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Encyclopedia > Avian influenza
Flu
For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza see H5N1.

Avian influenza, commonly known as bird flu, or Avian flu refers to "influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds."[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flu_und_legende_color_c. ... Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). ... Genera Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C Isavirus Thogotovirus The Orthomyxoviridae are a family of RNA viruses which infect vertebrates. ... Flu season is mostly a colloquial term used to describe the regular outbreak in flu cases, or even cases of the common cold during the late fall or winter. ... Flu research includes molecular virology, pathogenesis, host immune responses, genomics, and epidemiology. ... Model of Influenza Virus from NIH The flu vaccine is a vaccine to protect against the highly variable influenza virus. ... This article is about flu treatment in humans for mild human flu, which includes both efforts to reduce symptoms and treatments for the flu virus itself. ... The Influenza Genome Sequencing Project is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) which is a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. ... Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ...


"Bird flu" is a phrase similar to "Swine flu", "Dog flu", "Horse flu", or "Human flu" in that it refers to an illness caused by any of many different strains of influenza viruses that have adapted to a specific host. All known viruses that cause influenza in birds belong to the species: Influenza A virus. All subtypes (but not all strains of all subtypes) of Influenza A virus are adapted to birds, which is why for many purposes avian flu virus is the Influenza A virus (note that the "A" does not stand for "avian"). Swine Flu is a form of Type A influenza that is normally virulent only in pigs. ... Canine influenza or dog flu refers to varieties of influenzavirus A that affect dogs. ... Horse flu (or Equine influenza) refers to varieties of influenzavirus A that are endemic in horses. ... Human Flu refers to a subset of Orthomyxoviridae that create influenza in humans and are endemic in humans. ... Genera Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C Isavirus Thogotovirus Influenzavirus A is a genus of the family of viruses called Orthomyxoviridae in virus classification. ...


Adaption is non-exclusive. Being adapted towards a particular species does not preclude adaptions, or partial adaptions, towards infecting different species. In this way strains of influenza viruses are adapted to multiple species, though may be preferential towards a particular host. For example, viruses responsible for influenza pandemics are adapted to both humans and birds. Recent influenza research into the genes of the Spanish Flu virus shows it to have genes adapted to both birds and humans; with more of its genes from birds than less deadly later pandemic strains. Note: For information about the content, tone and sourcing of this article, please see the tags at the bottom of this page. ... Flu research includes molecular virology, pathogenesis, host immune responses, genomics, and epidemiology. ... The 1918 flu pandemic (commonly referred to as the Spanish flu) was a category 5 influenza pandemic caused by an unusually severe and deadly Influenza A virus strain of subtype H1N1. ...

Contents

Genetics

Genetic factors in distinguishing between "human flu viruses" and "avian flu viruses" include: Human Flu refers to a subset of Orthomyxoviridae that create influenza in humans and are endemic in humans. ...

PB2: (RNA polymerase): Amino acid (or residue) position 627 in the PB2 protein encoded by the PB2 RNA gene. Until H5N1, all known avian influenza viruses had a Glu at position 627, while all human influenza viruses had a lysine.
HA: (hemagglutinin): Avian influenza HA bind alpha 2-3 sialic acid receptors while human influenza HA bind alpha 2-6 sialic acid receptors. Swine influenza viruses have the ability to bind both types of sialic acid receptors.

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... A residue, broadly, is anything left behind by a reaction or event. ... Left: An RNA strand, with its nitrogenous bases. ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. ... Glutamic acid (Glu, E), is the protonated form of glutamate (the anion). ... Lysine is one of the 20 amino acids normally found in proteins. ... Hemagglutinin, as depicted in a simplified molecular model. ... Sialic acid is a generic term for the N- or O-substituted derivatives of neuraminic acid, a nine-carbon monosaccharide. ... Swine Flu refers to a subset of Orthomyxoviridae that create influenza in pigs and are endemic in pigs. ...

Influenza pandemic

For more details on this topic, see Influenza pandemic.

Pandemic flu viruses have some avian flu virus genes and usually some human flu virus genes. Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained genes from avian influenza viruses. The new subtypes arose in pigs coinfected with avian and human viruses and were soon transferred to humans. Swine were considered the original "intermediate host" for influenza, because they supported reassortment of divergent subtypes. However, other hosts appear capable of similar coinfection (e.g., many poultry species), and direct transmission of avian viruses to humans is possible. The Spanish flu virus strain may have been transmitted directly from birds to humans.[8] An influenza pandemic is a large scale epidemic of the influenza virus, such as the 1918 Spanish flu. ... Human Flu refers to a subset of Orthomyxoviridae that create influenza in humans and are endemic in humans. ... The Asian Flu was a pandemic outbreak of influenza that originated in China in 1957 and spread worldwide that same year. ... H3N2 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). ...


In spite of their pandemic connection, avian influenza viruses are noninfectious for most species. When they are infectious they are usually asymptomatic, so the carrier does not have any disease from it. Thus while infected with an avian flu virus, the animal doesn't have a "flu". Typically, when illness (called "flu") from an avian flu virus does occur, it is the result of an avian flu virus strain adapted to one species spreading to another species (usually from one bird species to another bird species). So far as is known, the most common result of this is an illness so minor as to be not worth noticing (and thus little studied). But with the domestication of chickens and turkeys, humans have created species subtypes (domesticated poultry) that can catch an avian flu virus adapted to waterfowl and have it rapidly mutate into a form that kills in days over 90% of an entire flock and spread to other flocks and kill 90% of them and can only be stopped by killing every domestic bird in the area. Until H5N1 infected humans in the 1990s, this was the only reason avian flu was considered important. Since then, avian flu viruses have been intensively studied; resulting in changes in what is believed about flu pandemics, changes in poultry farming, changes in flu vaccination research, and changes in flu pandemic planning. Respiratory disease properly named influenza(say: in-floo-en-zah ). Some specific varities of influenza with a vaccination available are: A-New Caledonia, A-California, B-Shanghai. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. ...


H5N1 has evolved into a flu virus strain that infects more species than any previously known flu virus strain, is deadlier than any previously known flu virus strain, and continues to evolve becoming both more widespread and more deadly causing a leading expert on avian flu to publish an article titled "The world is teetering on the edge of a pandemic that could kill a large fraction of the human population" in American Scientist. He called for adequate resources to fight what he sees as a major world threat to possibly billions of lives.[9] Since the article was written, the world community has spent billions of dollars fighting this threat with limited success[citation needed]. Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. ... Robert G. (Rob) Webster (born May 7, 1932), in Balclutha New Zealand, is the virologist who in 1957 was the first to announce a link between human flu and bird flu. ... American Scientist (ISSN 0003-0996) is an illustrated bimonthly magazine about science and technology. ...


H5N1

H5N1
For more details on this topic, see H5N1 and Transmission and infection of H5N1.

The highly pathogenic Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 virus is an emerging avian influenza virus that has been causing global concern as a potential pandemic threat. It is often referred to simply as "bird flu" or "avian influenza" even though it is only one subtype of avian influenza causing virus. Image File history File links Colorized_transmission_electron_micrograph_of_Avian_influenza_A_H5N1_viruses. ... Genera Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C Isavirus Thogotovirus Influenzavirus A is a genus of the family of viruses called Orthomyxoviridae in virus classification. ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. ... H5N1 genetic structure refers to the molecular structure of the H5N1 viruss RNA. H5N1 is an Influenza A virus subtype. ... See Epidemiology of WHO-confirmed human cases of avian influenza A(H5N1) infection. ... The thin line represents average mortality of recent cases. ... The global spread of H5N1 in birds is considered a significant pandemic threat. ... Main article: Global spread of H5N1 Notes: Source WHO Confirmed Human Cases of H5N1 [T]he incidence of human cases peaked, in each of the three years in which cases have occurred, during the period roughly corresponding to winter and spring in the northern hemisphere. ... See Influenza pandemic for government preparation for an H5N1 pandemic H5N1 impact is the effect or influence of H5N1 in human society; especially the financial, political, social and personal responses to both actual and predicted deaths in birds, humans, and other animals. ... An influenza pandemic is a large scale epidemic of the influenza virus, such as the 1918 Spanish flu. ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. ... See Epidemiology of WHO-confirmed human cases of avian influenza A(H5N1) infection. ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. ... This article is about large epidemics. ...


H5N1 has killed millions of poultry in a growing number of countries throughout Asia, Europe and Africa. Although avian influenza viruses are essentially animal diseases, the highly pathogenic H5N1 is able to infect and kill humans. Health experts are concerned that the co-existence of human flu viruses and avian flu viruses (especially H5N1) will provide an opportunity for genetic material to be exchanged between species-specific viruses, possibly creating a new virulent influenza strain that is easily transmissible and lethal to humans. [10][2]


Since the first H5N1 outbreak occurred in 1997, there has been an increasing number of HPAI H5N1 bird-to-human transmissions leading to clinically severe and fatal human infections. However, because there is a significant species barrier that exists between birds and humans, the virus does not easily cross over to humans, and currently there is no evidence that human to human transmission is occurring. More research is necessary to understand the pathogenesis and epidemiology of the H5N1 virus in humans. Exposure routes and other disease transmission characteristics such as genetic and immunological factors, that may increase the likelihood of infection, are not clearly understood. [11]


Although millions of birds have become infected with the virus since its discovery, 206 humans have died from the H5N1 in twelve countries according to WHO data as of November 2007. (View the most current WHO Data regarding Cumulative Number of Human Cases.) Look up who in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


See also

Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. ... The global spread of H5N1 in birds is considered a significant pandemic threat. ... See Epidemiology of WHO-confirmed human cases of avian influenza A(H5N1) infection. ... Genera Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C Isavirus Thogotovirus Influenzavirus A is a genus of the family of viruses called Orthomyxoviridae in virus classification. ... An influenza pandemic is a large scale epidemic of the influenza virus, such as the 1918 Spanish flu. ... The Influenza Genome Sequencing Project is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) which is a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. ... Flu research includes molecular virology, pathogenesis, host immune responses, genomics, and epidemiology. ... Model of Influenza Virus from NIH The flu vaccine is a vaccine to protect against the highly variable influenza virus. ... OFFLU is the OIE/FAO Network of Expertise on Avian Influenza. ... President George W. Bush announced the International Partnership on Avian and Pandemic Influenza in his remarks to the High-Level Plenary Meeting of the United Nations General Assembly on September 14, 2005, in New York. ... The Pandemic Preparedness and Response Act is a bill introduced on October 5, 2005 by Democratic Senators Harry Reid, Evan Bayh, Dick Durbin, Ted Kennedy, Barack Obama, and Tom Harkin in response to the growing threat of an outbreak of the Avian Flu. ...

References

  1. ^ "Avian influenza strains are those well adapted to birds"EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR DISEASE PREVENTION AND CONTROL.
  2. ^ Chapter Two : Avian Influenza by Timm C. Harder and Ortrud Werner in Influenza Report 2006
  3. ^ Large-scale sequencing of human influenza reveals the dynamic nature of viral genome evolution Nature magazine presents a summary of what has been discovered in the Influenza Genome Sequencing Project.
  4. ^ Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Infection in Humans by The Writing Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) Consultation on Human Influenza A/H5 in the September 29, 2005 New England Journal of Medicine
  5. ^ The Threat of Pandemic Influenza: Are We Ready? Workshop Summary (2005) Full text of online book by INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
  6. ^ [1] CDC has a phylogenetic tree showing the relationship between dozens of highly pathogenic varieties of the Z genotype of avian flu virus H5N1 and ancestral strains.
  7. ^ Evolutionary characterization of the six internal genes of H5N1 human influenza A virus
  8. ^ Chapter Two : Avian Influenza by Timm C. Harder and Ortrud Werner
  9. ^ Webster, R. G. and Walker, E. J. (2003). "The world is teetering on the edge of a pandemic that could kill a large fraction of the human population". American Scientist 91 (2): 122. doi:10.1511/2003.2.122. 
  10. ^ Food Safety Research Information Office. "A Focus on Avian Influenza". Created May 2006, Updated November 2007.
  11. ^ World Health Organization. (2006). Avian influenza (" bird flu") – The Disease in Humans. Retrieved April 6, 2006.

The Influenza Genome Sequencing Project is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) which is a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. ... WHO redirects here. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New England Journal of Medicine (New Engl J Med or NEJM) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society. ... Fig. ... A pathogen (literally birth of pain from the Greek παθογένεια) is a biological agent that can cause disease to its host. ... Robert G. (Rob) Webster (born May 7, 1932), in Balclutha New Zealand, is the virologist who in 1957 was the first to announce a link between human flu and bird flu. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Avian influenza - definition of Avian influenza in Encyclopedia (790 words)
Avian influenza (also known as bird flu) is a type of influenza virulent in birds.
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In North America, the presence of avian influenza was confirmed at several poultry farms in British Columbia in February 2004.
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