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Encyclopedia > Autumn
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Seasons

Spring · Summer
Autumn · Winter Autumn may refer to: Look up Autumn in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up fall in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the physical universe. ... For other uses, see Weather (disambiguation). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... Spring is one of the four temperate seasons. ... For other uses, see Summer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Winter (disambiguation). ...

Dry season
Wet season The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A wet season or rainy season is a season in which the average rainfall in a region is significantly increased. ...

Storms

Thunderstorm · Tornado
Tropical cyclone (Hurricane)
Extratropical cyclone
Winter storm · Blizzard
Ice storm For other uses, see Storm (disambiguation). ... A shelf cloud associated with a heavy or severe thunderstorm over Enschede, The Netherlands. ... This article is about the weather phenomenon. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... A fictitious synoptic chart of an extratropical cyclone affecting the UK & Ireland. ... A typical view of a winter storm. ... This article is about the winter storm condition. ... Ice storm could refer to: A type of winter storm characterized by freezing rain. ...

Precipitation

Fog · Drizzle · Rain
Freezing rain · Ice pellets
Hail · Snow · Graupel For other uses, see Fog (disambiguation). ... Drizzle is fairly steady, light precipitation. ... This article is about precipitation. ... Freezing Rain is a type of precipitation that begins as snow at higher altitude, falling from a cloud towards earth, melts completely on its way down while passing through a layer of air above freezing temperature, and then encounters a layer below freezing at lower level to become supercooled. ... Sleet can refer to at least two different forms of precipitation. ... This article is about the precipitation. ... For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ... Graupel can be any of the following types of solid-ice precipitation: hail - large chunks of ice such as from a strong or severe thunderstorm sleet - small pellets of raindrops that have frozen in mid-air, in winter or a thunderstorm snow pellets - when freezing fog forms 2-5mm balls...

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Climate · Air pollution This page has a list of meteorology topics. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Modern weather predictions aid in timely evacuations and potentially save lives and property damage Human beings have attempted to predict the weather since time immemorial. ... Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damage the environment. ...

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Autumn (also known as fall in North American English) is one of the four temperate seasons. Autumn marks the transition from summer usually in September (northern hemisphere) or March (southern hemisphere) when the arrival of night becomes noticeably earlier. In the northern hemisphere, the meteorological start of autumn is on 1 September and it ends on 30 November;[1] in the southern hemisphere it starts on 1 March and ends on 31 May. The astronomical start of autumn is on 22 September and ends on 20 December in the northern hemisphere, and 20 March and 21 June in the southern hemisphere. Autumn starts on or around 7 August and ends on about 6 November in solar term. North American English is a collective term used for the varieties of the English language that are spoken in the United States and Canada. ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Summer (disambiguation). ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A Solar term is one of 24 days in the traditional East Asian lunisolar calendars that match a particular astronomical events or signify some natural phenomenon. ...


In Ireland, autumn begins on 1 August and ends 31 October, due to the Irish calendar. is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Irish calendar does not observe the typical astronomical seasons (beginning, in the Northern Hemisphere, on the equinoxes and solstices), or the meteorological seasons (beginning on March 1, June 1, September 1 and December 1), but rather centers the seasons around the solstices and equinoxes (so that, for instance, midsummer...

Contents

Etymology

The word autumn comes from the Old French word autompne (automne in modern French), and was later normalized to the original Latin word autumnus.[2] There are rare examples of its use as early as the 14th century, but it became common by the 16th century, around the same time as fall,[citation needed] and the two words appear to have been used interchangeably.[citation needed] Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


Before the 16th century, harvest was the term usually used to refer to the season. However as more people gradually moved from working the land to living in towns (especially those who could read and write, the only people whose use of language we now know), the word harvest lost its reference to the time of year and came to refer only to the actual activity of reaping, and fall and autumn began to replace it as a reference to the season.


The alternative word fall is now mostly a North American English word for the season. It traces its origins to old Germanic languages. The exact derivation is unclear, the Old English fiæll or feallan and the Old Norse fall all being possible candidates. However, these words all have the meaning "to fall from a height" and are clearly derived either from a common root or from each other. The term came to denote the season in the 16th century, a contraction of Middle English expressions like "fall of the leaf" and "fall of the year".[3] North American English is a collective term used for the varieties of the English language that are spoken in the United States and Canada. ... The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... Old English redirects here. ... Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the...


During the 17th century, English immigration to the colonies in North America was at its peak, and the new settlers took their language with them. While the term fall gradually became obsolescent in Britain, it became the more common term in North America, where autumn is nonetheless preferred in scientific and often in literary contexts. North American redirects here. ...


Historic usage

Many ancient civilizations (such as the Amerindians and the ancient Hebrews) computed the years by autumns,[4][5] while the Anglo-Saxons did so by winters. Tacitus states that the ancient Germans were acquainted with all the other seasons of the year but had no notion of autumn — though this is likely to be wrong, especially as a blanket statement (Tacitus wrote about Germanic tribes without firsthand knowledge and thus promoted myths as well as actual information). Linwood observed of the beginning of the several seasons of the year, that: Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ... The famous parade helmet found at Sutton Hoo, probably belonging to Raedwald of East Anglia circa 625. ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... Linwood, a small town in Renfrewshire, Scotland, 14 miles south-west of Glasgow, which saw an explosion in its population during the middle of the 20th century due to the mass exodus of people from the Glasgow slums. ...

"Dat Clemens Hyemem, dat Petrus Ver Cathedratus;
Aestuat Urbanus, Autumnat Bartholomaeus."[6]

In alchemy, autumn is the time or season when the operation of the Philosopher's stone is brought to maturity and perfection.[6] It is also symbolised by the Metal element in Chinese astrology. For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philosophers stone (disambiguation). ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In popular culture

Harvest association

Personification of Autumn (Currier & Ives Lithograph, 1871).
Personification of Autumn (Currier & Ives Lithograph, 1871).
John Everett Millais, "Autumn Leaves".
John Everett Millais, "Autumn Leaves".

Autumn's association with the transition from warm to cold weather, and its related status as the season of the primary harvest, has dominated its themes and popular images. In Western cultures, personifications of autumn are usually pretty, well-fed females adorned with fruits, vegetables and grains and wheat that ripen at this time. Most ancient cultures featured autumnal celebrations of the harvest, often the most important on their calendars. Still extant echoes of these celebrations are found in the mid-autumn Thanksgiving holiday of the United States, and the Jewish Sukkot holiday with its roots as a full moon harvest festival of "tabernacles" (huts wherein the harvest was processed and which later gained religious significance). There's also the many North American Indian festivals tied to harvest of autumnally ripe foods gathered in the wild, the Chinese Mid-Autumn or Moon festival, and many others. The predominant mood of these autumnal celebrations is a gladness for the fruits of the earth mixed with a certain melancholy linked to the imminent arrival of harsh weather. personification of autumn, PD from LOC The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... personification of autumn, PD from LOC The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Phillipp Veits Germania (1877), a personification of Germany. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface, as well as a method of manufacturing semiconductor and MEMS devices. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1149x1600, 333 KB) John Everett Millais: Autumn Leaves / Herbstblätter / Feuilles d’automne 1856 City Art Gallery, Manchester File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Autumn Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1149x1600, 333 KB) John Everett Millais: Autumn Leaves / Herbstblätter / Feuilles d’automne 1856 City Art Gallery, Manchester File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Autumn Metadata This... Sir John Everett Millais Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, PRA (June 8, 1829 – August 13, 1896) was a British painter and illustrator and one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. ... For the Canadian holiday, see Thanksgiving (Canada). ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Sukkot (Hebrew:  ; booths. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Chữ nôm: Mid-Autumn Festival celebrations in Victoria Park, Hong Kong. ...


This view is presented in John Keats' poem To Autumn where he describes the season as a time of bounteous fecundity, a time of 'mellow fruitfulness'. Keats redirects here. ... To Autumn is a poem written by English Romantic poet John Keats in 1819 (published 1820). ...


Melancholy association

Autumn in poetry has often been associated with melancholy. The possibilities of summer are gone, and the chill of winter is on the horizon. Skies turn grey, and people turn inward, both physically and mentally.[7] Rainer Maria Rilke, a German poet, has expressed such sentiments in one of his most famous poems, Herbsttag (Autumn Day), which reads in part: Melancholia (Greek μελαγχολια) was described as a distinct disease as early as the fifth and fourth centuries BC in the Hippocratic writings. ... Rainer Maria Rilke (4 December 1875 – 29 December 1926) is considered one of the German languages greatest 20th century poets. ...

Wer jetzt kein Haus hat, baut sich keines mehr.
Wer jetzt allein ist, wird es lange bleiben,
wird wachen, lesen, lange Briefe schreiben
und wird in den Alleen hin und her
unruhig wandern, wenn die Blätter treiben.

This translates roughly (there is no official translation) to:

Who now has no house, will not build one (anymore).
Who now is alone, will remain so for long,
will wake, and read, and write long letters
and back and forth on the boulevards
will restlessly wander, while the leaves blow.

Similar examples may be found in William Butler Yeats' poem The Wild Swans at Coole where the maturing season that the poet observes symbolically represents his own aging self. Like the natural world that he observes he too has reached his prime and now must look forward to the inevitability of old age and death. Paul Verlaine's "Chanson d'automne" ("Autumn Song") is likewise characterized by strong, painful feelings of sorrow. Yeats redirects here. ... The Wild Swans at Coole is a collection of poems by W.B.Yeats, first published in 1917. ... Paul Verlaine Paul-Marie Verlaine (IPA: ; March 30, 1844–January 8, 1896) was a French poet associated with the Symbolist movement. ... Chanson dautomne (Song of Autumn) is a poem by Paul Verlaine, one of the best known in the French language. ...


Other associations

In the U.S., autumn is also associated with the Halloween season (which in turn was influenced by Samhain, a Celtic autumn festival),[8] and with it a widespread marketing campaign that promotes it. The television, film, book, costume, home decoration, and confectionery industries use this time of year to promote products closely associated with such holiday, with promotions going from early September to 31 October, since their themes rapidly lose strength once the holiday ends, and advertising starts concentrating on Christmas. This article is about the holiday. ... Look up Samhain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ...


Since 1997, Autumn has been one of the top 100 names for girls in the United States.[9]


Tourism

Although colour change in leaves occurs wherever deciduous trees are found, coloured autumn foliage is most famously noted in two regions of the world: most of Canada and the United States; and Eastern Asia, including China, Korea, and Japan. It can also be very significant in Argentina, Australia, Chile and New Zealand, but not to the same degree. Maple leaves Autumn leaf color is a phenomenon that affects the normally green leaves of many deciduous trees and shrubs by which they take on, during a few weeks in the autumn months, one or many colors that range from red to yellow. ... For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ... “Foliage” redirects here. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ...


Eastern Canada and the New England region of the United States are famous for the brilliance of their autumnal foliage, and a seasonal tourist industry has grown up around the few weeks in autumn when the leaves are at their peak. This article is about the region in the United States of America. ...


Gallery

See also

In astronomy, axial tilt is the inclination angle of a planets rotational axis in relation to a perpendicular to its orbital plane. ... During the autumn months, many deciduous trees experience a bright color change in their leaves before the leaves fall. ... Figure 1 This is a diagram of the seasons. ... For other uses, see Equinox (disambiguation). ... An Indian summer day Indian summer is a name given to a period of sunny, warm weather in autumn, not long before winter. ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ...

References

  1. ^ NOAA's National Weather Service Glossary.
  2. ^ Etymology of 'autumn' - New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 1997 Edition
  3. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary origins of the divers usages of the word "fall"
  4. ^ The Amerindians: Stars were... (from the ASTROLab, Mont-Mégantic National Park, Canada website)
  5. ^ Multiple Calendars (from Brigham Young University website)
  6. ^ a b This article incorporates content from the 1728 Cyclopaedia, a publication in the public domain. [1]
  7. ^ Cyclical Regenerative Time - (c) Autumn (from 'Symbolism of Place', symbolism.org website)
  8. ^ Halloween (from the Microsoft Encarta encyclopedia)
  9. ^ Popular Baby Names, Social Security Online.

The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, often abbreviated to SOED, is a scaled-down version of the Oxford English Dictionary. ... , Brigham Young University (BYU), located in Provo, Utah, is a private coeducational school completely owned by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormon Church) and run under the auspices of its Church Educational System. ... Table of Trigonometry, 1728 Cyclopaedia Cyclopaedia, or, A Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (folio, 2 vols. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Autumn
Look up autumn, fall in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... Spring is one of the four temperate seasons. ... For other uses, see Summer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Winter (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Portal. ... Naples beach in Florida lined with coconut trees is an example of a tropical climate. ... A wet season or rainy season is a season in which the average rainfall in a region is significantly increased. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

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