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Encyclopedia > Averroism

Averroism is the term applied to either of two philosophical trends among scholastics in the late 13th century, the first of which was based on the Arab philosopher Averroës or Ibn Rushd ' interpretations of Aristotle and the resolution of various conflicts between the writings of Aristotle and the Muslim faith. European philosophers in turn applied these ideas to Aristotle's writings and their relation to the Christian faith. The main philosophers involved were Siger of Brabant and Boetius of Dacia. The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Siger de Brabant (also Sigerus, Sighier, Sigieri or Sygerius), ( 1240–1280s), was a 13th century philosopher from the southern Low Countries. ... Boetius (or Boethius) of Dacia (sometimes called Boetius of Sweden) was a 13th-century Swedish philosopher. ...


The main ideas of the earlier philosophical concept of Averroism — found in Averroës' commentaries to Aristotle — were:

  • there is one truth, but there are (at least) two ways to reach it: through philosophy and through religion;
  • the world is eternal;
  • the soul is divided into two parts: one individual, and one divine;
  • the individual soul is not eternal;
  • all humans at the basic level share one and the same divine soul (an idea known as monopsychism);
  • resurrection of the dead is not possible (this was put forth by Boëtius);

This standpoint resulted in two condemnations in 1270 and 1277 by bishop Etienne Tempier of the Roman Catholic Church. Tempier specified 219 different unacceptable Averroist theses. The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ... The soul, according to many religious and philosophical traditions, is the self-aware essence unique to a particular living being. ... Monopsychism is the belief that all humans share one and the same eternal soul, mind or intellect. ... Look up Resurrection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Condemnations at the medieval University of Paris were enacted with papal authority to restrict certain teachings as being heretical. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about a title... Étienne (Stephen) Tempier (also known as Stephanus of Orleans) (d. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ...


To resolve the problem, Siger tried to claim that there existed a "double truth": a factual or "hard" truth that is reached through science and philosophy, and a "religious" truth that is reached through religion. This idea had not originated in Averroës; his idea was that there was one truth reached in different ways, not two truths.

Giovanni di Paolo's St. Thomas Aquinas Confounding Averroës.
Giovanni di Paolo's St. Thomas Aquinas Confounding Averroës.

The later philosophical concept of Averroism was the idea that the philosophical and religious worlds are separate entities. However, upon scrutinizing the 219 theses condemned by Tempier, it was obvious that not many of them originated in Averroës. Radical Aristotelianism and heterodox Aristotelianism were the terms commonly used for a while to refer to the actual philosophical movement started by Siger and Boëthius and differentiate it from Averroism; nowadays most scholars just call it Averroism as well. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 - March 7, 1274) was a Catholic philosopher and theologian in the scholastic tradition, who gave birth to the Thomistic school of philosophy, which was long the primary philosophical approach of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle. ... Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle. ...


Thomas Aquinas specifically attacked the doctrine of monopsychism in his book De unitate intellectus contra Averroistas. In this context, the term Averroism is used correctly. Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P.(also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... Monopsychism is the belief that all humans share one and the same eternal soul, mind or intellect. ...


Although condemned in 1277, many Averroistic theses survived to the 16th century and can be found in the philosophies of Giordano Bruno, Pico della Mirandola, and Cesare Cremonini. These theses talk about the superiority of philosophers to the common people and the relation between the intellect and human dignity. Events The philosophical doctrine Averroism is banned from Paris by bishop Etienne Tempier Burmas Pagan empire begins to disintegrate after being defeated by Kublai Khan at Ngasaungsyan, near the Chinese border. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Giordano Bruno. ... Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (February 24, 1463 – November 17, 1494) was an Italian Renaissance humanist philosopher and scholar. ... Cesare Cremonini, sometimes Cesare Cremonino (22 December 1550[1] in Cento in the then Papal States - 19 July 1631 in Padua then under Republic of Venice rule) was an Italian professor of natural philosophy, working rationalism (against revelation) and Aristotelian materialism (against the dualist immortality of the soul) inside scholasticism. ...


The ideas on the separation of philosophy and religion found in Averroism were influential in the development of modern secularism.[1][2] George Jacob Holyoake (1817-1906), British writer who coined the term secularism. ...


See also

  • Ramon Llull, who also attacked Averroism
  • Mohammed Abed Al-Jabri, a pro-Averroism contemporary Moroccan philosopher

Ramon Llull. ... Mohammed Abed Al-Jabri (b. ...

References

  1. ^ Abdel Wahab El Messeri. Episode 21: Ibn Rushd, Everything you wanted to know about Islam but was afraid to Ask, Philosophia Islamica.
  2. ^ Fauzi M. Najjar (Spring, 1996). The debate on Islam and secularism in Egypt, Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ).

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Averroes (907 words)
Ibn Roschd, or Averroes, as he was called by the Latins, was educated in his native city, where his father and grandfather had held the office of cadi (judge in civil affairs) and had played an important part in the political history of Andalusia.
Averroes holds that both the Active and the Passive Intellect are separate from the individual soul and are universal, that is, one in all men.
Indeed, Averroes openly admitted his inability to hold on philosophic grounds the doctrine of individual immortality, being content to maintain it as a religious tenet.
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