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Encyclopedia > Aviation
This article is part
of the Transport series
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Aviation
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Road Transport title, both photos from sxc. ... Mode of transport is a general term for the different kinds of transportation of people or cargo: Car Truck Ship Aircraft ... (Non-human) animal-powered transport is a broad category of the human use of non-human animals (also known as beasts of burden) for the movement of people and goods. ... Human-powered transport is transport of person(s) and/or goods powered by human muscle. ... A container ship // Water transport redirects here. ... railroads redirects here. ... Disruptions in organized traffic flow can create delays lasting hours. ...

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Aviation encompasses all the activities relating to airborne devices created by human ingenuity, generally known as aircraft. These activities include the organizations and regulatory bodies as well as the personnel related with the operation of aircraft and the industries involved in airplane manufacture, development, and design. [1] This is a list of transport related topics. ... Image File history File links Portal. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of aviation

Many cultures have built devices that travel through the air, from the earliest projectiles such as stones and spears, to more sophisticated buoyant or aerodynamic devices such as the boomerang in Australia, the hot air Kongming lantern,or kites. There are early legends of human flight such as the story of Icarus, and later, more credible claims of short-distance human flights including a kite flight by Yuan Huangtou in China, and the parachute flight and controlled glider flight of Abbas Ibn Firnas (Armen Firman). Icarus and Daedalus Humanitys desire to fly probably dates back to the first time prehistoric man observed birds. ... This article is about the wooden implement. ... The Kongming lantern (Chinese:zh:孔明灯) was the first hot air balloon, said to be invented by Zhuge Liang in popular lore, whose reverent term of address (his Chinese style name) was Kongming. ... For other uses, see Kite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Icarus (disambiguation). ... Yuan Huangtou(chinese:zh:元黄头) was the son of emperor Yuan Lang of Eastern Wei. ... This article is about the device. ... Aircraft flight controls allow a pilot to adjust and control the aircrafts flight attitude. ... For other uses, see Glider (disambiguation). ... Abbas Ibn Firnas, or Abbas Qasim Ibn Firnas (Unknown- 887 A.D.) was a Spanish-Arab humanitarian, technologist, and chemist. ...


The modern age of aviation began with the first untethered human lighter-than-air flight on November 21, 1783, in a hot air balloon designed by the Montgolfier brothers. Balloon flight became increasingly common over longer and longer distances throughout the 19th century, continuing to the present. is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about hot air balloons themselves. ... Jacques Étienne Montgolfier For the indie pop band, see The Montgolfier Brothers. ...


The practicality of balloons was limited by the fact that they could only travel downwind. It was immediately recognized that a steerable, or dirigible, balloon was required. Although several airships, as steerable balloons came to be called, were built during the 1800s, the first aircraft to make routine flights were made by the Brazilian aviation pioneer Alberto Santos-Dumont. Santos-Dumont effectively combined an elongated balloon with an internal combustion engine. On October 19, 1901 he became world famous when he flew his airship "Number 6" over Paris to win the Deutsch de la Meurthe prize. Santos-Dumont's success with airships proved that controlled and sustained flight was possible. This article is about the aviator. ...

First powered heavier-than air flight, December 17, 1903
First powered heavier-than air flight, December 17, 1903

On December 17, 1903, the Wright brothers flew the first fully-documented, successful powered, heavier-than-air flight, though their aircraft was impractical to fly for more than a short distance because of control problems. The widespread adoption of ailerons made aircraft much easier to manage, and only a decade later, at the start of World War I, heavier-than-air powered aircraft had become practical for reconnaissance, artillery spotting, and even attacks against ground positions. Download high resolution version (899x576, 106 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Download high resolution version (899x576, 106 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... The Wright brothers, Orville (August 19, 1871–January 30, 1948) and Wilbur (April 16, 1867–May 30, 1912), were two Americans generally credited with building the worlds first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and heavier-than-air human flight on December 17, 1903. ... For the band with a similar name, see The Ailerons Ailerons are hinged control surfaces attached to the trailing edge of the wing of a fixed-wing aircraft. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Aircraft began to transport people and cargo as designs grew larger and more reliable. In contrast to small non-rigid blimps, giant rigid airships became the first aircraft to transport passengers and cargo over great distances. The best known aircraft of this type were manufactured by the German Zeppelin company. “Blimp” redirects here. ... Construction of the USS Shenandoah (ZR-1), 1923, showing the framework of a rigid airship. ... Zeppelins are a type of rigid airship pioneered by German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin in the early 20th century, based in part on an earlier design by aviation pioneer David Schwarz. ...

Hindenburg at Lakehurst Naval Air Station, 1936
Hindenburg at Lakehurst Naval Air Station, 1936

The most successful Zeppelin was the Graf Zeppelin. It flew over one million miles, including an around the world flight in August of 1929. However, the dominance of the Zeppelins over the airplanes of the that period, which had a range of only a few hundred miles, was diminishing as airplane design advanced. The "Golden Age" of the airships ended on June 6, 1937 when the Hindenburg caught fire killing 36 people. Although there have been periodic initiatives to revive their use, airships have seen only niche application since that time. Image File history File links Hindenburg_at_lakehurst. ... Image File history File links Hindenburg_at_lakehurst. ... Graf Zeppelin, filled with abundant hydrogen, circumnavigated the globe. ... LZ 129 Hindenburg was a German zeppelin. ...


Great progress was made in the field of aviation during the 1920s and 1930s, such as Charles Lindbergh's transatlantic flight in 1927. One of the most successful designs of this period was the Douglas DC-3 which became the first airliner that was profitable carrying passengers exclusively, starting the modern era of passenger airline service. By the beginning of World War II, many towns and cities had built airports, and there were numerous qualified pilots available. The war brought many innovations to aviation, including the first jet aircraft and the first liquid-fueled rockets. Charles Augustus Lindbergh (4 February 1902 – 26 August 1974), known as Lucky Lindy and The Lone Eagle, was an American pilot famous for the first solo, non-stop flight across the Atlantic, from Roosevelt Field, Long Island to Paris in 1927 in the Spirit of St. ... The Douglas DC-3 is a fixed-wing, propeller-driven aircraft, which revolutionized air transport in the 1930s and 1940s and is generally regarded as one of the most significant transport aircraft ever made (also see Boeing 707 and Boeing 747). ... An Airbus A340 airliner operated by Air Jamaica An airliner is a large fixed-wing aircraft with the primary function of transporting paying passengers. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Turbojets are the simplest and oldest kind of general purpose jet engines. ... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ...


After WWII, especially in North America, there was a boom in general aviation, both private and commercial, as thousands of pilots were released from military service and many inexpensive war-surplus transport and training aircraft became available. Manufacturers such as Cessna, Piper, and Beechcraft expanded production to provide light aircraft for the new middle class market. General aviation (abbr. ... Cessna Aircraft Company, headquartered in Wichita, Kansas, is a manufacturer of general aviation aircraft, from small two-seat, single-engine aircraft to business jets. ... The New Piper Aircraft, Inc. ... The Beech Aircraft Corporation, purchased by Raytheon Aircraft on February 8, 1980, and often called Beechcraft after the name they give their aircraft, is a manufacturer of general aviation and military aircraft, ranging from light single engine aircraft to business jets and light military transports. ...


By the 1950s, the development of civil jets grew, beginning with the de Havilland Comet, though the first widely-used passenger jet was the Boeing 707, because it was much more economical than other planes at the time. At the same time, turboprop propulsion began to appear for smaller commuter planes, making it possible to serve small-volume routes in a much wider range of weather conditions. This article is about the de Havilland Comet jet airliner. ... The Boeing 707 is an American four-engine commercial passenger jet airliner developed by Boeing in the early 1950s. ... This machine has a single-stage centrifugal compressor and turbine, a recuperator, and foil bearings. ...


Yuri Gagarin was the first human to travel to space on April 12, 1961, while Neil Armstrong was the first to set foot on the moon on July 21, 1969. “Gagarin” redirects here. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the former American astronaut. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ...


Since the 1960s, composite airframes and quieter, more efficient engines have become available, but the most important innovations have taken place in instrumentation and control. The arrival of solid-state electronics, the Global Positioning System, satellite communications, and increasingly small and powerful computers and LED displays, have dramatically changed the cockpits of airliners and, increasingly, of smaller aircraft as well. Pilots can navigate much more accurately and view terrain, obstructions, and other nearby aircraft on a map or through synthetic vision, even at night or in low visibility. A cloth of woven carbon fiber filaments, a common element in composite materials Composite materials (or composites for short) are engineered materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties and which remain separate and distinct on a macroscopic level within the finished structure. ... Assorted discrete transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier or an electrically controlled switch. ... GPS redirects here. ... U.S. military MILSTAR communications satellite A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to comsat) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purposes of telecommunications. ... This article is about the machine. ... “LED” redirects here. ... An Airbus A340 airliner operated by Air Jamaica An airliner is a large fixed-wing aircraft with the primary function of transporting paying passengers. ... Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) are a set of technologies that provide pilots with clear and intuitive means of understanding their flying environment. ...


On June 21, 2004, SpaceShipOne became the first privately funded aircraft to make a spaceflight, opening the possibility of an aviation market outside the earth's atmosphere. is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne SpaceShipOnes patch The Scaled Composites Model 316 SpaceShipOne is an experimental air-launched suborbital spaceplane that uses a hybrid rocket motor. ... ISS in earth orbit. ...


Civil aviation

Main article: Civil aviation

Civil aviation includes all non-military flying, both general aviation and scheduled air transport. Civil airliner - Air India Boeing 747-400 Civil aviation is one of two major categories of flying, representing all non-Military aviation, both private and commercial. ... General aviation (abbr. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into airline. ...


Scheduled airline service

Main article: Airline
Swiss International Air Lines Airbus A330

While there were many more in the past, there are currently only five major manufacturers of civil transport aircraft: An Airbus A380 of Emirates Airline An airline provides air transport services for passengers or freight. ... Download high resolution version (1000x677, 370 KB)Swiss Airbus A330 in Zurich Photographer: Lucien Schranz File links The following pages link to this file: Swiss International Air Lines ... Download high resolution version (1000x677, 370 KB)Swiss Airbus A330 in Zurich Photographer: Lucien Schranz File links The following pages link to this file: Swiss International Air Lines ... The Airbus A330 is a large-capacity, wide-body, medium-to-long-range commercial passenger airliner. ...

Boeing, Airbus, and Tupolev concentrate on wide-body and narrow-body jet airliners, while Bombardier and Embraer concentrate on regional airliners. This article is about the airliner manufacturer. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661) is a major aerospace and defense corporation, originally founded by William Edward Boeing. ... For other uses, see Bombardier (disambiguation). ... Embraer, the Empresa Brasileira de Aeronáutica S.A. is a Brazilian aircraft manufacturer. ... Tupolev (Russian: Туполев) is a Russian aerospace and defence company. ... United Aircraft Building Corporation (UABC), in Russian : Объединённая авиастроительная корпорация), is a Russian state-owned corporation that consolidates aircraft construction companies and state assets engaged in the manufacture, design and sale of military, non-military, transport, and unmanned aircraft. ... An Airbus A340 airliner operated by Air Jamaica An airliner is a large fixed-wing aircraft with the primary function of transporting paying passengers. ... Flybe Bombardier Q400 Régional ERJ 145 operating for Air France A regional airliner is a small airliner designed to fly between 35 and 100 passengers from point to point, generally within one country. ...


Until the 1970s, most major airlines were flag carriers, sponsored by their governments and heavily protected from competition. Since then, various open skies agreements have resulted in increased competition and choice for consumers, coupled with falling prices for airlines. The combination of high fuel prices, low fares, high salaries, and crises such as the September 11, 2001 attacks and the SARS epidemic have driven many older airlines to government-bailouts, bankruptcy or mergers. At the same time, low-cost carriers such as Ryanair and Southwest have flourished. For other uses, see Flag carrier (disambiguation). ... The Open Skies system is an integrated web-enabled reservation and inventory system suite that includes Internet, call center, airport departure control functionality and more. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... SARS redirects here. ... A Cebu Pacific Airbus A319 parked on the apron at Ninoy Aquino International Airport. ... Ryanair (ISEQ: RYA, LSE: RYA, NASDAQ: RYAAY) is an Irish airline headquartered in Dublin, with its biggest operational base at London Stansted Airport in the UK. It is Europes largest low-cost carrier and is one of the worlds largest and most successful airlines (whether in terms of... This article is about the American airline. ...


General Aviation

Main article: General aviation
1947 Cessna 120
1947 Cessna 120

General aviation includes all non-scheduled civil flying, both private and commercial. Because of the huge range of activities, it is difficult to cover general aviation with a simple description — general aviation may include business flights, private aviation, flight training, ballooning, parachuting, gliding, hang gliding, aerial photography, foot-launched powered hang gliders, air ambulance, crop dusting, charter flights, traffic reporting, police air patrols, forest fire flighting, and many other types of flying. General aviation (abbr. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1500x997, 449 KB) Cessna 120 (G-BTBW), built 1947, at Kemble airfield, Gloucestershire, England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1500x997, 449 KB) Cessna 120 (G-BTBW), built 1947, at Kemble airfield, Gloucestershire, England. ... Private Aviation Private aviation encompasses everything from large corporate jets all the way down to the individual who owns and operates their own small aircraft, such as a Cessna or Cirrus SR-22. ... Passengers carried by civil aviation in 2003 Commercial aviation is the part of civil aviation (both general aviation and scheduled airline service) that involves operating aircraft for hire. ... This article is about hot air balloons themselves. ... For other uses, see Glider (disambiguation). ... Hang gliding is one of the windsports. ... The Georgian terrace of Royal Crescent (Bath, England) from a hot air balloon Intersection of E42 and E451 from an aircraft soon after takeoff from Frankfurt International Airport Moreton Island in Queensland, Australia Aerial photography is the taking of photographs of the ground while not supported by a ground-based... Foot-Launched Powered Hang Glider. ...


Each country regulates aviation differently, but typically, general aviation falls under several different types of regulations depending on whether it is private or commercial and on the type of equipment involved.


Many small aircraft manufacturers, including Cessna, Piper, Diamond, Mooney, Cirrus Design, Raytheon, and others serve the general aviation market, with a focus on private aviation and flight training. Cessna Aircraft Company, headquartered in Wichita, Kansas, is a manufacturer of general aviation aircraft, from small two-seat, single-engine aircraft to business jets. ... The New Piper Aircraft, Inc. ... Diamond DA40-TDI Diamond Star Diamond Aircraft Industries is an Austrian-based manufacturer of general aviation aircraft and motor gliders. ... The Mooney Airplane Company (MAC) is a U.S. manufacturer of single-engined general aviation aircraft. ... 2003 Cirrus SR22 The Cirrus Design Corporation is an aircraft manufacturer founded in 1984 by Alan and Dale Klapmeier. ... Raytheon Company (NYSE: RTN) is a major American defense contractor and industrial corporation with core manufacturing concentrations in defense systems and defense and commercial electronics. ...


The most important recent developments for small aircraft (which form the bulk of the GA fleet) have been the introduction of advanced avionics (including GPS) that were formerly found only in large airliners, and the introduction of composite materials to make small aircraft lighter and faster. Ultralight and homebuilt aircraft have also become increasingly popular for recreational use, since in most countries that allow private aviation, they are much less expensive and less heavily regulated than certified aircraft. Avionics is a portmanteau which literally means aviation electronics. ... GPS redirects here. ... An Airbus A340 airliner operated by Air Jamaica An airliner is a large fixed-wing aircraft with the primary function of transporting paying passengers. ... A cloth of woven carbon fiber filaments, a common element in composite materials Composite materials (or composites for short) are engineered materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties and which remain separate and distinct on a macroscopic level within the finished structure. ... Huntair Pathfinder Mark 1 ultralight During the late 1970s and early 1980s, many people sought to be able to fly affordably. ... A Rutan Long-EZ homebuilt in 1984 in England Also known as amateur-built aircraft or kit planes, homebuilt aircraft are constructed by persons for whom this is not a professional activity. ...


Military aviation

Main article: Aerial warfare
The Lockheed SR-71 was remarkably advanced for its time and remains unsurpassed in many areas of performance.
The Lockheed SR-71 was remarkably advanced for its time and remains unsurpassed in many areas of performance.

Simple balloons were used as surveillance aircraft as early as the 18th century. Over the years, military aircraft have been built to meet ever increasing capability requirements. Manufacturers of military aircraft compete for contracts to supply their government's arsenal. Aircraft are selected based on factors like cost, performance, and the speed of production. Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare, including military airlift of cargo to further the national interests as was demonstrated in the Berlin Airlift. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3000x2350, 4173 KB) SR-71B Blackbird, taken December 1994 from an in-flight refueling tanker SR-71B was the trainer version of the SR-71. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3000x2350, 4173 KB) SR-71B Blackbird, taken December 1994 from an in-flight refueling tanker SR-71B was the trainer version of the SR-71. ... A trainer version of the USAF SR-71. ... A hot air balloon is prepared for flight by inflation of the envelope with propane burners. ... Military aircraft are airplanes used in warfare. ...


Types of military aircraft

An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ... The Sopwith Camel Scout is a British First World War single-seat fighter aircraft that was famous for its maneuverability. ... Mitsubishi A6M3 Zero wreck abandoned at Munda Airfield, Central Solomons, 1943. ... The Mikoyan MiG-29 (NATO reporting name Fulcrum) is a Russian fighter aircraft used in the air superiority role. ... ... Close air support (often abbreviated CAS) is the use of military aircraft in a ground attack role against targets in close proximity to friendly troops, in support of ground combat operations. ... Tactical bombing uses aircraft to attack troops and military equipment in the battle zone. ... Stuka redirects here. ... The Ilyushin Il-2 Shturmovik (Russian: ) was a ground attack aircraft of World War II, and was produced by the Soviet Union in huge numbers; in combination with its successor, the Ilyushin Il-10, a total of 36,163 were built. ... The A-10 Thunderbolt II is a single-seat, twin-engine jet aircraft developed by Fairchild-Republic for the United States Air Force to provide close air support (CAS) of ground forces by attacking tanks, armored vehicles, and other ground targets, also providing a limited air interdiction role. ... For other uses, see Bomber (disambiguation). ... The city heart of Rotterdam after being terror bombed by Germany in 1940, the ruin of the (now restored) Laurens Kerk is the only building that reminds people of Rotterdams medieval architecture. ... Zeppelins are a type of rigid airship pioneered by German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin in the early 20th century, based in part on an earlier design by aviation pioneer David Schwarz. ... The Boeing B-29 Superfortress was a four-engine heavy bomber propeller aircraft flown by the United States Army Air Forces in World War II and other military organizations afterwards. ... The Tupolev Tu-22 (NATO reporting name Blinder) is a Soviet jet supersonic bomber and reconnaissance aircraft. ... B-52 can refer to the following: The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress strategic bomber aircraft A hairstyle popular in the 1950s and 1960s, named after the aircraft A rock band, The B-52s, named after the hairstyle A cocktail This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which... The C_17 Globemaster III is a strategic airlifter manufactured by Boeing IDS, used by the United States Air Force and the Royal Air Force. ... The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is a four-engine turboprop cargo aircraft and the main tactical airlifter for many military forces worldwide. ... Seal of the Air Force. ... The V-22 Osprey is a joint service, multi-mission aircraft with vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) capability. ... This article is about the aircraft. ... For the current aircraft, see Boeing VC-25. ... English Electric Canberra PR.9 photo reconnaissance aircraft CP-140 Aurora long-range patrol aircraft of the Canadian Air Force. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... The Rumpler Taube is a pre-World War I monoplane aircraft, and the first mass produced military plane in Germany. ... The de Havilland Mosquito[1] was a British combat aircraft that excelled in a number of roles during the Second World War. ... The Lockheed U-2, nicknamed Dragon Lady, is a single-engine, high-altitude aircraft flown by the United States Air Force and previously flown by the Central Intelligence Agency. ... MiG 25 Foxbat The MiG-25 (NATO reporting name Foxbat) is a high-speed interceptor and reconnaissance aircraft produced by the Soviet Unions Mikoyan-Gurevich design bureau. ... A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more large horizontal rotors (propellers). ... Assault Support is one of the six functions of Marine aviation and is comprised of those actions required to airlift personnel, supplies or equipment into or within a battle area by helicopters or fixed wing aircraft. ... An Apache attack helicopter provides close air support to United States Army soldiers patrolling the Tigris River southeast of Baghdad, Iraq during the Iraq War. ...

Air Traffic Control (ATC)

Main article: Air traffic control
Air Traffic Control Towers (ATCTs) at Schiphol Airport
Air Traffic Control Towers (ATCTs) at Schiphol Airport

Air traffic control (ATC) involves humans (typically on the ground) who communicate with aircraft to help maintain separation — that is, they ensure that aircraft are far enough apart horizontally or vertically that there is no risk of collision. Controllers may co-ordinate position reports provided by pilots, or in high traffic areas (such as the United States) they may use RADAR to see aircraft positions. For the Canadian musical group, see Air Traffic Control (band). ... This image was taken from the dutch wikipedia page on Schiphol airport [1]. It was uploaded there by the photographer and licensed under the GFDL. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This image was taken from the dutch wikipedia page on Schiphol airport [1]. It was uploaded there by the photographer and licensed under the GFDL. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Schiphol (IATA: AMS, ICAO: EHAM) (municipality Haarlemmermeer) is the Netherlands main airport. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ...


While the exact terminology varies from country to country, there are generally three different types of ATC:

  • control towers (including tower, ground control, clearance delivery, and other services), which control aircraft within a small distance (typically 10-15 km horizontal, and 1,000 m vertical) of an airport.
  • terminal controllers, who control aircraft in a wider area (typically 50-80 km) around busy airports
  • centre controllers, who control aircraft enroute between airports

ATC is especially important for aircraft flying under Instrument flight rules (IFR), where they may be in weather conditions that do not allow the pilots to see other aircraft. However, in very high-traffic areas, especially near major airports, aircraft flying under Visual flight rules (VFR) are also required to follow instructions from ATC. It has been suggested that Air traffic control#Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) be merged into this article or section. ... Visual flight rules (VFR) are a set of aviation regulations under which a pilot may operate an aircraft in weather conditions sufficient to allow the pilot, by visual reference to the environment outside the cockpit, to control the aircrafts attitude, navigate, and maintain safe separation from obstacles such as...


In addition to separation from other aircraft, ATC may provide weather advisories, terrain separation, navigation assistance, and other services to pilots, depending on their workload.


It is important to note that ATC does not control all flights. The majority of VFR flights in North America are not required to talk to ATC at all (unless they're passing through a busy terminal area or using a major airport), and in many areas, such as northern Canada, ATC services are not available even for IFR flights at lower altitudes.


Environmental impact

Like all human activities involving combustion, operating powered aircraft (from airliners to hot air balloons) releases greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), soot, and other pollutants into the atmosphere. In addition, there are several types of environmental impact specific to aviation: Aviation contributes to global warming in a number of ways, the most significant of which is the combustion of kerosene (a fossil fuel) in flight. ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... An Airbus A340 airliner operated by Air Jamaica An airliner is a large fixed-wing aircraft with the primary function of transporting paying passengers. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Soot, also called lampblack, Pigment Black 7, carbon black or black carbon, is a dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, usually composed mainly of amorphous carbon, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke—especially from the combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in the...

  • Aircraft operating at high altitudes near the tropopause (mainly large jet airliners) emit aerosols and leave contrails, both of which can increase cirrus cloud formation — cloud cover may have increased by up to 0.2% since the birth of aviation.[2]
  • Aircraft operating at high altitudes near the tropopause can also release significant quantities of chemicals that interact with greenhouse gases at those altitudes, particularly nitrogen compounds, which interact with ozone, increasing ozone concentrations.[3][4]
  • Most light piston aircraft burn avgas, which contains tetra-ethyl lead (TEL), a highly-toxic substance that can cause soil contamination at airports. Some lower-compression piston engines can operate on unleaded mogas, and turbine engines and diesel engines — neither of which requires lead — are appearing on some newer light aircraft.

The tropopause is between the troposphere and the stratosphere. ... The de Havilland Comet 1, G-ALYP - The first production Comet. ... Contrails are condensation trails (sometimes vapour trails): artificial cirrus clouds made by the exhaust of aircraft engines or wingtip vortices which precipitate a stream of tiny ice crystals in moist, frigid upper air. ... Cirrus can refer to: a type of cloud, cirrus cloud a car produced by DaimlerChrysler, Chrysler Cirrus a German rocket, cirrus (rocket) a trance music group, Cirrus (music group) an interbank network (ATM network) by MasterCard, Cirrus (interbank network) a British aircraft engine company, Cirrus Engine an aircraft company, Cirrus... The term nitrogen oxide is a general term and can be used to refer to any of these oxides (oxygen compounds) of nitrogen, or to a mixture of them: Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen(II) oxide Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Dinitrogen monoxide (N2O) (Nitrous oxide) Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3) Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) Dinitrogen... // Avgas is a high-octane fuel used for aircraft and, in the past, racing cars. ... Tetra-ethyl lead (also known as TEL, lead tetraethyl and tetraethyllead) is a toxic organometallic chemical compound, with formula (CH3CH2)4Pb, which was once used as a gasoline (petrol) additive. ... Gasoline (or petrol) is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... General aviation (abbr. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Babcock Gover, Philip (1990). Webster's Third New International Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. ISBN 978-0877792017. 
  2. ^ Aviation and the Global Atmosphere (IPCC)
  3. ^ Lin, X.; Trainer, M. and Liu, S.C., (1988). "On the nonlinearity of the tropospheric ozone production.". Journal of Geophysical Research 93: 15879–15888. 
  4. ^ Grewe, V.; D. Brunner, M. Dameris, J. L. Grenfell, R. Hein, D. Shindell, J. Staehelin (July 2001). "Origin and variability of upper tropospheric nitrogen oxides and ozone at northern mid-latitudes". Atmospheric Environment 35 (20): 3421-3433. doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00134-0. Retrieved on 2007-11-20. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

This is a timeline of aviation history. ... Accidents and incidents in aviation ADF Adverse Yaw Aerobatics Aerodynamics Aeronautical chart Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) Aeronautics Aerospace Aerospace engineering Aileron Airband Aircraft Aircraft engine controls Aircraft Maintenance Technician (AMT) Aircraft Maintenance Engineer (AME) Aircraft Registration Airfield Airfield traffic zone (ATZ, and MATZ) Airfoil Airline Airliner Airline Transport Pilot License...

External links

Wikiversity
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The Aviation Weblog - Main page - Start your own aviation discovery - Aviation, GPS, Cessna, Private Plane (2521 words)
She said that when the plane had come to a stop surrounded by fire engines, the pilot walked into the cabin, and all the passengers cheered.
The Civil Aviation Authority's executive manager for air safety investigations, Gilbert Thwala, said investigators were on their way from Johannesburg to Cape Town to investigate the incident, according to SAPA.
This week in aviation history features the first person to land a plane at the South Pole and the first animal in space.
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