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Encyclopedia > Avignon

Coordinates: 43°56′58″N, 04°48′32″E Avignon Regional County Municipality is located in eastern Quebec, on the Gaspé peninsula, on Chaleur Bay. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Ville d'Avignon
Location
Map highlighting the commune of Avignon
Time Zone CET (GMT +1)
Coordinates 43°56′58″N, 04°48′32″E
Administration
Country France
Region Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
Department Vaucluse (préfecture)
Arrondissement Avignon
Canton Chief town of 4 cantons
Intercommunality Communauté
d'agglomération
du Grand Avignon
Mayor Marie-Josée Roig (UMP)
(2001-2008)
Statistics
Elevation 10 m–122 m
(avg. 23 m)
Land area¹ 64.78 km²
Population²
(2005)
90,900
 - Density 1,326/km² (1999)
Miscellaneous
INSEE/Postal code 84007/ 84000
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.
2 Population sans doubles comptes: single count of residents of multiple communes (e.g. students and military personnel).
France
Historic Centre of Avignon: Papal Palace, Episcopal Ensemble and Avignon Bridge*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

State Party Flag of France France
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iv
Reference 228
Region Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1995  (19th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

Avignon (/aviɲɔ̃/ in French) (Provençal Occitan: Avinhon in classical norm or Avignoun in Mistralian norm) is a commune in southern France with an estimated mid-2004 population of 89,300 in the city itself and a population of 290,466 in the metropolitan area at the 1999 census. Image File history File links Paris_plan_pointer_b_jms. ... Image File history File links France_jms. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... This list of countries, arranged alphabetically, gives an overview of countries of the world. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... (Région flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Alpes-de-Haute-Provence Alpes-Maritimes Bouches-du-Rhône Hautes-Alpes Var Vaucluse Arrondissements 18 Cantons 237 Communes 963 Statistics Land area1 31,400 km² Population (Ranked 3rd)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Departments (French: IPA: ) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... The Vaucluse is a département in the southeast of France. ... In France, a préfecture is the capital city of a département. ... The 100 French departments are divided into 342 arrondissements, which may be translated into English as districts. ... The arrondissement of Avignon is an arrondissement of France, located in the Vaucluse département, of the Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur région. ... The cantons of France are administrative divisions subdividing arrondissements and départements. ... Map of the 36,568 communes of metropolitan France. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... The Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un Mouvement Populaire, UMP), is the main French centre-right political party. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... INSEE is the French abbreviation for the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (French: Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques). ... Postal codes were introduced in France in 1972, when La Poste introduced automated sorting. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... For other meanings, see Estuary (disambiguation) Río de la Plata estuary An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ... This page lists English translations of several Latin phrases and abbreviations, such as and . ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Avignon, France, the Palais des Papes (Papal Palace). ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Provençal (Provençau in Provençal language) is one of several dialects spoken by a minority of people in southern France and other areas of France and Italy. ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ... Map of the 36,568 communes of metropolitan France. ... In France an aire urbaine (literally: urban area) is roughly the equivalent of a US Metropolitan Statistical Area. ...


The city is well known for its Palais des Papes (Palace of the Popes), where the Popes lived for much of the 14th century. The facade of the Palais des Papes The Palais des Papes in Avignon, France is one of the largest and most important medieval Gothic buildings in Europe. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Geography

View over the Rhône River to North-East with Mt Ventoux at the rear and the Pont Saint-Bénezet or "Pont d'Avignon" at left
View over the Rhône River to North-East with Mt Ventoux at the rear and the Pont Saint-Bénezet or "Pont d'Avignon" at left


Avignon is the capital of the Vaucluse département. It is situated on the left bank of the Rhône, a few miles above its confluence with the Durance, about 580 km (360 m.) south-south-east of Paris, 143 m. south of Lyon and 85 km (55 m.) north-north-west of Marseille. Its coordinates are 43°57′N, 4°50′E. Avignon occupies a large oval-shaped area, not fully populated and covered in great part by parks and gardens. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x716, 280 KB) Summary Avignon France Total View Own Picture 07/2005 Photographer: Rolf Süssbrich Légende détaillée de la photo : à gauche, sur le bras gauche du Rhône (fr), le pont Saint-Bénezet (fr) avec, en... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x716, 280 KB) Summary Avignon France Total View Own Picture 07/2005 Photographer: Rolf Süssbrich Légende détaillée de la photo : à gauche, sur le bras gauche du Rhône (fr), le pont Saint-Bénezet (fr) avec, en... Mont Ventoux is a mountain in the Provence region of southern France, located some 20 km north-east of Carpentras, Vaucluse at coordinates 44°10′N 5°17′E. On the north-side, the mountain borders the Drôme département. ... The Pont dAvignon, also known as the Pont St-Bénezet, is a famous medieval bridge in the town of Avignon, in southern France. ... The Vaucluse is a département in the southeast of France. ... Departments (French: IPA: ) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... The Rhône River, or the Rhône (French Rhône, Arpitan Rôno, Occitan Ròse, standard German Rhone, Valais German Rotten), is one of the major rivers of Europe, running through Switzerland and France. ... Durance is a 320 km long river in south-eastern France. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines The Old Port of Marseille Location Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban...


Avignon is subject to violent winds, of which the strongest is the mistral. The popular proverb is, however, somewhat exaggerated, Avenie ventosa, sine vento venenosa, cum vento fastidiosa (windy Avignon, pest-ridden when there is no wind, wind-pestered when there is). Mistral is an atmospheric phenomenon that occurs mostly in the winter and spring in the Gulf of Lion. ...


Administration

Avignon is the préfecture (capital) of the Vaucluse département in the region of Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur. It forms the core of the Grand Avignon metropolitan area (communauté d'agglomération), which comprises twelve communes on both sides of the river: In France, a préfecture is the capital city of a département. ... The Vaucluse is a département in the southeast of France. ... A communauté dagglomération is a metropolitan government structure in France, created by the Loi Chevénement in 1999. ...

  • Les Angles, Rochefort-du-Gard, Saze and Villeneuve-lès-Avignon in the Gard département;
  • Avignon, Caumont-sur-Durance, Jonquerettes, Morières-lès-Avignon, Le Pontet, Saint-Saturnin-lès-Avignon, Vedène and Velleron in the Vaucluse département.

Rochefort-du-Gard is a town and commune in the Gard département, in southern France. ... Villeneuve-lès-Avignon is a town and commune in the Gard département, in southern France. ... Gard (Occitan: Gard) is a department located in southern France in the Languedoc-Roussillon region. ... Caumont-sur-Durance is a commune of the Vaucluse département in southern France. ... Le Pontet is a French commune situated in the Vaucluse département of the Provence-Alpes-Cote dAzur région of south-east France. ...

History

Early history

The site of Avignon was settled very early on; the rocky outcrop (le Rocher les Doms) at the north end of the town, overlooking the Rhône River, may have been the site of a Celtic oppidum or hill fort. The Rhône River, or the Rhône (French Rhône, Arpitan Rôno, Occitan Ròse, standard German Rhone, Valais German Rotten), is one of the major rivers of Europe, running through Switzerland and France. ... This article is about the European people. ... Oppidum (plural oppida) is a Latin word meaning the main settlement in any administrative area of ancient Rome. ... A hill fort is a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for military advantage. ...


Avignon, written as Avennio or Avenio in the ancient texts and inscriptions, takes its name from the Avennius clan. Founded by the Gallic tribe of the Cavares or Cavari, it became the centre of an important Phocaean colony from Massilia (present Marseilles). Tarasque de Noves The Cavares or Cavari were a Gallic tribe, or a federation of tribes, located in lower Rhone valley. ... Phocaea (Greek: Φώκαια) (modern-day Foça in Turkey) was an ancient Ionian Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia. ... Marseilles redirects here. ...


Under the Romans, Avenio aflourishing city of Gallia Narbonensis, the first Transalpine province of the Roman Empire, but very little from this period remains (a few fragments of the forum near Rue Molière). Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis, 120 AD Gallia Narbonensis was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France. ... The Forum of Jerash, in Jordan. ...


During the inroads of the barbarians, it was badly damaged in the 5th century and belonged in turn to the Goths, the kingdoms of Burgundy and of Arles, the Ostrogoths and the Frankish-Merovingian kings of Austrasia. In 736 it fell into the hands of the Saracens and was destroyed in 737 by the Franks under Charles Martel for having sided with the Arabs against him. Boso having been proclaimed Burgundian King of Provence, or of Arelat (after its capital Arles), by the Synod of Mantaille, at the death of Louis the Stammerer (879), Avignon ceased to belong to the Frankish kings. barbarians is a mini-series on the history channel which tells the story of four of the most barbariac tribes of the early and late middle ages. ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... For other uses, see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... Austrasia & Neustria Austrasia formed the north-eastern portion of the Kingdom of the Merovingian Franks, comprising parts of the territory of present-day eastern France, western Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands. ... For the rugby club Saracens see Saracens (rugby club) The term Saracen comes from Greek sarakenoi. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Charles Martel (or, in modern English, Charles the Hammer) (23 August 686 – 22 October 741) was proclaimed Mayor of the Palace, ruling the Franks in the name of a titular King, and proclaimed himself Duke of the Franks (the last four years of his reign he did not even bother... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... The following is a list of the Kings of Burgundy. ... The following is a list of the Kings of Burgundy. ... The Synod of Mantaille was held in Mantaille, in the southwestern rench region of Provence, on 15 October 879 by the bishops and nobles of the region around the rivers Rhône and Saône. ... Louis the Stammerer (November 1, 846 — April 10, 879; French: ), was the eldest son of Charles the Bald and Ermentrude of Orléans. ...

Square below the Palace of the Popes
Square below the Palace of the Popes

In 1033, when Conrad II fell heir to the Kingdom of Arelat, Avignon passed to the empire. The German rulers being at a distance, Avignon took advantage of their absence to set up as a republic with a consular form of government, between 1135 and 1146. In addition to the Emperor, the Counts of Forcalquier, of Toulouse and of Provence exercised a purely nominal sway over the city; on two occasions, in 1125 and in 1251, the Counts of Toulouse and Provence divided their rights in regard to it, while the Count of Forcalquier resigned any right he possessed to the local Bishops and Consuls in 1135. Description Photo of Avignon Source fr:Image:Avignon-place-palais. ... Description Photo of Avignon Source fr:Image:Avignon-place-palais. ... Conrad II (circa 990 - June 4, 1039) was the son of count Henry of Speyer. ... Forcalquier is a commune of the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence département, in France. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... Coat of arms of Provence Provence (Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) was a Roman province and now is a region of southeastern France on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Italy. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... Coat of arms of Provence Provence (Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) was a Roman province and now is a region of southeastern France on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Italy. ... Forcalquier is a commune of the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence département, in France. ... This article is about the Roman rank. ...


At the end of the 12th century, Avignon declared itself an independent republic, but independence was crushed in 1226 during the crusade against the Albigenses (the dualist Cathar heresy centered in neighboring Albi). After the citizens refused to open the gates of Avignon to King Louis VIII of France and the papal Legate, a three month siege ensued starting on June 10th, 1226, and ending in capitulation by Avignon on September 13th, 1226. Following the defeat, they were forced to pull down the ramparts and fill up the moat of the city. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catharism. ... Louis VIII the Lion (5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. ...


On 7 May 1251 Avignon was made a common possession of counts Charles of Anjou and Alphonse de Poitiers, brothers of French king Saint Louis IX. On 25 August 1271, at the death of Alphonse de Poitiers, Avignon and the surrounding countship Comtat-Venaissin (which was governed by rectors since 1274) were united with the French crown. Charles I (March 1227 - January 7, 1285) was the posthumous son of King Louis VIII of France, created Count of Anjou by his elder brother King Louis IX in 1246, thus founding the second Angevin dynasty. ... Alphonse, Count of Toulouse and of Poitiers (November 11, 1220 - August 21, 1271) was the son of Louis VIII, King of France, and the brother of St Louis (Louis IX). ... Representation of Saint Louis considered to be true to life - Early 14th century statue from the church of Mainneville, Eure, France Louis IX or Saint Louis (April 25, 1215 – August 25, 1270) was King of France from 1226 untidl his death. ... Alphonse, Count of Toulouse and of Poitiers (November 11, 1220 - August 21, 1271) was the son of Louis VIII, King of France, and the brother of St Louis (Louis IX). ... The Comtat Venaissin, often called the Comtat for short, was the name formerly given to the region around the city of Avignon in Provence, in what is now southern France. ... The word rector (ruler, from the Latin regere) has a number of different meanings, but all of them indicate someone who is in charge of something. ...


Avignon and its Popes

Main article: Avignon Papacy
Paul V's coat-of-arms on a building located opposite the Palais des papes
Paul V's coat-of-arms on a building located opposite the Palais des papes
The Notre Dame des Doms cathedral is located in the heart of Avignon, near the Palais des Papes.
The Notre Dame des Doms cathedral is located in the heart of Avignon, near the Palais des Papes.
This photo of Notre Dame des Doms cathedral shows the Palais des Papes just to the right.
This photo of Notre Dame des Doms cathedral shows the Palais des Papes just to the right.

In 1309 the city was chosen by Pope Clement V as his residence when the city and the surrounding Comtat Venaissin were ruled by the kings of Sicily from the house of Anjou, and from 9 March 1309 till 13 January 1377 was the seat of the Papacy instead of Rome. French King Philip the Fair, who had inherited from his father all the rights of Alphonse de Poitiers, the last Count of Toulouse, made them over to Charles II, King of Naples and Count of Provence (1290). Nonetheless, Phillip was a shrewd ruler. Inasmuch as the eastern banks of the Rhone marked the edge of his kingdom, when the river flooded up into the city of Avignon, Phillip taxed the city since during periods of flood, the city technically lay within his domain. Regardless, on the strength of the donation of Avignon, Queen Joanna I of Sicily, as countess of Provence, sold the city to Clement VI for 80,000 florins on 9 June, 1348 and, though it was later the seat of more than one antipope, Avignon belonged to the Papacy until 1791, when, during the disorder of the French Revolution, it was reincorporated with France. The Papal palace in Avignon In the history of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven popes, all French, resided in Avignon: Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Clement VI... Download high resolution version (426x640, 74 KB) Description Photo of Avignon Source fr:Image:Avignon-palais. ... Download high resolution version (426x640, 74 KB) Description Photo of Avignon Source fr:Image:Avignon-palais. ... Paul V, né Camillo Borghese (Rome, September 17, 1552 – January 28, 1621) was Pope from May 16, 1605 until his death. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2160x1440, 529 KB) A photo of the Notre Dame des Doms cathedral in Avignon, France. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2160x1440, 529 KB) A photo of the Notre Dame des Doms cathedral in Avignon, France. ... The facade of the Palais des Papes The Palais des Papes in Avignon, France is one of the largest and most important medieval Gothic buildings in Europe. ... The facade of the Palais des Papes The Palais des Papes in Avignon, France is one of the largest and most important medieval Gothic buildings in Europe. ... Clement V, born Bertrand de Goth (also occasionally spelled Gouth and Got) (1264 – April 20, 1314), was Pope from 1305 to his death. ... The Comtat Venaissin, often called the Comtat for short, was the name formerly given to the region around the city of Avignon in Provence, in what is now southern France. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Modern département of Maine-et-Loire, which largely corresponds to Anjou Anjou is a former county (c. ... Philippe IV, recumbent statue on his tomb, Royal Necropolis, Saint Denis Basilica Philip IV (French: Philippe IV; 1268–November 29, 1314) was King of France from 1285 until his death. ... Queen Joan I, born in 1327 as the Countess of Provence, ruled Naples and Jerusalem from 1343 to 1381. ... For the book by Robert Rankin, see The Antipope. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


Seven popes resided there:

This period from 1309–1377 — the Avignon Papacy — was also called the Babylonian Captivity of exile, in reference to the Israelites' enslavement in biblical times. Clement V, born Bertrand de Goth (also occasionally spelled Gouth and Got) (1264 – April 20, 1314), was Pope from 1305 to his death. ... Pope John XXII, born Jacques Duèze or dEuse (1249 – December 4, 1334), was the son of a shoemaker in Cahors. ... Benedict XII, né Jacques Fournier ( 1280s – April 25, 1342), was Pope from 1334 to 1342. ... Clement VI, né Pierre Roger (1291 – December 6, 1352), the fourth of the Avignon Popes, was elected in May 1342, and reigned until his death. ... Innocent VI, né Étienne Aubert (1282 or 1295 – September 12, 1362), Pope at Avignon from 1352 to 1362, the successor of Pope Clement VI (1342–52), was a native of the hamlet of Les Monts, diocese of Limoges (today part of the commune of Beyssac, département of Corrèze... Blessed Urban V, né Guillaume Grimoard (1310 – December 19, 1370), Pope from 1362 to 1370, was a native of Grizac in Languedoc (today part of the commune of Le Pont-de-Montvert, département of Lozère). ... Pope Gregory XI (c. ... The Papal palace in Avignon In the history of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven popes, all French, resided in Avignon: Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Clement VI... The Papal palace in Avignon In the history of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven popes, all French, resided in Avignon: Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Clement VI... “The Twelve Tribes” redirects here. ...


The walls that were built by the popes in the years immediately after the acquisition of Avignon as papal territory are well preserved. As they were not particularly strong fortifications, the Popes relied instead on the immensely strong fortifications of their palace, the "Palais des Papes". This immense Gothic building, with walls 17–18 feet thick, was built 1335–1364 on a natural spur of rock, rendering it all but impregnable to attack. After being taken following the French Revolution, it was used as a barracks and prison for many years but it is now a museum. For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... The facade of the Palais des Papes The Palais des Papes in Avignon, France is one of the largest and most important medieval Gothic buildings in Europe. ... The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


Avignon, which at the beginning of the fourteenth century was a town of no great importance, underwent a wonderful development during the time the seven Avignon popes and two anti-popes, Clement V to Benedict XIII made there residences there. To the north and south of the rock of the Doms, partly on the site of the Bishop's Palace, which had been enlarged by John XXII, was built the Palace of the Popes, in the form of an imposing fortress made up of towers, linking one to another, and named as follows: De la Campane, de Trouillas, de la Glacière, de Saint-Jean, des Saints-Anges (Benedict XII), de la Gâche, de la Garde-Robe (Clement VI), de Saint-Laurent (Innocent VI). The Palace of the Popes belongs, by its severe architecture, to the Gothic art of the South of France. Other noble examples can be seen in the churches of St. Didier, St. Peter and St. Agricola, as well as the Clock Tower, and in the fortifications built between 1349 and 1368 for a distance of some three miles (5 km), flanked by thirty-nine towers, all of which were erected or restored by the Roman Catholic Church. The frescoes that are on the interiors of the Palace of the Popes and the churches of Avignon were created primarilly by artists from Siena. Pope John XXII, né Jacques dEuse (1249 - December 4, 1334), was elected to the papacy in 1316 and reigned until his death in 1334. ... The Western (Royal) Portal at Chartres Cathedral ( 1145). ... Piazza del Campo Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. ...


The popes were followed to Avignon by agents (factores) of the great Italian banking-houses, who settled in the city as money-changers, as intermediaries between the Apostolic Chamber and its debtors, living in the most prosperous quarters of the city, which was known as the Exchange. A crowd of traders of all kinds brought to market the products necessary to maintain the numerous court and of the visitors who flocked to it; grain and wine from Provence, from the south of France, the Roussillon and the country around Lyon. Fish was brought from places as distant as Brittany; cloths, rich stuffs and tapestries came from Bruges and Tournai. We need only glance at the account-books of the Apostolic Chamber, still kept in the Vatican archives, in order to judge of the trade of which Avignon became the center. The university founded by Boniface VIII in 1303, had a good many students under the French popes, drawn thither by the generosity of the sovereign pontiffs, who rewarded them with books or benefices. Look up factor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Apostolic Camera, or in Latin (Reverenda) Camera Apostolica or Apostolica Camera, is the former central board of finance in the papal administrative system, which at one time was of great importance in the government of the States of the Church, and in the administration of justice, lead by the... Coat of arms of Roussillon - see also senyera Flag of Roussillon Mount Canigó (Canigou) (2785m), a Catalan landmark Roussillon (French: Roussillon, pronounced ; Catalan: Rosselló, pronounced ) is one of the historical counties of the former Principality of Catalonia, corresponding roughly to the present-day southern French département of Pyrén... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province West Flanders Arrondissement Bruges Coordinates , , Area 138. ... Tournai (in Dutch: Doornik in Latin: Tornacum) is a municipality located 85 kilometres southwest of Brussels, on the river Scheldt (in French: Escaut, in Dutch: Schelde), in the Belgian province of Hainaut. ... Originally a benefice was a gift of land for life as a reward (Latin beneficium, means to do well) for services rendered. ...


The Popes return to Rome prompted the Great Schism, during which the antipopes Clement VII and Benedict XIII continued to reside at Avignon. Clement VII lived in Avignon during his entire anti-pontificate, while Benedict XIII only lived their until 1403 when he was forced to flee to Aragon. Historical map of the Western Schism: red is support for Avignon, blue for Rome The Western Schism or Papal Schism (also known as the Great Schism of Western Christianity) was a split within the Catholic Church (1378 - 1417). ... For the book by Robert Rankin, see The Antipope. ... For the other Clement VII who was Pope from 1523 to 1534, see Pope Clement VII. Robert of Geneva (1342-16 September 1394) was elected to the papacy by the French cardinals who opposed Urban VI, thereby becoming the first antipope of the Western Schism, as Pope Clement VII. He... Antipope Benedict XIII, born Pedro Martínez de Luna, (b. ... For the other Clement VII who was Pope from 1523 to 1534, see Pope Clement VII. Robert of Geneva (1342-16 September 1394) was elected to the papacy by the French cardinals who opposed Urban VI, thereby becoming the first antipope of the Western Schism, as Pope Clement VII. He... Antipope Benedict XIII, born Pedro Martínez de Luna, (b. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ...


After the departure of the popes

After the restoration of the Papacy in Rome, the spiritual and temporal government of Avignon was entrusted to a gubernatorial Legate, notably the Cardinal-nephew, who was replaced, in his absence, by a vice-legate (contrary to the legate usually a commoner, and not a cardinal). But pope Innocent XII abolished nepotism and the office of Legate in Avignon on 7 February 1693, handing over its temporal government in 1692 to the Congregation of Avignon (i.e. a department of the papal Curia, residing at Rome), with the Cardinal Secretary of State as presiding prefect, and exercising its jurisdiction through the vice-legate. This congregation, to which appeals were made from the decisions of the vice-legate, was united to the Congregation of Loreto within the Roman Curia; in 1774 the vice-legate was made president, thus depriving it of almost all authority. It was done away with under Pius VI on 12 June 1790. Pietro Ottoboni, the last Cardinal Nephew, painted by Francesco Trevisani A cardinal-nephew (Latin: ;[1] Italian: ;[2] Spanish: ; French: )[3] is a cardinal elevated by a pope who is that cardinals uncle, or more generally, his relative. ... Innocent XII, né Antonio Pignatelli (March 13, 1615 - September 27, 1700) pope from 1691 to 1700, was the successor of Alexander VIII. He came of a distinguished Neapolitan family and was educated at the Jesuit college in Rome, he in his twentieth year became an official of the court of... The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See, coordinating and providing the necessary organisation for the correct functioning of the Roman Catholic Church and the achievement of its goals. ... The Cardinal Secretary of State presides over the Vatican Secretariat of State, which is the oldest and most important dicastery of the Roman Curia. ... A congregation is a type of dicastery of the Roman Curia, the central administrative organism of the Catholic Church. ... Pius VI, born as Giovanni Angelo Braschi, (December 27, 1717 - August 29, 1799), pope from 1775 to 1799, was born at Cesena. ...


The Public Council, composed of forty-eight councillors chosen by the people, four members of the clergy and four doctors of the university, met under the presidency of the chief magistrate of the city, the viquier (Occitan) or vicar or representative of the papal Legate or Vice-legate, who annually nominated a man for the post. The councillors' duty was to watch over the material and financial interests of the city; but their resolutions were to be submitted to the vice-legate for approval before being put in force. Three consuls, chosen annually by the Council, had charge of the administration of the streets. This article is about the Roman rank. ...

Night shot of the Pont d'Avignon
Night shot of the Pont d'Avignon

Avignon's survival as a papal enclave was, however, somewhat precarious, as the French crown maintained a large standing garrison at Villeneuve-lès-Avignon just across the river. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 87 KB) Personal Picture. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 87 KB) Personal Picture. ... The Pont dAvignon (Pont St-Bénezet) from the Ile de Barthelasse The Pont dAvignon, more properly the Pont St-Bénezet, is a famous medieval bridge in the town of Avignon, in southern France. ... Villeneuve-lès-Avignon is a town and commune in the Gard département, in southern France. ...


From the 15th century onward it became the policy of the Kings of France to rule Avignon as part of their kingdom. In 1476, Louis XI, upset that Charles of Bourbon was made legate, sent troops to occupie the city, until his demands that Giuliano della Rovere be made legate, once Giuliano della Rovere was made a cardinal he withdrew his troops from the city. Louis XI Louis XI the Prudent (French: Louis XI le Prudent) (July 3, 1423 - August 30, 1483), also informally nicknamed luniverselle aragne (old French for universal spider), was a King of France (1461 - 1483). ... The word legate comes from the Latin legare (to send). It has several meanings, all related to representatives: A legate is a member of a diplomatic embassy. ... Pope Julius II Julius II, né Giuliano della Rovere (December 5, 1443 - February 21, 1513), was pope from 1503 to 1513. ... Pope Julius II Julius II, né Giuliano della Rovere (December 5, 1443 - February 21, 1513), was pope from 1503 to 1513. ... The word cardinal comes from the Latin cardo for hinge and usually refers to things of fundamental importance, as in cardinal rule or cardinal sins. ...


In 1536 king Francis I of France invaded the papal territory, in order to overthrow Emperor Charles V, who was emperor of the territory. When he entered the city the people received him very well, and in return for the reception the people were all granted to them the same privileges that french subjects enjoyed, such as being able to hold state offices. Francis I of France (French: François Ier) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... Charles (February 24, 1500 – September 21, 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor (as Charles V) from 1519-1558; he was also King of Spain from 1516-1556, officially as Charles I of Spain, although often referred to as Charles V (Carlos Quinto or Carlos V) in Spain and Latin America. ...


In (1583) King Henry III Valois attempted to offer an exchange of Marquisate of Saluzzo for Avignon, however his offer was refused by Pope Gregory XIII. Henry III (French: Henri III; September 19, 1551 – August 2, 1589), born Alexandre-Édouard, was a member of the Valois Dynasty, King of France from May 30, 1574 until his death. ... Country Italy Region Piedmont Province Cuneo (CN) Mayor Paolo Allemano (since June 28, 2004 Elevation 395 m Area 75 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 16,153  - Density 209/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Saluzzesi Dialing code 0175 Postal code 12037 Patron St. ... Pope Gregory XIII (January 7, 1502 – April 10, 1585), born Ugo Boncompagni, was Pope from 1572 to 1585. ...


In 1663 in retaliation for the attack led by the Corsican Guard on the attendants of the Duc de Créqui, the ambassador of Louis XIV in Rome, he attacked and seized Avignon. Which at the time was considered an important and integral part of the French Kingdom by the provincial Parliament of Provence. Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ...


In 1688 yet another attempt was made to occupie Avignon, however the attempt failed, and from 1688 to 1768 Avignon was at peace with no occupations or wars during that time.


King Louis XV, dissatisfied with Clement XIII's action in regard to the Duke of Parma, occupied the Papal States from 1768 to 1774 and substituted French institutions for those in force with the approval of the people of Avignon; a French party grew up which, after the sanguinary massacres of La Glacière between the adherents of the Papacy and the Republicans (16-17 October 1791), carried all before it, and induced the Constituent Assembly to decree the union of Avignon and the Comtat (comital district) Venaissin with France on 14 September, 1791. On 25 June 1793 Avignon and Comtat-Venaissain were integrated along with the former principality of Orange to form the present republican département Vaucluse. Louis XV (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), called the Well-Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1715 to 1774. ... Clement XIII, né Carlo della Torre Rezzonico (Venice, March 7, 1693 - Rome, February 2, 1769) was pope from 1758 to 1769. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ...


Article 5 of the Treaty of Tolentino (19 February, 1797) definitively sanctioned the annexation, stating that "The Pope renounces, purely and simply, all the rights to which he might lay claim over the city and territory of Avignon, and the Comtat Venaissin and its dependencies, and transfers and makes over the said rights to the French Republic." In 1801 the territory had 191,000 inhabitants. The Treaty of Tolentino is a treaty signed between France and the Papal States on February 19, 1797. ...


On 30 May 1814, the French annexation was recognized by the Pope. Consalvi made an ineffectual protest at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 but Avignon was never restored to the Holy See. In 1815 Bonapartist Marshal Guillaume Marie Anne Brune was assassinated in the town by adherents of the royalist party during the White Terror. Ercole Consalvi was born in Rome in 1757. ... The Congress of Vienna was a conference between ambassadors, from the major powers in Europe that was chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich and held in Vienna, Austria, from November 1, 1814, to June 8, 1815. ... Lithograph of Guillaume Marie Anne Brune by Delpech Guillaume Marie Anne Brune (March 13, 1763 – August 2, 1815) was a marshal of France. ... It has been suggested that The White Terror (France) be merged into this article or section. ...


Ecclesiastical history of the (Arch)diocese

Main article: Archdiocese of Avignon

It was the seat of a bishop as early as the year 70 AD. The first bishop known to history is Nectarius, who took part in several councils about the middle of the fifth century. St. Magnus was a Gallo-Roman senator who became a monk and then bishop of the city. His son, St. Agricol (Agricolus), bishop between 650 and 700, is the patron saint of Avignon. Several synods of minor importance were held there, and its university, founded by Pope Boniface VIII in 1303 and famed as a seat of legal studies, flourished until the French Revolution. The memory of St. Eucherius still clings to three vast caves near the village of Beaumont, whither, it is said, the people of Lyon had to go in search of him when they sought him to make him their archbishop. As Bishop of Cavaillon, Cardinal Philippe de Cabassoles, seigneur of Vaucluse, was the great protector of the Renaissance poet Petrarch. The French Catholic archdiocese of Avignon exercises jurisdiction over the territory embraced by the department of Vaucluse. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Nectarius of Constantinople (d. ... Saint Magnus (Magne) of Avignon (d. ... This article covers the culture of Romanized areas of Gaul. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... Saint Agricola (Agricol, Agricolus) of Avignon (ca. ... A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. ... Pope Boniface VIII (c. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Saint Eucherius, bishop of Lyon, (died c. ... This article is about the French city. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... The former French diocese of Cavaillon existed until the French Revolution. ... Philippe de Cabassoles castle The Bishop of Cavaillon, Philippe de Cabassoles, Seigneur of Vaucluse, was the great protector of Renaissance poet and orator Francesco Petrarch. ... The Vaucluse is a département in the southeast of France. ... From the c. ...


In 1309 the city was chosen by Clement V as his residence, and from that time till 1377 was the papal seat. In 1348 the city was sold by Joanna, Countess of Provence, to Clement VI for 80,000 florins. Clement V, né Bertrand de Gouth (1264 - April 20, 1314) was pope from 1305 to 1314. ... Queen Joan I (1327 – May 12, 1382) was born Joanna of Anjou. ... Clement VI, né Pierre Roger (1291 - December 6, 1352), pope (1342-1352), the fourth of the France, and he further evinced his French sympathies by refusing a solemn invitation to return to Rome, and by purchasing the sovereignty of Avignon from Joanna, queen of Naples, for 80,000 crowns. ... Florin may refer to this modern currency: Aruban florin. ...


In 1475 pope Sixtus IV raised the diocese of Avignon to the rank of an archbishopric, in favour of his nephew Giuliano della Rovere, who later became Pope Julius II. The Archdiocese of Avignon has canonic jurisdiction over the department of Vaucluse. Before the French Revolution it had as suffragan sees Carpentras, Vaison and Cavaillon, which were united by the Napoleonic Concordat of 1801 to Avignon, together with the Diocese of Apt, a suffragan of Aix-en-Provence. However, at that same time Avignon was reduced to the rank of a bishopric and was made a suffragan see of Aix. The Archdiocese of Avignon was re-established in 1822, receiving as suffragan sees the Diocese of Viviers (restored in 1822), Valence: (formerly under Lyon), Nimes (restored in 1822) and Montpellier (formerly under Toulouse). Sixtus IV, born Francesco della Rovere (July 21, 1414 - August 12, 1484) was Pope from 1471 to 1484, essentially a Renaissance prince, the Sixtus of the Sistine Chapel where the team of artists he brought together introduced the Early Renaissance to Rome with a masterpiece. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop heading a diocese of particular importance due to either its size, history, or both, called an archdiocese. ... Pope Julius II Julius II, né Giuliano della Rovere (December 5, 1443 - February 21, 1513), was pope from 1503 to 1513. ... Pope Julius II Julius II, né Giuliano della Rovere (December 5, 1443 - February 21, 1513), was pope from 1503 to 1513. ... In some Christian churches, the diocese is an administrative territorial unit governed by a bishop, sometimes also referred to as a bishopric or episcopal see, though more often the term episcopal see means the office held by the bishop. ... The Vaucluse is a département in the southeast of France. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Carpentras is a city and commune in the département of Vaucluse in the Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur région of France. ... Vaison-la-Romaine seen from high in the medieval town Roman bridge over the Ouvèze Roman excavations in Vaison Vaison-la-Romaine (Latin: Vasio Vocontiorum) is a charming and interesting town in Provence. ... Cavaillon is a commune of the Vaucluse département, in southern France. ... The Concordat of 1801 reaffirmed the Roman Catholic Church as the major religion of France and restored some of its civil status. ... Aix (prounounced eks), or, to distinguish it from other cities built over hot springs, Aix-en-Provence is a city in southern France, some 30 km north of Marseille. ... In some Christian churches, the diocese is an administrative territorial unit governed by a bishop, sometimes also referred to as a bishopric or episcopal see, though more often the term episcopal see means the office held by the bishop. ... AIX or Aix may be: Aix, a genus of two species of dabbling ducks, the Wood Duck (Aix sponsa) and the Mandarin Duck (Aix galericulata) AIX operating system Athens Internet Exchange, (AIX) a European IXP a place name: Aix-la-Chapelle, or Aachen, a city in Germany in France: Aix... In some Christian churches, the diocese is an administrative territorial unit governed by a bishop, sometimes also referred to as a bishopric or episcopal see, though more often the term episcopal see means the office held by the bishop. ... The Diocese of Viviers is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical territory centred on Viviers in France, a suffragan of the archdiocese of Lyon. ... Valence is a commune in south-eastern France, the capital of the département of Drôme, situated on the left bank of the Rhône, 65 miles south of Lyon on the railway to Marseille. ... Nîmes is a city and commune of southern France, préfecture (capital) of the Gard département. ... Montpellier (Occitan Montpelhièr) is a city in the south of France. ...


In 2002, as part of the reshuffling of the ecclesiastic provinces of France, the Archdiocese of Avignon ceased to be a metropolitan and became, instead a suffragan diocese of the new province of Marseilles, while keeping its rank of archdiocese. Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... In some Christian churches, the diocese is an administrative territorial unit governed by a bishop, sometimes also referred to as a bishopric or episcopal see, though more often the term episcopal see means the office held by the bishop. ...


Councils of Avignon

Main article: Council of Avignon

The Councils of Avignon are Councils of the Roman Catholic Church. The first reported council was held in 1060, though nothing is known about the events of the council. in 1080 another council was held, with Hugues de Dié, papal legate as council president. During the 1080 council Aicard, usurper of the See of Arles was deposed, and Gibelin placed in his position. Three bishops-elect (Lautelin of Embrun, Hugues of Grenoble, Didier of Cavaillon) accompanied the legate to Rome and were consecrated there by Pope Gregory VII. Council of Avignon may refer to one of a number of councils of the Roman Catholic Church, held in Avignon. ... A papal Legate, from the Decretals of Boniface VIII (1294 to 1303). ...   Coordinates Administration Country France Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Département Bouches-du-Rhône (sous-préfecture) Arrondissement Arles Canton Chief town of 2 cantons: Arles-Est and Arles-Ouest Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération Arles-Crau-Camargue-Montagnette Mayor Hervé Schiavetti  (PS) (2001-2008) Statistics... Gregory VII can refer to: Pope Gregory VII Gregory VII, Patriarch of Constantinople This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


During the 13th century 4 councils were held, including the 1209 council in which the inhabitants of Toulouse were excommunicated from the church by the council for failing to expel the Albigensian heretics from Toulouse. Included in the population that was excommunicated were two papal legates, four archbishops and twenty bishops. The next council was held in 1270, and Bertrand de Malferrat, Archbishop of Arles presided over the council. The usurpers of ecclesiastical property were severely threatened; unclaimed legacies were allotted to pious uses; the bishops were urged to mutualy support one another; and individual churches were taxed for the support of the papal legates; and ecclesiastics were forbidden to convoke the civil courts against their bishops. And the council banned Christmas carols. Cathars being expelled from Carcassone in 1209. ... The former Archbishopric of Arles had its episcopal see in the city of Arles, in southern France. ...


During the 1279 council they were concerned with the clergys protection of rights, privileges, and immunities. Provisions were also made for those who promised to join the crusade Gregory X had ordered, but had failed to accualy go on the crusade. also the council decreed that to hear confessions monks must have permission of their ordinary, or bishop, as well as their superior. The last council during the 13th century was the council of 1282, during the council they published 10 canons. Among the canons published was one urging people to more regularly frequent the parochial churches, and to goto their parish church for at least feast days and on sundays. Gregory X, né Theobald Visconti (ca. ...


During the 1327 council the temporalities of the Church and ecclesiastical jurisdiction occupied their attention. The council published seventy-nine canons in 1337. The 79 canons are renewed from earlier councils, and emphasize the duty of Easter Communion in one's own parish church, And of abstinence on Saturday for beneficed persons and ecclesiastics, in honour of the Blessed Virgin, a practice begun three centuries earlier on the occasion of the Truce of God, but no longer universal. The Peace and Truce of God was a medieval European movement of the Roman Catholic Church which applied spiritual sanctions in order to control and stop the violence of feudal society. ...


The 15th century saw two councils convened, one in 1457 and one in 1497. The 1457 council was held by Cardinal de Foix, Archbishop of Arles and legate of Avignon, he was also a Franciscan. His primary reason was to promote the doctrine of Immaculate Conception, in sense of the declaration of the council of Basle. They forbade the preaching of the contrary doctrine, as well as 64 disciplinary canons that were published, in keeping with the legislation of previous councils. In 1497 Archbishop Francesco Tarpugi (after the council he was cardinal) presided over the council. They published a simialr number of decrees to the 1457 council. It was decreed that the sponsors of the newly confirmed were not obligated to make presents to their parents or to them. They also decreed that before the relics of the saints two candles were to be kept lite at all times.


During the next five centuryies only six further councils were held. The 1509 council focused on disciplinary measures. The next council, in 1596, was called to discuss the furthering of the observance of the decrees of the Council of Trent., and the 1609 council was held for very similar circumstances. The councils of 1664 and 1725 were held to formulate disciplinary decrees. The 1725 council also decreed the duty of adhering to the Papal Bull Unigenitus (1713) of Clement XI that condemned the Oratorian, Pasquier Quesnel. The final council on record was in 1849 and it published ten chapters of canons concering discipline and faith. The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... There are english source documents for or relating to this article that could be added to Wikipedias sister project, Wikisource. ... Clement XI, né Giovanni Francesco Albani (July 23, 1649 - March 19, 1721) was pope from 1700 to 1721. ... Pasquier Quesnel (July 14, 1634 - December 2, 1719) was a French Jansenist theologian. ...


University of Avignon

The University of Avignon (1303-1792), formed from the existing schools of the city, and was formally constituted in 1303, by Boniface VIII in a Papal Bull. Boniface VIII, and King Charles II of Naples should be considered one of the first great protectors and benefactors to the University of Avignon. The Law department within the university has always been its most important department, covering both civil and ecclesiastical law. The law department existed nearly exclusively for some time after the universitys forming and remained the most important department through its existence. Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... Boniface VIII, né Benedict Gaetano ( 1235 - October 11, 1303) was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1294 to 1303. ... The name Charles II is used to refer to numerous persons in history: Kings: Charles the Fat (also known as Charles II of France and Charles III of the Holy Roman Empire) Charles II of England Charles II of Naples Charles II of Navarre Charles II of Romania Charles II...


In 1413 Anti-Pope John XXIII founded the Universitys department of Theology, which for quite some time had only a few students. The university's art department never did gain any great importance. It wasnt until the 16th & 17th centuries that the school developed a department of medicine. The Bishop of Avignon was chancellor of the university from 1303 to 1475, after 1475 the bishop became and Archbishop, but remained chancellor of the university.The papal vice-legate, generally a bishop, represented the civil power (in this case the pope) and was chiefly a judicial officer, ranking higher than the Primicerius (Rector). The Blessed John XXIII wearing a Papal Tiara Angelo Roncalli was born in Sotto il Monte (province of Bergamo), Italy on November 25, 1881. ...


The Primicerius was elected by the Doctors of Law. In 1503 the Doctors of Law had 4 Theologians, and in 1784 two Doctors of Medicine added their ranks. Since the Pope was the spiritual head, and after 1348, the temporal ruler of Avignon, he was able to have a great deal of influence in all university affairs. In 1413 Pope John XXIII granted the university extensive special privileges, such as university jurisdiction, and tax exempt status. Circumstances in the latter part of the universitys existence such as political, geographical, and educational, caused the university to seek favour from Paris rather than Rome for protection and favour. During the chaos of the French Revolution the university started to gradually disappear, and in 1792 the university was abandoned and closed.Now days the university is succeeded by the modern Université d'Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse. The Blessed John XXIII wearing a Papal Tiara Angelo Roncalli was born in Sotto il Monte (province of Bergamo), Italy on November 25, 1881. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


Culture

Principal sights

  • Notre Dame des Doms, the cathedral, is a Romanesque building, mainly built during the 12th century, the most prominent feature of the cathederal is the gilded statue of the Virgin which surmounts the western tower. Within the cathederal are many beautiful works of art. However the mausoleum of Pope John XXII is one of the most beautiful works within the cathederal, it is a masterpiece and a wonderful example of 14th century Gothic Carving.
  • Palais des Papes, the palace of the popes, almost dwarfs the cathedral. The palace is an impressive monument and sits within a square of the same name. The palace was begun in 1316 by John XXII and continued by succeeding popes through the 1300's, until 1370 when it was finished. The palace was constructed in the Gothic style, and though its a palace when looking at it it looks more like a fortress then a palace. Its an imposing site due to the fact that when it was built everything was sacrificed to add strength. When a visitor enters the interior rooms they are given a sense of space, and of the rich culture of the papal court. For a longtime, it was used as a barracks and prison, due to the circumstances of the barracks and prison being at the palace the fine apartments were ruthlessly adapted and changed, the palace however is now a municipal property.
  • Minor churches of the town include among others St Pierre, which has a graceful facade and richly carved doors, St Didier and St Agricol, all three of which were built in the Gothic architectural style.
  • Civic buildings are represented most notably by the Hôtel de Ville (city hall), a modern building with a belfry of the 14th century, and the old Hôtel des Monnaies, the papal mint which was built in 1610 and became a music-school.
  • Ramparts ,which were built by popes in the 14th century, still encircled Avignon and they are one of the finest examples of medieval fortification in existence. The walls of great strength are surmounted by machicolated sattlements, flanked at intervals by thirty-nine massive towers and pierced by several gateways, three of which date from the 14th century. The walls were restored under the direction of Eugène Viollet-le-Duc
  • Bridges include the little bridge which leads over the river to Villeneuve-les-Avignon, and a little higher up, a picturesque ruined bridge of the 12th century, the Pont Saint-Bénézet, projects into the river.
  • Pont d'Avignon (Pont St-Bénézet, see below) Only four of the eighteen piles are left; on one of them stands the small Romanesque chapel of Saint-Bénézet. But the bridge is best known for the famous French song "sur le pont d'Avignon".
  • The Calvet Museum, so named after Esprit Calvet, a physician who in 1810 left his collections to the town, has a strong collection of paintings, metalwork and other collections. The library has over 140,000 volumes.
  • The town has a statue of a Persian, Jean Althen, who in 1765 introduced the culture of the madder plant, which long formed the staple and is still an important branch of local trade.
  • The Musée du Petit Palais (opened 1976) at the end of the square overlooked by the Palais des Papes, has an exceptional collection of Renaissance paintings of the Avignon school as well as from Italy, which reunites many "primitives" from the collection of Giampietro Campana.
  • Collection Lambert with contemporary art exhibitions
  • Musée Angladon which exhibits the paintings of a private collector who created the museaum
  • Musée Lapidaire with the archeological and medieval sculpture collections of the Fondation Calvet, in the old chapel of the Jesuit College.
  • Musée Louis-Vouland
  • Musée Requien
  • Palais du Roure

South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... St. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Pope John XXII, né Jacques dEuse (1249 - December 4, 1334), was elected to the papacy in 1316 and reigned until his death in 1334. ... The facade of the Palais des Papes The Palais des Papes in Avignon, France is one of the largest and most important medieval Gothic buildings in Europe. ... Pope John XXII, né Jacques dEuse (1249 - December 4, 1334), was elected to the papacy in 1316 and reigned until his death in 1334. ... The term Belfry has a variety of uses: For the architectural term see:Belfry (architecture) For the U.S. town in Montana see Belfry, Montana For the English golf club see The De Vere Belfry There is also a German Epic Metal band called Belfry. ... The Papal Mint is the popes institute for the production of hard cash. ... Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (January 27, 1814 – September 17, 1879) was a French architect and theorist, famous for his restorations of medieval buildings. ... Villeneuve-lès-Avignon is a town and commune in the Gard département, in southern France. ... The Pont dAvignon, more properly the Pont St-Bénezet, is a famous medieval bridge in the town of Avignon, in southern France. ... The Pont dAvignon (Pont St-Bénezet) from the Ile de Barthelasse The Pont dAvignon, more properly the Pont St-Bénezet, is a famous medieval bridge in the town of Avignon, in southern France. ... South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... Bridge-Building Brotherhoods reportedly existed during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, various religious associations founded for the purpose of building bridges. ... Jean Althen (1709-1774) was a Persian agronomist, who developed in France the cultivation of madder. ... Species See text. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ...

Avignon Festival

A famous theater festival is held annually in Avignon. Founded in 1947, the Avignon Festival comprises traditional theatrical events as well as other art forms such as dance, music, and cinema, making good use of the town's historical monuments. Every summer approximately 100,000 people attend the festival.There are really two festivals that take place: the more formal "Festival In", which presents plays inside the Palace of the Popes and the more bohemian "Festival Off", which is known for its presentation of largely undiscovered plays and street performances. The Festival dAvignon, the Avignon Theatre Festival is Frances oldest existing and most famous. ...


The International Congress Center

It was created in 1976 within the outstanding premises of the Palace of the Popes and hosts many events throughout the entire year. The Congress Center, designed for conventions, seminars, and meetings for 10 to 550 persons, now occupies two wings of the Popes' Palace. [1]


Transport

Avignon is served by the TGV Méditerranée which is a high-speed rail system. French-designed Eurostar and Thalys TGVs side-by-side in the Paris-Gare du Nord. ...


Miscellaneous

Sur le pont d'Avignon

Avignon is commemorated by the French children's song, "Sur le pont d'Avignon" ("On the bridge of Avignon"), which describes folk dancing. The bridge of the song is the Saint Bénézet bridge, over the Rhône River, of which only four arches (out of the initial 22) remain which start from the avignon side of the river. In fact people would have danced beneath the bridge (sous le pont) where it crossed an island (Ile de Barthelasse) on its way to Villeneuve-lès-Avignon. The bridge was initially built between 1171 and 1185, with an original length of some 900 m (2950 ft), but it suffered frequent collapses during floods and had to be reconstructed several times. Several arches were already missing (and spanned by wooden sections) before the remainder was damaged destroyed in 1660. Pont dAvignon (Bridge of Avignon) Pont dAvignon at dusk Sur le pont d’Avignon is a French song about the Pont dAvignon that dates back to the 15th century. ... This article is about the edifice (including an index to articles on specific bridge types). ... The Pont dAvignon (Pont St-Bénezet) from the Ile de Barthelasse The Pont dAvignon, more properly the Pont St-Bénezet, is a famous medieval bridge in the town of Avignon, in southern France. ... The Rhône River, or the Rhône (French Rhône, Arpitan Rôno, Occitan Ròse, standard German Rhone, Valais German Rotten), is one of the major rivers of Europe, running through Switzerland and France. ... Villeneuve-lès-Avignon is a town and commune in the Gard département, in southern France. ...


Study Abroad program

Today, Avignon hosts a study abroad program for American students run through the Institute for American Universities (IAU). Classes focus on learning French, liberal arts and European history.


People born (and died) in Avignon

Jean Alesi, (born Giovanni Alesi June 11, 1964) is a French racing driver of both French and Sicilian origins. ... Henri Bosco (November 16, 1888 - May 4, 1976) was a French writer. ... Pierre Boulle (20 February 1912 – 30 January 1994) was a French novelist largely known for two famous works, The Bridge over the River Kwai (1952) and Planet of the Apes (1963). ... The Bridge on the River Kwai is an Academy Award-winning 1957 World War II war film based on the novel Le Pont de la Rivière Kwaï by French writer Pierre Boulle. ... This article is about the book. ... Alexandre de Rhodes (March 15, 1591 - November 5, 1660) was a French Jesuit missionary. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... Bernard Kouchner (born November 1, 1939 in Avignon) is a French politician, diplomat, and doctor. ... Mireille Mathieu (album) Mireille Mathieu (born July 22, 1946) is a French singer, who besides being very successful in her own country, became a star of international stature, recording in several languages. ... Olivier Messiaen It has been suggested that List of students of Olivier Messiaen be merged into this article or section. ... Claude Joseph Vernet (August 14, 1714 - December 3, 1789), French painter, was born at Avignon. ... John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ...

Twin towns

Avignon is twinned with:

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... For other places with the same name, see Colchester (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Senegal. ... Diourbel is a town in Senegal lying east of Thiès. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... A view of downtown Guanajuato from one of its many hills. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... New Haven redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Piazza del Campo Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Tarragona (IPA: in Catalan) is a city located in the south of Catalonia, northeastern Spain, by the Mediterranean Sea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... A view of Tortosa Tortosa (Latin Dertusa, Arabic طرطوشة Ṭurá¹­Å«Å¡ah) is the capital of the comarca of Baix Ebre, in the province of Tarragona, in Catalonia, Spain, located at 12 metres above the sea, by the Ebre river. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Wetzlar is a town in the German federal state (Bundesland) of Hesse, capital of the Lahn-Dill district. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Wichita (disambiguation). ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Avignon

Montfavet is a village of southern France, part of the commune of Avignon, in the Vaucluse département. ... During the Battle of Avignon in 737 Charles Martel expelled Muslim forces which had occupied the city in 734 after it had been surrendered to Yusuf ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri, Umayyad governor of Narbonne, by Duke Maurontus of Provence. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Sources, references

The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

  • Tourist office website
  • City council website
  • Video about Avignon
  • Avignon theater festival website
  • Pictures of Festival d'Avignon
  • Avignon/New York & Avignon film festivals website
  • University of Avignon website
  • Avignon travel guide from Wikitravel
  • War memorial in Avignon at "Sites of Memory"
  • Avignon in Old Postcards
  • Maps from WikiMapia, Google Maps, Live Search Maps, Yahoo! Maps, or MapQuest

  Results from FactBites:
 
Avignon - definition of Avignon in Encyclopedia (930 words)
Avignon is the préfecture (capital) of the Vaucluse département.
Avignon, Caumont-sur-Durance, Jonquerettes, Morières-lès-Avignon, Le Pontet, Saint-Saturnin-lès-Avignon, Vedène and Velleron in the Vaucluse département.
Avignon became the residence of the Pope in 1309, at which time the town and the surrounding Comtat Venaissin was under the rule of the kings of Sicily (the house of Anjou).
Avignon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3310 words)
Avignon is the capital of the Vaucluse département.
Avignon is the préfecture (capital) of the Vaucluse département in the region of Provence.
Avignon is the seat of an archbishop and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a council of trade-arbitrators, a lyce, and training college, a chamber of commerce and a branch of the Bank of France.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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