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Encyclopedia > Avalon
The Last Sleep of Arthur by Sir Edward Burne-Jones

Avalon (probably from the Celtic word abal: apple; see Etymology below) is a legendary island somewhere in the British Isles featured in the Arthurian legend, famous for its beautiful apples. It first appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's 1136 pseudohistorical account Historia Regum Britanniae ("The History of the Kings of Britain") as the place where King Arthur is taken to recover from his wounds after his last battle at Camlann, and where his sword Caliburn (Excalibur) was forged. The concept of such an "Isle of the Blessed" has parallels in other Indo-European mythology, in particular Tír na nÓg and the Greek Hesperides, the latter also noted for its apples. Avalon is a legendary island in or near Britain. ... Image File history File links The_last_sleep_of_Arthur. ... Image File history File links The_last_sleep_of_Arthur. ... Love Among the Ruins, by Edward Burne-Jones. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... This article describes the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... The Matter of Britain is a name given collectively to the legends that concern the Celtic and legendary history of the British Isles, centering around King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Geoffrey of Monmouth (in Welsh: Gruffudd ap Arthur or Sieffre o Fynwy) (c. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: History of the Kings of Britain Geoffrey of Monmouths Historia Regum Britanniae (English: The History of the Kings of Britain) is a pseudohistorical account of British history, written around 1136. ... For other uses, see King Arthur (disambiguation). ... Commanders King Arthur † Mordred † How Mordred was Slain by Arthur, and How by Him Arthur was Hurt to the Death, by Arthur Rackham “Camlann” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Excalibur (disambiguation). ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The existence of similarities among the gods and religious practices of the Indo-European peoples suggests that whatever population they actually formed had some form of polytheistic religion. ... Tír na nÓg, called in English the Land of Eternal Youth or the Land of the Ever-Young, was the most popular of the Otherworlds in Irish mythology, perhaps best known from the myth of Oisín and Niamh of the Golden Hair. ... For the ancient Greek city Hesperides see Benghazi. ...

Contents

Etymology

According to one theory[citation needed] the word is an anglicization of the Brythonic "Annwyn", the realm of fairies, or netherworld, but this would be a major corruption. Geoffrey of Monmouth interpreted the name as the "isle of apples". This is more probable, as "apple" is still aval in Breton and Cornish, and afal in Welsh, in which the letter f is pronounced [v]. Anglicisation is a process of making something English. ... The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ... Annwn, (alternatively: Annwfn, Annwyn, Annwyfn, and Annwfyn) was the Otherworld, the land of souls that had departed this world in Insular Brythonic mythology, specifically Welsh. ... by Sophie Anderson For other uses, see Fairy (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of the word underworld see Underworld (disambiguation) In the study of mythology and religion, the underworld is a generic term approximately equivalent to the lay term afterlife, referring to any place to which newly-dead souls go. ... Geoffrey of Monmouth (in Welsh: Gruffudd ap Arthur or Sieffre o Fynwy) (c. ... Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...


In Arthurian legend

According to Geoffrey and much subsequent literature, Avalon is the place where King Arthur was taken after fighting Mordred at the Battle of Camlann. Welsh and Breton tradition claimed that Arthur had never really died, but would return to lead his people against their enemies, but some later writers were less credulous, and said that Arthur had in fact died there. Geoffrey dealt with Avalon again in his Vita Merlini, in which he describes the character Morgan le Fay as the chief of nine sisters who live on Avalon. Morgan remained associated with the island in later literature, as does Arthur's mentor, the Lady of the Lake. For other uses, see Mordred (disambiguation). ... Commanders King Arthur † Mordred † How Mordred was Slain by Arthur, and How by Him Arthur was Hurt to the Death, by Arthur Rackham “Camlann” redirects here. ... This article is about the country. ... Breton can refer to: Brittany, as an adjective for this historical province of France The Breton language, a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany and Loire-Atlantique A Breton person, part of a Brythonic ethnic group inhabiting the region of Brittany André Breton (1896-1966), French... Vita Merlini, or The Life of Merlin, is a work by Geoffrey of Monmouth composed in Latin around AD 1150. ... Morgan le Fay, by Anthony Frederick Sandys (1829 - 1904), 1864 (Birmingham Art Gallery): A spell-brewing Morgaine distinctly of Tennysons generation Morgan le Fay, alternatively known as Morgaine, Morgain, Morgana and other variants, is a powerful sorceress and sometime antagonist of King Arthur and Guinevere in the Arthurian legend. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


By the 12th century Avalon became associated with Glastonbury Tor, when monks at Glastonbury Abbey claimed to have discovered the bones of Arthur and his queen. Though no longer an island at the time, the high round bulk of Glastonbury Tor had been surrounded by marsh before the surrounding fenland in the Somerset Levels was drained. According to later chroniclers, notably Giraldus Cambrensis, during King Henry II's reign the abbot of Glastonbury, Henry of Blois, commissioned a search of the Tor. At a depth of 5 m (16 feet) the monks discovered a massive oak coffin and an iron cross bearing the description: Hic jacet sepultus inclitus rex Arthurus in insula Avalonia. ("Here lies King Arthur in the island of Avalon"). In 1278 remains were reburied with great ceremony, attended by King Edward I and his queen, before the High Altar at Glastonbury Abbey, where they were the focus of pilgrimages until the Reformation. However, historians generally dismiss the authenticity of the find, attributing it to a publicity stunt performed to raise funds to repair the Abbey, which was mostly burned down in 1184. Glastonbury Tor is a teardrop-shaped hill at Glastonbury, Somerset, England, with its only standing architectural feature the roofless St Michaels Tower of the former church. ... View from the former location of the North transept in East direction to the choir. ... A fen is a sere, a phase in the natural ecological succession from the open water of a lake to (for example) woodland. ... The view towards Brent Knoll from Glastonbury Tor. ... Giraldus Cambrensis (c. ... Henry II of England 5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... Henry of Blois (1111-1171) was bishop of Winchester from 1129 to his death. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver or the English Justinian because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and tried to do the same to Scotland. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ...


Other theories point to l'Île d'Aval or Daval, on the coast of Brittany, and Burgh by Sands, in Cumberland, which was in Roman times the fort of Aballava on Hadrian's Wall, and near Camboglanna, upwards on the Eden, now Castlesteads. Coincidentally, the last battle site of Arthur's campaigns is said to have been named Camlann. Other candidates include the Bourgogne town of Avallon, suggested by Geoffrey Ashe and Bardsey Island in Gwynedd, famous for its apples and also connected with Merlin . Others have claimed the most likely location to be St Michael's Mount in Cornwall, which is near to other locations associated with the Arthurian legends. St Michael's Mount is an island which can be reached by a causeway at low tide. The matter is confused somewhat by similar legends and place names in Britanny. Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... Burgh by Sands is a village and civil parish in the City of Carlisle district of Cumbria, England, situated near the Solway Firth. ... // Hadrians Wall is a stone and turf fortification built by the Roman Empire across the width of modern-day England. ... Commanders King Arthur † Mordred † How Mordred was Slain by Arthur, and How by Him Arthur was Hurt to the Death, by Arthur Rackham “Camlann” redirects here. ... (Région flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Yonne Côte-dOr Nièvre Saône-et-Loire Arrondissements 15 Cantons 174 Communes 2,045 Statistics Land area1 31,582 km² Population (Ranked 16th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... This article is about the town in France. ... Geoffrey Ashe is a writer of non-fiction books. ... Bardsey Island (Welsh: Ynys Enlli) lies off the Lleyn peninsula, in north Wales. ... This article is about the county of Wales. ... For other uses, see Merlin (disambiguation). ... St. ...


Non-Arthurian notoriety

Although primarily known in connection with King Arthur, Avalon is sometimes referred to as the legendary location where Jesus visited the British Isles with Joseph of Arimathea and that it was later the site of the first church in Britain. This location of the Isle of Avalon is usually associated with present day Glastonbury. Avalon also plays a role in non-Arthurian French literature, such as the stories of Holger Danske, who was taken there by Morgan le Fay in a medieval romance, and in the story of Melusine. This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Joseph of Arimathea by Pietro Perugino. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... Glastonbury is a small town in Somerset, England, situated at a dry spot on the Somerset Levels, 50km (31 miles) south of Bristol. ... Ogier the Dane (known in Danish Holger Danske) as is a fictional hero who first appears in the Old French chanson de geste. ... Morgan le Fay, by Anthony Frederick Sandys (1829 - 1904), 1864 (Birmingham Art Gallery): A spell-brewing Morgaine distinctly of Tennysons generation Morgan le Fay, alternatively known as Morgaine, Morgain, Morgana and other variants, is a powerful sorceress and sometime antagonist of King Arthur and Guinevere in the Arthurian legend. ... Melusines secret discovered, from One of sixteen paintings by Guillebert de Mets circa 1410. ...


A nearby valley is named the Vale of Avalon. Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley In geology, a valley (also called a vale or dale) is a depression with predominant extent in one direction. ...


References

In Ace Combat Zero: The Belkan War, one mission is set around the Avalon Dam, the owner believing he is the crator of life.


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Apache Avalon has closed (180 words)
Apache Avalon began in 1999 as the Java Apache Server Framework and in late 2002 separated from the Apache Jakarta Project to become its own ASF top level project.
Apache Avalon provided Java software for component and container programming and pioneered the use of design patterns such as Inversion of Control (IoC) and Separation of Concerns (SoC).
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Avalon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (679 words)
Avalon (probably from the Celtic word abal: apple; see Etymology below) is a legendary island somewhere in the British Isles, famous for its beautiful apples.
Avalon is sometimes referred to as the legendary location where Jesus visited the British Isles with Joseph of Arimathea and that it was later the site of the first church in Britain.
Avalon is typically featured in the countless adaptations of Arthurian legend.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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