipope. ...

This was the period of difficulty from 1378 to 1417 which Catholic scholars refer to as the "Western schism" or, "the great controversy of the antipopes" (also called "the second great schism" by some secular and Protestant historians), when parties within the Catholic church were divided in their allegiances among the various claimants to the office of pope. The Council of Constance in 1417 finally resolved the controversy. Robert of Geneva (1342-16 September 1394) was elected to the papacy as Pope Clement VII by the French cardinals who opposed Urban VI, and was the first Avignon antipope of the Western Schism. ... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ... // Events Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, travels with King Richard II of England to Ireland. ... Benedict XIII, born Pedro Martínez de Luna, (b. ... // Events Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, travels with King Richard II of England to Ireland. ... Events July 31 - Hundred Years War: Battle of Cravant - The French army is defeated at Cravant on the banks of the river Yonne. ... Events July 21 - Battle of Shrewsbury. ... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ... Events Antipope Benedict XIII is deposed, and Pope Martin V is elected. ... Historical map of the Western Schism. ... For the book by Robert Rankin, see The Antipope. ... The term Great Schism may refer to: The East-West Schism, in 1054 between Western Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christianity. ... The Council of Constance was an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, called by the Emperor Sigismund, a supporter of Antipope John XXIII, the pope recently elected at Pisa. ... Events Antipope Benedict XIII is deposed, and Pope Martin V is elected. ...


The Pontifical States (today limited to Vatican City) included land around Avignon (Comtat Venaissin) and a small enclave to the east. They remained part of the Pontifical States up to the French Revolution: they became part of France in 1791. Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... The Comtat Venaissin, often called the Comtat for short, was the name formerly given to the region around the city of Avignon in Provence, in what is now southern France. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Contents

Background

The Papacy in the Late Middle Ages had a major secular role in addition to its spiritual role. The conflict between the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor basically boiled down to a dispute over which of them was the leader of Christendom in secular matters. In the early 14th century, the papacy was well past the prime of its secular rule – its peak of importance had passed in the 12th and 13th centuries. The success of the early crusades added greatly to the prestige of the Popes as secular leaders of Christendom, with monarchs like the Kings of England, France, and even the Emperor merely acting as Marshals for the popes, and leading "their" armies. One exception to this was Frederick II, who was twice excommunicated by the Pope during one crusade. Frederick II ignored this and was rather successful in the Holy Land. Dante by Michelino The Late Middle Ages is a term used by historians to describe European history in the period of the 14th to 16th centuries (AD 1300–1500). ... George Jacob Holyoake (1817-1906), British writer who coined the term secularism. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... Marshal (also sometimes spelled marshall in American English, but not in British English) is a word used in several official titles of various branches of society. ... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... Excommunication is religious censure which is used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Holy Land (Biblical). ...


Beginning with Clement V, elected 1305, all popes during the residence of the papacy in Avignon were French. However, this simple fact tends to overestimate this influence. Southern France at that time had a quite independent culture from Northern France, where most of the advisers to the King of France came from. Arles was at that time still independent, formally a part of the Holy Roman Empire. Domains such as Toulouse enjoyed quasi-independence. The literature produced by the "troubadour" age in the Languedoc area, is unique and strongly distinguishes its culture from that of the Royal circles in the north. Even in terms of religion, the South produced its own variant, the Cathar movement, which was ultimately declared heretical, as it clashed with doctrines of the Church. But this merely demonstrated a strong sense of independence in Southern France. Clement V, né Bertrand de Gouth (1264 - April 20, 1314) was pope from 1305 to 1314. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... Coordinates Administration Country France Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (Subprefecture) Arrondissement Arles Canton Chief town of 2 cantons: Arles-Est and Arles-Ouest Intercommunality Agglomeration community of Arles-Crau-Camargue-Montagnette Mayor Hervé Schiavetti  (PS) (2001-2008) Statistics Altitude 0 m–57 m... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... A troubadour composing lyrics, Germany c. ... Coat of arms of the province of Languedoc, now being used as an official flag by the Midi-Pyrénees region as well as by the city of Toulouse Languedoc (pronounced ) (Lengadòc (pronounced ) in Occitan) is a former province of France, now continued in the modern-day régions... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catharism. ...


A stronger source of influence was the move of the Roman Curia from Rome to Avignon in 1305. Following the impasse during the previous conclave and to escape from the infighting between the powerful families that produced former Popes, such as the Colonna and the Orsini, the Church looked for a safer place and found it in Avignon, which was surrounded by the lands of the papal fief of Comtat Venaissin. Formally it was part of Arles, but in reality it was under the strong influence of the French king. During the time in Avignon the Papacy adopted many features of the Royal court: the life-style of its cardinals was more reminiscent of princes than clerics; more and more French cardinals, often relatives of the ruling pope, took key positions; and the closeness of French troops was a constant reminder of where the secular power lay, with the memory of Boniface VIII still fresh. The Roman Curia — usually called the Vatican — is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See, coordinating and providing the necessary organisation for the correct functioning of the Catholic Church and the achievement of its goals. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Département Vaucluse (préfecture) Arrondissement Avignon Canton Chief town of 4 cantons Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération du Grand Avignon Mayor Marie-Josée Roig... Events August 5 - English troops capture William Wallace Wenceslas III becomes king of Bohemia Archbishop of Bordeaux, Bertrand de Got, was elected as Pope Clement V. Philip IV of France accused the Knights Templar of heresy. ... The Sistine Chapel is the location of the conclave. ... The Colonna family was a powerful noble family in medieval and renaissance Rome, supplying one pope and many other leaders, and fighting with their rivals the Orsini family for influence. ... The Orsini family was a powerful noble family in medieval and renaissance Rome, supplying three popes and many other leaders, and fighting with their rivals, the Colonna family, for influence. ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Département Vaucluse (préfecture) Arrondissement Avignon Canton Chief town of 4 cantons Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération du Grand Avignon Mayor Marie-Josée Roig... The Comtat Venaissin, often called the Comtat for short, was the name formerly given to the region around the city of Avignon in Provence, in what is now southern France. ... The coat of arms of a Cardinal are indicated by a red galero (wide-brimmed hat) with 15 tassels on each side (the motto and escutcheon are proper to the individual Cardinal). ... Boniface VIII, né Benedict Gaetano ( 1235 - October 11, 1303) was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1294 to 1303. ...


One of the most damaging developments for the Church grew directly out of its successful reorganisation and centralisation of the administration under Clement V and John XXII. The Papacy now directly controlled the appointments of benefices, abandoning customary election processes to secure this considerable income. Many other forms of payment brought riches to the Holy See and its cardinals: Tithes, a ten percent tax on church property, annates, the income of the first year after filling a position such as bishop, special taxes for crusades that never happened, and all forms of dispensation, from entering benefices without basic qualifications such as literacy to requests by a converted Jew to visit his unconverted parents. Popes such as John XXII, Benedict XII and Clement VI reportedly spent fortunes on expensive wardrobe and at banquets, silver and gold plates were used. Overall the public life of leading church members resembled more those of princes, rather than members of the clergy. This splendor and corruption from the head of the church found its way to the lower ranks: when a bishop had to pay up to a year's income for gaining a benefice, he sought for similar ways of raising this money from his new office. This was put to an extreme by the pardoners who sold absolutions for all kinds of sins to the poor. Where pardoners were hated, but needed to redeem one's soul, the friars who failed to follow a Christian path by failing on the vows of chastity and poverty were despised. This sentiment strengthened movements calling for a return to absolute poverty, relinquishment of all personal and church belongings, and preaching as the Lord and his disciples did. For the church, an institution embedded in the secular structure and its focus on property, this was a dangerous development and in the early 14th century most of these movements were declared heretical. These included the Fraticelli and Waldensian movements in Italy, and the Hussite movement in Bohemia (inspired by John Wycliff in England). Furthermore, the display of wealth by the upper ranks of the church, which was in contrast to the common expectation of poverty and strict adherence to principles, was used by the Papacy's enemies in raising charges against the popes: King of France Philippe employed the strategy, as did Emperor Louis IV. In his conflict with the latter, Pope John XXII excommunicated two leading philosophers, Marsilius of Padua and William Ockham, who were outspoken critics of the Papacy, and who had found refuge with Ludwig of Bavaria in Munich. In response William Ockham charged the pope with seventy errors and seven heresies. Clement V, né Bertrand de Gouth (1264 - April 20, 1314) was pope from 1305 to 1314. ... Pope John XXII, né Jacques dEuse (1249 - December 4, 1334), was elected to the papacy in 1316 and reigned until his death in 1334. ... Originally a benefice was a gift of land for life as a reward (Latin beneficium, means to do well) for services rendered. ... A tithe (from Old English teogoþa tenth) is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a (usually) voluntary contribution or as a tax or levy, usually to support a Jewish or Christian religious organization. ... Annates is money paid by Catholic clergy to the pope, and is essentially a tax on the first years income from a benefice. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about a title... Pope John XXII, né Jacques dEuse (1249 - December 4, 1334), was elected to the papacy in 1316 and reigned until his death in 1334. ... Benedict XII, née Jacques Fournier (c. ... Clement VI, né Pierre Roger (1291 - December 6, 1352), pope (1342-1352), the fourth of the France, and he further evinced his French sympathies by refusing a solemn invitation to return to Rome, and by purchasing the sovereignty of Avignon from Joanna, queen of Naples, for 80,000 crowns. ... State Banquet. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Standard atomic weight 196. ... Originally a benefice was a gift of land for life as a reward (Latin beneficium, means to do well) for services rendered. ... Absolution in a liturgical church refers to the pronouncement of Gods forgiveness of sins. ... A friar is a member of a religious mendicant order of men. ... Allegory of chastity by Hans Memling. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Look up Heresy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A medieval Roman Catholic group which can trace its origins to the Franciscan Spirituals, but which came into being as a separate entity - and problem - for the Church in 1318, when Angelo da Clareno defied the authority of Pope John XXII. Other figures included Michael of Cesena and Peter Olivi. ... The Waldensians were followers of Peter Waldo (or Valdes or Vaudes); they called themselves the Poor men of Lyon, the Poor of Lombardy, or the Poor. ... The Hussites comprised a Christian movement following the teachings of the reformer Jan Hus (circa 1369–1415), who was influenced by John Wyclif and became one of the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation. ... Wycliffe may also refer to Wycliffe Bible Translators John Wyclif (or Wycliffe) (1328 - December 31, 1384) was an English theologian and early proponent of reform in the Roman Catholic Church during the 14th century. ... Emperor Louis IV Louis IV of Bavaria (also known as Ludwig the Bavarian) of the House of Wittelsbach (1282 – October 11, 1347) was duke of Bavaria from 1294/1301 together with his brother Rudolf I, also count of the Palatinate until 1329 and, German king since 1314 and crowned as... Pope John XXII, born Jacques Duèze or dEuse (1249 – December 4, 1334), was the son of a shoemaker in Cahors. ... Marsilius of Padua (Italian Marsilio or Marsiglio da Padova) (1290 – 1342) was an Italian medieval scholar. ... William of Ockham (also Occam or any of several other spellings) (ca. ... Ludwig of Bavaria, sometimes Louis of Bavaria may refer to several Dukes and Kings of Bavaria. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ...


The proceedings against the Templars in the Council of Vienne represent an episode of this time, reflecting the powers and their relationship. In 1314 the collegium at Vienne summoned to rule over the Templars. The council, overall unconvinced about the guilt of the order as a whole, was unlikely to condemn the entire order based on the scarce evidence brought forward. Exerting massive pressure, in order to gain part of the substantial funds of the order, the king managed to get the ruling he wanted. Pope Clement V ordered by decree the suppression of the order. In the cathedral of St-Maurice in Vienne, the King of France, and his son the King of Navarre, were sitting next to him, when he issued the decree. Under pain of excommunication, no one was allowed to speak at that occasion, except when asked by the Pope. The Templars who appeared in Vienne to defend their order, were not allowed to present their case: originally cardinals of the collegium ruled that they should be allowed to raise a defense, only after the arrival of the King of France personally in Vienne, putting pressure on the collegium, the decision was revised. The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Latin: Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici), popularly known as the Knights Templar or the Order of the Temple, were among the most famous of the Christian military orders. ... Above all else, the Roman Catholic Council of Vienne was the Ecumenical Council that withdrew papal support for the Knights Templar, confirming the destruction of the rich Order by the bureaucrats of Philip IV of France. ... Events June 24 - Battle of Bannockburn. ... A college (Latin collegium) can be the name of any group of colleagues; originally it meant a group of people living together under a common set of rules (con-, together + leg-, law). As a consequence members of colleges were originally styled fellow and still are in some places. ... This article is about the French département. ... For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... Saint Maurice (also Moritz or Mauritius) was the leader of the legendary Roman Theban Legion in the 3rd century. ... Capital Pamplona Official language(s) Spanish and Basque Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 11th  10,391 km²  2. ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ...


The Papacy in the 14th Century

Conflict between the Popes and the king of France

The beginning of the century, that would later be characterised by calamities such as the Black Death and the Hundred Years' War between the two major powers in Europe, saw a Papacy apparently at the height of its power. Pope Boniface VIII (1294-1303, born Benedict Caetani), an experienced politician sometimes described as brusque and arrogant, was a ferocious proponent of the Universal Sovereignty of the Papacy over all Christendom, as stated in the 11th century Dictatus Papae. The concrete issue that sparked conflict with King Philippe IV of France was the question whether secular lords were allowed to tax the clergy. In his bull Clericis Laicos (1296), Boniface VIII prohibited any taxation on church property except by the Papacy or the payment of such taxes. But only one year later he granted Philippe IV the right to raise taxes on the clergy in cases of emergency. The great success of the Jubilee Year 1300 (it is reported that up to 2 million pilgrims visited Rome) considerably strengthened the prestige of the Papacy, brought funds to Rome and led the Pope to grossly overestimate his temporal powers. After the arrest of the Bishop of Pamiers by Philippe IV, the Pope issued the bull Salvator Mundi, retracting all privileges granted to the French king by previous popes, and a few weeks later Ausculta fili with charges against the king, summoning him before a council to Rome. In a bold assertion of Papal sovereignty, Boniface declared that "God has placed us over the Kings and Kingdoms." In response, Philippe wrote "Your venerable stupidness may know, that we are nobody's vassal in temporal matters," and called for a meeting of the Estates General, a council of the lords of France, who supported his position. The King of France issued charges of sodomy, simony, sorcery, and heresy against the pope and summoned him before the council. The pope's response was the strongest affirmation to date of papal sovereignty. In Unam Sanctam (November 18, 1302), he decreed that "it is necessary to salvation that every human creature be subject to the Roman pontiff." He was preparing a bull that would excommunicate the King of France and put the interdict over France, and to depose the entire clergy of France, when in September of 1303, William Nogaret, the strongest critic of the Papacy in the French inner circle, led a delegation to Rome, with intentionally loose orders by the king to bring the pope, if necessary by force, before a council to rule on the charges brought against him. Nogaret coordinated with the cardinals of the Colonna family, long standing rivals against whom the pope had even preached a crusade earlier in his Papacy. In 1303 French and Italian troops attacked the pope in Anagni, his home town, arresting the pope himself. He was freed three days later by the population of Anagni. However, Boniface VIII, then 86 years of age, was deeply shattered by this attack on his own person and died a few weeks later. It has been suggested that Plague doctor be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Pope Boniface VIII (c. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... // Events 24 February: Battle of Roslin 20 April: Pope Boniface VIII founds the University of Rome La Sapienza Edward I of England reconquers Scotland (see also: William Wallace, Wars of Scottish Independence) The Khilji Dynasty conquers time travel Births Saint Birgitta, Swedish saint (died 1373) Gegeen Khan, Mongol emperor of... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ... Dictatus papae is a compilation of 27 axiomatic statements of powers arrogated to the Pope that was included in Pope Gregory VIIs register under the year 1075. ... Philip IV (1268 – November 29, 1314), called the Fair (French: le Bel), son and successor of Philip III, reigned as King of France from 1285 until his death. ... Clericis laicos was a Papal bull issued on February 25, 1296 by Pope Boniface VIII in an attempt to prevent the secular states of Europe, in particular France and England, from appropriating church revenues without the express prior permission of the pope. ... March 30 - Edward I stormed Berwick-upon-Tweed, sacking the then Scottish border town with much bloodshed. ... Events 8 January - Monaco gains independence. ... Philip IV (1268 – November 29, 1314), called the Fair (French: le Bel), son and successor of Philip III, reigned as King of France from 1285 until his death. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Pamiers is a commune of the Ariège département, in southwestern France. ... Philip IV the Fair (French: Philippe IV le Bel) (1268 – November 29, 1314) was King of France from 1285 until his death. ... In France under the Ancien Regime, the States-General or Estates-General (French: états généraux), was a legislative assembly (see The States) of the different classes (or estates) of French subjects. ... François Elluin, Sodomites provoking the wrath of God, from Le pot pourri de Loth (1781). ... Look up simony in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Sorceress by John William Waterhouse Magic and sorcery are the influencing of events, objects, people and physical phenomena by mystical, paranormal or supernatural means. ... Look up Heresy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... On November 18, 1302, Pope Boniface VIII issued the Papal bull Unam sanctam (The One Holy), which historians consider one of the most extreme statements of Papal spiritual supremacy ever made. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events July 11 - Battle of the Golden Spurs (Guldensporenslag in Dutch), major victory of Flanders over the French occupier. ... In Rome, the title of Supreme Pontiff (in Latin, Pontifex Maximus), belongs to the chief religious official of the city. ... The word interdict usually refers to an ecclesiastical penalty in the Roman Catholic Church. ... // Events 24 February: Battle of Roslin 20 April: Pope Boniface VIII founds the University of Rome La Sapienza Edward I of England reconquers Scotland (see also: William Wallace, Wars of Scottish Independence) The Khilji Dynasty conquers time travel Births Saint Birgitta, Swedish saint (died 1373) Gegeen Khan, Mongol emperor of... Guillaume de Nogaret (1260-70 - 1313) was councillor and keeper of the seal to Philip IV of France. ... The Colonna family was a powerful noble family in medieval and renaissance Rome, supplying one pope and many other leaders, and fighting with their rivals the Orsini family for influence. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Anagni, (Latin Anagnia) is an ancient town in Latium, Italy, in the hills east-southeast of Rome, famous for its connections with the papacy and for the picturesque monuments of its unspoiled historical center. ...


Cooperation

The death of Pope Boniface deprived the Papacy of its most able politician who could hold his ground against the secular power of the king of France. After the conciliatory Papacy of Benedict XI (1303-04), Clement V (1305-1314) became the next pontiff. He was born in Gascony, in southern France, but not directly connected to the French court. He owed his election to the French clerics. He decided against moving to Rome and established his court in Avignon. In this situation of dependency on the powerful neighbours in France, three principles characterised the politics by Clement V: the suppression of the heretic movements (such as the Cathars in southern France); the reorganisation of the internal administration of the church; and the preservation of an untainted image of the church as the sole instrument of God's will on earth. The latter was directly challenged by Philippe IV when he pushed for a trial against his former adversary, Pope Boniface VIII, for alleged heresy. Exerting strong influence on the cardinals of the collegium, this could mean a severe blow to the church's authority. And much of Clement's politics was designed to avoid such a blow, which he finally did. However, the price was concessions on various fronts; despite strong personal doubts, in the end he pushed for proceedings against the Templars, and he personally ruled to suppress the order. Benedict XI, né Nicholas Boccasini (1240 -July 7, 1304), pope (1303 - 1304), succeeded the famous Dominican education, and when he was made Master General of the order in 1296, he issued ordinances forbidding public questioning of the legitimacy of Bonifaces election on the part of any Dominican. ... Clement V, né Bertrand de Gouth (1264 - April 20, 1314) was pope from 1305 to 1314. ... Pontiff is a title of certain religious leaders, now used principally to refer to the Mercinary of the New Church. ... Map of the historical and cultural area of Gascony. ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Département Vaucluse (préfecture) Arrondissement Avignon Canton Chief town of 4 cantons Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération du Grand Avignon Mayor Marie-Josée Roig... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catharism. ... Look up Heresy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Latin: Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici), popularly known as the Knights Templar or the Order of the Temple, were among the most famous of the Christian military orders. ...


One important issue during the Papacy of John XXII (born Jaques Dueze in Cahors, and previously Archbishop in Avignon), was his conflict with Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor. The latter refuted the right of the pope to install the Emperor by coronation. He resorted to a similar tactic as King of France Philippe earlier and summoned the nobles of Germany to back his decision. Marsilius of Padua gave the justification of this secular supremacy over the lands in the Holy Roman Empire. This conflict with the Emperor, often fought out in expensive wars, drove the Papacy even more into the arms of the French king. Pope John XXII, né Jacques dEuse (1249 - December 4, 1334), was elected to the papacy in 1316 and reigned until his death in 1334. ... Cahors is a town in Western France in the Lot département. ... Emperor Louis IV Louis IV of Bavaria (also known as Ludwig the Bavarian) of the House of Wittelsbach (1282 – October 11, 1347) was duke of Bavaria from 1294/1301 together with his brother Rudolf I, also count of the Palatinate until 1329 and, German king since 1314 and crowned as... Marsilius of Padua (Italian Marsilio or Marsiglio da Padova) (1290 – 1342) was an Italian medieval scholar. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ...


Pope Benedict XII (1334-1342), born Jaques Fournier in Pamiers, was previously active in the inquisition against the Cathar movement. In contrast to the rather bloody picture of the inquisition in general, he was reported to be very careful about the souls of the examined, taking a lot of time in the proceedings. His interest in pacifying southern France was also motivation for mediating between the king of France and the King of England, before the outbreak of the Hundred Years' War. Benedict XII, née Jacques Fournier (c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catharism. ... Inquisition (capitalized I) is broadly used, to refer to things related to judgment of heresy by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ...


Submission

Under Pope Clement VI (1342-1352) the French interests started dominating the Papacy. Clement VI had been Archbishop of Rouen and advisor to Philippe IV before, so his links to the French court were much stronger than those of his predecessors. At some point he even financed French war efforts out of his own pockets. He reportedly loved luxurious wardrobe and under his rule the extravagant life style in Avignon reached new heights. Clement VI, né Pierre Roger (1291 - December 6, 1352), pope (1342-1352), the fourth of the France, and he further evinced his French sympathies by refusing a solemn invitation to return to Rome, and by purchasing the sovereignty of Avignon from Joanna, queen of Naples, for 80,000 crowns. ... The Archbishop of Rouen is Primate of Normandy and one of the fifteen Archbishops of France. ...


Clement VI is also the pope who reigned during the Black Plague. This epidemic swept through Europe between 1347-1350, and is believed to have killed about 1/3 of Europe's population. This article concerns the epidemic of the mid-14th century. ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ... Events 29 August - An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet in the battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer. ... Medieval demography is the study of human demography in Europe during the Middle Ages. ...


Pope Innocent VI (1352-1362), born Etienne Aubert, was less partisan than Clement VI. He was keen on establishing peace between France and England, having worked to this end in papal delegations in 1345 and 1348. His gaunt appearance and austere manners commanded higher respect in the eyes of nobles at both sides of the conflict. However, he was also indecisive and impressionable, already an old man when being elected Pope. In this situation, the King of France managed to influence the Papacy, although papal legates played key roles in various attempts to stop the conflict. Most notably in 1353 the Bishop of Porto, Guy de Boulogne, tried to set up a conference. After initial successful talks the effort failed, largely due to the mistrust from English side over Guy's strong ties with the French court. In a letter Innocent VI himself wrote to the Duke of Lancaster: "Although we were born in France and although for that and other reasons we hold the realm of France in special affection, yet in working for peace we have put aside our private prejudices and tried to serve the interests of everyone". Innocent VI, né Stephen Aubert (1282 - September 12, 1362), pope at Avignon from 1352 to 1362, the successor of Clement VI, was a native of the diocese of Limoges, and, after having taught civil law at Toulouse, became bishop successively of Noyon and of Clermont. ... Events Miracle of the Host Births October 31 - King Fernando I of Portugal (died 1383) Agnès of Valois, daughter of John II of France (died 1349) Eleanor Maltravers, English noblewoman (died 1405) Deaths April 14 - Richard Aungerville, English writer and bishop (born 1287) September 16 - John IV, Duke of... April 7 - Charles University is founded in Prague. ... Events The Decameron was finished by Giovanni Boccaccio. ... The Roman Catholic diocese of Porto and Santa-Rufina (Portuensis et Sanctae Rufinae) was formed from the union of two suburbicarian sees of Rome. ... There were several Dukes of Lancaster in the 14th and early 15th Centuries. ...


With Pope Urban V (1362-70) the control of the French court over the Papacy became more direct. Urban V himself is described as the most austere of the Avignon popes after Benedict XII and probably the most spiritual of all. However, he was not a strategist and made substantial concessions to the French crown especially in finances, a crucial issue during the war with England. In 1369 Pope Urban V supported the marriage of Philip the Bold of Burgundy and Margaret of Flanders, rather than giving dispensation to one of Edward III's sons to marry Margaret. This clearly showed the partisanship of the Papacy, and correspondingly the respect of the church dropped. Urban V, né Guillaume de Grimoald (1310 - December 19, 1370), pope from 1362 to 1370, was a native of Grisae in Languedoc. ... Events King Charles V of France renounces the treaty of Brétigny and war is declared between France and England. ... Philip II, Duke of Burgundy Philip II, Duke of Burgundy, known as the Bold (Philippe II de Bourgogne, le Hardi in French) (January 15, 1342, Pontoise – April 27, 1404, Halle), was the fourth son of King John II of France and his wife, Bonne (Judith), daughter of the king and... Coat of arms of the second Duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: ; German: ) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks; the former gave their... Margaret of Dampierre, Countess of Flanders Margaret of Dampierre (13 April 1350–16/21 March 1405) was Countess of Flanders and twice Duchess of Burgundy. ... This article is about the King of England. ...


Schism: The War of the Eight Saints

Main article: War of the Eight Saints
A medieval map of Rome from a manuscript of the period (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, MS Ital. 81, folio 18). The illustration shows Rome personified as widow grieving the loss of the papacy.

The most influential decision in the reign of Pope Gregory XI (1370-1378) was the return to Rome in 1378. Although the Pope was French born and still under strong influence by the French King, the increasing conflict between factions friendly and hostile to the Pope posed a threat to the Papal lands and to the allegiance of Rome itself. When the Papacy established an embargo against grain exports during a food scarcity 1374/75, Florence organised several cities into a league against the Papacy: Milan, Bologna, Perugia, Pisa, Lucca and Genoa. The papal legate, Robert de Geneva, a relative to the House of Savoy, pursued a particularly ruthless policy against the league to re-establish control over these cities. He convinced Pope Gregory to hire Breton mercenaries. To quell an uprising of the inhabitants of Cesena he hired John Hawkwood and had the majority of the people massacred (between 2500 and 3500 people were reported dead). Following such events opposition against the Papacy strengthened. Florence came in open conflict with the Pope, a conflict called "the war of the eight saints" in reference to the eight Florentine councillors who were chosen to orchestrate the conflict. The entire city of Florence was excommunicated and as reply the export of clerical taxes was stopped. The trade was seriously hampered and both sides had to find a solution. In his decision about returning to Rome, the Pope was also under the influence of Catherine of Siena, later canonised, who preached for a return to Rome. Combatants Papal States Coalition of Italian city-states: Florence Milan Siena Commanders John Hawkwoodα Robert of Genevaβ Otto della guerra αUntil 1377 βFrom 1377 The War of the Eight Saints (1375-1378) was a war between Pope Gregory XI and a coalition of Italian city-states led by Florence, which... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1043x1636, 147 KB)Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, MS Ital. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1043x1636, 147 KB)Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, MS Ital. ... Gregory XI, né Pierre Roger de Beaufort ( 1336 - March 27, 1378), pope from 1370 to 1378, born in Limousin in 1336, succeeded Urban V in 1370 as one of the Avignon popes. ... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ... Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... Coordinates: , Sovereign state Italy Region Lombardy Province Province of Milan Insubric settlement c. ... Bologna (IPA , from Latin Bononia, BulÃ¥ggna in Emiliano-Romagnolo) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. ... Location of Perugia in Italy Coordinates: Country Italy Region Umbria Province Province of Perugia Government  - Mayor Renato Locchi Area  - City 449 km²  (1,165 sq mi) Elevation 493 m (1,617. ... Leaning Tower of Pisa. ... Chrono Trigger character, see Lucca (Chrono Trigger). ... Genoa (Genova [] in Italian - Zena [] in Genoese) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria. ... Flag of Savoy This article is about the historical region of Savoy. ... Cesena (ancient Caesena) is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy, south of Ravenna and west of Rimini, on the Savio River, co-chief of the Province of Forlì-Cesena. ... Sir John Hawkwood (1320-1394) was an English mercenary or condottiere in the 14th century Italy. ... Saint Catherine of Siena (March 25, 1347 - April 29, 1380) was a Dominican Tertiary (lay affiliate) of the Dominican Order. ...


The schism itself was finally ended by a series of councils up to 1417. The establishment of the church councils, with the power to decide over the position of Pope, was one of the main outcomes of the schism. However, it did not survive long beyond 1417. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      An Ecumenical Council (also sometimes Oecumenical... Events Antipope Benedict XIII is deposed, and Pope Martin V is elected. ... Events Antipope Benedict XIII is deposed, and Pope Martin V is elected. ...


Criticism

The period has been called the "Babylonian captivity" of the popes. When and where this term originated is uncertain. Petrarch, in a letter to a friend (1340-1353) written during his stay at Avignon, described Avignon of that time as the "Babylon of the west," referring to the worldly practices of the church hierarchy. The term arose in 1350 from Petrarch's letters On the Papal Court at Avignon. The nickname is polemical, in that it refers to the claim by critics that the prosperity of the church at this time was accompanied by a profound compromise of the Papacy's spiritual integrity, especially in the alleged subordination of the powers of the Church to the ambitions of the French kings. As noted, the "captivity" of the popes at Avignon lasted about the same time as the exile of the Jews in Babylon, making the analogy convenient and rhetorically potent. The Avignon papacy has been and is often today depicted as being totally dependent on the French kings, and sometimes as even being treacherous to its spiritual role and its heritage in Rome. Babylonian captivity also refers to the permanence of the Avignon Papacy. ... From the c. ... From the c. ...


Almost a century and a half later, Protestant reformer Martin Luther wrote his treatise On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church (1520), but that had nothing to do with the Western Schism or papacy in Avignon. Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church is a theological and historical work by the Protestant Reformer, Martin Luther. ...


Summary

The relationship between the Papacy and France changed drastically over the course of the 14th century. Starting with open conflict between Pope Boniface VIII and King Philippe IV of France, it turned to cooperation from 1305 to 1342, and finally to a Papacy under strong influence by the French throne up to 1378. Such partisanship of the Papacy was one of the reasons for the dropping esteem for the institution, which in turn was one of the reasons for the schism from 1378-1417. In the period of the Schism, the power struggle in the Papacy became a battlefield of the major powers, with France supporting the Pope in Avignon and England supporting the Pope in Rome. At the end of the century, still in the state of schism, the Papacy had lost most of its direct political power, and the nation states of France and England were established as the main powers in Europe. The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Boniface VIII, né Benedict Gaetano ( 1235 - October 11, 1303) was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1294 to 1303. ... Philippe IV, recumbent statue on his tomb, Royal Necropolis, Saint Denis Basilica Philip IV (French: Philippe IV; 1268–November 29, 1314) was King of France from 1285 until his death. ... Events August 5 - English troops capture William Wallace Wenceslas III becomes king of Bohemia Archbishop of Bordeaux, Bertrand de Got, was elected as Pope Clement V. Philip IV of France accused the Knights Templar of heresy. ... Events May - Pope Clement VI elected John III Comnenus becomes emperor of Trebizond Louis becomes king of Sicily and duke of Athens Constantine IV becomes king of Armenia Patriarch of Antioch transferred to Damascus under Ignatius II Kitzbühel becomes part of Tyrol Louis I becomes king of Hungary Births... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ... Historical map of the Western Schism. ... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ... Events Antipope Benedict XIII is deposed, and Pope Martin V is elected. ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Département Vaucluse (préfecture) Arrondissement Avignon Canton Chief town of 4 cantons Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération du Grand Avignon Mayor Marie-Josée Roig... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ...


Overall, it seems an exaggeration to characterise the Papacy as a puppet of the French throne. Even during its Avignon period, 1305 - 1378, the Papacy always pursued its own goals of uniting Christian lords (for example by mediating between France and England) and to uphold the position of the Church (for example by preventing charges of heresy against Boniface VIII made by King Philippe). Only in later times, when a strong French King faced a weak pope, the Papacy made significant concessions to the French king, as under the most French-friendly Pope Urban V who was pressured by the King of France. The basis for exerting such pressure can be found in the changed balance of power in the 14th century. The claim of the Papacy for universal sovereignty, reiterated since Gregory VII's "Dictatus Papae" and championed by Boniface VIII at the beginning of the century, was impossible to uphold in the face of Scholastic movements and the influential works of Marsilius of Padua and William of Occam. The administrative reorganisation beginning with Clement V was successful in bringing funds to the Holy See. However, the focus on administrative and juristic issues characterised the entire Avignon Papacy and consequently it lost much respect among lower nobility and common people, who were more sympathetic to religious orders vowed to poverty rather than to a church hierarchy where cardinals often lived lives of Princes. Events August 5 - English troops capture William Wallace Wenceslas III becomes king of Bohemia Archbishop of Bordeaux, Bertrand de Got, was elected as Pope Clement V. Philip IV of France accused the Knights Templar of heresy. ... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ... Look up Heresy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Boniface VIII, né Benedict Gaetano ( 1235 - October 11, 1303) was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1294 to 1303. ... Urban V, né Guillaume de Grimoald (1310 - December 19, 1370), pope from 1362 to 1370, was a native of Grisae in Languedoc. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Dictatus papae is a compilation of 27 axiomatic statements of powers arrogated to the Pope that was included in Pope Gregory VIIs register under the year 1075. ... Boniface VIII, né Benedict Gaetano ( 1235 - October 11, 1303) was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1294 to 1303. ... Scholastic is the official student publication of the University of Notre Dame. ... Marsilius of Padua (Italian Marsilio or Marsiglio da Padova) (1290 – 1342) was an Italian medieval scholar. ... William of Ockham (also Occam or any of several other spellings) (ca. ... Clement V, né Bertrand de Gouth (1264 - April 20, 1314) was pope from 1305 to 1314. ...


References

  1. Propylaen Weltgeschichte, Band 5 "Islam, Die Entstehung Europas",
  2. Chapter "Das Hochmittelalter", François-Louis Ganshof, p 395ff in [1].
  3. Chapter "Religioese und Geistige Bewegungen im Hochmittelalter" Arno Brost, p 489ff in [1].
  4. Chapter "Europa im 14. Jahrhundert", A.R. Myers, 563ff, in [1].
  5. George Holmes (ed.) "The Oxford History of Medieval Europe", Oxford University Press, 1988.
  6. Chapter "The Civilization of Courts and Cities in the North, 1200-1500", Malcom Vale, in [5].
  7. Piers Paul Read, "The Templars", Phoenix Press..
  8. Chapter 17, "The Temple Destroyed", in [7].
  9. Jonathan Sumption, "Trial by Fire", Faber and Faber, 1999.
  10. Barbara Tuchman "A Distant Mirror", Papermac, 1978.
  11. Chapter 16 "The Papal Schism" in [10].
  12. "Weltgeschichte", Sechster Band, Mitteleuropa und Nordeuropa, Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig und Wien, 1906
  13. Hans F. Helmolt VI. "Die westliche Entfaltung des Christentums" in [12].
  14. Ladurie, E. le Roi. "Montaillou, Catholics and Cathars in a French Village, 1294-1324", trans. B. Bray, 1978. Also published as "Montaillou: The Promised Land of Error".
  15. Yves Renouard "Avignon Papacy"

François-Louis Ganshof (1895-1980) was a Belgian historian of the middle ages. ... George Holmes is Chichele Professor of Medieval History Emeritus at the University of Oxford. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies (1733 words)
The last was particularly damaging, since the papacy in Avignon had declared that the sacraments were necessary to salvation.
The Avignon papacy did much to improve he organization and functioning of the machinery of the Church, establishing the major offices that still operate today.
The papacy was generally identified with Rome and was never trusted while it was in Avignon.
Avignon Papacy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3266 words)
This nickname is polemical, in that it refers to the claim by critics that the prosperity of the church at this time was accompanied by a profound compromise of the Papacy's spiritual integrity, especially in the alleged subordination of the powers of the Church to the ambitions of the French kings.
Such partisanship of the Papacy was one of the reasons for the dropping esteem for the institution, which in turn was one of the reasons for the schism from 1378-1417.
The claim of the Papacy for universal sovereignty, reiterated since Gregory VII's "Dictatus Papae" and championed by Boniface VIII at the beginning of the century, was impossible to uphold in the face of Scholastic movements and the influential works of Marsilius of Padua and William of Occam.
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