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Encyclopedia > Autophagy

Autophagy is also a synonym for self-cannibalism Self-cannibalism is the practice of eating oneself, also called autocannibalism,[1] autophagy[2] and autosarcophagy. ...


Autophagy, or ocytosis, is a process of sequestering organelles and long-lived proteins in a double-membrane vesicle inside the cell, where the contents are subsequently delivered to the lysosome for degradation. Autophagy is part of everyday normal cell growth and development where mTOR plays an important Its main purpose is to maintain a balance between biogenesis (production) of cell structures, and their degradation and turnover (see Bruce Alberts et al.: Molecular biology of the cell, 4th edition, Garland Publishing 2002, NCBI Bookshelf [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=begun to aggregate within a cell and may potentially cause problems. It is especially prominent in insects that undergo complete metamorphosis; larval tissue is recycled to become appendages in an adult insect. Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... In cell biology, a vesicle is a relatively small and enclosed compartment, separated from the cytosol by at least one lipid bilayer. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... Organelles. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...


The rate of autophagy increases when the cell is subjected to nutrient deprivation, and also when it receives stimuli that result in organelle proliferation. Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ...


When autophagy involves the total destruction of the cell, it is called autophagic cell death (also known as cytoplasmic cell death or type II cell death). This is one of the main types of programmed cell death. As such, it is a regulated process of cell death in a multicellular organism, or in a colony of individual cells such as yeast (see Daniel J. Klionsky and Scott D. Emr: "Autophagy as a Regulated Pathway of Cellular Degradation", Science Vol. 290 p.1717, 1 Dec. 2000 [1]). Programmed cell death (PCD) is the deliberate suicide of an unwanted cell in a multicellular organism. ... A crab is an example of an organism. ...


Autophagy can be further separated into two types: macroautophagy and microautophagy. Macroautophagy involves the formation of a membrane containing target materials moving into the lysosome/vacuole while microautophagy is the invagination of the lysosome/vacuole of target materials. Although both micro and macroautophagy serve as fundamental functions in plants and metazoa (multicellular animals), as well as in other eukaryotes such as slime moulds and yeast. Phyla Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented worms Tardigrada - Water bears Onychophora - Velvet worms Arthropoda - Insects, etc. ... Typical orders Protostelia    Protosteliida Myxogastria    Liceida    Echinosteliida    Trichiida    Stemonitida    Physarida Dictyostelia    Dictyosteliida Slime moulds (or Slime molds in American English) are peculiar protists that normally take the form of amoebae, but under certain conditions transform into slug like beings and then travel to a high area, where they develop fruiting... It has been suggested that Yeast (baking) be merged into this article or section. ...


Cytoplasmic autophagy is different from other methods of protein degradation, i.e. Polyubiquitination. Ubiquitin is a very conserved small regulatory protein that is ubiquitous in eukaryotes. ...


Autophagy selective for degradation of Peroxisomes is called Pexophagy, which can be separated in Macropexophagy and Micropexophagy. Look up degradation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles in eukaryotes. ...


Autophagy selective for degradation of Mitochondria is called Mitophagy, which can be separated in Macromitophagy and Micromitophagy. Look up degradation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ...


Components

  • Autophagolysosome: digestive vacuole of an autophagy.

Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ...

Further reading

  • D. J. Klionsky, Editor: Autophagy (Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, Tx, 2004)

Journal - Autophagy, Editor-in-Chief: Dan Klionsky. Landes Bioscience


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Autophagy in cell death: an innocent convict? -- Levine and Yuan 115 (10): 2679 -- Journal of Clinical Investigation (5768 words)
for autophagy in the degradation of the N-terminus of Htt.
Autophagy is a defense mechanism inhibiting BCG and Mycobacterium tuberculosis survival in infected macrophages.
Induction of autophagy and inhibition of tumorigenesis by beclin 1.
Autophagy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (377 words)
Autophagy, or ocytosis, is a process of sequestering organelles and long-lived proteins in a double-membrane vesicle inside the cell, where the contents are subsequently delivered to the lysosome for degradation.
The rate of autophagy increases when the cell is subjected to nutrient deprivation, and also when it receives stimuli that result in organelle proliferation.
When autophagy involves the total destruction of the cell, it is called autophagic cell death (also known as cytoplasmic cell death or type II cell death).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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