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Encyclopedia > Avicenna
Persian scholar
Name: Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbdullāh ibn Sīnā
Title: Sharaf al-Mulk, Hujjat al-Haq, Sheikh al-Rayees
Birth: approximately 980 CE / 370 AH
Death: 1037 CE / 428 AH
Ethnicity: Persian[1]
Region: Central Asia and Persia
Maddhab: Twelver Shi'a Muslim[2]
School tradition: Avicennism[3]
Main interests: Medicine, alchemy and chemistry, astronomy, ethics, metaphysics, philosophy, Islamic studies, logic, mathematics, psychology, physics and science, poetry, theology
Notable ideas: Father of modern medicine and the concept of momentum, founder of Avicennism and Avicennian logic, forerunner of psychoanalysis, and pioneer of aromatherapy and neuropsychiatry.
Works: The Canon of Medicine
The Book of Healing
Influences: Hippocrates, Sushruta, Charaka, Aristotle, Galen, Plotinus, Neoplatonism, Indian mathematics, Muhammad, Ja'far al-Sadiq, Wasil ibn Ata, al-Kindi, al-Farabi, al-Razi, al-Biruni, Muslim physicians
Influenced: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, Omar Khayyám, Algazel, Abubacer, Averroes, Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī, Ibn al-Nafis, Averroism, Scholasticism, Albertus Magnus, Duns Scotus, Thomas Aquinas, Jean Buridan, Giambattista Benedetti, Galileo Galilei, William Harvey, René Descartes, Spinoza

Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Sīnā (Persian: ابو علی الحسین ابن عبدالله ابن سینا; c. 980 in Bukhara,[4][5] Khorasan1037 in Hamedan[6]), also known as Ibn Seena[7] and commonly known in English by his Latinized name Avicenna (Greek Aβιτζιανός),[8] was a Persian[9] Muslim polymath and the foremost physician and Islamic philosopher of his time. He was also an astronomer, chemist, Hafiz, logician, mathematician, poet, psychologist, physicist, scientist, Sheikh, soldier, statesman and theologian.[10] Avicenna is a lunar crater that lies on the far side of the Moon, just beyond the western limb on the northern rim of the Lorentz basin. ... Avicenna Peak, formerly known as Revolution Peak and Dreispitz, is the fourth highest mountain in the Pamirs range of Tajikistan. ... Image File history File links Avicenna_Persian_Physician. ... Events Births Emperor Ichijo of Japan Humbert I of Savoy Avicenna Godiva, Countess of Mercia Deaths Categories: 980 ... 370 AH is a year in the Islamic calendar that corresponds to 980 – 981 CE. [edit] Events [edit] By Place [edit] World [edit] Roman Empire [edit] Asia [edit] The Americas [edit] By Topic [edit] Religion [edit] Births Avicenna [1] [edit] Deaths [edit] References ^ [1] [2] Category: ... // Events Construction of the church of Saint Sophia Cathedral is started in Kyiv. ... 428 AH is a year in the Islamic calendar that corresponds to X – X CE. [edit] Events [edit] By Place [edit] World [edit] Roman Empire [edit] Asia [edit] The Americas [edit] By Topic [edit] Religion [edit] Births Avicenna [1] [edit] Deaths [edit] References ^ [1] [2] Category: ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ... Shia Islam, also Shi`ite Islam or Shi`ism (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: Persian: ‎ ) is the second largest denomination of the religion of Islam. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... In Islamic philosophy, logic played an important role. ... In the history of mathematics, Islamic mathematics or Arabic mathematics refers to the mathematics developed by the Islamic civilization between 622 and 1600. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... Islamic poetry is poetry written by Muslims on the topic of Islam. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... This article is about momentum in physics. ... Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ... Aromatherapy is a form of alternative medicine that uses volatile liquid plant materials, known as essential oils (EOs), and other aromatic compounds from plants for the purpose of affecting a persons mood or health. ... Neuropsychiatry is the branch of medicine dealing with mental disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system. ... A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ... The Book of Healing (in Arabic, Kitab ash-Shifa) is a scientific encyclopedia written by the great Iranian peoples Muslim polymath AbÅ« AlÄ« ibn SÄ«nā (Avicenna) from Afshana, near Bukhara in Central Asia (now Uzbekistan), in the 1000s. ... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sushruta Samhita. ... For a village in Greece, see Charaka (Laconia), Greece Charaka, sometimes spelled Caraka, (perhaps 1st or 2nd century) is one of the founders of Ayurveda. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ... Plotinus (Greek: ) (ca. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... This article is under construction. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Jafar Al-Sadiq (Arabic: جعفر الصادق in full Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Husayn (702 AD - 765 AD ) is the sixth infallible Imam and one of Ahl al-Bayt of the Shia Muslims. ... Wasil ibn Ata (700–748) (Arabic: ‎) was a Muslim theologian, and by some accounts is considered the founder of the Mutazilite school of Islamic thought. ... For the Christian theologian, see Abd al-Masih ibn Ishaq al-Kindi. ... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... For other uses, see Razi. ... A statue of Biruni adorns the southwest entrance of Laleh Park in Tehran. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian[1][2][3] Muslim polymath[4] of the 11th century, whose experiments and discoveries were as significant and diverse as those of Leonardo da Vinci or Galileo, five hundred years before the Renaissance; al-Biruni was... For other people, places or with similar names of Khayam, see Khayyam (disambiguation). ... Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazali (born 1058 in Tus, Khorasan province of Iran, died 1111, Tus) was a Persian Muslim theologian and philosopher, known as Algazel to the western medieval world. ... Ibn Tufail (c. ... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... For other uses, see Muhammad Nasir-al-din. ... Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي ) known as ibn Al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس ), was an Arab physician who is mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. ... Averroism is the term applied to either of two philosophical trends among scholastics in the late 13th century, the first of which was based on the Arab philosopher Averroës or Ibn Rushd interpretations of Aristotle and the resolution of various conflicts between the writings of Aristotle and the Muslim... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... Albertus Magnus (b. ... Blessed John Duns Scotus (c. ... Aquinas redirects here. ... Jean Buridan, in Latin Joannes Buridanus (1300 - 1358) was a French priest who sowed the seeds of religious scepticism in Europe. ... Giambattista (Gianbattista) Benedetti (1530–1590) was a Venetian mathematician who wrote La gnomonica. ... Galileo redirects here. ... This article is about William Harvey, the English doctor. ... René Descartes (French IPA:  Latin:Renatus Cartesius) (March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Renatus Cartesius (latinized form), was a highly influential French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer. ... Baruch Spinoza Benedictus de Spinoza (November 24, 1632 - February 21, 1677), named Baruch Spinoza by his synagogue elders and known as Bento de Spinoza or Bento dEspiñoza in the community in which he grew up. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Events Births Emperor Ichijo of Japan Humbert I of Savoy Avicenna Godiva, Countess of Mercia Deaths Categories: 980 ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... Friday Mosque in Herat, Afghanistan, a city which was known in the past as the Pearl of Khorasan. ... // Events Construction of the church of Saint Sophia Cathedral is started in Kyiv. ... Avicennas tomb in Hamedan Hamadan or Hamedan ( Persian: همدان , Kurdish: Ekbatan) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Leonardo da Vinci is regarded in many Western cultures as the archetypal Renaissance Man. A polymath (Greek polymathÄ“s, πολυμαθής, having learned much)[1][2] is a person with encyclopedic, broad, or varied knowledge or learning. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... For other uses, see Hafiz (disambiguation). ... In Islamic philosophy, logic played an important role. ... In the history of mathematics, Islamic mathematics or Arabic mathematics refers to the mathematics developed by the Islamic civilization between 622 and 1600. ... Islamic poetry is poetry written by Muslims on the topic of Islam. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... For other uses, see Sheikh (disambiguation). ... Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet... Statesman is a respectful term used to refer to politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ...


Ibn Sīnā wrote almost 450 treatises on a wide range of subjects, of which around 240 have survived. In particular, 150 of his surviving treatises concentrate on philosophy and 40 of them concentrate on medicine.[11][12] His most famous works are The Book of Healing, a vast philosophical and scientific encyclopaedia, and The Canon of Medicine,[1] which was a standard medical text at many Islamic and European universities up until the early 19th century.[13] The Canon of Medicine was used as a text-book in the universities of Montpellier and Louvain as late as 1650.[14] Ibn Sīnā developed a medical system that combined his own personal experience with that of Islamic medicine, the medical system of the Greek physician Galen,[15] Aristotelian metaphysics[16] (Avicenna was one of the main interpreters of Aristotle)[17], and ancient Persian, Mesopotamian and Indian medicine. He was also the founder of Avicennian logic and the philosophical school of Avicennism, which were influential among both Muslim and Scholastic thinkers. Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... The Book of Healing (in Arabic, Kitab ash-Shifa) is a scientific encyclopedia written by the great Iranian peoples Muslim polymath AbÅ« AlÄ« ibn SÄ«nā (Avicenna) from Afshana, near Bukhara in Central Asia (now Uzbekistan), in the 1000s. ... A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ... The University of Montpellier, (Université de Montpellier), is a French university in Montpellier. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catholic University of Leuven (french-speaking). ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ... Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle. ... Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy investigating principles of reality transcending those of any particular science. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Some of the earliest records of history of Ancient Iranian medicine can be found in Avesta, the primary collection of sacred texts of Zoroastrianism The practice and study of medicine in Persia has a long and prolific history. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) or Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ...


Ibn Sīnā is regarded as a father of early modern medicine,[18][19] particularly for his introduction of systematic experimentation and quantification into the study of physiology,[20] his discovery of the contagious nature of infectious diseases,[21] the introduction of quarantine to limit the spread of contagious diseases, the introduction of experimental medicine, evidence-based medicine, clinical trials,[22] randomized controlled trials,[23][24] efficacy tests,[25][26] clinical pharmacology,[27] neuropsychiatry,[28] risk factor analysis, and the idea of a syndrome,[29] and the importance of dietetics and the influence of climate and environment on health.[30] He is also considered the father of the fundamental concept of momentum in physics,[31] and regarded as a pioneer of aromatherapy.[32] For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to retain or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... In language and logic, quantification is a construct that specifies the extent of validity of a predicate, that is the extent to which a predicate holds over a range of things. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... For other uses see Quarantine (disambiguation) Quarantine is voluntary or compulsory isolation, typically to contain the spread of something considered dangerous, often but not always disease. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Medical research (or experimental medicine) is basic research or applied research conducted to aid the body of knowledge in the field of medicine. ... Evidence-based medicine (EBM) or scientific medicine is an attempt to apply more uniformly the standards of evidence gained from the scientific method to certain aspects of medical practice. ... This box:      In health care, a clinical trial is a comparison test of a medication or other medical treatment (such as a medical device), versus a placebo (inactive look-a-like), other medications or devices, or the standard medical treatment for a patients condition. ... A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a form of clinical trial, or scientific procedure used in the testing of the efficacy of medicines or medical procedures. ... Efficacy is the ability to produce a desired amount of a desired effect. ... Clinical pharmacology is studying pharmacology in relation to clinical science. ... Neuropsychiatry is the branch of medicine dealing with mental disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system. ... A risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection but risk factors are not necessarily causal. ... In medicine, the term syndrome is the association of several clinically recognizable features, signs, symptoms, phenomena or characteristics which often occur together, so that the presence of one feature alerts the physician to the presence of the others. ... Dietitians are experts in food and nutrition. ... This article is about momentum in physics. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Aromatherapy is a form of alternative medicine that uses volatile liquid plant materials, known as essential oils (EOs), and other aromatic compounds from plants for the purpose of affecting a persons mood or health. ...


George Sarton, the father of the history of science, wrote in the Introduction to the History of Science: George Alfred Leon Sarton (1884-1956) was a seminal Belgian-American polymath and historian of science. ... Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of a body of techniques known as scientific methods, emphasizing the observation, experimentation and scientific explanation of real world phenomena. ...

"One of the most famous exponents of Muslim universalism and an eminent figure in Islamic learning was Ibn Sina, known in the West as Avicenna (981-1037). For a thousand years he has retained his original renown as one of the greatest thinkers and medical scholars in history. His most important medical works are the Qanun (Canon) and a treatise on Cardiac drugs. The 'Qanun fi-l-Tibb' is an immense encyclopedia of medicine. It contains some of the most illuminating thoughts pertaining to distinction of mediastinitis from pleurisy; contagious nature of phthisis; distribution of diseases by water and soil; careful description of skin troubles; of sexual diseases and perversions; of nervous ailments."[21] This article is about Universalism in religion and theology. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... For other uses, see Drug (disambiguation). ... A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ... Mediastinitis is inflammation of the tissues in the mediastinum. ... Pleurisy, also known as pleuritis, is an inflammation of the pleura, the lining of the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs, which can cause painful respiration (also called pleuritic chest pain) and other symptoms. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), also known as sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), are diseases that are commonly transmitted between partners through some form of sexual activity, most commonly vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex. ... Pervert redirects here. ... Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components[1]. These components combine to create the feelings that we typically recognize as anger and known as fear, apprehension, or worry. ...

Contents

Circumstances

Avicenna created an extensive corpus of works during what is commonly known as Islam's Golden Age (ca 10-11 century CE), in which the translations of Graeco-Roman, Neo- and Mid-Platonic, and Aristotelian texts by the Kindi schools were commented, redacted and developed substantially by Islamic intellectuals, as well as building upon Persian and Indian mathematical systems, astronomy, algebra, trigonometry, and medicine.[33] Samanid dynasty in Greater Khorasan and central Asia as well as Buwayhid on in western part of Persia and Iraq could provide a thriving atmosphere for scholarly and cultural development. Under the Samanids, Bukhara rivalled Baghdad as a cultural capital of Islam.[34] The Samanid dynasty (819-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khuda. ... Friday Mosque in Herat, Afghanistan, a city which was known in the past as the Pearl of Khorasan. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... The Buwayhids or Buyyids or Āl-i Buyeh, were a Yazdani tribal confederation from Daylam, a region on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ...


The study of Quran and Hadith throve in such a scholarly atmosphere. Philosophy Fiqh and theology kalam were further developed, most noticeably by Avicenna and his opponents. al-Razi and Al-Farabi had provided methodology and knowledge in medicine and philosophy. Avicenna could use the great libraries of Balkh, Khwarezm, Gorgan, Rey, Isfahan and Hamedan. As various texts, such as the 'Ahd with Bahmanyar show, he debated philosophical points with the greatest scholars of the time. As Aruzi Samarqandi describes in his four articles before Avicenna left Khwarezm he had met al-Biruni (a noted scientist and astronomer), Abu Nasr Iraqi(a renowned mathematician), Abu Sahl Masihi (a respected philosopher) and Abu al-Khayr Khammar (a great physician). The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... For other uses, see Razi. ... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... Today Balkh (Persian: بلخ) is a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazari Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Khwarezm was a series of states centered on the Amu Darya river delta of the former Aral Sea, in modern Uzbekistan, extending across the Ust-Urt plateau and possibly as far west as... Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Gorgan Gorgan (Persian: گرگان, Land of the Wolf) is the capital city of the Iranian province of Golestan. ... Rey has collaborated or is collaborating now) live or in studio with among others: FUTURE PROPHECIES (No/UK) | VORTEX INVOLUTE (RUS) | Teele Viira (EST) | MC BUSTA | DJ SMOKEY (RUS/UK) | DJ CRITIKAL | NOIZMAKAZ | TOMMYBOY | DJ MÖLS | 7NAPASOV | EMATION (USA) | DYNAMICAL TONGUES CREW | MPG | 615 | SENTENZ | PENNY | WHEELY | BENNEX and... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan This article is about the city of Isfahan. ... Avicennas tomb in Hamedan Hamadan or Hamedan ( Persian: همدان , Kurdish: Ekbatan) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. ... A statue of Biruni adorns the southwest entrance of Laleh Park in Tehran. ...


Biography

Early life

He was born in Persia around 980 in Afshana, in Bukhara province, his mother's home, a small city now part of Uzbekistan. His father, a respected Ismaili[35] [36] scholar of Balkh, an important town of the Persian state of Khorasan, now part of Afghanistan, was at the time of his son's birth the governor in one of the Samanid Nuh ibn Mansur's estates. He had his son very carefully educated at Bukhara. Ibn Sina himself was a Twelver Shia.[37] Ibn Sina's independent thought was served by an extraordinary intelligence and memory, which allowed him to overtake his teachers at the age of fourteen. As he said in his autobiography there wasn't anything which he hadn't learned when he reached eighteen. For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... The Ismāʿīlī (Urdu: اسماعیلی Ismāʿīlī, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-Ismāʿīliyyūn; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the Shīa community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... Persia redirects here. ... Friday Mosque in Herat, Afghanistan, a city which was known in the past as the Pearl of Khorasan. ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Ibn Sīnā was put under the charge of a tutor, and his precocity soon made him the marvel of his neighbours; he displayed exceptional intellectual behaviour and was a child prodigy who had memorized the Qur'an by the age of 7 and a great deal of Persian poetry as well. He learned Indian arithmetic from an Indian greengrocer, and he began to learn more from a wandering scholar who gained a livelihood by curing the sick and teaching the young. He also studied Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) under the Hanafi scholar Ismail al-Zahid.[38][39] Intelligence is a general mental capability that involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ... Wunderkind redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hafiz (disambiguation). ... Persian literature is literature written in Persian, or by Persians in other languages. ... This article is under construction. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


He was greatly troubled by the Metaphysics of Aristotle, which he could not understand until he read al-Farabi's commentary on the work.[40] For the next year and a half, he studied philosophy, in which he encountered greater obstacles. In such moments of baffled inquiry, he would leave his books, perform the requisite ablutions (wudu), then go to the mosque, and continue in prayer (salah) till light broke on his difficulties. Deep into the night he would continue his studies, and even in his dreams problems would pursue him and work out their solution. Forty times, it is said, he read through the Metaphysics of Aristotle, till the words were imprinted on his memory; but their meaning was hopelessly obscure, until one day they found illumination, from the little commentary by Farabi, which he bought at a bookstall for the small sum of three dirhams. So great was his joy at the discovery, thus made by help of a work from which he had expected only mystery, that he hastened to return thanks to God, and bestowed alms upon the poor. Metaphysics is one of the principal works of Aristotle and the first major work of the branch of philosophy with the same name. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Salat redirects here. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Tarkhan ibn Uzalagh al-Farabi (870–950 A.D.), also known in the West as Alpharabus, Alfarabi, or Farabi, was a Persian-Turkish (Encyclopedia Britannica) philosopher and scientist and one of the greatest scientists and philosophers of his time. ...


He turned to medicine at 16, and not only learned medical theory, but also by gratuitous attendance on the sick had, according to his own account, discovered new methods of treatment. The teenager achieved full status as a physician at age 18 and found that "Medicine is no hard and thorny science, like mathematics and metaphysics, so I soon made great progress; I became an excellent doctor and began to treat patients, using approved remedies." The youthful physician's fame spread quickly, and he treated many patients without asking for payment. For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy investigating principles of reality transcending those of any particular science. ...


Adulthood

His first appointment was that of physician to the emir, who owed him his recovery from a dangerous illness (997). Ibn Sina's chief reward for this service was access to the royal library of the Samanids, well-known patrons of scholarship and scholars. When the library was destroyed by fire not long after, the enemies of Ibn Sina accused him of burning it, in order for ever to conceal the sources of his knowledge. Meanwhile, he assisted his father in his financial labours, but still found time to write some of his earliest works. Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... Events City of Gdansk is founded Saint Adalbert of Prague is sent to Prussia by Boleslaus I of Poland Samuil of Bulgaria crowned Tsar by Pope Gregory V The town of Trondheim is founded. ... Julio Pérez Ferrero Library - Cúcuta, Colombia A modern-style library in Chambéry A library is a collection of information, sources, resources, and services: it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. ... The Samanid dynasty (819-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khuda. ...


When Ibn Sina was 22 years old, he lost his father. The Samanid dynasty came to its end in December 1004. Ibn Sina seems to have declined the offers of Mahmud of Ghazni, and proceeded westwards to Urgench in the modern Uzbekistan, where the vizier, regarded as a friend of scholars, gave him a small monthly stipend. The pay was small, however, so Ibn Sina wandered from place to place through the districts of Nishapur and Merv to the borders of Khorasan, seeking an opening for his talents. Shams al-Ma'äli Kavuus, the generous ruler of Dailam and central Persia, himself a poet and a scholar, with whom Ibn Sina had expected to find an asylum, was about that date (1052) starved to death by his troops who had revolted. Ibn Sina himself was at this season stricken down by a severe illness. Finally, at Gorgan, near the Caspian Sea, Ibn Sina met with a friend, who bought a dwelling near his own house in which Ibn Sina lectured on logic and astronomy. Several of Ibn Sina's treatises were written for this patron; and the commencement of his Canon of Medicine also dates from his stay in Hyrcania. The Samanid dynasty (819-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khuda. ... Events December: End of the Samanid dynasty in Bokhara. ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... Urgench (Uzbek: Urganch / Урганч) is city (1989 pop. ... ik ben jaaapie A Vizier (Persian,وزير - wazÄ«r) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to... Nishapur (or Neyshâbûr; نیشابور in Persian) is a town in the province of Khorasan in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains, near the regional capital of Mashhad. ... Merv (Russian: Мерв, from Persian: مرو, Marv, sometimes transliterated Marw or Mary; cf. ... Map showing the pre-2004 Khorasan Province in Iran Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, anciently called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times is currently a region located in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Events Births Milarepa Deaths Heads of state Holy See - Leo IX pope (1049-1054) Categories: 1052 ... Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Gorgan Gorgan (Persian: گرگان, Land of the Wolf) is the capital city of the Iranian province of Golestan. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... Gorgan (گرگان); Hyrcania ; Hyrcana (Old Persian Varkâna, land of wolves; modern Persian Gorgan): part of the ancient Persian empire, on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea (present day Golestan, Mazandaran, Gilan and parts of Turkmenistan). ...


Ibn Sina subsequently settled at Rai, in the vicinity of modern Tehran, (present day capital of Iran), the home town of Rhazes; where Majd Addaula, a son of the last Buwayhid emir, was nominal ruler under the regency of his mother (Seyyedeh Khatun). About thirty of Ibn Sina's shorter works are said to have been composed in Rai. Constant feuds which raged between the regent and her second son, Shams al-Daula, however, compelled the scholar to quit the place. After a brief sojourn at Qazvin he passed southwards to Hamadãn where Shams al-Daula, another Buwayhid emir, had established himself. At first, Ibn Sina entered into the service of a high-born lady; but the emir, hearing of his arrival, called him in as medical attendant, and sent him back with presents to his dwelling. Ibn Sina was even raised to the office of vizier. The emir consented that he should be banished from the country. Ibn Sina, however, remained hidden for forty days in a sheikh Ahmed Fadhel's house, till a fresh attack of illness induced the emir to restore him to his post. Even during this perturbed time, Ibn Sina persevered with his studies and teaching. Every evening, extracts from his great works, the Canon and the Sanatio, were dictated and explained to his pupils. On the death of the emir, Ibn Sina ceased to be vizier and hid himself in the house of an apothecary, where, with intense assiduity, he continued the composition of his works. Ray, is one of the oldest cities of Iran. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Razi. ... The Buwayhids or Buyyids or Ä€l-i Buyeh, were a Yazdani tribal confederation from Daylam, a region on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... Seyyedeh Khatun (d. ... Ray, is one of the oldest cities of Iran. ... Abu Taher (d. ... craftsmanship at Shazdeh Hosein shrine. ... Abu Taher (d. ... The Buwayhids or Buyyids or Ä€l-i Buyeh, were a Yazdani tribal confederation from Daylam, a region on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... ik ben jaaapie A Vizier (Persian,وزير - wazÄ«r) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to... Shaikh (Arabic: شيخ ),(also rendered as Sheik, Shaykh or Sheikh) is a word in the Arabic language meaning elder of tribe, lord or a revered old man. ... Interior of an apothecarys shop. ...


Meanwhile, he had written to Abu Ya'far, the prefect of the dynamic city of Isfahan, offering his services. The new emir of Hamadan, hearing of this correspondence and discovering where Ibn Sina was hidden, incarcerated him in a fortress. War meanwhile continued between the rulers of Isfahan and Hamadãn; in 1024 the former captured Hamadan and its towns, expelling the Tajik mercenaries. When the storm had passed, Ibn Sina returned with the emir to Hamadan, and carried on his literary labours. Later, however, accompanied by his brother, a favourite pupil, and two slaves, Ibn Sina escaped out of the city in the dress of a Sufi ascetic. After a perilous journey, they reached Isfahan, receiving an honourable welcome from the prince. A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... This article is about the year. ... For other uses, see Mercenary (disambiguation). ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ...


Later life and Death

Avicenna's tomb in Hamedan, Iran
Avicenna's tomb in Hamedan, Iran

The remaining ten or twelve years of Ibn Sīnā's life were spent in the service of Abu Ja'far 'Ala Addaula, whom he accompanied as physician and general literary and scientific adviser, even in his numerous campaigns. Image File history File linksMetadata Hamadan1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Hamadan1. ... Avicennas tomb in Hamedan Hamadan or Hamedan ( Persian: همدان , Kurdish: Ekbatan) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. ...


During these years he began to study literary matters and philology, instigated, it is asserted, by criticisms on his style. He contrasts with the nobler and more intellectual character of Averroes. A severe colic, which seized him on the march of the army against Hamadan, was checked by remedies so violent that Ibn Sina could scarcely stand. On a similar occasion the disease returned; with difficulty he reached Hamadan, where, finding the disease gaining ground, he refused to keep up the regimen imposed, and resigned himself to his fate. For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... Philology, etymologically, is the love of words. It is most accurately defined as an affinity toward the learning of the backgrounds as well as the current usages of spoken or written methods of human communication. The commonality of studied languages is more important than their origin or age (that is... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... Colic may refer to: Baby colic – a condition, usually in infants, characterized by incessant crying. ...


His friends advised him to slow down and take life moderately. He refused, however, stating that: "I prefer a short life with width to a narrow one with length". On his deathbed remorse seized him; he bestowed his goods on the poor, restored unjust gains, freed his slaves, and every third day till his death listened to the reading of the Qur'an. He died in June 1037, in his fifty-eighth year, and was buried in Hamedan, Iran. // Events Construction of the church of Saint Sophia Cathedral is started in Kyiv. ... Avicennas tomb in Hamedan Hamadan or Hamedan ( Persian: همدان , Kurdish: Ekbatan) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. ...


Avicennian science

The Canon of Medicine

A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio.
A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio.
Main article: The Canon of Medicine

About 100 treatises were ascribed to Ibn Sina. Some of them are tracts of a few pages, others are works extending through several volumes. The best-known amongst them, and that to which Ibn Sina owed his European reputation, is his 14-volume The Canon of Medicine, which was a standard medical text in Europe and the Islamic world up until the 18th century.[41] The book is known for its introduction of systematic experimentation and quantification into the study of physiology,[20] the discovery of contagious diseases and sexually transmitted diseases,[21] the introduction of quarantine to limit the spread of infectious diseases, the introduction of experimental medicine, clinical trials,[22] neuropsychiatry,[28] risk factor analysis, and the idea of a syndrome in the diagnosis of specific diseases,[29] and hypothesized the existence of microrganisms.[30] It classifies and describes diseases, and outlines their assumed causes. Hygiene, simple and complex medicines, and functions of parts of the body are also covered. In this, Ibn Sīnā is credited as being the first to correctly document the anatomy of the human eye, along with descriptions of eye afflictions such as cataracts. It asserts that tuberculosis was contagious, which was later disputed by Europeans, but turned out to be true. It also describes the symptoms and complications of diabetes. Both forms of facial paralysis were described in-depth. In addition, the workings of the heart as a valve are described.[citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1272x890, 619 KB) Summary I took this image and allow its free use. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1272x890, 619 KB) Summary I took this image and allow its free use. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Year 1484 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ... The UT Health Science Centers administration building. ... A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ... A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to retain or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... In language and logic, quantification is a construct that specifies the extent of validity of a predicate, that is the extent to which a predicate holds over a range of things. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... A sexually transmitted disease (STD), a. ... For other uses see Quarantine (disambiguation) Quarantine is voluntary or compulsory isolation, typically to contain the spread of something considered dangerous, often but not always disease. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... Medical research (or experimental medicine) is basic research or applied research conducted to aid the body of knowledge in the field of medicine. ... This box:      In health care, a clinical trial is a comparison test of a medication or other medical treatment (such as a medical device), versus a placebo (inactive look-a-like), other medications or devices, or the standard medical treatment for a patients condition. ... Neuropsychiatry is the branch of medicine dealing with mental disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system. ... A risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection but risk factors are not necessarily causal. ... In medicine, the term syndrome is the association of several clinically recognizable features, signs, symptoms, phenomena or characteristics which often occur together, so that the presence of one feature alerts the physician to the presence of the others. ... In general, diagnosis (plural diagnoses) has two distinct dictionary definitions. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness. ... Cataract is also used to mean a waterfall or where the flow of a river changes dramatically. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ...


The Canon of Medicine was the first book dealing with experimental medicine, evidence-based medicine, randomized controlled trials,[23][24] and efficacy tests,[25][26] and it laid out the following rules and principles for testing the effectiveness of new drugs and medications, which still form the basis of clinical pharmacology[27] and modern clinical trials:[22] Medical research (or experimental medicine) is basic research or applied research conducted to aid the body of knowledge in the field of medicine. ... Evidence-based medicine (EBM) or scientific medicine is an attempt to apply more uniformly the standards of evidence gained from the scientific method to certain aspects of medical practice. ... A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a form of clinical trial, or scientific procedure used in the testing of the efficacy of medicines or medical procedures. ... Efficacy is the ability to produce a desired amount of a desired effect. ... For other uses, see Drug (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Clinical pharmacology is studying pharmacology in relation to clinical science. ... This box:      In health care, a clinical trial is a comparison test of a medication or other medical treatment (such as a medical device), versus a placebo (inactive look-a-like), other medications or devices, or the standard medical treatment for a patients condition. ...

  1. "The drug must be free from any extraneous accidental quality."
  2. "It must be used on a simple, not a composite, disease."
  3. "The drug must be tested with two contrary types of diseases, because sometimes a drug cures one disease by Its essential qualities and another by its accidental ones."
  4. "The quality of the drug must correspond to the strength of the disease. For example, there are some drugs whose heat is less than the coldness of certain diseases, so that they would have no effect on them."
  5. "The time of action must be observed, so that essence and accident are not confused."
  6. "The effect of the drug must be seen to occur constantly or in many cases, for if this did not happen, it was an accidental effect."
  7. "The experimentation must be done with the human body, for testing a drug on a lion or a horse might not prove anything about its effect on man."
A copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1593
A copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1593

An Arabic edition of the Canon appeared at Rome in 1593, and a Hebrew version at Naples in 1491. Of the Latin version there were about thirty editions, founded on the original translation by Gerard de Sablonetta. In the 15th century a commentary on the text of the Canon was composed. Other medical works translated into Latin are the Medicamenta Cordialia, Canticum de Medicina, and the Tractatus de Syrupo Acetoso. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 447 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 804 pixel, file size: 110 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A photo of Avicennas Canon from a private collection. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 447 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 804 pixel, file size: 110 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A photo of Avicennas Canon from a private collection. ... Events May 18 - Playwright Thomas Kyds accusations of heresy lead to an arrest warrant for Christopher Marlowe. ... // Events December 6 - King Charles VIII marries Anne de Bretagne, thus incorporating Brittany into the kingdom of France. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...


It was mainly accident which determined that from the 12th to the 18th century, Ibn Sīnā should be the guide of medical study in European universities, and eclipse the names of Rhazes, Ali ibn al-Abbas and Averroes. His work is not essentially different from that of his predecessor Rhazes, because he presented the doctrine of Galen, and through Galen the doctrine of Hippocrates, modified by the system of Aristotle, as well as the Indian doctrines of Sushruta and Charaka.[42] But the Canon of Ibn Sīnā is distinguished from the Al-Hawi (Continens) or Summary of Rhazes by its greater method, due perhaps to the logical studies of the former. (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Ali ibn Abbas al-Majusi, also known as Masoudi, was a famous Persian physician. ... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) or Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sushruta Samhita. ... For a village in Greece, see Charaka (Laconia), Greece Charaka, sometimes spelled Caraka, (perhaps 1st or 2nd century) is one of the founders of Ayurveda. ...


The work has been variously appreciated in subsequent ages, some regarding it as a treasury of wisdom, and others, like Averroes, holding it useful only as waste paper. In modern times it has been seen of mainly historic interest as most of its tenets have been disproved or expanded upon by scientific medicine. The vice of the book is excessive classification of bodily faculties, and over-subtlety in the discrimination of diseases. It includes five books; of which the first and second discuss physiology, pathology and hygiene, the third and fourth deal with the methods of treating disease, and the fifth describes the composition and preparation of remedies. This last part contains some personal observations. Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness. ...


He is, like all his countrymen, ample in the enumeration of symptoms, and is said to be inferior to Ali in practical medicine and surgery. He introduced into medical theory the four causes of the Peripatetic system. Of natural history and botany he pretended to no special knowledge. Up to the year 1650, or thereabouts, the Canon was still used as a textbook in the universities of Leuven and Montpellier. “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Peripatetic means wandering. The Peripatetics were a school of philosophy in ancient Greece. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Year 1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province Flemish Brabant Arrondissement Leuven Coordinates , , Area 56. ... Montpellier (Occitan Montpelhièr) is a city in the south of France. ...


In the museum at Bukhara, there are displays showing many of his writings, surgical instruments from the period and paintings of patients undergoing treatment. Ibn Sīnā was interested in the effect of the mind on the body, and wrote a great deal on psychology, likely influencing Ibn Tufayl and Ibn Bajjah. He also introduced medical herbs. Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... A surgical instrument is a specially designed tool or device for performing specific actions of carrying out desired effects during a surgery or operation, such as modifying biological tissue, or to provide access or viewing it. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... With regard to living things, a body is the integral physical material of an individual. ... {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ... Ibn Tufail (c. ... Ibn Bajjah ابن باجة Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Yahya Ibn al-Sayegh أبو بكر محمد بن يحيى بن الصايغ was an Andalusian Muslim philosopher and physician who was known in the West using his latinized name, Avempace. ...


Avicennian psychology

Main articles: Avicennism, The Canon of Medicine, and The Book of Healing

In Muslim psychology and the neurosciences, Avicenna was a pioneer of neuropsychiatry. He first described numerous neuropsychiatric conditions, including hallucination, insomnia, mania, nightmare, melancholia, dementia, epilepsy, paralysis, stroke, vertigo and tremor.[28] A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ... The Book of Healing (in Arabic, Kitab ash-Shifa) is a scientific encyclopedia written by the great Iranian peoples Muslim polymath Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) from Afshana, near Bukhara in Central Asia (now Uzbekistan), in the 1000s. ... Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. ... Neuropsychiatry is the branch of medicine dealing with mental disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system. ... A hallucination is a perception in the absence of a stimulus that the person may or may not believe is real. ... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ... This article is an expansion of a section entitled Mania from within the main article Bipolar disorder. ... The current usage of the term nightmare refers to a dream which causes the sleeper a strong unpleasant emotional response. ... Melancholy redirects here. ... For other uses, see Dementia (disambiguation). ... Paralysed redirects here. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... Vertigo, a specific type of dizziness, is a major symptom of a balance disorder. ... For the film, see Tremors (film). ...


Avicenna was also a pioneer in psychophysiology and psychosomatic medicine. He recognized 'physiological psychology' in the treatment of illnesses involving emotions, and developed a system for associating changes in the pulse rate with inner feelings, which is seen as an anticipation of the word association test attributed to Carl Jung. Avicenna is reported to have treated a very ill patient by "feeling the patient's pulse and reciting aloud to him the names of provinces, districts, towns, streets, and people." He noticed how the patient's pulse increased when certain names were mentioned, from which Avicenna deduced that the patient was in love with a girl whose home Avicenna was "able to locate by the digital examination." Avicenna advised the patient to marry the girl he is in love with, and the patient soon recovered from his illness after his marriage.[43] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Psychosomatic medicine is the medical field studying and providing an interdisciplinary approach to psychosomatic illness, now more commonly referred to as psychophysiologic illness, disorders whose symptoms are caused by mental processes of the sufferer rather than immediate physiological causes. ... Physiological psychology is sometimes related to psychiatry, and in fact may end up becoming the parent branch which contains psychiatry. ... For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pulse (disambiguation). ... Word Association is a common word game involving an exchange of words that are associated together. ... Jung redirects here. ...


Avicenna's legacy in classical psychology is primarily embodied in the Kitab al-nafs parts of his Kitab al-shifa' (The Book of Healing) and Kitab al-najat (The Book of Deliverance). These were known in Latin under the title De Anima (treatises "on the soul"). The main thesis of these tracts is represented in his so-called "flying man" argument, which resonates with what was centuries later entailed by Descartes's cogito argument (or what phenomenology designates as a form of an "epoche").[44][45] {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ... René Descartes René Descartes (IPA: , March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Cartesius, worked as a philosopher and mathematician. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ...


Astronomy and astrology

In 1070, Abu Ubayd al-Juzjani, a pupil of Ibn Sīnā, claimed that his teacher Ibn Sīnā had solved the equant problem in Ptolemy's planetary model.[46] Abu Ubaid al-Juzjani was a Persian physician from Juzjan in Afghanistan. ... Equant is a mathematical concept developed by Claudius Ptolemy in the 2nd century AD to account for the observed motion of heavenly bodies. ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ...


The study of astrology was refuted by Avicenna. His reasons were both due to the methods used by astrologers being conjectural rather than empirical and also due to the views of astrologers conflicting with orthodox Islam. He also cited passages from the Qur'an in order to justify his refutation of astrology on both scientific and religious grounds.[47] Main articles: Islamic science and astrology Islamic astrology, in Arabic ilm al-nujum or ilm al-falak is the study of the heavens by early Muslims. ... In mathematics, a conjecture is a mathematical statement which has been proposed as a true statement, but which no one has yet been able to prove or disprove. ... A central concept in science and the scientific method is that all evidence must be empirical, or empirically based, that is, dependent on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


Chemistry

In chemistry, steam distillation was described by Ibn Sīnā. The technique was used to produce alcohol and essential oils. For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Laboratory set-up for steam distillation Steam distillation is a special type of distillation (a separation process) for temperature sensitive materials like natural aromatic compounds. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An essential oil is any concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants, which are called aromatic herbs or aromatic plants. ...


As a chemist, Avicenna was one of the first to write refutations on alchemy, after al-Kindi. Four of his works on the refutation of alchemy were translated into Latin as:[48] A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... For the Christian theologian, see Abd al-Masih ibn Ishaq al-Kindi. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...

  • Liber Aboali Abincine de Anima in arte Alchemiae
  • Declaratio Lapis physici Avicennae filio sui Aboali
  • Avicennae de congelatione et conglutinatione lapifum
  • Avicennae ad Hasan Regem epistola de Re recta

In one of these works, Ibn Sīnā discredited the theory of the transmutation of substances commonly believed by alchemists: For other uses, see Philosophers stone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ...

"Those of the chemical craft know well that no change can be effected in the different species of substances, though they can produce the appearance of such change."[49]

Among his works refuting alchemy, Liber Aboali Abincine de Anima in arte Alchemiae was the most influential, having influenced later medieval chemists and alchemists such as Vincent of Beauvais.[48] The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... The Dominican friar Vincent of Beauvais (ca 1190 - 1264?) wrote the main encyclopedia that was used in the middle ages. ...


Earth sciences

Ibn Sīnā wrote on the earth sciences in The Book of Healing, in which he hypothesized on two geological causes of mountains: Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. ... The Book of Healing (in Arabic, Kitab ash-Shifa) is a scientific encyclopedia written by the great Iranian peoples Muslim polymath AbÅ« AlÄ« ibn SÄ«nā (Avicenna) from Afshana, near Bukhara in Central Asia (now Uzbekistan), in the 1000s. ... Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason)) is the science and study of the Earth, its composition, structure, physical properties, history, and the processes that shape it. ... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ...

"Either they are the effects of upheavals of the crust of the earth, such as might occur during a violent earthquake, or they are the effect of water, which, cutting itself a new route, has denuded the valleys, the strata being of different kinds, some soft, some hard... It would require a long period of time for all such changes to be accomplished, during which the mountains themselves might be somewhat diminished in size."[50] Geologic provinces of the world (USGS) In geology, a crust is the outermost solid shell of a planet or moon. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley In geology, a valley (also called a vale or dale) is a depression with predominant extent in one direction. ... For other uses, see strata (novel) and strata title. ...

Physics

In physics, Ibn Sīnā was the first to employ an air thermometer to measure air temperature in his scientific experiments.[51] A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... A clinical mercury thermometer A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or temperature gradient, using a variety of different principles. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to retain or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ...


In mechanics, Ibn Sīnā developed an elaborate theory of motion, in which he made a distinction between the inclination and force of a projectile, and concluded that motion was a result of an inclination (mayl) transferred to the projectile by the thrower, and that projectile motion in a vacuum would not cease.[52] He viewed inclination as a permanent force whose effect is dissipated by external forces such as air resistance.[53] His theory of motion was thus consistent with the concept of inertia in Newton's first law of motion.[52] Ibn Sīnā also referred to mayl to as being proportional to weight times velocity, a precursor to the concept of momentum in Newton's second law of motion.[54] Ibn Sīnā's theory of mayl was further developed by Jean Buridan in his theory of impetus. For other uses, see Mechanic (disambiguation). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For the science fiction novella by William Shunn, see Inclination (novella). ... For other uses, see Force (disambiguation). ... A projectile is any object sent through space by the application of a force. ... A trajectory is an imagined trace of positions followed by an object moving through space. ... For a solid object moving through a fluid or gas, drag is the sum of all the aerodynamic or hydrodynamic forces in the direction of the external fluid flow. ... This article is about inertia as it applies to local motion. ... Newtons First and Second laws, in Latin, from the original 1687 edition of the Principia Mathematica. ... For other uses, see Weight (disambiguation). ... This article is about velocity in physics. ... This article is about momentum in physics. ... Newtons First and Second laws, in Latin, from the original 1687 edition of the Principia Mathematica. ... Jean Buridan, in Latin Joannes Buridanus (1300 - 1358) was a French priest who sowed the seeds of religious scepticism in Europe. ... Impetus is an obsolete scientific theory of motion, largely developed by Jean Buridan in the 14th century. ...


In optics, Ibn Sina discovered that the speed of light is finite, as he "observed that if the perception of light is due to the emission of some sort of particles by a luminous source, the speed of light must be finite."[55] He also provided a sophisticated explanation for the rainbow phenomenon. Carl Benjamin Boyer described Ibn Sīnā's theory on the rainbow as follows: For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... A line showing the speed of light on a scale model of Earth and the Moon, taking about 1â…“ seconds to traverse that distance. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... Helium atom (schematic) Showing two protons (red), two neutrons (green) and two electrons (yellow). ... For other uses, see Rainbow (disambiguation). ... Carl Benjamin Boyer (November 3, 1906 - April 26, 1976) was a historian of mathematics. ...

"Independent observation had demonstrated to him that the bow is not formed in the dark cloud but rather in the very thin mist lying between the cloud and the sun or observer. The cloud, he thought, serves simply as the background of this thin substance, much as a quicksilver lining is placed upon the rear surface of the glass in a mirror. Ibn Sīnā would change the place not only of the bow, but also of the color formation, holding the iridescence to be merely a subjective sensation in the eye."[56]

Avicennian philosophy

Main article: Avicennism

Ibn Sīnā wrote extensively on early Islamic philosophy, especially the subjects logic, ethics, and metaphysics, including treatises named Logic and Metaphysics. Most of his works were written in Arabic - which was the de facto scientific language of that time, and some were written in the Persian language. Of linguistic significance even to this day are a few books that he wrote in nearly pure Persian language (particularly the Danishnamah-yi 'Ala', Philosophy for Ala' ad-Dawla'). Ibn Sīnā's commentaries on Aristotle often corrected the philosopher, encouraging a lively debate in the spirit of ijtihad. Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy investigating principles of reality transcending those of any particular science. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Farsi redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In the medieval Islamic world, due to Avicenna's successful reconciliation between Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism along with Kalam, Avicennism eventually became the leading school of Islamic philosophy by the 12th century, with Avicenna becoming a central authority on philosophy.[57] During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ...


Avicennism was also influential in medieval Europe, particular his doctrines on the nature of the soul and his existence-essence distinction, along with the debates and censure that they raised in scholastic Europe. This was particularly the case in Paris, where Avicennism was later proscribed in 1210. Nevertheless, his psychology and theory of knowledge influenced William of Auvergne and Albertus Magnus, while his metaphysics had an impact on the thought of Thomas Aquinas.[58] The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... For the philosophical movement, see Existentialism. ... For other uses, see Essence (disambiguation). ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Proscription (Latin: proscriptio) is the public identification and official condemnation of enemies of the state. ... {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ... William of Auvergne can refer to several people: William IV of Auvergne (989–1016) (also called William I or V) William V of Auvergne (1032–1064) (also called William II or VI) William VI of Auvergne (1096–1136) (also called William III or VII) William VII the Young of Auvergne... Albertus Magnus (b. ... Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy investigating principles of reality transcending those of any particular science. ... Aquinas redirects here. ...


Metaphysical doctrine

Early Islamic philosophy, imbued as it is with Islamic theology, distinguishes more clearly than Aristotelianism the difference between essence and existence. Whereas existence is the domain of the contingent and the accidental, essence endures within a being beyond the accidental. The philosophy of Ibn Sīnā, particularly that part relating to metaphysics, owes much to al-Farabi. The search for a truly definitive Islamic philosophy can be seen in what is left to us of his work. Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle. ... For other uses, see Essence (disambiguation). ... For the philosophical movement, see Existentialism. ... Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy investigating principles of reality transcending those of any particular science. ... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ...


Following al-Farabi's lead, Avicenna initiated a full-fledged inquiry into the question of being, in which he distinguished between essence (Mahiat) and existence (Wujud). He argued that the fact of existence can not be inferred from or accounted for by the essence of existing things and that form and matter by themselves cannot interact and originate the movement of the universe or the progressive actualization of existing things. Existence must, therefore, be due to an agent-cause that necessitates, imparts, gives, or adds existence to an essence. To do so, the cause must be an existing thing and coexist with its effect. [59] In ontology, a being is anything that can be said to be, either transcendantly or immanently. ... For other uses, see Essence (disambiguation). ... For the philosophical movement, see Existentialism. ... Causality or causation denotes the relationship between one event (called cause) and another event (called effect) which is the consequence (result) of the first. ...


Avicenna’s consideration of the essence-attributes question may be elucidated in terms of his ontological analysis of the modalities of being; namely impossibility, contingency, and necessity. Avicenna argued that the impossible being is that which cannot exist, while the contingent in itself (mumkin bi-dhatihi) has the potentiality to be or not to be without entailing a contradiction. When actualized, the contingent becomes a ‘necessary existent due to what is other than itself’ (wajib al-wujud bi-ghayrihi). Thus, contingency-in-itself is potential beingness that could eventually be actualized by an external cause other than itself. The metaphysical structures of necessity and contingency are different. Necessary being due to itself (wajib al-wujud bi-dhatihi) is true in itself, while the contingent being is ‘false in itself’ and ‘true due to something else other than itself’. The necessary is the source of its own being without borrowed existence. It is what always exists. [60][61] The Necessary exists ‘due-to-Its-Self’, and has no quiddity/essence (mahiyya) other than existence (wujud). Furthermore, It is ‘One’ (wahid ahad) [62] since there cannot be more than one ‘Necessary-Existent-due-to-Itself’ without differentia (fasl) to distinguish them from each other. Yet, to require differentia entails that they exist ‘due-to-themselves’ as well as ‘due to what is other than themselves’; and this is contradictory. However, if no differentia distinguishes them from each other, then there is no sense in which these ‘Existents’ are not one and the same. [63] Avicenna adds that the ‘Necessary-Existent-due-to-Itself’ has no genus (jins), nor a definition (hadd), nor a counterpart (nadd), nor an opposite (did), and is detached (bari’) from matter (madda), quality (kayf), quantity (kam), place (ayn), situation (wad’), and time (waqt). [64][65][66]


Avicennian logic

Avicenna discussed the topic of logic in Islamic philosophy extensively in his works, and developed his own system of logic known as "Avicennian logic" as an alternative to Aristotelian logic. By the 12th century, Avicennian logic had replaced Aristotelian logic as the dominant system of logic in the Islamic world.[67] After the Latin translations of the 12th century, Avicennian logic was also influential in Europe. In Islamic philosophy, logic played an important role. ... Aristotelian logic, also known as syllogistic logic, is the particular type of logic created by Aristotle, primarily in his works Prior Analytics and De Interpretatione. ... The 12th century saw a major search by European scholars for new learning, which led them to the Arabic fringes of Europe, especially to Spain and Sicily. ...


Ibn Sina developed an early theory on hypothetical syllogism, which formed the basis of his early risk factor analysis.[29] He also developed an early theory on propositional calculus, which was an area of logic not covered in the Aristotelian tradition.[68] The first criticisms of Aristotelian logic were also written by Ibn Sina, who developed an original theory on temporal modal syllogism.[69] Ibn Sina also contributed inventively to the development of inductive logic, being the first to describe the methods of agreement, difference and concomitant variation which are critical to inductive logic and the scientific method.[29] In logic, a hypothetical syllogism has two uses. ... A risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection but risk factors are not necessarily causal. ... In logic and mathematics, a propositional calculus (or a sentential calculus) is a formal system in which formulas representing propositions can be formed by combining atomic propositions using logical connectives, and a system of formal proof rules allows to establish that certain formulas are theorems of the formal system. ... Aristotelian logic, also known as syllogistic logic, is the particular type of logic created by Aristotle, primarily in his works Prior Analytics and De Interpretatione. ... In logic, the term temporal logic is used to describe any system of rules and symbolism for representing, and reasoning about, propositions qualified in terms of time. ... In formal logic, a modal logic is any logic for handling modalities: concepts like possibility, existence, and necessity. ... A syllogism (Greek: — conclusion, inference), usually the categorical syllogism, is a kind of logical argument in which one proposition (the conclusion) is inferred from two others (the premises) of a certain form. ... Aristotle appears first to establish the mental behaviour of induction as a category of reasoning. ... Mills Methods are five methods of induction described by philosopher John Stuart Mill in his 1843 book A System of Logic. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ...


Natural philosophy

Ibn Sina and Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī engaged in a written debate, with al-Biruni mostly criticizing Aristotelian natural philosophy and the Peripatetic school, while Avicenna and his student Ahmad ibn 'Ali al-Ma'sumi respond to al-Biruni's criticisms in writing. Al-Biruni began by asking Avicenna eighteen questions, ten of which were criticisms of Aristotle's On the Heavens.[70] (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian[1][2][3] Muslim polymath[4] of the 11th century, whose experiments and discoveries were as significant and diverse as those of Leonardo da Vinci or Galileo, five hundred years before the Renaissance; al-Biruni was... Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle. ... Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was regnant before the development of modern science. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... On the Heavens (or De Caelo) is Aristotles chief cosmological treatise: it contains his astronomical theory. ...


Philosophy of science

Further information: Avicennism, The Book of Healing, and The Canon of Medicine

In the Al-Burhan (On Demonstration) section of The Book of Healing, Avicenna discussed the philosophy of science and described an early scientific method of inquiry. He discusses Aristotle's Posterior Analytics and significantly diverged from it on several points. Avicenna discussed the issue of a proper methodology for scientific inquiry and the question of "How does one acquire the first principles of a science?" He asked how a scientist would arrive at "the initial axioms or hypotheses of a deductive science without inferring them from some more basic premises?" He explains that the ideal situation is when one grasps that a "relation holds between the terms, which would allow for absolute, universal certainty." Avicenna then adds two further methods for arriving at the first principles: the ancient Aristotelian method of induction (istiqra), and the method of examination and experimentation (tajriba). Avicenna criticized Aristotelian induction, arguing that "it does not lead to the absolute, universal, and certain premises that it purports to provide." In its place, he develops a "method of experimentation as a means for scientific inquiry."[71] The Book of Healing (in Arabic, Kitab ash-Shifa) is a scientific encyclopedia written by the great Iranian peoples Muslim polymath Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) from Afshana, near Bukhara in Central Asia (now Uzbekistan), in the 1000s. ... A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ... The Book of Healing (in Arabic, Kitab ash-Shifa) is a scientific encyclopedia written by the great Iranian peoples Muslim polymath Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) from Afshana, near Bukhara in Central Asia (now Uzbekistan), in the 1000s. ... Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, especially in the natural sciences and social sciences. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Posterior Analytics (or Analytica Posteriora) is a text by Aristotle. ... This article is about a logical statement. ... Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Deductive reasoning is reasoning whose conclusions are intended to necessarily follow from its premises. ... In a formal logical system, that is, a set of propositions that are consistent with one another, it is probable that some of the statements can be deduced from one another. ... Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle. ... Look up induction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... To examine somebody or something is to inspect it closely, hence an examination is a detailed inspection or analysis of an object or person. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to retain or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ...


Theology

Ibn Sīnā was a devout Muslim and sought to reconcile rational philosophy with Islamic theology. His aim was to prove the existence of God and his creation of the world scientifically and through reason and logic.[72] Avicenna wrote a number of treatises dealing with Islamic theology. These included treatises on the Islamic prophets, who he viewed as "inspired philosophers", and on various scientific and philosophical interpretations of the Qur'an, such as how Quranic cosmology corresponds to his own philosophical system.[73] Theology is reasoned discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason). It can also refer to the study of other religious topics. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Cosmology, from the Greek: κοσμολογία (cosmologia, κόσμος (cosmos) order + λογος (logos) word, reason, plan) is the quantitative (usually mathematical) study of the Universe in its totality, and by extension, humanitys place in it. ...


Ibn Sīnā memorized the Qur'an by the age of seven, and as an adult, he wrote five treatises commenting on suras from the Qur'an. One of these texts included the Proof of Prophecies, in which he comments on several Quranic verses and holds the Qur'an in high esteem. Avicenna argued that the Islamic prophets should be considered higher than philosophers.[74] For other uses, see Hafiz (disambiguation). ... Sura (sometimes spelt Surah , plural Suwar ) is an Arabic term literally meaning something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ...


Thought experiments

While he was imprisoned in the castle of Fardajan near Hamadhan, Avicenna wrote his famous "Floating Man" thought experiment to demonstrate human self-awareness and the substantiality of the soul. He referred to the living human intelligence, particularly the active intellect, which he believed to be the hypostasis by which God communicates truth to the human mind and imparts order and intelligibility to nature. His "Floating Man" thought experiment tells its readers to imagine themselves suspended in the air, isolated from all sensations, which includes no sensory contact with even their own bodies. He argues that, in this scenario, one would still have self-consciousness. He thus concludes that the idea of the self is not logically dependent on any physical thing, and that the soul should not be seen in relative terms, but as a primary given, a substance.[75][76][77] In philosophy, physics, and other fields, a thought experiment (from the German Gedankenexperiment) is an attempt to solve a problem using the power of human imagination. ... For the feeling that one is being watched, see self-consciousness. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Intelligence (disambiguation). ... Active intellect is a term used in both psychology and philosophy. ... Hypostatic abstraction, also known as hypostasis or subjectal abstraction, is the process or the product of a formal operation that takes an element of information, such as might be expressed in a proposition of the form X is Y, and conceives its information to consist in the relation between a... Time Saving Truth from Falsehood and Envy, François Lemoyne, 1737 For other uses, see Truth (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... Look up Transwiki:intelligibility in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the physical universe. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sensation and perception psychology. ... This article is about the senses of living organisms (vision, taste, etc. ... For consciousness of ones existence, see Self-awareness. ... In philosophy, the self is the idea of a unified being which is the source of an idiosyncratic conciousness. ... In philosophy, an object is a thing, an entity, or a being. ... A relative term, also called a rhema or a rheme, is a logical term that requires reference to any number of other objects, called the correlates of the term, in order to denote a definite object, called the relate (pronounced with the accent on the first syllable) of the relative... In epistemology, an axiom is a self-evident truth upon which other knowledge must rest, from which other knowledge is built up. ... Substance theory, or substance attribute theory, is an ontological theory about objecthood, positing that a substance is distinct from its properties. ...


Other contributions

Engineering

In the chapters on mechanics and engineering in his encyclopedia Mi'yar al-'aql (The Measure of the Mind), Avicenna writes an analysis on the ilm al-hiyal (science of ingenious devices) and makes the first successful attempt to classify simple machines and their combinations. He first describes and illustrates the five constituent simple machines: the lever, pulley, screw, wedge, and windlass. He then analyzes all the combinations of these simple machines, such as the windlass-screw, windlass-pulley and windlass-lever for example. He is also the first to describe a mechanism which is essentially a combination of all of these simple machines (except for the wedge).[78] For other uses, see Mechanic (disambiguation). ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... Look up illustration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... Leverage redirects here. ... For the band, see Pulley (band). ... This article is about screws and bolts. ... For other uses, see Wedge (disambiguation). ... A windlass is an apparatus for moving a heavy weight. ... Look up mechanism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Poetry

Almost half of Ibn Sīnā's works are versified.[79] His poems appear in both Arabic and Persian. As an example, Edward Granville Browne claims that the following verses are incorrectly attributed to Omar Khayyám, and were originally written by Ibn Sīnā:[80] Edward Granville Browne Edward Granville Browne (1862–1926) born in Stouts Hill, Uley, Gloucestershire, England, was a British orientalist who published numerous articles and books of academic value, mainly in the areas of history and literature. ... For other people, places or with similar names of Khayam, see Khayyam (disambiguation). ...


از قعر گل سیاه تا اوج زحل,
Up from Earth's Centre through the Seventh Gate


کردم همه مشکلات گیتی را حل,
I rose, and on the Throne of Saturn sate,


بیرون جستم زقید هر مکر و حیل,
And many Knots unravel'd by the Road;


هر بند گشاده شد مگر بند اجل.
But not the Master-Knot of Human Fate.


When some of his opponents blame him for blasphemy, he says [81]


کفر چو منی گزاف و آسان نبود


The blasphemy of somebody like me is not easy and exorbitant


محکمتر از ایمان من ایمان نبود


There isn't any stronger faith than my faith


در دهر چو من یکی و آن هم کافر


There is just one person greater than me in the world and that one is god


پس در همه دهر یک مسلمان نبود


Then there are Muslims in the whole world.


Legacy

Ibn Sīnā commemorated on a Polish stamp
Further information: Avicennism

As early as the 1300s when Dante Alighieri showed him experiencing a perfect eternity with some the greatest men in history in his Divine Comedy such as Virgil, Averroes, Homer, Horace, Ovid, Lucan, Socrates, Plato, and Saladin, Avicenna has been recognized by both East and West, as one of history's great figures. Avicenna, as appearing on a Polish stamp. ... Avicenna, as appearing on a Polish stamp. ... Dante redirects here. ... Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelinos fresco. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ... For other people named Horace, see Horace (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation). ... Lucan can refer to: Lucan, a town in County Dublin Lucan, a town in Minnesota, USA Lucan, a town in Ontario, Canada Earl of Lucan, a British peerage title Richard Bingham, 7th Earl of Lucan, the most famous holder Lucan, a Roman poet Lucan the Butler, a Knight of the... This page is about the Classical Greek philosopher. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-Dīn Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ...


George Sarton, the father of the history of science, described Ibn Sīnā as "one of the greatest thinkers and medical scholars in history"[21] and called him "the most famous scientist of Islam and one of the most famous of all races, places, and times." He was one of the Islamic world's leading writers in the field of medicine. He was influenced by the approach of Hippocrates and Galen, as well as Sushruta and Charaka. Along with Rhazes, Abulcasis, Ibn al-Nafis, and al-Ibadi, Ibn Sīnā is considered an important compiler of early Muslim medicine. He is remembered in Western history of medicine as a major historical figure who made important contributions to medicine and the European Renaissance. Ibn Sīnā is also considered the father of the fundamental concept of momentum in physics.[31] George Alfred Leon Sarton (1884-1956) was a seminal Belgian-American polymath and historian of science. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sushruta Samhita. ... For a village in Greece, see Charaka (Laconia), Greece Charaka, sometimes spelled Caraka, (perhaps 1st or 2nd century) is one of the founders of Ayurveda. ... For other uses, see Razi. ... Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, and scientist. ... Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي ) known as ibn Al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس ), was an Arab physician who is mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. ... Hunayn ibn Ishaq al-Ibadi (809—873) was Nestorian physician in the House of Wisdom. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... This article is about momentum in physics. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ...


In Iran, he is considered a national icon, and is often regarded as one of the greatest Persians to have ever lived. Many portraits and statues remain in Iran today. An impressive monument to the life and works of the man who is known as the 'doctor of doctors' still stands outside the Bukhara museum and his portrait hangs in the Hall of the Avicenna Faculty of Medicine in the University of Paris. There is also a crater on the moon named the Avicenna crater. Bu-Ali Sina University in Hamedan (Iran), the ibn Sīnā Tajik State Medical University in Dushanbe (The capital of the Republic of Tajikistan), Avicenna School in Karachi, Pakistan and Ibne Sina Balkh Medical School in his native province of Balkh in Afghanistan are all named in his honor. The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... Avicenna is a lunar crater that lies on the far side of the Moon, just beyond the western limb on the northern rim of the Lorentz basin. ... Bu-Ali Sina University, also written Bu Ali Sina University and Avicenna University, is a university in the city of Hamedan in Hamedan province of Iran. ... Avicennas tomb in Hamedan Hamadan or Hamedan ( Persian: همدان , Kurdish: Ekbatan) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. ... Location of Dushanbe in Tajikistan Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Mahmadsaid Ubaydulloyev Area  - Total 100 km² (38. ... The Avicenna School, is a co-education school in Karachi, Pakistan. ...   (Sindhi: , Urdu: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ... Today Balkh (Persian: بلخ) is a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazari Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ...

Avicenna monument in Dushanbe
Avicenna monument in Dushanbe

In 1980, the former Soviet Union, which then ruled his birthplace Bukhara, celebrated the thousandth anniversary of Avicenna's birth by circulating various commemorative stamps with artistic illustrations, and by erecting a bust of Avicenna based on anthropological research by Soviet scholars.[82] This 1998 stamp of the Faroe Islands marks the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. ... A bust can be one of: Bust (sculpture), a sculpture depicting a persons chest, shoulders, and head, usually supported by a stand. ... Anthropology (from the Greek word άνθρωπος = human) consists of the study of humankind (see genus Homo). ...


In March 2008, it was announced [83] that Avicenna’s name would be used for new Directories of education institutions for health care professionals, worldwide. The Avicenna Directories will list universities and schools where doctors, public health practitioners, pharmacists and others, are educated. The project team stated “Why Avicenna? Avicenna … was … noted for his synthesis of knowledge from both east and west. He has had a lasting influence on the development of medicine and health sciences. The use of Avicenna’s name symbolises the worldwide partnership that is needed for the promotion of health services of high quality.”


Works

Avicenna celebrated on a stamp printed in Dubai.
Avicenna celebrated on a stamp printed in Dubai.

Scarcely any member of the Muslim circle of the sciences, including theology, philology, mathematics, astronomy, physics, and music, was left untouched by the treatises of Ibn Sīnā. This vast quantity of works - be they full-blown treatises or opuscula - vary so much in style and content (if one were to compare between the 'ahd made with his disciple Bahmanyar to uphold philosophical integrity with the Provenance and Direction, for example) that Yahya (formerly Jean) Michot has accused him of "neurological bipolarity". In the public domain by age This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... In the public domain by age This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Location of Dubai in the UAE Coordinates: , Country Emirate Dubai Incorporated (town) June 9, 1833 Incorporated (emirate) December 2, 1971 Founder Maktoum bin Bati bin Suhail (1833) Seat Dubai Subdivisions Towns and villages Jebel Ali Hatta Al Hunaiwah Al Aweer Al Hajarain Al Lusayli Al Marqab Al Shindagha Al Faq... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Philology, etymologically, is the love of words. It is most accurately defined as an affinity toward the learning of the backgrounds as well as the current usages of spoken or written methods of human communication. The commonality of studied languages is more important than their origin or age (that is... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ...


Ibn Sīnā's works numbered almost 450 volumes on a wide range of subjects, of which around 240 have survived. In particular, 150 volumes of his surviving works concentrate on philosophy and 40 of them concentrate on medicine.[84] His most famous works are The Book of Healing, a vast philosophical and scientific encyclopaedia, and The Canon of Medicine,[1] Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... The Book of Healing (in Arabic, Kitab ash-Shifa) is a scientific encyclopedia written by the great Iranian peoples Muslim polymath AbÅ« AlÄ« ibn SÄ«nā (Avicenna) from Afshana, near Bukhara in Central Asia (now Uzbekistan), in the 1000s. ... A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ...


Ibn Sīnā wrote at least one treatise on alchemy, but several others have been falsely attributed to him. His book on animals was translated by Michael Scot. His Logic, Metaphysics, Physics, and De Caelo, are treatises giving a synoptic view of Aristotelian doctrine, though the Metaphysics demonstrates a significant departure from the brand of Neoplatonism known as Aristotelianism in Ibn Sīnā's world; Arabic philosophers have hinted at the idea that Ibn Sīnā was attempting to "re-Aristotelianise" Muslim philosophy in its entirety, unlike his predecessors, who accepted the conflation of Platonic, Aristotelian, Neo- and Middle-Platonic works transmitted into the Muslim world. For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Michael Scot (1175 - ?1232) was a mediaeval mathematician and scholar. ...


The Logic and Metaphysics have been printed more than once, the latter, e.g., at Venice in 1493, 1495, and 1546. Some of his shorter essays on medicine, logic, etc., take a poetical form (the poem on logic was published by Schmoelders in 1836). Two encyclopaedic treatises, dealing with philosophy, are often mentioned. The larger, Al-Shifa' (Sanatio), exists nearly complete in manuscript in the Bodleian Library and elsewhere; part of it on the De Anima appeared at Pavia (1490) as the Liber Sextus Naturalium, and the long account of Ibn Sina's philosophy given by Muhammad al-Shahrastani seems to be mainly an analysis, and in many places a reproduction, of the Al-Shifa'. A shorter form of the work is known as the An-najat (Liberatio). The Latin editions of part of these works have been modified by the corrections which the monastic editors confess that they applied. There is also a حكمت مشرقيه (hikmat-al-mashriqqiyya, in Latin Philosophia Orientalis), mentioned by Roger Bacon, the majority of which is lost in antiquity, which according to Averroes was pantheistic in tone. 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1495 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Spanish conquest of Yucatan Peace between England and France Foundation of Trinity College, Cambridge by Henry VIII of England Katharina von Bora flees to Magdeburg Science Architecture Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Book of Healing (in Arabic, Kitab ash-Shifa) is a scientific encyclopedia written by the great Iranian peoples Muslim polymath AbÅ« AlÄ« ibn SÄ«nā (Avicenna) from Afshana, near Bukhara in Central Asia (now Uzbekistan), in the 1000s. ... Entrance to the Library, with the coats-of-arms of several Oxford colleges The Bodleian Library, the main research library of the University of Oxford, is one of the oldest libraries in Europe, and in England is second in size only to the British Library. ... Events Tirant Lo Blanc by Joanot Martorell, Martí Joan De Galba is published. ... Taj al–Din Abu‘l–Fath Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al–Karim al–Shahrastani (1086 - 1153 CE), an Islamic scholar, was born in the town of Shahristan (Turkmenistan). ... For the Nova Scotia premier see Roger Bacon (politician). ...


List of Works

This is the list of some of Avicenna's well-known works:[85]

  • Sirat al-shaykh al-ra’is (The Life of Ibn Sina), ed. and trans. WE. Gohlman, Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1974. (The only critical edition of Ibn Sina’s autobiography, supplemented with material from a biography by his student Abu ‘Ubayd al-Juzjani. A more recent translation of the Autobiography appears in D. Gutas, Avicenna and the Aristotelian Tradition: Introduction to Reading Avicenna’s Philosophical Works, Leiden: Brill, 1988.)[85]
  • Al-Isharat wa-‘l-tanbihat (Remarks and Admonitions), ed. S. Dunya, Cairo, 1960; parts translated by S.C. Inati, Remarks and Admonitions, Part One: Logic, Toronto, Ont.: Pontifical Institute for Mediaeval Studies, 1984, and Ibn Sina and Mysticism, Remarks and Admonitions: Part 4, London: Kegan Paul International, 1996. [85]
  • Risalah fi sirr al-qadar (Essay on the Secret of Destiny), trans. G. Hourani in Reason and Tradition in Islamic Ethics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985. [85]
  • Danishnama-i ‘ala’i (The Book of Scientific Knowledge), ed. and trans. P Morewedge, The Metaphysics of Avicenna, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1973. [85]
  • Kitab al-Shifa’ (The Book of Healing). (Ibn Sina’s major work on philosophy. He probably began to compose al-Shifa’ in 1014, and completed it in 1020.) Critical editions of the Arabic text have been published in Cairo, 1952-83, originally under the supervision of I. Madkour[85]
  • Hayy ibn Yaqdhan a Persian myth. A novel called Hayy ibn Yaqdhan, based on Avicenna's story, was later written by Ibn Tufail (Abubacer) in the 12th century and translated into Latin and English as Philosophus Autodidactus in the 17th and 18th centuries respectively. In the 13th century, Ibn al-Nafis wrote his own novel Fadil ibn Natiq, known as Theologus Autodidactus in the West, as a critical response to Hayy ibn Yaqdhan.[86]

A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ... The Book of Healing (in Arabic, Kitab ash-Shifa) is a scientific encyclopedia written by the great Iranian peoples Muslim polymath AbÅ« AlÄ« ibn SÄ«nā (Avicenna) from Afshana, near Bukhara in Central Asia (now Uzbekistan), in the 1000s. ... Hayy bin Yaqzān Arabic,حي بن يقظان (Alive son of Awake),a philosophical romance and allegorical Arabic tale written by The Arab philosopher and physician Ibn Tufail early 11th century ; the tale is about a man who lives alone on an island and who, without contact with other human beings, discovers ultimate... Farsi redirects here. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... Ibn Tufail (c. ... Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي ) known as ibn Al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس ), was an Arab physician who is mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. ...

See also

The Book of Healing (in Arabic, Kitab ash-Shifa) is a scientific encyclopedia written by the great Iranian peoples Muslim polymath Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) from Afshana, near Bukhara in Central Asia (now Uzbekistan), in the 1000s. ... A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ... Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, and scientist. ... (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian[1][2][3] Muslim polymath[4] of the 11th century, whose experiments and discoveries were as significant and diverse as those of Leonardo da Vinci or Galileo, five hundred years before the Renaissance; al-Biruni was... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... Islamic science has been an important part of the history of science and the present day. ... Science continues to be produced in modern Iran despite many limitations. ... Some of the earliest records of history of Ancient Iranian medicine can be found in Avesta, the primary collection of sacred texts of Zoroastrianism The practice and study of medicine in Persia has a long and prolific history. ... This article is about Iranian scientists of the classical era. ... Eastern philosophy refers very broadly to the various philosophies of Asia, including Indian philosophy, Chinese philosophy, Persian philosophy, Japanese philosophy, and Korean philosophy. ... Iranian philosophy can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian roots and were considerably influenced by Zarathustras teachings. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... // Cosmology Subtle bodies Rooh ( Soul ) Nasma ( Astral Body ) Physical body Concepts in Gnosis Fana Baqa Haal Maqaam Other concepts Haqiqa Marifa Ihsan Categories: Sufi philosophy | Mystic philosophy ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Islamic scholars are Muslim and non-Muslim scholars who work in one or more fields of Islamic studies. ... Abu Mansur al-Hasan ibn Nuh al-Qumri (Arabic: أبو منصور الحسن بن نوح القمري) was a Persian physician of the 10th century who lived in Khorasan. ... Avicenna Peak, formerly known as Revolution Peak and Dreispitz, is the fourth highest mountain in the Pamirs range of Tajikistan. ... Species See text Avicennia is a genus of mangrove tree. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2007). "Avicenna". Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-11-05. 
  2. ^ Corbin, (1993) p.170
  3. ^ Corbin,(1993) p. 174
  4. ^ Avicenna, Encyclopaedia Britannica
  5. ^ Von Dehsen, Christian D.; Scott L. Harris. Philosophers and Religious Leaders. Greenwood Press, p. 19. ISBN 1-5735-6152-5. 
  6. ^ [1] [2]
  7. ^ Extracts from the history of Islamic pharmacy. Pharmacy History. Pharma Corner. Retrieved on 2007-11-11.
  8. ^ Greenhill, William Alexander (1867), “Abitianus”, in Smith, William, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. 1, pp. 3 
  9. ^ "Avicenna", in Encyclopaedia Britannica, Concise Online Version, 2006 ([3]); D. Gutas, "Avicenna", in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Version 2006, (LINK); Avicenna in (Encyclopedia of Islam: © 1999 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands)
  10. ^ Charles F. Horne (1917), ed., The Sacred Books and Early Literature of the East Vol. VI: Medieval Arabia, p. 90-91. Parke, Austin, & Lipscomb, New York. (cf. Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (973-1037): On Medicine, c. 1020 CE, Medieval Sourcebook.)

    "Avicenna (973-1037) was a sort of universal genius, known first as a physician. To his works on medicine he afterward added religious tracts, poems, works on philosophy, on logic, as physics, on mathematics, and on astronomy. Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, (Persian: سيد حسين نصر) A lifelong student and follower of Frithjof Schuon, Persian philosopher and renowned scholar of comparative religion, is a prominent authority in the fields of Islamic esoterism, sufism, philosophy of science, and metaphysics. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (1849, originally published 1844 under a slightly different title) is an encyclopedia/biographical dictionary. ... ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project in Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian studies, to create an English language encyclopedia about Iran and Persia. ... Look up Cf. ...

  11. ^ O'Connor, John J. & Robertson, Edmund F., “Avicenna”, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive 
  12. ^ Avicenna (Abu Ali Sina)
  13. ^ Avicenna 980-1037
  14. ^ Medicine : an exhibition of books relating to medicine and surgery from the collection formed by J.K. Lilly.
  15. ^ Islamic Medical Manuscripts: Catalogue - Galen
  16. ^ ARTICLES ON AVICENNA, AVERROES and MAIMONIDES
  17. ^ Avicenna (Abu Ali Sina)
  18. ^ Cas Lek Cesk (1980). "The father of medicine, Avicenna, in our science and culture: Abu Ali ibn Sina (980-1037)", Becka J. 119 (1), p. 17-23.
  19. ^ Medical Practitioners
  20. ^ a b Katharine Park (March 1990). "Avicenna in Renaissance Italy: The Canon and Medical Teaching in Italian Universities after 1500 by Nancy G. Siraisi", The Journal of Modern History 62 (1), p. 169-170.

    "Students of the history of medicine know him for his attempts to introduce systematic experimentation and quantification into the study of physiology". The MacTutor history of mathematics archive is a website hosted by University of St Andrews in Scotland. ...

  21. ^ a b c d George Sarton, Introduction to the History of Science.
    (cf. Dr. A. Zahoor and Dr. Z. Haq (1997). Quotations From Famous Historians of Science, Cyberistan.)
  22. ^ a b c David W. Tschanz, MSPH, PhD (August 2003). "Arab Roots of European Medicine", Heart Views 4 (2).
  23. ^ a b Jonathan D. Eldredge (2003), "The Randomised Controlled Trial design: unrecognized opportunities for health sciences librarianship", Health Information and Libraries Journal 20, p. 34–44 [36].
  24. ^ a b Bernard S. Bloom, Aurelia Retbi, Sandrine Dahan, Egon Jonsson (2000), "Evaluation Of Randomized Controlled Trials On Complementary And Alternative Medicine", International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care 16 (1), p. 13–21 [19].
  25. ^ a b D. Craig Brater and Walter J. Daly (2000), "Clinical pharmacology in the Middle Ages: Principles that presage the 21st century", Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 67 (5), p. 447-450 [449].
  26. ^ a b Walter J. Daly and D. Craig Brater (2000), "Medieval contributions to the search for truth in clinical medicine", Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 43 (4), p. 530–540 [536], Johns Hopkins University Press.
  27. ^ a b D. Craig Brater and Walter J. Daly (2000), "Clinical pharmacology in the Middle Ages: Principles that presage the 21st century", Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 67 (5), p. 447-450 [448].
  28. ^ a b c S Safavi-Abbasi, LBC Brasiliense, RK Workman (2007), "The fate of medical knowledge and the neurosciences during the time of Genghis Khan and the Mongolian Empire", Neurosurg Focus 23 (1), E13, p. 3.
  29. ^ a b c d Lenn Evan Goodman (2003), Islamic Humanism, p. 155, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195135806.
  30. ^ a b The Canon of Medicine, The American Institute of Unani Medicine, 2003.
  31. ^ a b Seyyed Hossein Nasr, "Islamic Conception Of Intellectual Life", in Philip P. Wiener (ed.), Dictionary of the History of Ideas, Vol. 2, p. 65, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1973-1974.
  32. ^ Marlene Ericksen (2000). Healing with Aromatherapy, p. 9. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0658003828.
  33. ^ "Major periods of Muslim education and learning". Encyclopedia Britannica Online. (2007). Retrieved on 2007-12-16. 
  34. ^ Afary, Janet (2007). "Iran". Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-12-16. 
  35. ^ Corbin, (1993) p. 170
  36. ^ Avicenna (Ibn Sina): Muslim Physician And Philosopher of the Eleventh Century, p. 38, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 1404205098.
  37. ^ Corbin, (1993) p.170
  38. ^ Khan, Aisha (2006), Avicenna (Ibn Sina): Muslim Physician And Philosopher of the Eleventh Century, p. 38, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 1404205098.
  39. ^ Jorge J. E. Gracia and Timothy B. Noone (2003), A Companion to Philosophy in the Middle Ages, p. 196, Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 0631216731.
  40. ^ Corbin, (1993) p. 168
  41. ^ Ziauddin Sardar, Science in Islamic philosophy
  42. ^ Hakeem Abdul Hameed, Exchanges between India and Central Asia in the field of Medicine
  43. ^ Ibrahim B. Syed PhD, "Islamic Medicine: 1000 years ahead of its times", Journal of the Islamic Medical Association, 2002 (2), p. 2-9 [7].
  44. ^ Nader El-Bizri, The Phenomenological Quest between Avicenna and Heidegger (Binghamton, N.Y.: Global Publications SUNY, 2000), pp. 149-171.
  45. ^ Nader El-Bizri, "Avicenna’s De Anima between Aristotle and Husserl," in The Passions of the Soul in the Metamorphosis of Becoming, ed. Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003), pp. 67-89.
  46. ^ A. I. Sabra (1998). "Configuring the Universe: Aporetic, Problem Solving, and Kinematic Modeling as Themes of Arabic Astronomy", Perspectives on Science 6 (3), p. 288-330 [305-306].
  47. ^ George Saliba (1994), A History of Arabic Astronomy: Planetary Theories During the Golden Age of Islam, p. 60, 67-69. New York University Press, ISBN 0814780237.
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  49. ^ Robert Briffault (1938). The Making of Humanity, p. 196-197.
  50. ^ Stephen Toulmin and June Goodfield (1965). The Discovery of Time, p. 64. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
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  52. ^ a b Fernando Espinoza (2005). "An analysis of the historical development of ideas about motion and its implications for teaching", Physics Education 40 (2), p. 141.
  53. ^ A. Sayili (1987), "Ibn Sīnā and Buridan on the Motion of the Projectile", Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 500 (1), p. 477 – 482:

    "It was a permanent force whose effect got dissipated only as a result of external agents such as air resistance. He is apparently the first to conceive such a permanent type of impressed virtue for non-natural motion." George Alfred Leon Sarton (1884-1956) was a seminal Belgian-American polymath and historian of science. ... Look up Cf. ... The Johns Hopkins University Press is a publishing house and division of Johns Hopkins University that engages in academic publishing. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr (Persian: سيد حسين نصر), (1933-), a University Professor of the department of Islamic studies at George Washington University, is a leading Iranian Muslim philosopher. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Janet Afary is an Iranian author, feminist activist and researcher in political sciences and women studies. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Blackwell Publishing was formed in 2001 from two Oxford-based academic publishing companies, Blackwell Science and Blackwell Publishers and is the worlds leading society publisher, partnering with 665 academic and professional societies. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Islamic Medical Association of North America (IMANA) is the largest Muslim medical organization in North America. ... Abdelhamid I. Sabra is a retired professor of the history of science specializing in the history of science in the Islamic World and the history of optics. ... George Saliba has been Professor of Arabic and Islamic Science of the Department of Middle East and Asian Languages and Cultures, Columbia University, New York, USA since 1979. ... New York University Press (or NYU Press), founded in 1916, is a university press that is part of New York University. ... The Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science is a three-volume encyclopedia covering the history of Arabic contributions to science, mathematics and technology which had a tremendous influence on the rise of the European Renaissance. ... Routledge is an imprint for books in the humanities part of the Taylor & Francis Group, which also has Brunner-Routledge, RoutledgeCurzon and RoutledgeFalmer divisions. ... Robert Briffault (1876 - 11 December 1948) was a French novelist, social anthropologist and surgeon. ... Robert Briffault (1876 - 11 December 1948) was a French novelist, social anthropologist and surgeon. ...

  54. ^ A. Sayili (1987), "Ibn Sīnā and Buridan on the Motion of the Projectile", Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 500 (1), p. 477 – 482:

    "Thus he considered impetus as proportional to weight times velocity. In other words, his conception of impetus comes very close to the concept of momentum of Newtonian mechanics."

  55. ^ George Sarton, Introduction to the History of Science, Vol. 1, p. 710.
  56. ^ Carl Benjamin Boyer (1954). "Robert Grosseteste on the Rainbow", Osiris 11, p. 247-258 [248].
  57. ^ Nahyan A. G. Fancy (2006), p. 80-81, "Pulmonary Transit and Bodily Resurrection: The Interaction of Medicine, Philosophy and Religion in the Works of Ibn al-Nafīs (d. 1288)", Electronic Theses and Dissertations, University of Notre Dame.[4]
  58. ^ The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Avicenna/Ibn Sina (CA. 980-1037)
  59. ^ "Islam". Encyclopedia Britannica Online. (2007). Retrieved on 2007-11-27. 
  60. ^ Avicenna, Kitab al-shifa’, Metaphysics II, (eds.) G. C. Anawati, Ibrahim Madkour, Sa’id Zayed (Cairo, 1975), p. 36
  61. ^ Nader El-Bizri, "Avicenna and Essentialism," Review of Metaphysics, Vol. 54 (2001), pp. 753-778
  62. ^ Avicenna, Metaphysica of Avicenna, trans. Parviz Morewedge (New York, 1973), p. 43.
  63. ^ Nader El-Bizri, The Phenomenological Quest between Avicenna and Heidegger (Binghamton, N.Y.: Global Publications SUNY, 2000)
  64. ^ Avicenna, Kitab al-Hidaya, ed. Muhammad ‘Abdu (Cairo, 1874), pp. 262-3
  65. ^ Salem Mashran, al-Janib al-ilahi ‘ind Ibn Sina (Damascus, 1992), p. 99
  66. ^ Nader El-Bizri, "Being and Necessity: A Phenomenological Investigation of Avicenna’s Metaphysics and Cosmology," in Islamic Philosophy and Occidental Phenomenology on the Perennial Issue of Microcosm and Macrocosm, ed. Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2006), pp. 243-261
  67. ^ I. M. Bochenski (1961), "On the history of the history of logic", A history of formal logic, p. 4-10. Translated by I. Thomas, Notre Dame, Indiana University Press. (cf. Ancient Islamic (Arabic and Persian) Logic and Ontology)
  68. ^ Lenn Evan Goodman (1992), Avicenna, p. 188, Routledge, ISBN 041501929X.
  69. ^ History of logic: Arabic logic, Encyclopædia Britannica.
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  71. ^ McGinnis, Jon (July 2003), “Scientific Methodologies in Medieval Islam”, Journal of the History of Philosophy 41 (3): 307-327 
  72. ^ Lenn Evan Goodman (2003), Islamic Humanism, p. 8-9, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195135806.
  73. ^ James W. Morris (1992), "The Philosopher-Prophet in Avicenna's Political Philosophy", in C. Butterworth (ed.), The Political Aspects of Islamic PhIlosophy, Chapter 4, Cambridge Harvard University Press, p. 142-188 [159-161].
  74. ^ Jules Janssens (2004), "Avicenna and the Qur'an: A Survey of his Qur'anic commentaries", MIDEO 25, p. 177-192.
  75. ^ Nasr (1996), pp. 315, 1022 and 1023
  76. ^ Nader El-Bizri, The Phenomenological Quest between Avicenna and Heidegger (Binghamton, N.Y.: Global Publications SUNY, 2000), pp. 149-171.
  77. ^ Nader El-Bizri, "Avicenna’s De Anima between Aristotle and Husserl," in The Passions of the Soul in the Metamorphosis of Becoming, ed. Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003), pp. 67-89.
  78. ^ Mariam Rozhanskaya and I. S. Levinova (1996), "Statics", in Roshdi Rashed, ed., Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Vol. 2, p. 614-642 [633]. Routledge, London and New York.
  79. ^ E.G. Browne, Islamic Medicine (sometimes also printed under the title Arabian medicine), 2002, Goodword Pub., ISBN 81-87570-19-9, p61
  80. ^ E.G. Browne, Islamic Medicine (sometimes also printed under the title Arabian medicine), 2002, Goodword Pub., ISBN 81-87570-19-9, p60-61)
  81. ^ ملاقات تاریخی ابوسعید ابوالخیر و ابو علی سینا
  82. ^ Professor Dr. İbrahim Hakkı Aydin (2001), "Avicenna And Modern Neurological Sciences", Journal of Academic Researches in Religious Sciences 1 (2): 1-4.
  83. ^ Educating health professionals: the Avicenna project The Lancet, Volume 371 pp 966 – 967
  84. ^ O'Connor, John J. & Robertson, Edmund F., “Avicenna”, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive 
  85. ^ a b c d e f g IBN SINA ABU ‘ALI AL-HUSAYN
  86. ^ Nahyan A. G. Fancy (2006), "Pulmonary Transit and Bodily Resurrection: The Interaction of Medicine, Philosophy and Religion in the Works of Ibn al-Nafīs (d. 1288)", pp. 95-102, Electronic Theses and Dissertations, University of Notre Dame.[5]

George Alfred Leon Sarton (1884-1956) was a seminal Belgian-American polymath and historian of science. ... Carl Benjamin Boyer (November 3, 1906 - April 26, 1976) was a historian of mathematics. ... For other universities and colleges named Notre Dame, see Notre Dame. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Indiana University, founded in 1820, is a nine-campus university system in the state of Indiana. ... Look up Cf. ... Routledge is an imprint for books in the humanities part of the Taylor & Francis Group, which also has Brunner-Routledge, RoutledgeCurzon and RoutledgeFalmer divisions. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... The Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science is a three-volume encyclopedia covering the history of Arabic contributions to science, mathematics and technology which had a tremendous influence on the rise of the European Renaissance. ... Routledge is an imprint for books in the humanities part of the Taylor & Francis Group, which also has Brunner-Routledge, RoutledgeCurzon and RoutledgeFalmer divisions. ... Edward Granville Browne Edward Granville Browne (1862–1926) born in Stouts Hill, Uley, Gloucestershire, England, was a British orientalist who published numerous articles and books of academic value, mainly in the areas of history and literature. ... Edward Granville Browne Edward Granville Browne (1862–1926) born in Stouts Hill, Uley, Gloucestershire, England, was a British orientalist who published numerous articles and books of academic value, mainly in the areas of history and literature. ... The MacTutor history of mathematics archive is a website hosted by University of St Andrews in Scotland. ... For other universities and colleges named Notre Dame, see Notre Dame. ...

References

Books
  • Corbin, Henry (1993 (original French 1964)). History of Islamic Philosophy, Translated by Liadain Sherrard, Philip Sherrard. London; Kegan Paul International in association with Islamic Publications for The Institute of Ismaili Studies, p. 167-175. ISBN 0710304161. 
  • Nasr, Seyyed Hossein; Oliver Leaman (1996). History of Islamic Philosophy. Routledge. ISBN 0415131596. 
  • Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2006). Islamic Philosophy from Its Origin to the Present: Philosophy in the Land of prophecy. SUNY Press. ISBN 0791467996. 
  • Von Dehsen, Christian D.; Scott L. Harris. Philosophers and religious leaders. Greenwood Press. ISBN 1-5735-6152-5. 
Encyclopedia

Henry Corbin (14 April 1903 - October 7, 1978) was a philosopher, theologian and professor of Islamic Studies at the Sorbonne in Paris, France. ... Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, (Persian: سيد حسين نصر) A lifelong student and follower of Frithjof Schuon, Persian philosopher and renowned scholar of comparative religion, is a prominent authority in the fields of Islamic esoterism, sufism, philosophy of science, and metaphysics. ... Oliver Leaman is a Professor of Philosophy and Zantker Professor of Judaic Studies. ... Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, (Persian: سيد حسين نصر) A lifelong student and follower of Frithjof Schuon, Persian philosopher and renowned scholar of comparative religion, is a prominent authority in the fields of Islamic esoterism, sufism, philosophy of science, and metaphysics. ... Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, (Persian: سيد حسين نصر) A lifelong student and follower of Frithjof Schuon, Persian philosopher and renowned scholar of comparative religion, is a prominent authority in the fields of Islamic esoterism, sufism, philosophy of science, and metaphysics. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • A good introduction to his life and philosophical thought is Avicenna by Lenn E. Goodman (Cornell University Press: 1992, updated edition 2006)
  • For Ibn Sina's life, see Ibn Khallikan's Biographical Dictionary, translated by de Slane (1842); F. Wüstenfeld's Geschichte der arabischen Aerzte und Naturforscher (Gottingen, 1840).
  • Shahrastani, German translation, vol. ii. 213-332
  • For a list of extant works, C. Brockelmann's Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur (Weimar, 1898), vol. i. pp. 452-458. (XV. W.; G. W. T.)
  • For an overview of his career see Shams Inati, "Ibn Sina" in History of Islamic Philosophy, ed. Hossein Seyyed Nasr and Oliver Leaman, New York: Routledge (1996).
  • For a new understanding of his early career, based on a newly discovered text, see also: Michot, Yahya, Ibn Sînâ: Lettre au vizir Abû Sa'd. Editio princeps d'après le manuscrit de Bursa, traduction de l'arabe, introduction, notes et lexique (Beirut-Paris: Albouraq, 2000) ISBN 2-84161-150-7.
  • Nader El-Bizri, "Avicenna and Essentialism," Review of Metaphysics, Vol. 54 (June 2001), pp. 753-778
  • Nader El-Bizri, "Being and Necessity: A Phenomenological Investigation of Avicenna’s Metaphysics and Cosmology," in Islamic Philosophy and Occidental Phenomenology on the Perennial Issue of Microcosm and Macrocosm, ed. Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2006), pp. 243-261
  • Nader El-Bizri, "Avicenna’s De Anima between Aristotle and Husserl," in The Passions of the Soul in the Metamorphosis of Becoming, ed. Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003), pp. 67-89
  • O'Connor, John J. & Robertson, Edmund F., “Abu Ali al-Husain ibn Abdallah ibn Sina (Avicenna)”, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive 
  • For his medicine, see:
  • Sprengel, Histoire de la Medicine
  • Edward G. Browne, Islamic Medicine, 2002, Goodword Pub., ISBN 81-87570-19-9
  • For his philosophy, see:
  • Michot, Jean R., La destinée de l'homme selon Avicenne (Leuven: Peeters, 1986) ISBN 90-6381-071-2.
  • Dimitri Gutas, "Avicenna and the Aristotelian Tradition: Introduction to Reading Avicenna's Philosophical Works" (Leiden: Brill 1988)
  • Reisman, David C. (ed.), "Before and After Avicenna: Proceedings of the First Conference of the Avicenna Study Group" (Leiden: Brill 2003)
  • The Cambridge Companion to Arabic Philosophy, edited by P. Adamson and R. Taylor, (Cambridge: Cambridge: University Press 2005)
  • Amos Bertolacci, The reception of Aristotle's Metaphysics in Avicenna's Kitab al-Sifa'. A milestone of Western metaphysical thought (Leiden: Brill 2006)
  • Avicenne: Réfutation de l'astrologie. Edition et traduction du texte arabe, introduction, notes et lexique par Yahya Michot. Préface d'Elizabeth Teissier (Beirut-Paris: Albouraq, 2006) ISBN 2-84161-304-6.
  • Shoja MM, Tubbs RS. The disorder of love in the Canon of Avicenna (A.D. 980-1037). Am J Psychiatry 2007; 164:228–229.
  • Gordon, Stewart. When Asia was the World: Traveling Merchants, Scholars, Warriors, and Monks who created the "Riches of the East" Da Capo Press, Perseus Books, 2008. ISBN 0-306-81556-7.
  • Nader El-Bizri, The Phenomenological Quest between Avicenna and Heidegger (Binghamton, N.Y.: Global Publications SUNY, 2000).

Abu-l ‘Abbas Ahmad ibn Khallikan was a Muslim scholar of the 13th century. ... William McGuckin (also Mac Guckin and MacGuckin), known as Baron de Slane, was a nineteenth-century Irish orientalist. ... Heinrich Ferdinand Wüstenfeld (1808-1899) was a German orientalist, known as a literary historian of Arabic literature. ... Taj al–Din Abu‘l–Fath Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al–Karim al–Shahrastani (1086 - 1153 CE), an Islamic scholar, was born in the town of Shahristan (Turkmenistan). ... Carl Brockelmann (1868-1956), German semitist, was professor at the universities in Breslau and Berlin. ... The MacTutor history of mathematics archive is a website hosted by University of St Andrews in Scotland. ... There are several people called Sprengel in Wikipedia: Karl or Carl Sprengel (1787-1859), botanist Kurt Sprengel (1766-1833), botanist This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Edward Granville Browne Edward Granville Browne (1862–1926) born in Stouts Hill, Uley, Gloucestershire, England, was a British orientalist who published numerous articles and books of academic value, mainly in the areas of history and literature. ...

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Averroism is the term applied to either of two philosophical trends among scholastics in the late 13th century, the first of which was based on the Arab philosopher Averroës or Ibn Rushd interpretations of Aristotle and the resolution of various conflicts between the writings of Aristotle and the Muslim... One of major longstanding schools of Islamic philosophy, حكمت اشراق or kihmat-al-Ishraq or Illuminationist Philosophy has been created and developed by Suhrawardi, famous Persian Philosopher. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... حكمت متعاليه Transcendent theosophy or al-hikmat al-muta’liyah, the doctrine and philosophy that has been developed and perfected by Persian Philosopher Mulla Sadra, is one of tow main disciplines of Islamic Philosophy which is very live & active even today. ... The Traditionalist School of thought (not to be confused with Traditionalist Catholicism), attained its current form with the French metaphysician René Guénon, although its precepts are considered to be timeless and to be found in all authentic traditions. ... Following are some of the concepts in Sufi metaphysics // Wahdat-ul-Wujood or Wahdat al-Wujud (Arabic: وحدة الوجود) the Unity of Being is a Sufi philosophy emphasizing that there is no true existence except the Ultimate Truth (God). All of his creations emerge from `adim (عدم non-existence) to wujood (existence) out... Although there is no consensus with regard to Sufi cosmology, one can disentangle various threads that led to the crystallization of more or less coherent cosmological doctrines. ... Jafar Al-Sadiq (Arabic: جعفر الصادق in full Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Husayn (702 AD - 765 AD ) is the sixth infallible Imam and one of Ahl al-Bayt of the Shia Muslims. ... Imam Abu Hanifa (699 - 765) was an important Islamic scholar and jurist and is considered the founder of the Hanifi school of fiqh. ... The Šāfiˤī madhab (Arabic: شافعي) is one of the four schools of fiqh, or religious law, within Sunni Islam. ... Malik ibn Anas ibn Malik ibn Amr al-Asbahi (Arabic مالك بن أنس) (c. ... Ahmed ibn Hanbal (Arabic: ‏‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎أحمد بن حنبل‏‎‎‎‏‎‎‎ ‎‎‎‎‎‎‎ Ahmad bin Hanbal ) (780 - 855 CE, 164 - 241 AH) was an important Muslim scholar and theologian of arabic background [9] and descendant from the Banu Shayban Arabian tribe and native of Merw [10]. He is considered the founder of the Hanbali school of fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence). ... Yaqub ibn Ibrahim al-Ansari, better known as Abu Yusuf (Arabic:أبو يوسف) (d. ... Wasil ibn Ata (700–748) (Arabic: ‎) was a Muslim theologian, and by some accounts is considered the founder of the Mutazilite school of Islamic thought. ... Amr Ibn Ubayd ibn Bāb (d. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Abu al-Wafa Ali Ibn Aqil ibn Ahmad al-Baghdadi (1040-1119) was an Islamic theologian from Baghdad, Iraq. ... Abu al-Hasan bin Ismael al-Ashari (Arabic ابو الحسن بن إسماعيل اﻷشعري) (c. ... Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Mahmud Abu Mansur al-Samarqandi al-Maturidi al-Hanafi (d. ... Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-GhazzālÄ« (1058-1111) (Persian: ), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). ... Al-Jahiz (in Arabic الجاحظ) (real name Abu Uthman Amr Ibn Bahr al-Kinani al-Fuqaimi al-Basri) (born in Basra, 776 - 869) was a famous Arab scholar probably of Abyssinian descent. ... Abu Ali Muhammad al-Jubbai was a Mutazili philosopher of the 10th century. ... Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn íbn Ali al-Masudi (transl: ) (born c. ... Abu Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Numan al-Ukbari al-Baghdadi known as al-Shaykh al-Mufid and Ibn al-Muallim for his expertise in philosophical theology (c. ... Shaykh Tusi(Persian: –) Abu Jafar Muhammad Ibn Hassan Tusi(Persian: –), known as Shaykh al-Tayefah(Arabic: –) is a Persian of the Shia Twelver Islamic belief, born in Tus, Khorasan, Iranin the year 385 AH. At the age of 23, He moved to Baghdad to join the great center of... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was an Arab[1] Muslim polymath[2][3] who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his introduction of the... (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian[1][2][3] Muslim polymath[4] of the 11th century, whose experiments and discoveries were as significant and diverse as those of Leonardo da Vinci or Galileo, five hundred years before the Renaissance; al-Biruni was... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي ) known as ibn Al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس ), was an Arab physician who is mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. ... Ibn KhaldÅ«n or Ibn Khaldoun (full name, Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332 AD/732 AH – March 19, 1406 AD/808 AH), was a famous Berber Muslim polymath: a historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher, political theorist, sociologist and social scientist born in present-day Tunisia. ... Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi (Urdu: ابو الاعلى مودودی, Arabic: أبو الأعلى المودودي; alternative spellings of last name Maudoodi, and Mawdudi) (September 25, 1903) - September 22, 1979),[1] also known as Mawlana (Maulana) Sayyid Abul Ala Mawdudi, is considered an influential Islamic thinker of the 20th century. ... Prof. ... Justice (Retired) Allama Mufti Muhammad Taqi Uthmani (Usmani) (Urdu: محمد تقی عثمانی) is a renowned literalist Islamic scholar from Pakistan who has served as a judge on the Shariah Appellate Bench of the Supreme Court of Pakistan from 1982 to 2002 and as a judge of the Federal Shariat Court of Pakistan from... Fazl ur-Rahman is the son of Mufti Mehmood (Former provencial chief minister). ... Ayatollah Morteza Motahhari (مرتضی مطهری; February 3, 1920 – May 1, 1979) was an Iranian scholar, cleric, professor, and politician. ... A Muslim philosopher is a person that professes Islam and engaged in the philosophical aspect of Islamic studies, for example theology or eschatology and other fields of Islamic philosophy. ... Ibn KhaldÅ«n or Ibn Khaldoun (full name, Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332 AD/732 AH – March 19, 1406 AD/808 AH), was a famous Berber Muslim polymath: a historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher, political theorist, sociologist and social scientist born in present-day Tunisia. ... For the Christian theologian, see Abd al-Masih ibn Ishaq al-Kindi. ... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... For other uses, see Razi. ... ابوالحسن عامرى Al-Amiri, an Iranian philosopher, who spent most of his life in Eastern provinces of Iran & died in Neyshaboor 992/381, was the most prominent muslim philosopher following the tradition of Al-Kindi in Islamic Philosophy. ... Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Miskawayh, (ابن مسكوويه) also known as Ibn Miskawayh (932-1030) was a prominent Persian philosopher, scientist, poet and historian from Ray, Iran. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Arabic manuscript from the 12th century for Brethren of Purity (Arabic , Ikhwan Alsafa اخوان الصفا) The Brethren of Purity (Arabic اخوان الصفا Ikhwan al-Safa ; also translated as Brethren of Sincerity) [1] were an obscure and mysterious [2] organization of neo-Platonic Arabic[3] philosophers in Basra, Iraq - which was the seat of the... Abu Yaqub Sijistani (active 971 CE) was an Ismaili missionary and Neo-Platonic philosopher, who was martyred a few years after 971 CE. Paul Ernest Walker (1993). ... Ayn-al-Quzāt HamadānÄ« (1098–1131), Persian: , was a Persian jurisconsult, mystic, philosopher and mathematician who was executed at the age of 33. ... Born in Spain on 883CE/269, ابن مسره or Ibn Massarah was a famous Islamic Philosopher who lived in a severely rigid era that made him to present his ideas secretly just to a few student. ... Abu Muhammad Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Sa`id ibn Hazm (أبو محمد علي بن احمد بن سعيد بن حزم) (November 7, 994 – August 15, 1069) was an Andalusian Muslim philosopher and theologian of Persian descent [1] born in Córdoba, present day Spain. ... Ibn Tufail (c. ... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... Mohammad Ibn Abd-al-Haq Ibn Sab’in (محمدبن عبدالحق بن سبعين) is the last philosopher of the Andalous in the west land of Islamic world and his school is a combination of philosophical and Gnostic thoughts. ... Shahab al-Din Yahya as-Suhrawardi (from the Arabicشهاب الدين يحيى سهروردى, also known as Sohrevardi) (born 1153 in North-West-Iran; died 1191 in Aleppo) was a persian philosopher and Sufi, founder of School of Illumination, one of the most important islamic doctrine in Philosophy. ... For the Maliki scholar, see Ibn al-Arabi. ... (1200–1265) was a Persian philosopher, astronomer and mathematician from Abhar. ... Nasir Tusi Abu Jafar Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201–1274) was a Persian scientist, of Shia Islamic belief, born in Tus, Khorasan, Iran. ... Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (1236–1311) was a 13th century Persian scientist and astronomer from Shiraz, Iran. ... ملاصدرا or Mulla Sadra (aka Molla Sadra or Mollasadra) also called Sadr Ad-Din Ash- Shirazi (c. ... Mulla Hadi Sabzevari or Hajj Molla Hadi Sabzevari was an Iranian philosopher and poet. ... Mir Damad (Persian: ميرداماد) was a philosopher, teacher, & leader in the cultural renaissance of Iran during Safavid dynasty and the main founder of the Isfahan School. ... Mir Fendereski (1562-1640), was a renowned Iranian philosopher, poet and mystic of the Safavid era. ... Allameh Tabatabaei (1892-1981) is one of the most prominent thinkers of contemporary Shia Islam. ... Sir Muhammad Iqbāl (Urdu/Persian: ‎ ) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938) was an Indian Muslim poet, philosopher and politician, whose poetry in Persian and Urdu is regarded as among the greatest in modern times. ... Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi (Urdu:ریاض احمدگوھرشاہی) (‎25 November 1941 – 25 November 2001) also known as Sayyedna Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi (Urdu:سیدناریاض احمدگوھرشاہی) or Hazrat Sayyedna Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi Muddazullahul Aali (Urdu:حضرت سیدناریاض احمدگوھرشاہی مدظلہ العالی) was a Muslim Sufi, author, spiritual leader and founder of the spiritual movement Anjuman Serfaroshan-e-Islam. ... Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Muḥammad Bāqir al-á¹¢adr (Arabic: آية الله العظمى السيد محمد باقر الصدر ) (March 1, 1935 – April 9, 1980) was an Iraqi Shia cleric born in al-Kazimiya, Iraq. ... René Jean Marie Joseph Guénon (November 15, 1886 – January 7, 1951) also named Sheikh Abd al-Wahid Yahya upon his acceptance of Islam, was a French-born author. ... Frithjof Schuon (June 18, 1907 – May 5, 1998) is a metaphysician, poet, painter, and a leading figure of traditional metaphysics. ... Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr (Persian: سيد حسين نصر), (1933-), a University Professor of the department of Islamic studies at George Washington University, is a leading Iranian Muslim philosopher. ... Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas Syed Muhammad al Naquib bin Ali bin Abdullah bin Muhsin al Attas (born September 5, 1931) is a prominent contemporary Muslim philosopher and thinker from Malaysia. ... Philosophy seated between the seven liberal arts – Picture from the Hortus deliciarum of Herrad von Landsberg (12th century) Medieval philosophy is the philosophy of Europe and the Middle East in the era now known as medieval or the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Roman... Augustinus redirects here. ... For other people of the same name, see Boethius (disambiguation). ... For the Christian theologian, see Abd al-Masih ibn Ishaq al-Kindi. ... J. Scotus Eriugena commemorated on a Irish banknote, issued 1976-1993 Johannes Scotus Eriugena (ca. ... For other uses, see Razi. ... Al-Jahiz (in Arabic الجاحظ) (real name Abu Uthman Amr Ibn Bahr al-Kinani al-Fuqaimi al-Basri) (born in Basra, 776 - 869) was a famous Arab scholar probably of Abyssinian descent. ... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... Born in Spain on 883CE/269, ابن مسره or Ibn Massarah was a famous Islamic Philosopher who lived in a severely rigid era that made him to present his ideas secretly just to a few student. ... ابوالحسن عامرى Al-Amiri, an Iranian philosopher, who spent most of his life in Eastern provinces of Iran & died in Neyshaboor 992/381, was the most prominent muslim philosopher following the tradition of Al-Kindi in Islamic Philosophy. ... Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Miskawayh, (ابن مسكوويه) also known as Ibn Miskawayh (932-1030) was a prominent Persian philosopher, scientist, poet and historian from Ray, Iran. ... The Brethren of Purity (اخوان الصفا; also translated as Brethren of Sincerity) were an obscure and mysterious organization of neo-Platonic Arabic philosophers in Basra, Iraq (then seat of the Abbasid Caliphate) sometime during the 900s CE. They are remembered primarily because of a work they produced- the Encyclopedia of the Brethren... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was an Arab[1] Muslim polymath[2][3] who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his introduction of the... (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian[1][2][3] Muslim polymath[4] of the 11th century, whose experiments and discoveries were as significant and diverse as those of Leonardo da Vinci or Galileo, five hundred years before the Renaissance; al-Biruni was... Abu Muhammad Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Sa`id ibn Hazm (أبو محمد علي بن احمد بن سعيد بن حزم) (November 7, 994 – August 15, 1069) was an Andalusian Muslim philosopher and theologian of Persian descent [1] born in Córdoba, present day Spain. ... Roscellinus (~1050 - ~1122), often called the founder of Nominalism (see Scholasticism), was born at Compigne (Compendium). ... For entities named after Saint Anselm, see Saint Anselms. ... Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-GhazzālÄ« (1058-1111) (Persian: ), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). ... Bernard of Chartres (Bernardus Carnotensis) (d. ... Ayn-al-Quzāt HamadānÄ« (1098–1131), Persian: , was a Persian jurisconsult, mystic, philosopher and mathematician who was executed at the age of 33. ... Ibn Bajjah ابن باجة Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Yahya Ibn al-Sayegh أبو بكر محمد بن يحيى بن الصايغ was an Andalusian Muslim philosopher and physician who was known in the West using his latinized name, Avempace. ... Gilbert de la Porrée, frequently known as Gilbertus Porretanus or Pictavieiisis (1070 - September 4, 1154), scholastic logician and theologian, was born at Poitiers. ... Hugh of St Victor (c. ... Abaelardus and Heloïse surprised by Master Fulbert, by Romanticist painter Jean Vignaud (1819) Pierre Abélard (in English, Peter Abelard) or Abailard (1079 – April 21, 1142) was a French scholastic philosopher, theologian, and logician. ... Levi ben Gershon (Levi son of Gerson), better known as Gersonides or the Ralbag (1288-1344), was a famous rabbi, philosopher, mathematician and Talmudic commentator. ... Hibat Allah Abul-Barakat al-Baghdaadi (1080? - 1165?) was an Arab philosopher and physicist. ... Richard of St. ... Ibn Tufail (c. ... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Alexander Hales (also Halensis, Alensis, Halesius, Alesius; called Doctor Irrefragabilis and Theologorum Monarcha) was a scholastic theologian. ... Mohammad Ibn Abd-al-Haq Ibn Sab’in (محمدبن عبدالحق بن سبعين) is the last philosopher of the Andalous in the west land of Islamic world and his school is a combination of philosophical and Gnostic thoughts. ... Alain de Lille (Alanus de Insulis) (c. ... Shahab al-Din Yahya as-Suhrawardi (from the Arabicشهاب الدين يحيى سهروردى, also known as Sohrevardi) (born 1153 in North-West-Iran; died 1191 in Aleppo) was a persian philosopher and Sufi, founder of School of Illumination, one of the most important islamic doctrine in Philosophy. ... Abdallatif, Abd-el-latif or Abd-Ul-Latif (1162-1231), a celebrated physician and traveller, and one of the most voluminous writers of the East, was born at Baghdad. ... For the Maliki scholar, see Ibn al-Arabi. ... A 13th century portrait of Grosseteste. ... Albertus Magnus (b. ... (1200–1265) was a Persian philosopher, astronomer and mathematician from Abhar. ... For other uses, see Muhammad Nasir-al-din. ... Zakariya ibn Muhammad al-Qazwini ( died 1283 CE), was a Persian physician from Qazvin. ... Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي ) known as ibn Al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس ), was an Arab physician who is mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. ... For the Nova Scotia premier see Roger Bacon (politician). ... Saint Bonaventure of Bagnoregio (Italian: San Bonaventura) (1221 – 15 July 1274), born John of Fidanza (Italian: Giovanni di Fidanza), was the eighth Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, commonly called the Franciscans. ... Aquinas redirects here. ... Ramon Llull. ... Godfrey of Fontaines was a scholastic philosopher and theologian; born near Liège, within the first half of the thirteenth century, he became a canon of his native diocese, and also of Paris and Cologne, and was elected, in 1300, to the See of Tournai, which he declined. ... Henry of Ghent (c. ... Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (1236–1311) was a 13th century Persian scientist and astronomer from Shiraz, Iran. ... Giles of Rome (Latin Ægidius Romanus) (circa 1243-1316), was an archbishop of Bourges who was famed for his logician commentary on the Organon by Aristotle. ... Rashid al-Din Tabib also Rashid ad-Din Fadhlullah Hamadani (1247 - 1318), was a Persian physician, writer and historian, who wrote an enormous Islamic history volume, the Jami al-Tawarikh, in the Persian language. ... Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149–1209) was a well-known Persian theologian and philosopher from Ray. ... Taqi al-Din Ahmad Ibn Taymiyyah (Arabic: )(January 22, 1263 - 1328), was a Sunni Islamic scholar born in Harran, located in what is now Turkey, close to the Syrian border. ... Blessed John Duns Scotus (c. ... William of Ockham (also Occam or any of several other spellings, IPA: ) (c. ... Jean Buridan, in Latin Joannes Buridanus (1300 - 1358) was a French priest who sowed the seeds of religious scepticism in Europe. ... Portrait of Nicole Oresme: Miniature of Nicole Oresmes Traité de l’espere, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, France, fonds français 565, fol. ... Ibn KhaldÅ«n or Ibn Khaldoun (full name, Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332 AD/732 AH – March 19, 1406 AD/808 AH), was a famous Berber Muslim polymath: a historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher, political theorist, sociologist and social scientist born in present-day Tunisia. ... Georgius Gemistos (or Plethon, Pletho), (c. ... Basilius Bessarion Basilius Bessarion (in Greek Βασίλειος Βησσαρίων) (January 2, 1403 – November 18, 1472), mistakenly known also as Johannes Bessarion due to an erroneous interpretation of Gregory Mamme, a Roman Catholic Cardinal Bishop and the titular Latin Patriarch of Constantinople, was one of the illustrious Greek scholars who contributed to the great... Francisco de Vitoria Francisco de Vitoria, Statue before San Esteban, Salamanca Statue of Francisco de Vitoria, in Vitoria-Gasteiz Francisco de Vitoria (Francisci de Victoria; c. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Eastern philosophy refers very broadly to the various philosophies of Asia, including Indian philosophy, Chinese philosophy, Persian philosophy, Japanese philosophy, and Korean philosophy. ... Western philosophy is a modern claim that there is a line of related philosophical thinking, beginning in ancient Greece (Greek philosophy) and the ancient Near East (the Abrahamic religions), that continues to this day. ... The history of philosophy is the study of philosophical ideas and concepts through time. ... This page lists some links to ancient philosophy, although for Western thinkers prior to Socrates, see Pre-Socratic philosophy. ... Buddhist Teachings deals extensively with problems in metaphysics, phenomenology, ethics, and epistemology. ... Hellenistic philosophy is the period of Western philosophy that was developed in the Hellenistic civilization following Aristotle and ending with Neo-Platonism. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The holiest Jain symbol is the right facing swastika, or svastika, shown above. ... Iranian philosophy can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian roots and were considerably influenced by Zarathustras teachings. ... Philosophy seated between the seven liberal arts – Picture from the Hortus deliciarum of Herrad von Landsberg (12th century) Medieval philosophy is the philosophy of Europe and the Middle East in the era now known as medieval or the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Roman... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: Filled with OR and completely unsourced. ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... Jewish philosophy refers to the conjunction between serious study of philosophy and Jewish theology. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 17th-century philosophy in the West is generally regarded as seeing the start of modern philosophy, and the shaking off of the mediæval approach, especially scholasticism. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Analytic philosophy (sometimes, analytical philosophy) is a generic term for a style of philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century. ... Continental philosophy, in contemporary usage, refers to a set of traditions of 19th and 20th century philosophy from mainland Europe. ... Philosophy is a broad field of knowledge in which the definition of knowledge itself is one of the subjects investigated. ... This page aims to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to philosophy, beginning with the letters A through C. This is so that those interested in the subject can monitor changes to the pages by clicking on Related changes in the sidebar. ... The alphabetical list of p is so large it had to be broken up into several pages. ... Philosophies: particular schools of thought, styles of philosophy, or descriptions of philosophical ideas attributed to a particular group or culture - listed in alphabetical order. ... This is a list of topics relating to philosophy that end in -ism. ... A philosophical movement is either the appearance or increased popularity of a specific school of philosophy, or a fairly broad but identifiable sea-change in philosophical thought on a particular subject. ... This is a list of philosophical lists. ... Aesthetics is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. ... Ethics is the branch of axiology – one of the four major branches of philosophy, alongside metaphysics, epistemology, and logic – which attempts to understand the nature of morality; to define that which is right from that which is wrong. ... Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) Epistemology (from Greek επιστήμη - episteme, knowledge + λόγος, logos) or theory of knowledge is a branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy investigating principles of reality transcending those of any particular science. ... Philosophy of action is chiefly concerned with human action, intending to distinguish between activity and passivity, voluntary, intentional, culpable and involuntary actions, and related question. ... The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. ... The philosophy of information (PI) is a new area of research, which studies conceptual issues arising at the intersection of computer science, information technology, and philosophy. ... Philosophy of history or historiosophy is an area of philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of human history. ... Philosophical anthropology is the philosophical discipline that seeks to unify the several empirical investigations and phenomenological explorations of human nature in an effort to understand human beings as both creatures of their environment and creators of their own values. ... Philosophy of Humor is a branch of philosophy that is concerned with the philosophical study of humor. ... Philosophy of law is a branch of philosophy and jurisprudence which studies basic questions about law and legal systems, such as what is the law?, what are the criteria for legal validity?, what is the relationship between law and morality?, and many other similar questions. ... Philosophy and literature is the literary treatment of philosophers and philosophical themes. ... // Philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the philosophical assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics. ... A phrenological mapping of the brain. ... Some of the questions relating to the philosophy of music are: What, exactly is music (what are the necessary and sufficient conditions for it)? What is the relationship between music and emotion? Peter Kivy, Professor of Philosophy at Rutgers University, in particular, sets out to argue how music, which is... This article is about ontology in philosophy. ... Metaphilosophy (from Greek meta + philosophy) is the study of the subject and matter, methods and aims of philosophy. ... Philosophy of physics is the study of the fundamental, philosophical questions underlying modern physics, the study of matter and energy and how they interact. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... Philosophy of psychology typically refers to a set of issues at the theoretical foundations of modern psychology. ... Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, especially in the natural sciences and social sciences. ... Philosophy of social science is the scholarly elucidation and debate of accounts of the nature of the social sciences, their relations to each other, and their relations to the natural sciences (see natural science). ... The Philosophy of technology is a philosophical field dedicated to studying the nature of technology and its social effects. ... The Philosophy of war examines war beyond the typical questions of weaponry and strategy, inquiring into the meaning and etiology of war, what war means for humanity and human nature as well as the ethics of war. ... Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle. ... Averroism is the term applied to either of two philosophical trends among scholastics in the late 13th century, the first of which was based on the Arab philosopher Averroës or Ibn Rushd interpretations of Aristotle and the resolution of various conflicts between the writings of Aristotle and the Muslim... Critical theory, in sociology and philosophy, is shorthand for critical theory of society or critical social theory, a label used by the Frankfurt School, i. ... This page is about the school of philosophy. ... Deconstruction is a term in contemporary philosophy, literary criticism, and the social sciences, denoting a process by which the texts and languages of Western philosophy (in particular) appear to shift and complicate in meaning when read in light of the assumptions and absences they reveal within themselves. ... Deontological ethics or deontology (Greek: δέον (deon) meaning obligation or duty) is an approach to ethics that focuses on the rightness or wrongness of actions themselves, as opposed to the rightness or wrongness of the consequences of those actions. ... According to many followers of the theories of Karl Marx (or Marxists), dialectical materialism is the philosophical basis of Marxism. ... For other uses, see Dualism (disambiguation). ... Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c. ... Epiphenomenalism is a view in philosophy of mind according to which some or all mental states are mere epiphenomena (side-effects or by-products) of physical states of the world. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement that posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives, as opposed to deities or authorities creating it for them. ... Functionalism is a theory of the mind in contemporary philosophy, developed largely as an alternative to both the identity theory of mind and behaviorism. ... This article does not cite any sources. ... Hegelianism is a philosophy developed by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel which can be summed up by a favorite motto by Hegel, the rational alone is real, which means that all reality is capable of being expressed in rational categories. ... Hermeneutics may be described as the development and study of theories of the interpretation and understanding of texts. ... For the specific belief system, see Humanism (life stance). ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... Kant redirects here. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Logical positivism grew from the discussions of Moritz Schlicks Vienna Circle and Hans Reichenbachs Berlin Circle in the 1920s and 1930s. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... This article is about methodological naturalism. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... The New Philosophers (French nouveaux philosophes) were a group of French philosophers (for example, André Glucksmann and Bernard Henri-Lévy) who appeared in the early 1970s, as critics of the previously-fashionable philosophers (roughly speaking, the post-structuralists). ... This article is about the philosophical position. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Moral particularism is the view that there are no moral principles and moral judgement can be found only as one decides particular cases, either real or imagined. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... Platonic idealism is the theory that the substantive reality around us is only a reflection of a higher truth. ... Positivism is a philosophy that states that the only authentic knowledge is knowledge that is based on actual sense experience. ... Postmodern philosophy is an eclectic and elusive movement characterized by its criticism of Western philosophy. ... Post-structuralism is a body of work that followed in the wake of structuralism, and sought to understand the Western world as a network of structures, as in structuralism, but in which such structures are ordered primarily by local, shifting differences (as in deconstruction) rather than grand binary oppositions and... Pragmatism is a philosophic school that originated in the late nineteenth century with Charles Sanders Peirce, who first stated the pragmatic maxim. ... The Pre-Socratic philosophers were active before Socrates or contemporaneously, but expounding knowledge developed earlier. ... Contemporary philosophical realism, also referred to as metaphysical realism, is the belief in a reality that is completely ontologically independent of our conceptual schemes, linguistic practices, beliefs, etc. ... For the physics theory with a similar name, see Theory of Relativity. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... Philosophical scepticism (UK spelling, scepticism) is both a philosophical school of thought and a method that crosses disciplines and cultures. ... Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy, founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early third century BC. It proved to be a popular and durable philosophy, with a following throughout Greece and the Roman Empire from its founding until all the schools of philosophy were ordered closed... Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ... This article discusses utilitarian ethical theory. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... The history of logic documents the development of logic as it occurs in various rival cultures and traditions in history. ... In Islamic philosophy, logic played an important role. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... Philosophical logic is the application of formal logical techniques to problems that concern philosophers. ... Philosophy of logic is the branch of philosophy that is concerned with the nature and justification of systems of logic. ... Mathematical logic is a major area of mathematics, which grew out of symbolic logic. ... The metalogic of a system of logic is the formal proof supporting its soundness. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Reasoning is the mental (cognitive) process of looking for reasons to support beliefs, conclusions, actions or feelings. ... Deductive reasoning is reasoning whose conclusions are intended to necessarily follow from its premises. ... Aristotle appears first to establish the mental behaviour of induction as a category of reasoning. ... Abduction, or inference to the best explanation, is a method of reasoning in which one chooses the hypothesis that would, if true, best explain the relevant evidence. ... Informal logic is the study of arguments as presented in ordinary language, as contrasted with the presentations of arguments in an artificial (technical) or formal language (see formal logic). ... This article is about the word proposition as it is used in logic, philosophy, and linguistics. ... Inference is the act or process of deriving a conclusion based solely on what one already knows. ... Look up argument in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In logic, the form of an argument is valid precisely if it cannot lead from true premises to a false conclusion. ... An argument is cogent if and only if the truth of the arguments premises would render the truth of the conclusion probable (i. ... Traditional logic, also known as term logic, is a loose term for the logical tradition that originated with Aristotle and survived broadly unchanged until the advent of modern predicate logic in the late nineteenth century. ... are you kiddin ? i was lookin for it for hours ... Look up fallacy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A syllogism (Greek: — conclusion, inference), usually the categorical syllogism, is a kind of logical argument in which one proposition (the conclusion) is inferred from two others (the premises) of a certain form. ... Argumentation theory, or argumentation, embraces the arts and sciences of civil debate, dialogue, conversation, and persuasion. ... Philosophy of logic is the branch of philosophy that is concerned with the nature and justification of systems of logic. ... Platonic realism is a philosophical term usually used to refer to the idea of realism regarding the existence of universals after the Greek philosopher Plato who lived between c. ... Logical atomism is a philosophical belief that originated in the early 20th century with the development of analytic philosophy. ... Logicism is one of the schools of thought in the philosophy of mathematics, putting forth the theory that mathematics is an extension of logic and therefore some or all mathematics is reducible to logic. ... In philosophy, nominalism is the theory that abstract terms, general terms, or universals do not represent objective real existents, but are merely names, words, or vocal utterances (flatus vocis). ... Fictionalism is a doctrine in philosophy that suggests that statements of a certain sort should not be taken to be literally true, but merely a useful fiction. ... Contemporary philosophical realism, also referred to as metaphysical realism, is the belief in a reality that is completely ontologically independent of our conceptual schemes, linguistic practices, beliefs, etc. ... In the philosophy of mathematics, intuitionism, or neointuitionism (opposed to preintuitionism), is an approach to mathematics as the constructive mental activity of humans. ... In the philosophy of mathematics, constructivism asserts that it is necessary to find (or construct) a mathematical object to prove that it exists. ... In the philosophy of mathematics, finitism is an extreme form of constructivism, according to which a mathematical object does not exist unless it can be constructed from natural numbers in a finite number of steps. ... Mathematical logic is a major area of mathematics, which grew out of symbolic logic. ... In mathematics, logic, and computer science, a formal language is a language that is defined by precise mathematical or machine processable formulas. ... In computer science and linguistics, a formal grammar, or sometimes simply grammar, is a precise description of a formal language — that is, of a set of strings. ... In logic and mathematics, a formal system consists of two components, a formal language plus a set of inference rules or transformation rules. ... ... In theoretical computer science formal semantics is the field concerned with the rigorous mathematical study of the meaning of programming languages and models of computation. ... In mathematical logic, a formula is a formal syntactic object that expresses a proposition. ... In logic, WFF is an abbreviation for well-formed formula. ... In mathematics, a set can be thought of as any collection of distinct objects considered as a whole. ... In mathematics, an element (also called a member) is an object contained in a set (or more generally a class). ... In set theory and its applications throughout mathematics, a class is a collection of sets (or sometimes other mathematical objects) that can be unambiguously defined by a property that all its members share. ... This article is about a logical statement. ... In logic, especially in mathematical logic, a rule of inference is a scheme for constructing valid inferences. ... In mathematics, the concept of a relation is a generalization of 2-place relations, such as the relation of equality, denoted by the sign = in a statement like 5 + 7 = 12, or the relation of order, denoted by the sign < in a statement like 5 < 12. Relations that involve two... A mathematical picture paints a thousand words: the Pythagorean theorem. ... Logical consequence is the relation that holds between a set of sentences and a sentence when the latter follows from the former. ... Look up Consistency in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... (This article discusses the soundess notion of informal logic. ... Look up completeness in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A logical system or theory is decidable if the set of all well-formed formulas valid in the system is decidable. ... 3SAT redirects here. ... Set theory is the mathematical theory of sets, which represent collections of abstract objects. ... In mathematics, an axiomatic system is any set of axioms from which some or all axioms can be used in conjunction to logically derive theorems. ... Proof theory is a branch of mathematical logic that represents proofs as formal mathematical objects, facilitating their analysis by mathematical techniques. ... In mathematics, model theory is the study of the representation of mathematical concepts in terms of set theory, or the study of the structures that underlie mathematical systems. ... Recursion theory, or computability theory, is a branch of mathematical logic dealing with generalizations of the notion of computable function, and with related notions such as Turing degrees and effective descriptive set theory. ... At the broadest level, type theory is the branch of mathematics and logic that first creates a hierarchy of types, then assigns each mathematical (and possibly other) entity to a type. ... Syntax in logic is a systematic statement of the rules governing the properly formed formulas (WFFs) of a logical system. ... Propositional logic or sentential logic is the logic of propositions, sentences, or clauses. ... A Boolean function describes how to determine a Boolean value output based on some logical calculation from Boolean inputs. ... In logic, the monadic predicate calculus is the fragment of predicate calculus in which all predicate letters are monadic (that is, they take only one argument), and there are no function letters. ... In logic and mathematics, a propositional calculus (or a sentential calculus) is a formal system in which formulas representing propositions can be formed by combining atomic propositions using logical connectives, and a system of formal proof rules allows to establish that certain formulas are theorems of the formal system. ... In logic, a logical connective is a syntactic operation on sentences, or the symbol for such an operation, that corresponds to a logical operation on the logical values of those sentences. ... Truth tables are a type of mathematical table used in logic to determine whether an expression is true or whether an argument is valid. ... ... First-order logic (FOL) is a formal deductive system used by mathematicians, philosophers, linguists, and computer scientists. ... In language and logic, quantification is a construct that specifies the extent of validity of a predicate, that is the extent to which a predicate holds over a range of things. ... In mathematical logic, second-order logic is an extension of first-order logic, which itself is an extension of propositional logic. ... In formal logic, a modal logic is any logic for handling modalities: concepts like possibility, existence, and necessity. ... Deontic logic is the field of logic that is concerned with obligation, permission, and related concepts. ... Michaels the greatest boyfriend in the whole wide world, and Id love to call him in a phonebooth sometime. ... In logic, the term temporal logic is used to describe any system of rules and symbolism for representing, and reasoning about, propositions qualified in terms of time. ... doxastic logic is a modal logic that is concerned with reasoning about beliefs. ... Classical logic identifies a class of formal logics that have been most intensively studied and most widely used. ... Introduced by Giorgi Japaridze in 2003, Computability logic is a research programme and mathematical framework for redeveloping logic as a systematic formal theory of computability, as opposed to classical logic which is a formal theory of truth. ... For the Super Furry Animals album, see Fuzzy Logic (album). ... In mathematical logic, linear logic is a type of substructural logic that denies the structural rules of weakening and contraction. ... Relevance logic, also called relevant logic, is any of a family of non-classical substructural logics that impose certain restrictions on implication. ... A non-monotonic logic is a formal logic whose consequence relation is not monotonic. ... A paraconsistent logic is a logical system that attempts to deal nontrivially with contradictions. ... Dialetheism is a paraconsistent logic typified by its tolerance of at least some contradictions. ... Intuitionistic logic, or constructivist logic, is the logic used in mathematical intuitionism and other forms of mathematical constructivism. ... Look up paradox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Antinomy (Greek anti-, against, plus nomos, law) is a term used in logic and epistemology, which, loosely, means a paradox or unresolvable contradiction. ... Is logic empirical? is the title of two articles that discuss the idea that the algebraic properties of logic may, or should, be empirically determined; in particular, they deal with the question of whether empirical facts about quantum phenomena may provide grounds for revising classical logic as a consistent logical... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-GhazzālÄ« (1058-1111) (Persian: ), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). ... For the Christian theologian, see Abd al-Masih ibn Ishaq al-Kindi. ... Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149–1209) was a well-known Persian theologian and philosopher from Ray. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... Not to be confused with George Boolos. ... Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor (March 3, 1845[1] – January 6, 1918) was a German mathematician. ... Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891, Ronsdorf, Germany – September 14, 1970, Santa Monica, California) was an influential philosopher who was active in central Europe before 1935 and in the United States thereafter. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Dharmakirti (circa 7th century), was an Indian scholar and one of the Buddhist founders of Indian philosophical logic. ... Dignāga (5th century AD), was an Indian scholar and one of the Buddhist founders of Indian philosophical logic. ... Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848, Wismar – 26 July 1925, IPA: ) was a German mathematician who became a logician and philosopher. ... Gerhard Karl Erich Gentzen (November 24, 1909 – August 4, 1945) was a German mathematician and logician. ... Kanada (also transliterated as Kanad and in other ways; Sanskrit कणाद) was a Hindu sage who founded the philosophical school of Vaisheshika. ... Kurt Gödel (IPA: ) (April 28, 1906 Brünn, Austria-Hungary (now Brno, Czech Republic) – January 14, 1978 Princeton, New Jersey) was an Austrian American mathematician and philosopher. ... The Nyāya SÅ«tras is an ancient Indian text on of philosophy composed by (also Gotama; c. ... | name = David Hilbert | image = Hilbert1912. ... Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي ) known as ibn Al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس ), was an Arab physician who is mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. ... Abu Muhammad Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Sa`id ibn Hazm (أبو محمد علي بن احمد بن سعيد بن حزم) (November 7, 994 – August 15, 1069) was an Andalusian Muslim philosopher and theologian of Persian descent [1] born in Córdoba, present day Spain. ... Taqi al-Din Ahmad Ibn Taymiyyah (Arabic: )(January 22, 1263 - 1328), was a Sunni Islamic scholar born in Harran, located in what is now Turkey, close to the Syrian border. ... Saul Aaron Kripke (born in November 13, 1940 in Bay Shore, New York) is an American philosopher and logician now emeritus from Princeton and teaches as distinguished professor of philosophy at CUNY Graduate Center. ... Mozi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Mo Tzu, Lat. ... For other uses, see Nagarjuna (disambiguation). ... Indian postage stamp depicting (2004), with the implication that he used (पाणिनि; IPA ) was an ancient Indian grammarian from Gandhara (traditionally 520–460 BC, but estimates range from the 7th to 4th centuries BC). ... Giuseppe Peano Giuseppe Peano (August 27, 1858 – April 20, 1932) was an Italian mathematician and philosopher best known for his contributions to set theory. ... Charles Sanders Peirce (IPA: /pɝs/), (September 10, 1839 – April 19, 1914) was an American polymath, physicist, and philosopher, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Hilary Whitehall Putnam (born July 31, 1926) is an American philosopher who has been a central figure in Western philosophy since the 1960s, especially in philosophy of mind, philosophy of language, and philosophy of science. ... For people named Quine, see Quine (surname). ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... Albert Thoralf Skolem (May 23, 1887 - March 23, 1963) was a Norwegian mathematician. ... Shahab al-Din Yahya as-Suhrawardi (from the Arabicشهاب الدين يحيى سهروردى, also known as Sohrevardi) (born 1153 in North-West-Iran; died 1191 in Aleppo) was a persian philosopher and Sufi, founder of School of Illumination, one of the most important islamic doctrine in Philosophy. ... // Alfred Tarski (January 14, 1902, Warsaw, Russian-ruled Poland – October 26, 1983, Berkeley, California) was a logician and mathematician who spent four decades as a professor of mathematics at the University of California, Berkeley. ... Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, logician, and cryptographer. ... Alfred North Whitehead, OM (February 15, 1861, Ramsgate, Kent, England – December 30, 1947, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.) was an English-born mathematician who became a philosopher. ... Lotfali Askar Zadeh (born February 4, 1921) is a mathematician and computer scientist, and a professor of computer science at the University of California, Berkeley. ... This is a list of topics in logic. ... For a more comprehensive list, see the List of logic topics. ... This is a list of mathematical logic topics, by Wikipedia page. ... Algebra of sets George Boole Boolean algebra Boolean function Boolean logic Boolean homomorphism Boolean Implicant Boolean prime ideal theorem Boolean-valued model Boolean satisfiability problem Booles syllogistic canonical form (Boolean algebra) compactness theorem Complete Boolean algebra connective -- see logical operator de Morgans laws Augustus De Morgan duality (order... Set theory Axiomatic set theory Naive set theory Zermelo set theory Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory Kripke-Platek set theory with urelements Simple theorems in the algebra of sets Axiom of choice Zorns lemma Empty set Cardinality Cardinal number Aleph number Aleph null Aleph one Beth number Ordinal number Well... A logician is a person, such as a philosopher or mathematician, whose topic of scholarly study is logic. ... This is a list of rules of inference. ... This is a list of paradoxes, grouped thematically. ... This is a list of fallacies. ... In logic, a set of symbols is frequently used to express logical constructs. ... Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ... This article is about the herb sometimes known as wolfsbane. ... Binomial name (Burm. ... Castoreum is the glandular secretion of the beaver. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... For other uses, see Coca (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), also known as belladonna or dwale, is a well-known perennial herbaceous plant, with leaves and berries that are highly toxic and hallucinogenic. ... Binomial name Hyoscyamus niger L. Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) is a plant of the family Solanaceae that originated in Eurasia. ... Lactucarium is the milky fluid secreted by several species of wild Lettuce, usually from the base of the stems. ... Mandrake root redirects here. ... Species Metel Category: ... This article is about the drug. ... Species Conium chaerophylloides (Thunb. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Datura inoxia Mill. ... Species About 350, including: Salix acutifolia - Violet Willow Salix alaxensis - Alaska Willow Salix alba - White Willow Salix alpina - Alpine Willow Salix amygdaloides - Peachleaf Willow Salix arbuscula - Mountain Willow Salix arbusculoides - Littletree Willow Salix arctica - Arctic Willow Salix atrocinerea Salix aurita - Eared Willow Salix babylonica - Peking Willow Salix bakko Salix barrattiana... Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, surgeon, and scientist. ... Aulus Cornelius Celsus Aulus Cornelius Celsus (25 BC—50) was a Roman encyclopedist and possibly, although not likely, a physician. ... Pedanius Dioscorides (ca. ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Razi. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sushruta. ... Theophrastus (Greek Θεόφραστος, 370 — about 285 BC), a native of Eressos in Lesbos, was the successor of Aristotle in the Peripatetic school. ... Zhang Zhongjing or Chang Chung Ching (Wades-Giles) (張仲景, 150 - 219) , also known as Zhang Ji (張機), was one of the most eminent Chinese physicians during the later years of the Eastern Han era. ... Structure of Aconitine Aconitine is a highly poisonous alkaloid derived from the aconite plant. ... The acronym THC has several possible meanings: Teens Hate Chains, a Japanese singing group Tetrahydrocannabinol, the main active ingredient in Cannabis Tetrahydrocurcuminoids, extracted from Turmeric as an active ingredient in cosmetics Texas Historical Commission Therapeutic Humane Cannabis Act Thermohaline circulation The History Channel Terminal Handling Charges This page concerning a... Atropine is a tropane alkaloid extracted from the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and other plants of the family Solanaceae. ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... Coniine or 2-propylpiperidine is a poisonous alkaloid found in poison hemlock. ... Hyoscyamine is a chemical compound, a tropane alkaloid it is the levo-isomer to atropine. ... This article is about the drug. ... Salicylic acid (from the Latin word for the willow tree, Salix, from whose bark it can be obtained) is a beta hydroxy acid (BHA) with the formula C6H4(OH)CO2H, where the OH group is adjacent to the carboxyl group. ... Scopolamine, also known as hyoscine, is a tropane alkaloid drug obtained from plants of the family Solanaceae (nightshades), such as henbane or jimson weed (Datura species). ...

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CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Avicenna (1235 words)
Avicenna's philosophy, like that of his predecessors among the Arabians, is Aristoteleanism mingled with neo-Platonism, an exposition of Aristotle's teaching in the light of the Commentaries of Thomistius, Simplicius, and other neo-Platonists.
Avicenna's meaning is that, while there are differences and resemblances among things independently of the mind, the formal constitution of things in the category of individuality, generic universality, specific universality, and so forth, is the work of the mind.
Avicenna, however, insists most emphatically that a contact of that kind does not interfere with the independent substantiality of the Passive Intellect, and does not imply that it is merged with the Active Intellect.
Avicenna - LoveToKnow 1911 (2126 words)
AVICENNA [Abu 'Ali al-Husain ibn 'Abdallah ibn Sinai (980-1037), Arabian philosopher, was born at Afshena in the district of Bokhara.
Avicenna was put in charge of a tutor, and his precocity soon made him the marvel of his neighbours, - as a boy of ten who knew by rote the Koran and much Arabic poetry besides.
Avicenna was even raised to the office of vizier; but the turbulent soldiery, composed of Kurds and Turks, mutinied against their nominal sovereign, and demanded that the new vizier should be put to death.
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