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See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Avesta is a Municipality in Dalarna County, in central Sweden. ...

Yasna 28.1 (Bodleian MS J2)
Yasna 28.1 (Bodleian MS J2)

The Avesta is a collection of the sacred texts of ancient Persia belonging to the Zoroastrian religion. They are preserved in two languages: the more ancient, in the Avestan language, the oldest attested Iranian language still very closely related to Sanskrit; the younger texts in Pahlavi, a Middle Iranian language. Download high resolution version (930x503, 94 KB)Bodleian Library, MS J2 fol. ... Download high resolution version (930x503, 94 KB)Bodleian Library, MS J2 fol. ... The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... Yasna 28. ... The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo European language family. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम्) is a classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... Numerous languages are spoken in Iran, yet all of them originate from the same linguistic roots. ...

When translated into Pahlavi, the Avestan language was largely forgotten, and literal translations of some places (word-by-word translation of a sacred text was a must) became confusing. Therefore the priests added commentaries (zend) to the whole Avestan text. This has become known as Zend Avesta (Zand Avesta, Zend-Avesta), and the latter term is often used to refer to the sacred text instead of simply "Avesta".

The Avestas were collated over several hundred years. The oldest portion, the Gathas, are the hymns thought to have been composed by Zoroaster himself. The later portions constitute elaborations of Zoroastrian thinking along with detailed descriptions of ritual practices. The texts were transmitted orally for centuries, with the earliest written fixation known dating to 1278. The Gathas form the oldest part of Avesta, the holy scripture of the Zoroastrian religion, possibly composed by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) himself. ... Zartosht, as popularly depicted by Persian artists. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ...

According to a Parsi legend the full text of the Avesta was burned by Alexander the Great at Ecbatana when he invaded Persia. It was later only partly reconstructed from the memories of Zoroastrian priests. This story is not generally accepted by scholars now, but it is acknowledged that the existing text of the Avesta is a fraction of the full texts that existed in antiquity, before the decline of the Zoroastrian faith. A Parsi is: A person from Pars (the middle-Persian word for Fars), a region now within the geographical boundaries of Iran, and is roughly the original homeland of the Persian people. ... Alexander the Great fighting the Persian king Darius (Pompeii mosaic, from a 3rd century BC original Greek painting, now lost). ... Ecbatana (Hañgmatana in Old Persian, Agbatana in Aeschylus, written Agamtanu by Nabonidos, and Agamatanu at Behistun) was the capital of Astyages (Istuvegü), which was taken by the Persian emperor Cyrus the Great in the sixth year of Nabonidos (549 BC). ...



The term Avesta or Apasta (Old Persian cuneiform Abastâ) dates to Sassanian times, probably meaning "law". The word Zend or Zand originally meant "commentary" or "translation", i.e. referring to Pahlavi glosses added to the Avestan text. Therefore, the Zend language was properly Pahlavi. The fact that the more ancient text is now referred to as Zend is a modern misunderstanding. Sir William Jones (in 1789) was told by a brahmin that the letters (the script) of the books was called Zend, and the language Avesta, and Anquetil-Duperron (in 1759) was told that Zend was the name of the language of the more ancient writings. The confusion became then too universal in Western scholarship to be reversed, and Zend Avesta, although a misnomer, is still used to denote the older texts. See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... William Jones is a common name, especially in Wales, and there have been several well-known individuals of this name, including: William Jones (judge) (1566-1640) William Jones (Great Britain statesman), Attorney General for England and Wales during the 17th century Sir William Jones (mathematician) (~1675-1749), father of Sir... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... A Brahmin (pronounciation is Brahmann )is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ... Abraham-Hyacinthe Anquetil Du Perron (December 7, 1731 - January 17, French orientalist, brother of Louis-Pierre Anquetil, the historian, was born in Paris. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...

The texts became available to European scholarship comparatively late. Anquetil-Duperron travelled to East India in 1755, and discovered the text in Parsi communities, and published a French translation in 1771, based on a Persian translation supplied to him by a Parsi priest. 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... A Parsi is: A person from Pars (the middle-Persian word for Fars), a region now within the geographical boundaries of Iran, and is roughly the original homeland of the Persian people. ... 1771 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Persian (فارسی = Fârsi . ...

The manuscripts of the Zend Avesta were chiefly collected by Rasmus Rask on a visit to Bombay in 1820, who handed them to the University library of Copenhagen. Other manuscripts are preserved in the East-India-house, the British Museum, Oxford and in Paris. Rask's examination of the Avestan language (Über das Alter und die Echtheit der Zendsprache, 1826) first established that the texts must indeed be considered the remnants of a much larger literature of sacred texts of ancient Iran and Bactria. Rasmus Christian Rask Rasmus Christian Rask (November 22, 1787 - November 14, 1832), Danish scholar and philologist, was born at Brandekilde in the island of Funen or Fyn in Denmark. ... Mumbai (Marathi: मुंबई ) (pronounced in Marathi, and in English), formerly known as Bombay is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and is the most populous Indian city with a 2005 estimated population of about 13 million. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Copenhagen (Danish: København) is faaaabulous. ... The main entrance to the British Museum The British Museum in London is the United Kingdoms - and one of the worlds - largest and most important museums of human history and culture. ... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... 1826 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra (now Balkh), was located in what is now Afghanistan. ...


There are two compendia, called Venidad sadah (consisting of the Yasna, Vispered and Venidad) and Khurdah Avesta (the "short Avesta"), who between them contain all Zend writings, but their contents is by no means fixed or canonical as in the case of the Bible, and they are rather collections for liturgical use, so that there is no received ordering of the different books. The texts themselves are in good correspondence across the various manuscripts, although the spelling varies significantly. There are three distinct books, the Yasna, the Vispered and the Venidad. The Yasna seem to be the oldest of these, and are quoted in the others. Individual hymns are called Yashts (the Hom Yasht is part of the Yasna, forming chapters 9–11). The Gathas form the oldest part of the Yasna. See Soma (disambiguation) for other uses. ... The Gathas form the oldest part of Avesta, the holy scripture of the Zoroastrian religion, possibly composed by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) himself. ...


The Yasna (Pahlavi Izeschneh) or "oblations" (Sanskrit yajna) consist of 72 chapters called . They are mainly invocations of various deities. Chapters 28–53 are the oldest part of the text, containing the Gâthâs (songs), the only remaining direct testimony of the religion taught by Zoroaster. In Hinduism, Yajna or Yagya यज्ञं (Sanskrit yajñá worship, prayer, praise; offering, oblation, sacrifice) is a Vedic ritual of sacrifice performed to please the Devas, or sometimes to the Supreme Spirit Brahman. ...

  • 9–11 Hom Yasht
  • 28–34 Ahunavaiti Gatha
  • 35–42 Yasna Haptanghaiti
  • 43–46 Ushtavaiti Gatha
  • 47–50 Spentamainyush Gatha
  • 51 Vohukhshathra Gatha
  • 53 Vahishtoishti Gatha


The Vispered (from vîspe ratavo, "all lords") consists of 23 sections (kards). They are prayers, similar to the Yasna, but much shorter.


The word Vendidad is a corruption of Avestan vî-daêvô-dâta, "given against the devs (demons)", rendered in Pahlavi Juddivdad). The text consists of 22 Fargards. They are fragments with various scopes, arranged in the form of dialogues between Ahura Mazda and Zoroaster. The first Fargard contains a creation myth, the second the legend of Yima and the Golden Age, the remaining Fargards are mainly concerned with laws of religious purity and the penances required to atone for various sins. The term origin belief refers to stories and explanations which describe the beginnings of humanity, earth, life, and the universe (cosmogony). ... In Zoroastrianism, Yima, son of Vivanghat, was the first mortal man to converse with the great god Ahura Mazda. ...


The 24 Yashts are invocations of individual deities. They are an important source of Persian mythology (The older Hom Yasht is part of the Yasna and not counted among the 24 Yashts.) The beliefs and practices of the culturally and linguistically related group of ancient peoples who inhabited the Iranian Plateau and its borderlands, as well as areas of Central Asia from the Black Sea to Khotan (modern Ho-tien, China), form Persian mythology. ...

  1. Ormazd
  2. Haptan
  3. Ardibehisht
  4. Khordaud
  5. Abaun
  6. Khurshied (Hymn to the Sun)
  7. Mauh (Hymn to the Moon)
  8. Tishter (Hymn to the Star Sirius)
  9. Gosh
  10. Mihir (Hymn to Mithra)
  11. Serosh
  12. Rashnu
  13. Fravardean (Hymn to the Guardian Angels)
  14. Bahram
  15. Ram
  16. Din
  17. Ashi
  18. Ashtad
  19. Zamyad
  20. Vanant (Hymn to the Star Vega)
  21. (Fragment, MS K20)
  22. (Fragment)
  23. Afrin-Paighambar-Zartusht (corrupt)
  24. Vishtasp (K4, L5, corrupt)

Faravahar (or Ferohar), the depiction of the human soul before birth and after death. ... The Sun is the star at the centre of our Solar system. ... Crust composition Oxygen 43% Silicon 21% Aluminium 10% Calcium 9% Iron 9% Magnesium 5% Titanium 2% Nickel 0. ... The position of Sirius Sirius (α CMa / α Canis Majoris / Alpha Canis Majoris) is the brightest star in the nighttime sky, with a visual apparent magnitude of −1. ... Mitra is an important deity of Persian and Indic culture; he appears in the Vedas as one of the Adityas, a solar deity and the god of honesty, friendship, and contracts. ... Vega (α Lyr / α Lyrae / Alpha Lyrae) is the brightest star in the constellation Lyra, and the fifth brightest star in the sky. ...

Other texts

Other, partly fragmentary, texts of the Khorda Avesta.

  • Nyaish
    1. Khurshied
    2. Mihir
    3. Mauh
    4. Abaun
    5. Atäsh
    6. Neiräng
  • Afrigans 1–3
  • Gahs
  • Sirozeh


  • N. L. Westergaard, Zendavesta, or the religious books of the Zoroastrians, Copenhagen, 1852–54.

External links

  • avesta.org

  Results from FactBites:
Avesta Municipality - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (189 words)
Avesta Municipality is a Municipality in Dalarna, in central Sweden.
Its seat is in Avesta with a population of 15,000.
Avesta Municipality is one of the 134 towns with an historical City status in Sweden.
  More results at FactBites »



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