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Encyclopedia > Autonomism
Raised fist, stenciled protest symbol of Autonome at the Ernst-Kirchweger-Haus in Vienna, Austria
Raised fist, stenciled protest symbol of Autonome at the Ernst-Kirchweger-Haus in Vienna, Austria

Autonomism refers to a set of left-wing political and social movements and theories close to the socialist movement. Autonomism (autonomia) emerged in Italy in the 1960s from workerist (operaismo) communism. Later, post-Marxist and anarchist tendencies became significant after influence from the Situationists, the failure of the Italian far-left movements in the 1970s and the emergence of a number of important theorists including Antonio Negri, who had contributed to the 1969 founding of Potere Operaio marxist group, Mario Tronti, Paolo Virno, etc. It influenced the German and Dutch Autonomen, the worldwide Social Center movement, and today is influential in Italy, France, the United States and some other English-speaking countries. Those who describe themselves as autonomists now vary from workerist Marxists to post-structuralists and (some) anarchists. Image File history File links Ekh-faust-foto. ... Image File history File links Ekh-faust-foto. ... Visual diagram of a basic stencil. ... The Ernst Kirchweger House in September 2005. ... “Wien” redirects here. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and movements which aim to improve society through collective and egalitarian action; and to a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... After World War II and the overthrow of Mussolinis fascist regime, Italys history was dominated by the Democrazia Cristiana (DC - Christian-Democrats) party for forty years, while the opposition was led by the Italian Communist Party (PCI); this condition endured until the Tangentopoli scandal and operation Mani pulite... Workerism describes political positions which regard the experience and politics of labourers and the working class as central. ... Workerism is a name given to different trends in left-wing political discourse, especially anarchism and Marxism. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... The Situationist International (SI), an international political and artistic movement, originated in the Italian village of Cosio dArroscia on 28 July 1957 with the fusion of several extremely small artistic tendencies: the Lettrist International , the International movement for an imaginist Bauhaus, and the London Psychogeographical Association. ... Antonio Toni Negri (born August 1, 1933) is an Italian Marxist political philosopher. ... Potere Operaio (Workers Power) was an extremist left-wing Italian political group, particularly active between 1968 and 1973. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Community centre. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...

Contents

Meaning of autonomy

The term autonomia/Autonome is derived from the Greek "αὐτό-νομος" referring to someone or something which lives by his/her own rule. Autonomy, in this sense, is not independence. While independence refers to an autarcic kind of life, separated from the community, autonomy refers to life in society but by one own's rule. Aristotle thus considered that only beasts or gods could be independent and live apart from the polis ("community"), while Kant defined the Enlightenment by autonomy of thought and the famous "Sapere aude" ("dare to know"). Nomos (plural: Nomoi) can refer to: the prefectures of Greece, the administrative division immediately below the peripheries of Greece (Greek: νομός, νομοί) the subdivisions of Ancient Egypt, see Nome (subnational division) law (Greek: νόμος, νόμοι). It is the origin of the suffix -onomy. ... An autarky is an economy that limits trade with the outside world, or an ecosystem not affected by influences from the outside, and relies entirely on its own resources. ... A community is a social group of organisms sharing an environment, normally with shared interests. ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... A polis (πόλις, pronunciation pol-is) plural: poleis (πόλεις) is a city, a city-state and also citizenship and body of citizens. ... Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (April 22, 1724 – February 12, 1804) was a Prussian philosopher, generally regarded as one of Europes most influential thinkers and the last major philosopher of the Enlightenment. ... The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; German: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. ... Sapere aude is a Latin phrase meaning Dare to know or Dare to be wise. Most famously, it is found in Immanuel Kants essay What Is Enlightenment?. The original use seems to be in Epistle II of Horaces Epistularum liber primus [1], line 40: Dimidium facti qui coepit...


Autonomist theory

Unlike other forms of Marxism, autonomist Marxism emphasises the ability of the working class to force changes to the organisation of the capitalist system independent of the state, trade unions or political parties. Autonomists are less concerned with party political organisation than other types of Marxist thought, focusing instead on self-organised action outside of traditional organisational structures. Autonomist Marxism is thus a "bottom up" theory: it draws attention to activities that autonomists see as everyday working class resistance to capitalism, for example absenteeism, slow working, and socialisation in the workplace. The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... In economics, a capitalist is someone who owns capital, presumably within the economic system of capitalism. ... A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ... Absenteeism is a habitual pattern of absence from a duty or obligation. ...


Like other Marxists, autonomists see class struggle as being of central importance. However, autonomists have a broader definition of the working class than other Marxists: as well as wage-earning workers (both white collar and blue collar), autonomists also include the unwaged (students, the unemployed, homemakers etc), who are traditionally deprived of any form of union representation. Class struggle is the active expression of class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective. ... White-collar workers perform tasks which are less physically laborious yet often more highly paid than blue-collar workers, who do manual work. ... A blue-collar worker is a member of the working class who performs manual labor and earns an hourly wage. ...


Early theorists (such as Mario Tronti, Antonio Negri, Sergio Bologna and Paolo Virno) developed notions of "immaterial" and "social labour" that extended the Marxist concept of labour to all society. They suggested that modern society's wealth was produced by unaccountable collective work, and that only a little of this was redistributed to the workers in the form of wages. They emphasised the importance of feminism and the value of unpaid female labour to capitalist society. Antonio Toni Negri (born August 1, 1933) is an Italian Marxist political philosopher. ... A wage is the amount of money paid for some specified quantity of labour. ... Feminists redirects here. ...


Italian Autonomism

Further information: History of the Italian Republic

Autonomist Marxism - referred to in Italy as operaismo, which translates literally as "workerism" - first appeared in Italy in the early 1960s. Arguably, the emergence of early autonomism can be traced to the dissatisfaction of automotive workers in Turin with their union, which reached an agreement with FIAT. The disillusionment of these workers with their organised representation, along with the resultant riots, were critical factors in the development of a theory of self-organised labour representation outside the scope of traditional representatives such as trade unions. After World War II and the overthrow of Mussolinis fascist regime, Italys history was dominated by the Democrazia Cristiana (DC - Christian-Democrats) party for forty years, while the opposition was led by the Italian Communist Party (PCI); this condition endured until the Tangentopoli scandal and operation Mani pulite... “Torino” redirects here. ... Fiat S.p. ... A trade union or labor union is a continuous association of wage-earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment. ...


In 1969, the operaismo approach was active mainly in two different groups: Lotta Continua, led by Adriano Sofri (which had a very important Roman Catholic cultural matrix) and Potere Operaio, led by Antonio Negri, Franco Piperno, Oreste Scalzone, and Valerio Morucci. Mario Capanna was an important leader of the Milan student movement, who had a more classical Marxist-Leninist approach. Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Lotta Continua was a far left political party in Italy, involved in the autonomism movement. ... Adriano Sofri (born August 1, 1942), Italian politician, intellectual, journalist, writer and convicted felon. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Potere Operaio (Workers Power) was an extremist left-wing Italian political group, particularly active between 1968 and 1973. ... Antonio Toni Negri (born August 1, 1933) is an Italian Marxist political philosopher. ... Franco Piperno (born 1943) is an Italian former communist militant, now a Physics professor at the University of Calabria. ... Oreste Scalzone (born 1947) is an Italian communist militant and autonomist. ... Mario Capanna in 1968 as student leader. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ...


Important influences on Italian autonomism

Through translations made available by Danilo Montaldi and others, the Italian autonomists drew upon previous activist research in the United States by the Johnson-Forest Tendency and in France by the group Socialisme ou Barbarie (see below). The Johnson-Forest Tendency had studied working class life and struggles within the US auto industry, publishing pamphlets such as "The American Worker" (1947), "Punching Out" (1952) and "Union Committemen and Wildcat Strikes" (1955). That work was translated into French by Socialisme ou Barbarie and published, serially, in their journal. They too began investigating and writing about what was going on inside workplaces, in their case inside both auto factories and insurance offices. The Johnson-Forest tendency, sometimes called the Johnsonites, refers to an American radical left tendency associated with Marxist theorists C.L.R. James and Raya Dunayevskaya, who used the pseudonyms J.R. Johnson and Freddie Forest respectively. ... Socialisme ou Barbarie (Socialism or Barbarism) was a French-based radical libertarian socialist group of the post-World War II period (the name comes from a phrase Rosa Luxembourg used in a 1916 essay, The Junius Pamphlet). It existed from 1948 until 1965. ...


The journal Quaderni Rossi ("Red Notebooks"), along with its successor Classe Operaia ("Working Class"), were also influential in the development of early autonomism. Both of these were founded by Antonio Negri and Mario Tronti - Quaderni Rossi was produced between 1961 and 1965, and Classe Operaia between 1963 and 1966. Antonio Toni Negri (born August 1, 1933) is an Italian Marxist political philosopher. ...


Pirate radio stations also were an important factor in spreading autonomist ideas and theory. Bologna's Radio Alice was an example of such a station. The term pirate radio usually refers to illegal or unregulated radio broadcasting. ... Bologna (IPA , from Latin Bononia, Bulåggna in Emiliano-Romagnolo) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. ... Radio Alice was an Italian free radio in Bologna at the end of the 1970s. ...


Autonomist action in Italy

The Italian student movement, starting from 1966 (murder by neo-fascists of student Paolo Rossi in Rome University) engaged itself in various direct action operations, including riots and University occupations], along with more peaceful activities such as self reduction, in which individuals refused to pay for such services and goods as public transport, electricity, gas, rent, and food. Several clashes occurred between the students ("Movimento studentesco") and the police, during the occupations of Universities in the winter 1967-1968, during the Fiat occupations, in March 1968 in Rome during the "Battle of Valle Giulia". Student movements accompany university life since the nineteenth century. ... This page pertains to fascism after World War II. For a discussion of groups and movements that also include as core tenets racial nationalism, antisemitism, and praise for Hitler, see Neo-Nazism. ... Paolo Rossi (born September 23, 1956) is an Italian former football (soccer) player. ... Direct action is a form of political activism which seeks immediate remedy for perceived ills, as opposed to indirect actions such as electing representatives who promise to provide remedy at some later date. ... Teamsters, armed with pipes, riot in a clash with riot police in the Minneapolis Teamsters Strike of 1934. ... Skytrain Bangkok. ... Fiat S.p. ... The Battle of Valle Giulia is a clash occurred between Italian left-winged militants and the Italian police at Valle Giulia, in Rome, on March 1, 1968. ...


The Piazza Fontana bombing and its legacy

In December 1969, four bombings struck in Rome the Monument of Vittorio Emanuele II (Altare della Patria), the Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, and in Milan the Banca Commerciale and the Banca Nazionale dell'Agricoltura. The later bombing, known as the Piazza Fontana bombing of 12 December 1969, killed 16 and injured 90, marking the beginning of the "strategia della tensione" (strategy of tension) in Italy. After the bombing, some 4,000 members of left-wing groups - including anarchists - were detained by the police. Giuseppe Pinelli, an anarchist, was accused at the time of having carried out the bombing. The Piazza Fontana bombing (Italian: ) refers to the terrorist bombing on December 12, 1969 in the offices of Banca Nazionale dellAgricoltura (National Agrarian Bank) in Piazza Fontana, Milan, Italy, carried out by far-right terrorists. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... The monument of Victor Emmanuel II The Monumento Nazionale a Vittorio Emanuele II (National Monument of Victor Emmanuel II) or Altare della Patria (Altar of the Fatherland) or Il Vittoriano is a monument located in Rome, Italy. ... Banca Nazionale del Lavoro SpA is an Italian banking firm. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... The Piazza Fontana bombing (Italian: ) refers to the terrorist bombing on December 12, 1969 in the offices of Banca Nazionale dellAgricoltura (National Agrarian Bank) in Piazza Fontana, Milan, Italy, carried out by far-right terrorists. ... A strategy of tension (Italian: ) is a way to control and manipulate public opinion using fear, propaganda, disinformation, psychological warfare, agents provocateurs, as well as false flag terrorist actions (including bombings). ... Giuseppe Pinelli (1928-1969) was an Italian railway worker and left-wing political activist. ...


Giuseppe Pinelli was held and interrogated for three days, longer than Italian law specified that people could be held without seeing a judge. On December 15, he died after falling out of a window. Luigi Calabresi, the police officer who had directed his interrogation, as well as other officers were accused of pushing him out of the window, and put under investigation in 1971 for murder, but charges were dropped because of lack of evidence. The next year, Calabresi was murdered by two shots from a revolver outside his home. is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Another anarchist, Pietro Valpreda, was then arrested, sentenced for the crime, before being cleared sixteen years later. In the 1980s, the neo-fascist terrorist Vincenzo Vinciguerra confessed to magistrate Felice Casson that the bombing had in fact been carried out by the far-right organisation Ordine Nuovo, supported by Gladio, NATO's stay-behind anti-Communist network, in an attempt to push the state into declaring a state of emergency. Despite these confessions, all defendants were acquitted by the Court of Cassation on May 3, 2005, during the seventh trial for the Piazza Fontana bombing. The victim's relatives were condemned to refund trial expenses. Pietro Valpreda (22 June 1933 - 6 July 2002) was an Italian anarchist, dancer and novelist. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Vincenzo Vinciguerra was a member of Avanguardia Nazionale (National Vanguard), a far-right terrorist organization founded by Stefano Delle Chiaie and involved in Italys strategy of tension promoted by Gladio networks. ... Felice Casson (born August 5, 1953, in Chioggia, province of Venice) is an Italian magistrate and politician, who discovered the existence of Operation Gladio, a stay-behind NATO anti-communist army during the Cold War, which, in Italy, took part in the strategy of tension. ... Ordine Nuovo a. ... Emblem of Gladio, Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind paramilitary organizations. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government, may work to alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors, or may order government agencies to implement emergency preparedness plans. ... A defendant or defender is any party who is required to answer the complaint of a plaintiff or pursuer in a civil lawsuit before a court, or any party who has been formally charged or accused of violating a criminal statute. ... The Court of Cassation (Corte di Cassazione in Italian) is the main court of last resort in Italy. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


This attack has been widely considered part of the strategy of tension (strategia della tensione), which allegedly aimed at destabilizing the country through a campaign of "false flags" terrorist attacks - attacks blamed on left-wing groups. The strategy aimed to promote an authoritatian government and (in later years) to sabotage the possibilities for a historic compromise (compromesso storico) between the Christian Democracy (DC) and the Communist Party (PCI). A strategy of tension (Italian: ) is a way to control and manipulate public opinion using fear, propaganda, disinformation, psychological warfare, agents provocateurs, as well as false flag terrorist actions (including bombings). ... False flag operations are covert operations conducted by governments, corporations, or other organizations, which are designed to appear as if they are being carried out by other entities. ... The term Historic Compromise (Italian:compromesso storico) most commonly refers to the accommodation between the Italian Christian Democrats (DC) and the Italian Communist Party (PCI) in the 1970s, after the latter embraced eurocommunism. ... Christian Democracy, (Democrazia Cristiana), the Christian democratic party of Italy, commonly called the democristiani or DC, dominated government for nearly half a century until its demise amid a welter of corruption allegations in 1992-94. ... The Partito Comunista Italiano (PCI) or Italian Communist Party emerged as Partito Comunista dItalia or Communist Party of Italy from a secession by the Leninist comunisti puri tendency from the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) during that bodys congress on 21 January 1921 at Livorno. ...


In 1988, former Lotta continua member Adriano Sofri was arrested, along with Ovidio Bompressi and Giorgio Pietrostefani, for the murder of Luigi Calabresi, the police officer who was suspected of having killed Giuseppe Pinelli. The charges against them were based on testimony provided, sixteen years later, by a "collaboratore di giustizia"- an ex-militant who accused himself of having carried out the murder of Calabresi (under order from Sofri) and collaborated with the magistrates. Claiming his innocence, Sofri was finally sentenced 22 years after a long series of trials, in 2000. Historian Carlo Ginzburg wrote, on this case, a book in support of Sofri's innocence, entitled The Judge and the Historian: Marginal Notes on a Late Twentieth-Century Miscarriage of Justice. Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Lotta Continua was a far left political party in Italy, involved in the autonomism movement. ... Adriano Sofri (born August 1, 1942), Italian politician, intellectual, journalist, writer and convicted felon. ... Carlo Ginzburg is a noted historian and pioneer of microhistory. ...


The killing of Aldo Moro and the prosecution of the autonomists

On March 11, 1977, riots (in which the autonomists participated) took place in Bologna following the killing of a young man by the police. Gladio, as well as the Italian secret services and the outlawed Propaganda Due masonic lodge (aka "P2"), were later found to be directly involved in the strategy of tension[citation needed]. is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Emblem of Gladio, Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind paramilitary organizations. ... SISMI logo Servizio per le Informazioni e la Sicurezza Militare (Military Intelligence and Security Service, SISMI) is the military intelligence agency of Italy. ... This box:      Propaganda Due or P2 was an irregular or black Masonic lodge that operated in Italy from 1877-1981, headed in its final decades by Licio Gelli. ...


Starting from 1979, the state prosecuted effectively the autonomist movement, claiming it protected the Red Brigades, which had kidnapped and assassinated Aldo Moro. 12,000 far-left activists were detained, while 300 fled to France and 200 others to South America, on a total of 600 people who fled[1]. Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... The Red Brigades (Brigate Rosse in Italian, often abbreviated as the BR) were a terrorist group[1] located in Italy and active during the Years of Lead. Formed in 1970, the Marxist-Leninist Red Brigades sought to create a revolutionary state through armed struggle and to separate Italy from the... Aldo Moro (September 23, 1916 – May 9, 1978) was an Italian politician and five time Prime Minister of Italy, from 1963 to 1968 and then from 1974 to 1976. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


The French autonome movement

In France, the marxist group Socialisme ou Barbarie, led by philosopher Cornelius Castoriadis, could be said to be one of the first autonomist groups, as well as having importance in the council communist tradition. As mentioned above, Socialisme ou Barbarie drew upon the American Johnson-Forest Tendency's activist research inside US auto plants and carried out their own investigations into rank & file workers struggles - struggles autonomous of union or party leadership. Socialisme ou Barbarie (Socialism or Barbarism) was a French-based radical libertarian socialist group of the post-World War II period (the name comes from a phrase Rosa Luxembourg used in a 1916 essay, The Junius Pamphlet). It existed from 1948 until 1965. ... Cornelius Castoriadis[1] (Greek: Κορνήλιος Καστοριάδης) (March 11, 1922-December 26, 1997) was a Greek-French philosopher, economist and psychoanalyst. ... Council communism was a radical Left movement originating in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s. ... Socialisme ou Barbarie (Socialism or Barbarism) was a French-based radical libertarian socialist group of the post-World War II period (the name comes from a phrase Rosa Luxembourg used in a 1916 essay, The Junius Pamphlet). It existed from 1948 until 1965. ...


Also parallel to the work of the Johnson-Forest Tendency, Socialisme ou Barbarie harshly criticised stalinist regime in the USSR, which it considered a form of 'bureaucratic capitalism' and not at all the state socialism as it pretended to be. Philosopher Jean-François Lyotard, famous for his work on post-modernism, was also part of this movement. Socialisme ou Barbarie (Socialism or Barbarism) was a French-based radical libertarian socialist group of the post-World War II period (the name comes from a phrase Rosa Luxembourg used in a 1916 essay, The Junius Pamphlet). It existed from 1948 until 1965. ... State socialism, broadly speaking, is any variety of socialism which relies on ownership of the means of production by the state. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated pomo) is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ...


However, the Italian influence of the operaismo movement was more directly felt in the creation of the review Matériaux pour l'intervention (1972-1973) by Yann Moulier Boutang, a French economist close to Toni Negri. This would lead in turn to the creation of the Camarades group (1974-78) by Yann Moulier-Boutang. Along with others, Moulier-Boutang would join the Centre International pour des Nouveaux Espaces de Liberté (CINEL), founded three years before by Félix Guattari, and would give refuge to Italian activists accused of terrorism, of whom at least 300 escaped to France. Pierre-Félix Guattari (1930 - 1992) was a French pioneer of institutional psychotherapy, as well as the founder of both Schizoanalysis and the science of Ecosophy. ...


The French autonome mouvement then organised itself in the AGPA (Assemblée Parisienne des Groupes Autonomes, "Parisian Assembly of the Autonome Groups"; 1977-78). Many tendencies were present in it, including the Camarades group led by Yann Moulier-Boutang, members of the Organisation communiste libertaire (OCL - an anarchist-communist group), some people referring themselves to the "Desiring Autonomy" of Bob Nadoulek, but also squatters and street-wise people (including the groupe Marge). French autonomes supported the Rote Armee Fraktion ("Red Army Faction" - RAF) political prisoners, a cause also defended by Jean-Paul Sartre. Red Army Faction Insignia - a Red Star and a Heckler & Koch MP5 The Red Army Faction or RAF (German Rote Armee Fraktion) (in its early stages commonly known as Baader-Meinhof Group [or Gang]), was one of postwar West Germanys most active and prominent militant left-wing groups. ... A political prisoner is anyone held in prison or otherwise detained, perhaps under house arrest, because their ideas or image either challenge or pose a real or potential threat to the state. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ...


The militant group Action Directe appeared in 1979 and carried on several direct actions. Action Directe claimed responsability for the murders of Renault's CEO Georges Besse and General Audran. George Besse had been CEO of nuclear company Eurodif. It was later alleged that the murder of General Audran had in fact been carried on by the Iranian intelligence services. Action Directe was dissolved in 1987. Action Directe can mean: the 1970s and 1980s French guerrilla group Action Directe; the rock climb Action Directe. ... Direct action is a method and a theory of stopping objectionable practices or creating more favorable conditions using immediately available means. ... Renault S.A. is a French vehicle manufacturer producing cars, vans, buses, tractors, and trucks. ... Georges Besse (born December 25, 1927 in Clermont-Ferrand, France, died November 17, 1986) was a French businessman who led several large state-controlled French companies during his lifetime. ... Eurodif, which means European Gaseous Diffusion Uranium Enrichment Consortium, is a subsidiary company of French company Cogéma which exploits a uranium enrichment plant established in the nuclear site of Tricastin in Pierrelatte in Drôme. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In the 1980s, the autonomist movement almost disappeared from Italy because of state repression, and was stronger in Germany than in France. It remained mostly present in Parisians squatts and in some riots (for example in 1980 near the Jussieu campus in Paris, or in 1982 in the Ardennes department during anti-nuclear demonstrations, etc.). In the 1980s, the french autonomists published the reviews CAT Pages (1981-1982), Rebelles (1981-1993), Tout ! (1982-1985), Molotov et Confetti (1984), Les Fossoyeurs du Vieux Monde, La Chôme (1984-1985) and Contre (1987-1989). Political repression is the oppression or persecution of an individual or group for political reasons, particularly for the purpose of restricting or preventing their ability to take part in the political life of society. ... Teamsters, armed with pipes, riot in a clash with riot police in the Minneapolis Teamsters Strike of 1934. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Main entrance Gridiron bars The Jussieu Campus (Campus Universitaire de Jussieu) is a higher education campus located in the 5th arrondissement of Paris, France. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Ardennes is a département in the northeast of France named after the Ardennes area. ... The anti-nuclear movement holds that nuclear power is inherently dangerous and thus ought to be replaced with safe and affordable renewable energy. ... This page concerns the French political movement, for the early 20th Century Brazilian insurgents of the same name, see cangaço. ...


In the 1990s, the French autonomist movement was present in struggles led by unemployed people, with Travailleurs, Chômeurs, et Précaires en colère (TCP, "Angry Workers, Unemployed, and Precarious people") and l'Assemblée générale des chômeurs de Jussieu ("General Assembly of Jussieu's unemployed people"). It was also involved in the alter-globalisation movement and above all in the solidarity with illegal foreigners (Collective Des Papiers pour tous ("Permits for all", 1996) and Collectif Anti-Expulsion (1998-2005)). Several reviews dated from that time : Quilombo (1988-1993), Apache (1990-1998), Tic-Tac (1995-1997), Karoshi (1998-1999), and Tiqqun (1999-2001). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Graffiti calling for a demonstration against the World Economic Forum summit of Davos in 2003 Alter-globalization (or Alter-mondialization from the French altermondialisme) is the name of a social movement which supports the international integration of globalization but advocates that values of democracy, economic justice, environmental protection, and human...


From July 19 to July 28, 2002, a No Border camp was made in Strasbourg to protest against anti-immigration policies, in particular inside the Schengen European space. is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Alsace Department Bas-Rhin (67) Intercommunality Urban Community of Strasbourg Mayor Fabienne Keller  (UMP) City Statistics Land area¹ 78. ...  Implementing countries  Implementing through partnership with a signatory state  Members (not yet implemented)  Expressed interest in joining A monument to the Agreement in Schengen A typical Schengen border crossing without any border control post, just the common EU-state sign welcoming the visitor, as here between Germany and Austria The...


In 2003, conflict opposed autonomists to the French Socialist Party (PS) during a demonstration that had taken place in the frame of the European Social Forum in Saint-Denis (Paris). At the end of December, hundreds of unemployed people helped themselves in the Bon Marché supermarket to be able to celebrate Christmas (an action called "autoréduction" (of prices) in French). French riot police (CRS) physically opposed the unemployed people inside the shop. Autonomes rioted during the spring 2006 protests against the CPE, and again after the 2007 presidential election when right-wing candidate Nicolas Sarkozy was elected. Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste, PS) is one of the largest political parties in France. ... The European Social Forum (ESF) is an annual conference held by members of the alter-globalization movement (also known as the Global Justice Movement). ... Saint Denis can refer to: a Christian saint: see Denis Seine-Saint-Denis a département of France Several communes in France: Saint-Denis,in the Aude département Saint-Denis, in the Gard département Saint-Denis, in the Seine-Saint-Denis département, home of Saint Denis Basilica... Bon Marche, roughly translated as good price, was the name chosen for a Seattle, Washington department store launched in 1890 by the Nordhoff family. ... A CRS officier in normal gear, standing by a Bastille Day parade The Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité (Republican Security Companies, CRS) are the riot control forces and general reserve of the French National Police. ... The protest The 2006 Labour Protests in France occurred throughout France during February, March, and April 2006 as a result of opposition to a measure set to deregulate labour. ... CPE may refer to: Customer-premises equipment, a term used in telecommunications, generally referred to telephones, DSL modems or cable modems, or purchased set-top boxes for use with communication service providers services. ... The 2007 French presidential election, the ninth of the Fifth French Republic was held to elect the successor to Jacques Chirac as president of France for a five-year term. ... Nicolas Sarkozy (IPA: —  ), (born Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa on 28 January 1955 in Paris, France) is the current President of France and ex officio Co-prince of Andorra. ...


The German Autonome movement in the 1970-80s

In Germany, Autonome was used during the late 1970s to depict the most radical part of the political left and supported anarchist and anarcho-communist ideas. These individuals participated in practically all actions of the social movements at the time, especially in demonstrations against nuclear energy plants (Brokdorf 1981, Wackersdorf 1986) and in actions against the construction of airport runways (Frankfurt 1976-1986). The defense of squats against the police such as in Hamburg's Hafenstraße was also a major "task" for the "autonome" movement. The Dutch anarchist Autonomen movement from the 1960s also concentrated on squatting. Anarcho-Communism, or Libertarian Communism, is a political ideology related to Libertarian socialism. ... Nuclear energy is energy released from the atomic nucleus. ... This article is about occupying land without permission. ... Location Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE6 First Mayor Ole von Beust (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  755 km² (292 sq mi) Population 1,754,317 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 2,324 /km² (6,018...


Tactics of the "Autonome" were usually militant, including the construction of barricades or throwing stones or molotov cocktails at the police. During their most powerful times in the early 1980s, on at least one occasion the police had to take flight. Molotov cocktail is the generic name for a variety of crude incendiary weapons. ...


Because of their outfit (heavy black clothing, ski masks, helmets), the "Autonome" were dubbed der schwarze Block by the German media, and in these tactics were similar to modern black blocs. In 1989, laws regarding demonstrations in Germany were changed, prohibiting the use of so-called "passive weaponry" such as helmets or padding and covering your face. A black bloc is an affinity group that comes together during some sort of protest, demonstration, or other event involving class struggle, anti-capitalism, or anti-globalization. ...


Today, the "autonome" scene in Germany is greatly reduced and concentrates mainly on anti-fascist actions, ecology, solidarity with refugees, feminism. There are more militant and bigger groups still in operation, such as in Switzerland or Italy. Anti-Fascism is a belief and practice of opposing all forms of Fascism. ... Feminists redirects here. ...


Influence

The Autonomist Marxist and Autonomen movements provided inspiration to some on the revolutionary left in English speaking countries, particularly among anarchists, many of whom have have adopted autonomist tactics. Some English-speaking anarchists even describe themselves as Autonomists. The Italian operaismo movement also influenced Marxist academics such as Harry Cleaver, John Holloway, Steve Wright, and Nick Dyer-Witheford. In Denmark, the word is used as a catch-all phrase for anarchists and the extraparliamentary extreme left in general, as was seen in the media coverage of the eviction of the Ungdomshuset squat in Copenhagen in March 2007. Harry Cleaver is best known as the author of Reading Capital Politically, an autonomist reading of Karl Marxs Capital. ... John Holloway is a Marxist economist and philosopher, whose work is closely associated with the Zapatista movement in Mexico - his home since 1991. ... Ungdomshuset as seen from the street Ungdomshuset (literally the Youth House) was the attributed name of a building located in Copenhagen on Jagtvej 69, Nørrebro, which functioned as an underground scene venue for music and rendezvous point for varying anarchist and leftist groups from 1982 until 2007. ... Look up squat, squatter, squatting in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Copenhagen (IPA: or ; Danish: IPA: ) is the capital of Denmark and the countrys largest city. ...


References

  1. ^ (French) On the Autonomist movement

Bibliography

  • (French) L’Autonomie. Le mouvement autonome en France et en Italie, éditions Spartacus 1978
  • (French) Autonomes, Jan Bucquoy and Jacques Santi, ANSALDI 1985
  • (French) Action Directe. Du terrorisme français à l’euroterrorisme, Alain Hamon and Jean-Charles Marchand, SEUIL 1986
  • (French) Paroles Directes. Légitimité, révolte et révolution : autour d’Action Directe, Loïc Debray, Jean-Pierre Duteuil, Philippe Godard, Henri Lefebvre, Catherine Régulier, Anne Sveva, Jacques Wajnsztejn, ACRATIE 1990
  • (French) Un Traître chez les totos, Guy Dardel, ACTES SUD 1999 (novel)
  • (French) Bac + 2 + crime : l’affaire Florence Rey, Frédéric Couderc, CASTELLS 1998
  • (French) Italie 77. Le « Mouvement », les intellectuels, Fabrizio Calvi, SEUIL 1977
  • (Italian) Una sparatoria tranquilla. Per una storia orale del '77, ODRADEK 1997
  • (German) Die Autonomen, Thomas Schultze et Almut Gross, KONKRET LITERATUR 1997
  • (German) Autonome in Bewegung, AG Grauwacke aus den ersten 23 Jahren, ASSOCIATION A 2003
  • (English) The Subversion of Politics: European Autonomous Social Movements and the Decolonization of Everyday Life, Georgy Katsiaficas, AK Press, 2006
  • (English) Autonomia: Post-Political Politics, Ed. Sylvere Lotringer & Christian Marazzi. New York: Semiotext(e). 1980.
  • (English) Storming Heaven: Class composition and struggle in Italian Autonomist Marxism, Steve Wright, University of Michigan Press ISBN 0-7453-1607-9

Action Directe was a French left-wing urban guerrilla or terror group which committed a series of assassinations and violent attacks in France in the 1980s. ... Henri Lefebvre (16 June 1901-29 June 1991) was a French Marxist sociologist, intellectual and philosopher. ...

See also

Autonomist Marxism thinkers

Antonio Toni Negri (born August 1, 1933) is an Italian Marxist political philosopher. ... Silvia Federici is described as an Autonomist and Feminist. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Daniel Guérin (May 19, 1904-April 14, 1988) was a French anarchist and author. ...

Other movements or organizations

Autonomedia is one of the main North American publishers of radical theoretical works, especially in the anarchist and ultra-left marxist tradition. ... A black bloc is an affinity group that comes together during some sort of protest, demonstration, or other event involving class struggle, anti-capitalism, or anti-globalization. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Anti-globalization. ... This page concerns the French political movement, for the early 20th Century Brazilian insurgents of the same name, see cangaço. ... The Red & Anarchist Action Network is a loose organization of autonomous individuals and collectives who subscribe to revolutionary anarchist and libertarian (that is, anti-state, anti-leninist) communist ideals. ... Council communism was a radical Left movement originating in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s. ... The Disobbedienti are those who practice Civil and social disobedience, a philosophy growing out of the militant Italian social movement Tute Bianche, which literally means, White Overalls. This philosophy includes the occupation and creation of squatted selfmanaged Social centers, anti-sexist organizing, activism for migration rights and political asylum rights... Tute Bianche was a militant Italian social movement based on the idea of covering ones body with padding so as to resist the blows of police, to push through police lines, and to march together in large blocks for mutual protection during demonstrations. ... The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies) is an international union currently headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. At its peak in 1923 the organization claimed some 100,000 members in good standing, and could marshal the support of perhaps 300,000 workers. ... Libertarian Marxism is a school of Marxism that takes a less authoritarian view of Marxist theory than conventional currents such as Stalinism, Trotskyism, and other forms of Marxism-Leninism, as well as a generally less reformist view than do Social Democrats. ... Organised The Wapping Autonomy Centre, Wapping Wall, London E1: August 1981 - March 1982 Vince Stevenson Charlotte Baggins Martin Wright Dave Couch Ronan Bennett Iris Mills and Fabian Tompsett ... Socialisme ou Barbarie (Socialism or Barbarism) was a French-based radical libertarian socialist group of the post-World War II period (the name comes from a phrase Rosa Luxembourg used in a 1916 essay, The Junius Pamphlet). It existed from 1948 until 1965. ... Cornelius Castoriadis[1] (Greek: Κορνήλιος Καστοριάδης) (March 11, 1922-December 26, 1997) was a Greek-French philosopher, economist and psychoanalyst. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ungdomshuset as seen from the street Ungdomshuset (literally the Youth House) was the attributed name of a building located in Copenhagen on Jagtvej 69, Nørrebro, which functioned as an underground scene venue for music and rendezvous point for varying anarchist and leftist groups from 1982 until 2007. ... Zapatistas can refer to two different political movements in Mexico: During the Mexican Revolution, the Zapatistas were a fighting force based in Morelos, led by Emiliano Zapata. ... It has been suggested that MST (disambiguation) be merged into this article or section. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Italian 1960-80 context

After World War II and the overthrow of Mussolinis fascist regime, Italys history was dominated by the Democrazia Cristiana (DC - Christian-Democrats) party for forty years, while the opposition was led by the Italian Communist Party (PCI); this condition endured until the Tangentopoli scandal and operation Mani pulite... A strategy of tension (Italian: ) is a way to control and manipulate public opinion using fear, propaganda, disinformation, psychological warfare, agents provocateurs, as well as false flag terrorist actions (including bombings). ... Emblem of Gladio, Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind paramilitary organizations. ... Autonomia Operaia was an Italian extra-parliamentary leftist movement particularly active from 1976 to 1978. ... Cesare Battisti (February 4, 1875 – July 12, 1916), Italian-Austrian politician, revolutionary and irredentist. ...

Others

Autonomation describes a feature of machine design to effect the principle of jidoka (自働化) used in the Toyota Production System (TPS) and Lean manufacturing. ... Direct action is a form of political activism which seeks immediate remedy for perceived ills, as opposed to indirect actions such as electing representatives who promise to provide remedy at some later date. ... Precarity is a very recent term used to refer to either intermittent work or, more generally, a confluence of intermittent work and precarious existence. ... Propaganda of the deed (or propaganda by the deed, from the French propagande par le fait) is a concept of anarchist origin, which appeared towards the end of the 19th century, that promoted terrorism against political enemies as a way of inspiring the masses and catalyzing revolution. ... Spontaneism is a tendency exhibited by certain ultra-left political factions, the belief that revolution occurs spontaneously from below and cannot be brought about by the actions of individuals or parties who attempt to foment revolution. ... Kommune 1 or K1 was the first politically-motivated commune in Germany. ...

External links

Archives

  • Libertarian Communist Library Mario Tronti Archive
  • Libertarian Communist Library Sergio Bolognia Archive
  • Libertarian Communist Library Nick Dyer-Witheford Archive
  • Libertarian Communist Library Antonio Negri Archive
  • Libertarian Communist Library Raniero Panzieri Archive
  • Libertarian Communist Library Harry Cleaver Archive
  • [1]

Others


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