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Encyclopedia > Aviation accidents and incidents
Capt. Christopher Stricklin ejected from his USAF Thunderbird aircraft at an airshow at Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho, on September 14, 2003. While performing a Reverse Half Cuban Eight, Stricklin realized he could not pull up in time and ejected. Stricklin was not injured.

An aviation accident is defined in the International Civil Aviation Organization Annex 13. The definition may be summarized as: Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Download high resolution version (1180x1368, 857 KB)Capt. ... Download high resolution version (1180x1368, 857 KB)Capt. ... US Air Force F-15 Eagle ejection seat test using a mannequin. ... Seal of the Air Force. ... The Thunderbirds are the Air Demonstration Squadron of the United States Air Force. ... For the navigational aid displayed to airline passengers, see In-flight Entertainment. ... Mountain Home Air Force Base (Mountain Home AFB) is a U.S. Air Force base located west of Mountain Home, Idaho in Elmore County, and fifty miles (80 km) southeast of Boise. ... Official language(s) English [1] Capital Boise Largest city Boise Largest metro area Boise metropolitan area Area  Ranked 14th  - Total 83,642 sq mi (216,632 km²)  - Width 305 miles (491 km)  - Length 479 miles (771 km)  - % water 0. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The UK Utterly Butterly display team perform an aerobatic manoeuver with their Boeing Stearmans, at an air display in England. ... The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), an agency of the United Nations, codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. ...

An occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight and all such persons have disembarked, in which:
a) a person is fatally or seriously injured
b) the aircraft sustains damage or structural failure; or
c) the aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible.

An aviation incident is also defined as: For other uses, see Flight (disambiguation). ...

An occurrence other than an accident, associated with the operation of an aircraft, which affects or could affect the safety of operations.

An accident in which the damage to the plane is such that it must be written off, or in which the plane is totally destroyed is often referred to as a hull-loss.

Contents

STEVEN!

The first known aviation fatalities — the deaths of balloonists Pilâtre de Rozier and Pierre Romain on 15 June 1785.

Since the birth of flight, aircraft have crashed, often with serious consequences. This is because of the unforgiving nature of flight, where a relatively insubstantial medium, air, supports a significant mass. Should this support fail, there is limited opportunity for a good outcome. Because of this, aircraft design is concerned with minimizing the chance of failure, and pilots are trained with safety a primary consideration. Despite this, accidents still occur, though statistically flying is the safest form of transportation. In fact, the relative rarity of incidents, coupled with the often dramatic outcome, is one reason why they still make headline news. Nevertheless, while the odds of actually getting caught in a plane crash are nowadays distinctly low compared to other means of transportation, the chances of not surviving such a disaster are notably higher. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 410 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (972 × 1422 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 410 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (972 × 1422 pixel, file size: 1. ... Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Many early attempts at flight ended in failure when a design raised to a height for a launch would fail to generate enough lift and crash to the ground. Some of the earliest aviation pioneers lost their lives testing aircraft they built. This is a listing of early flying machines. ...

The first powered fixed-wing aircraft fatality in history occurred in 1908 when Lt. Thomas Selfridge was killed in this plane piloted by Orville Wright. (17 September 1908)


Otto Lilienthal died after a failure of one of his gliders. On his roughly 2,500th flight (August 9, 1896), he stalled in a gust of wind, causing him to fall from a height of roughly 56 ft (17 m), fracturing his spine. He died the next day, with his last words being reported as Opfer müssen gebracht werden! ("sacrifices must be made"). Image File history File links First_powered_aviation_crash. ... Image File history File links First_powered_aviation_crash. ... Airplane and Aeroplane redirect here. ... Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge (1882-1908) Thomas Etholen Selfridge (February 8, 1882 – September 17, 1908) was a First Lieutenant in the US Army and the first person to die in a powered aircraft crash. ... Orville Wright (August 19, 1871 - January 30, 1948), the younger of the Wright brothers, seen as one of the fathers of heavier-than-air flight. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Otto Lilienthal Otto Lilienthal (23 May 1848 – 10 August 1896), the German Glider King, was a pioneer of human aviation. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ...


Percy Pilcher was another promising aviation pioneer. Pilcher died testing The Hawk (September 20, 1899). Just as with Lilienthal, promising designs and ideas for motorized planes were lost with his death. Some other early attempts experienced rough landings, such as Richard Pearse who is generally accepted to have crash landed (survived) a motorized aircraft in some bushes, unable to gain altitude after launching it from some height. Percy Sinclair Pilcher (January 1866 — 2 October 1899) was a British inventor and pioneer aviator who, in one of the big what if events of history, could well have become the first person to achieve controlled, powered, heavier-than-air flight well before the Wright brothers had he not been... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Richard Pearse Richard William Pearse (3 December 1877 — 29 July 1953), a New Zealand farmer and inventor, performed pioneering experiments in aviation. ...


The Wright Flyer nearly crashed on the day of its historic flight, sustaining some damage when landing. Three days before, on a previous flight attempt, Wilbur Wright overcontrolled the aircraft in pitch and crashed it on takeoff, causing minor damage in the first known case of pilot-induced oscillation. The Wright Flyer (often retrospectively referred to as Flyer I and occasionally Kitty Hawk) was the first powered aircraft designed and built by the Wright brothers. ... Wilbur Wright (April 16, 1867 - May 30, 1912), the elder of the Wright brothers, seen as one of the fathers of heavier-than-air flight. ... Pilot-induced oscillations (PIO) occur when the pilot of an aircraft inadvertently commands an often increasing series of corrections in opposite directions, each an attempt to correct for the previous overcorrection with an overcorrection in the opposite direction. ...


US Army Lt. Thomas Selfridge became the first person killed in a powered fixed-wing aircraft on September 17, 1908 when his aircraft, piloted by Orville Wright, crashed after propeller separation failure during military tests at Fort Myer in Virginia. Selfridge died of a fractured skull. Wright suffered broken ribs, pelvis and a leg. The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... First Lieutenant Thomas Etholen Selfridge (February 8, 1882 – September 17, 1908) was the first person to die in a powered aircraft crash. ... Airplane and Aeroplane redirect here. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Orville Wright (August 19, 1871 - January 30, 1948), the younger of the Wright brothers, seen as one of the fathers of heavier-than-air flight. ... Orville Wright flying at Fort Myer, September 17, 1908. ...


Causes

The 1984 Controlled Impact Demonstration of a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to suppress fire. The aircraft caught fire. Results show less fire damage than would have been expected without the additive.

Aarons got a little penis Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x540, 871 KB) [edit] Other pictures Practice approach Slapdown Pre-impact Post impact 1 Post impact 2 Post impact 3 Instrumented crash test dummies File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x540, 871 KB) [edit] Other pictures Practice approach Slapdown Pre-impact Post impact 1 Post impact 2 Post impact 3 Instrumented crash test dummies File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects... Practice approach Pre-impact Post-impact 1 Post-impact 2 The Controlled Impact Demonstration (or jokingly Crash In the Desert) was a joint project between NASAs Dryden Flight Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to test the impact of a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with... Pan Am 707 The Boeing 707 is a four engined commercial passenger jet aircraft developed by Boeing in the early 1950s. ...


Approximately 80 percent of all aviation accidents occur shortly before, after, or during takeoff or landing, and are often described as resulting from 'human error'; mid-flight disasters are rare but not entirely unheard of. Among other things, the latter have been caused by bombs as in the 1988 Lockerbie incident, mid-air collisions such as in the 2002 Überlingen crash, structural failure as in the 1954 Comet disasters and 1988 Aloha Airlines incident, or in cases of (purportedly) mistaken identity where civilian aircraft were shot down by military (compare Korean Air Flight 007, Iran Air Flight 655).[citations needed] For other uses, see Bomb (disambiguation). ... PA 103 redirects here. ... Bashkirian Airlines Flight 2937, registration RA-85816, was a Tupolev 154M passenger jet en route from Moscow, Russia to Barcelona, Spain. ... This article is about the de Havilland Comet jet airliner. ... Aloha Airlines (IATA: AQ, ICAO: AAH, and Callsign: Aloha) is an airline headquartered in Honolulu, Hawaii USA. It operates extensive scheduled services within the Hawaiian Islands, and between Hawaii and the West Coast of the United States. ... Korean Air Lines Flight 007, also known as KAL 007 or KE007, was a Korean Air Lines civilian airliner shot down by Soviet jet interceptors on September 1, 1983 just west of Sakhalin island. ... Iran Air Flight 655 (IR655) was a commercial flight operated by Iran Air that flew from Bandar Abbas, Iran to Dubai, UAE. On Sunday July 3, 1988, towards the end of the Iran Iraq War, the aircraft flying IR655 was shot down by the U.S. Navy guided missile cruiser...


An accident survey [1] of 2,147 aircraft accidents from 1950 through 2004 determined the causes to be as follows:

  • 45%: Pilot error
  • 33%: Undetermined or missing in the record
  • 13%: Mechanical failure
  • 7%: Weather
  • 5%: Sabotage (bombs, hijackings, shoot-downs)
  • 4%: Other human error (air traffic controller error, improper loading of aircraft, improper maintenance, fuel contamination, language miscommunication etc.)
  • 1%: Other cause

The survey excluded military, private, and charter aircraft.


A study by Boeing [2] (page 19) determined the primary cause of Airline hull loss accidents (worldwide commercial jet fleet), from 1996 through 2005, to be:

  • 55%: Flight Crew error
  • 17%: Airplane
  • 13%: Weather
  • 7%: Misc./Other
  • 5%: ATC
  • 3%: Maintenance

That study included 183 accidents, with known causes for 134 of them. The remaining 49 were unknown, or awaiting final reports.


Previous Boeing studies showed higher rates for Flight Crew Error:

  • 70%: 1988 - 1997
  • 67%: 1990 - 1999
  • 66%: 1992 - 2001
  • 62%: 1994 - 2003
  • 56%: 1995 - 2004

Aircraft manufacturers are often slow to accept that aspects of design might play a role in accident causation, finding it more convenient to state that human crew members were 'responsible'. In fact, the complex interaction between the human crew and the aircraft often creates a fertile ground in which human error may flourish. This is examined by Simon Bennett in his book Human Error - by Design.[neutrality disputed]


Major disasters

The March 27, 1977 Tenerife Disaster remains the worst accident in aviation history with the highest number of fatalities. In this disaster, 583 people died when a KLM Boeing 747 attempted take-off without clearance and collided with a taxiing Pan Am 747 at Los Rodeos Airport. Pilot error, communications problems, fog, and airfield congestion (due to a bomb threat at another airport) all contributed to this catastrophe. is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... The Tenerife collision took place on March 27, 1977, at 17:06:56 local time (also GMT), when two Boeing 747 airliners collided at Los Rodeos (TCI) on the island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, killing 583 people. ... KLM can also refer to KLM (Human Computer Interaction) KLM Royal Dutch Airlines (in full: Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij, literally Royal Air Transport Company; usual English: Royal Dutch Airlines) is an airline subsidiary of Air France-KLM based in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. ... The Boeing 747, sometimes nicknamed the Jumbo Jet,[4][5] is long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing in the United States. ... Pan American World Airways (Pan Am) was the United States principal international airline from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991, and was credited with many innovations that shaped the international airline industry. ... Tenerife North - Los Rodeos Airport (IATA: TFN, ICAO: GCXO) is one of two international airports on the island of Tenerife, the other one being the much larger and busier Reina Sofía Airport, in the south of the island. ...


The crash of Japan Airlines Flight 123 in 1985 is the single-aircraft disaster with the highest number of fatalities. In this crash 520 died on board a Boeing 747. The aircraft suffered an explosive decompression which destroyed its vertical stabilizer and severed hydraulic lines, making the 747 virtually uncontrollable. Japan Airlines Flight 123 was a Japan Airlines domestic flight from Tokyo International Airport to Osaka International Airport. ... The Boeing 747, sometimes nicknamed the Jumbo Jet,[4][5] is long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing in the United States. ...


The world's mid-air collision with the highest number of fatalities, Saudia Flight 763/Air Kazakhstan Flight 1907 crash over Haryana, India in 1996 was mainly the result of the Kazakh pilot flying lower than the altitude his aircraft was given clearance for. 349 passengers and crew died from both aircraft. The Ramesh Chandra Lahoti Commission, empowered to study the causes, also recommended the creation of "air corridors" to prevent planes from flying in opposite directions at the same altitude. Saudi Arabian Airlines Flight 763 (SV 763), registration HZ-AIH, was a Boeing 747-168B en route from Delhi, India to Dhahran, Saudi Arabia on November 12, 1996. ... For the town in Hoshiarpur district, see Hariana. ... Ramesh Chandra Lahoti (born November 1, 1940) is the Chief Justice of India. ...


The worst aviation-related disaster of any kind with the highest number of total fatalities, including fatalities on the aircraft and the ground, was the destruction of the World Trade Center in New York City on September 11, 2001 after the intentional crashing of American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175. 2,974 people were killed, mostly occupants of the destroyed buildings and rescue workers. For other uses, see World Trade Center (disambiguation). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ... Flight 11 redirects here. ... United Airlines Flight 175 was a morning flight that regularly flew from Logan International Airport in East Boston, Massachusetts to Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) in Los Angeles, California. ...


Safety

Aviation safety has come a long way in over one hundred years of implementation. In modern times, two major aircraft manufacturers still co-exist: Boeing of the United States of America and the European Airbus. Both have placed huge emphasis on the use of aviation safety equipment, now a billion-dollar industry in its own right, and made safety a major selling point -- realizing that a poor safety record in the aviation industry is a threat to corporate survival. Some major safety devices now required in commercial aircraft involve: The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661) is a major aerospace and defense corporation, originally founded by William Edward Boeing. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the airliner manufacturer. ...

  • Evacuation slides - aid rapid passenger exit from an aircraft in an emergency situation.
  • Advanced avionics - Computerized auto-recovery and alert systems.
  • Turbine Engine durability improvements
  • Landing gear that can be lowered even after loss of power and hydraulics.

Air travel is the safest form of transportation available. Trains have .04 deaths for every 100 million miles while air travel has .01 deaths for every 100 million miles traveled. However, compared to the automobile, with .94 deaths per 100 million miles, both figures are relatively low.[3] [4]According to the BBC: "UK airline operations are among the safest anywhere. When compared against all other modes of transport on a fatality per mile basis air transport is the safest - six times safer than traveling by car and twice as safe as rail." [5] Avionics is a portmanteau which literally means aviation electronics. ... This machine has a single-stage radial compressor and turbine, a recuperator, and foil bearings. ... Main and nosewheel undercarriage of a Qatar Airways Airbus A330 The undercarriage or landing gear is equipment which supports an aircraft when it is not flying. ... “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ...


A 2007 study by Popular Mechanics found that passengers sitting at the back of a plane are 40% more likely to survive a crash than those sitting in the front. [6] The adolescent Internet. ...

Main article: Air safety

Air safety is a broad term encompassing the theory, investigation and categorization of flight failures, and the prevention of such failures through appropriate regulation, as well as through education and training. ...

The NTSB

In the United States, many civil aviation incidents have been investigated by the National Transportation Safety Board. When investigating an aviation disaster, NTSB investigators piece together evidence from the crash and determine the likely cause(s). Image File history File links US-NTSB-Seal. ... Seal of the National Transportation Safety Board The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is a U.S. government independent organization responsible for investigation of accidents involving aviation, highway, marine, pipelines and railroads in the United States. ...


The AAIB

In the United Kingdom, the agency responsible for investigation of civilian air crashes is the Air Accidents Investigation Branch (AAIB) of the Department for Transport. Its purpose is to establish the circumstances and causes of the accident and to make recommendations for their future avoidance. The Air Accidents Investigation Branch investigates air accidents in the United Kingdom. ... In the United Kingdom, the Department for Transport is the government department responsible for the transport network. ...


The BST/TSB

The Transportation Safety Board of Canada (BST/TSB), an independent agency which reports directly to Parliament, is the Canadian agency responsible for the advancement of transportation safety through the investigation and reporting upon accident and incident occurrences in all prevalent Canadian modes of transportation - marine, air, rail and pipeline. The Transportation Safety Board (Bureau de la sécurité des transports du Canada) is the Canadian agency responsible for maintaining transportation safety in Canada. ...


Retirement of flight numbers

It is common for an airline to cease using the flight number after a fatal crash. [1] This is not always the case as in Malev Flight 240 and Flight 203, Northwest Airlines Flight 1, Aeroflot Flight 593 , Aero Flight 311 and Iran Air Flight 655. Flight 240, was a Tupolev Tu-154 tri-motor jetliner of Malév Hungarian Airlines, which was flying on the Budapest to Beirut regular route when it was shot down near the Lebanese shoreline on 30 September 1975. ... Northwest Airlines Flight 1, registration NC17389, was a Lockheed 14H Super Electra aircraft which crashed approximately ½ mile southwest of the Miles City, Montana airport. ... Aeroflot Flight 593 was an accident on March 23, 1994 in which a RAL Russian Air Lines Airbus A310-304 passenger airliner, registration F-OGQS, operating on behalf of Aeroflot, crashed into a hillside in Siberia. ... Aero Flight 311 (AY311) was Aero O/Ys (today Finnair) domestic flight in Finland en route from Kruunupyy to Vaasa. ... Iran Air Flight 655 (IR655) was a commercial flight operated by Iran Air that flew from Bandar Abbas, Iran to Dubai, UAE. On Sunday July 3, 1988, towards the end of the Iran Iraq War, the aircraft flying IR655 was shot down by the U.S. Navy guided missile cruiser...


See also

Lists of commercial airliner accidents

JetBlue Airways Flight 292 making an emergency landing with the nose landing gear turned sideways The following is a list of accidents and incidents on commercial airlines grouped by airline. ... Accidents and incidents on commercial airliners grouped by location of the incident. ... This list of notable accidents and incidents on commercial aircraft is grouped by the years in which the incidents or accidents occurred. ... The doomed Boeing 727, PSA Flight 182, crashes in flames after colliding with another aircraft in 1978 A mid-air collision (MAC) is an aviation accident where two or more aircraft come into unplanned contact during flight. ... 1919 American Wingfoot Air Express. ...

Lists of military aircraft accidents

This is a list of notable incidents and accidents involving military aircraft grouped by the year that the incident or accident occurred. ... The UH-60 Black Hawk that crashed on September 21, 2004 Below is a list of Coalition aircraft that have crashed in Iraq. ... The following is a list of Coalition aircraft crashes in Afghanistan. ... The C-130 Hercules is generally a highly reliable aircraft. ...

Air safety

Air safety is a broad term encompassing the theory, investigation and categorization of flight failures, and the prevention of such failures through appropriate regulation, as well as through education and training. ... Seal of the National Transportation Safety Board The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is a U.S. government independent organization responsible for investigation of accidents involving aviation, highway, marine, pipelines and railroads in the United States. ... The Air Accidents Investigation Branch investigates air accidents in the United Kingdom. ... The Transportation Safety Board (Bureau de la Securite des Transports du Canada) is the Canadian agency responsible for maintaining transportation safety in Canada. ... Aviation archaeology, also known as aerospace archaeology or wreck chasing, is a hobby actively practiced throughout the world by both outdoor recreationists and academics in pursuit of finding, documenting, recovering, and preserving sites important in aviation history. ...

Other

Hijackers inside flightdeck of TWA Flight 847 Aircraft hijacking (also known as skyjacking and aircraft piracy) is the take-over of an aircraft, by a person or group, usually armed. ... This is a list of aircraft shootdowns and dogfights from modern wars (1900s and 2000s) and other incidences. ... This is a list of famous people who have died by various forms of aircraft misadventure. ... This is a list of some well-known people who have died in aviation-related events. ... Test pilot Stuart Present ejects safely from the Lunar Landing Training Vehicle. ... ^ FOX 4 Chopper Forced to Make Emergency Landing, Fox 4 Dallas, 2007-07-29. ... Accident Analysis is a form of Behavioural Systems analysis. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.usatoday.com/travel/columnist/grossman/2005-10-31-grossman_x.htm

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Accidents and incidents in aviation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3710 words)
An aviation accident is an incident on board an aircraft causing injury or death to one or more persons.
An aviation incident is an occurrence other than an accident, associated with the operation of an aircraft, which affects or could affect the safety of operations.
Accidents and incidents in the aviation sector
Talk:Accidents and incidents in aviation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1233 words)
The article lists a number of current accidents which, while I don't wish to diminish the tragedy of the events, will probably in time come to be not seen as all that "well-known".
The accident investigation concluded that pressurization was gradually lost, causing hypoxia, which is insidious and hard to detect by those experiencing it.
One RFC summary admonished that ‘accidents during the last three months of 1917 cost £317 10s 6d - money down the drain, and sufficient to buy new gaiters and spurs for each and every pilot and observer in the service!’ A statement on flight safety pronounced at the time clearly outlined the problem.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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