The Avalon Peninsula is a large peninsula (9,270 km²) that makes up the southeast portion of the island of Newfoundland.
Quidi Vidi, near St. John's, Nfld
The peninsula is home to forty percent of Newfoundland's population, and is the location of the capital, St. John's. It is connected to the main section of the island by the 5 km/3 mi-wide Isthmus of Avalon. The peninsula protrudes into the rich fishing zones near the Grand Banks. Its four major bays—Trinity Bay, Placentia Bay, St. Mary's Bay, and Conception Bay—have long been the centre of Newfoundland's fishing industry.
The charter created the province as a palatinate in which Calvert had absolute authority.
A series of crises and calamaties led Calvert to quit the colony in 1629 for "some other warmer climate of this new world" which turned out to be Maryland though his family was to maintain agents to govern Avalon until 1637 when the entire island of Newfoundland was granted by charter to Sir David Kirke and James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton.
Calvert's son, Cęcilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore, fought against the new charter and, in 1660, gained official recognition of the old Charter of Avalon but never attempted to retake the colony.
The peninsula's rugged coastline was the earliest settled in the province and its 4 major bays, TRINITY, CONCEPTION, ST.
Sir George CALVERT was granted a portion of the peninsula 1623 and lived there 1627-29, with his headquarters at FERRYLAND on the "Southern Shore." It was his holding, called Avalon after the legendary site where Christianity was introduced to England, for which the peninsula was named.
During the 1600s and 1700s the peninsula saw conflicts between the French and English with France establishing PLACENTIA on the southwest coast as its capital in the 1660s.
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