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Encyclopedia > Automobile
Karl Benz's "Velo" model (1894) - entered into an early automobile race
Karl Benz's "Velo" model (1894) - entered into an early automobile race
Passenger cars in 2000
World map of passenger cars per 1000 people.

An automobile (via French from Greek auto, self and Latin mobilis moving, a vehicle that moves itself rather than being moved by another vehicle or animal) or motor car (usually shortened to just car) is a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own engine or motor. Most definitions of the term specify that automobiles are designed to run primarily on roads, to have seating for one to eight people, to typically have four wheels, and to be constructed principally for the transport of people rather than goods.[1] However, the term is far from precise because there are many types of vehicles that do similar tasks. Look up car in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1760x1412, 574 KB) Benz Patent-Motorwagen Velo Foto by Softeis, 3/10/2004 at/im http://de. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1760x1412, 574 KB) Benz Patent-Motorwagen Velo Foto by Softeis, 3/10/2004 at/im http://de. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of passenger cars in use in 2000 as a percentage of the top market (USA - 212,706,400). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of passenger cars in use in 2000 as a percentage of the top market (USA - 212,706,400). ... The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) Automobiles are among the most commonly used engine powered vehicles. ... For other uses, see Wheel (disambiguation). ... A passenger is a term broadly used to describe any person who travels in a vehicle, but bears little or no responsibility for the tasks required for that vehicle to arrive at its destination. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Internal combustion engine. ... A motor is a device that converts energy into mechanical power, and is often synonymous with engine. ...


There were 590 million passenger cars worldwide (roughly one car for every eleven people) as of 2002.[2]

Contents

History

Karl Benz
Karl Benz
Replica of the Benz Patent Motorwagen built in 1885
Replica of the Benz Patent Motorwagen built in 1885

Although Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is often credited with building the first self-propelled mechanical vehicle or automobile in about 1769, this claim is disputed by some, who doubt Cugnot's three-wheeler ever ran. Others claim Ferdinand Verbiest, a member of a Jesuit mission in China, built the first steam-powered 'car' around 1672[3][4]. What is not in doubt is that Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive in 1801, the first truly successful steam-powered road vehicle. This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Download high resolution version (1164x1141, 224 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1164x1141, 224 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Vehicles that can be considered automobiles were demonstrated as early as 1769, although that date is disputed, and 1885 marked the introduction of gasoline powered internal combustion engines. ... Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot (26 February 1725 – 2 October 1804) was a French inventor who is claimed by the French government to have built the first self-propelled mechanical vehicle or automobile. ... Father Ferdinand Verbiest (October 9, 1623-January 28, 1688) was a Belgian Jesuit missionary in China. ... The history of the missions of the Jesuits in China in the early modern era stands as one of the notable events in the early history of relations between China and the Western world, as well as a prominent example of relations between two cultures and belief systems in the... Richard Trevithick (born April 13, 1771 in Cornwall - died April 22, 1833 in Kent) was a British inventor, mining engineer and builder of the first working railway steam locomotive. ...


François Isaac de Rivaz, a Swiss inventor, designed the first internal combustion engine, in 1806, which was fuelled by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen and used it to develop the world's first vehicle to run on such an engine. The design was not very successful, as was the case with Samuel Brown, Samuel Morey, and Etienne Lenoir who each produced vehicles powered by clumsy internal combustion engines.[5] François Isaac de Rivaz (Paris, December 19, 1752 – Sion, July 30, 1828) was a Swiss inventor. ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Samuel Brown is an English engineer who developed an internal combustion engine. ... Samuel Morely (October 23, 1762 - April 17, 1843) was an American inventor, who invented an internal combustion engine and was a pioneer in steamships who accumulated a total of 20 patents. ... Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir (1822-1900) was born in Mussy-la-Ville, Belgium, in 1822. ...


In November 1881 French inventor Gustave Trouvé demonstrated a working three-wheeled automobile. This was at the International Exhibition of Electricity in Paris.[6] Gustave Trouvé (1839-1902) was a French electrical engineer of the 19th Century. ...


An automobile powered by an Otto gasoline engine was built in Mannheim, Germany by Karl Benz in 1885 and granted a patent in January of the following year under the auspices of his major company, Benz & Cie. which was founded in 1883. Today Internal combustion engines in cars, trucks, motorcycles, construction machinery and many others, most commonly use a four-stroke cycle. ... Mannheim is a city in Germany. ... Karl Benz Karl Friedrich Benz, for whom an alternate French spelling of Carl is used ocassionaly, (November 25, 1844, Karlsruhe, Germany – April 4, 1929, Ladenburg, Germany) was a German engine designer and automobile engineer, generally regarded as the inventor of the gasoline-powered automobile. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ...


Although several other German engineers (including Gottlieb Daimler, Wilhelm Maybach, and Siegfried Marcus) were working on the problem at about the same time, Karl Benz is generally acknowledged as the inventor of the modern automobile.[5] In 1879 Benz was granted a patent for his first engine, designed in 1878. Many of his other inventions made the use of the internal combustion engine feasible for powering a vehicle and in 1896, Benz designed and patented the first internal combustion flat engine. Gottlieb Daimler Gottlieb Wilhelm Daimler (March 17, 1834 - March 6, 1900) was an engineer, industrial designer and industrialist, born in Schorndorf (Kingdom of Württemberg), in what is now Germany. ... Wilhelm Maybach Wilhelm Maybach (February 9, 1846 – December 29, 1929), was an early German engine designer and industrialist. ... Siegfried Marcus 1831-1898 Siegfried Samuel Marcus (born in Malchin, Mecklenburg, Germany, on 1831-09-18, died in Vienna on 1898-07-01) was a German – Austrian inventor and automobile pioneer of Jewish ancestry. ... For other uses, see Inventor (disambiguation). ... The Boxer engine, first patented by German engineer Karl Benz A flat engine is an internal combustion engine with pistons that are all relatively horizontal. ...


Approximately 25 Benz vehicles were built and sold before 1893, when his first four-wheeler was introduced. They were powered with four-stroke engines of his own design. Emile Roger of France, already producing Benz engines under license, now added the Benz automobile to his line of products. Because France was more open to the early automobiles, more were built and sold in France through Roger than Benz sold in Germany.


Daimler and Maybach founded Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (Daimler Motor Company, DMG) in Cannstatt in 1890 and under the brand name, Daimler, sold their first automobile in 1892. By 1895 about 30 vehicles had been built by Daimler and Maybach, either at the Daimler works or in the Hotel Hermann, where they set up shop after falling out with their backers. Benz and Daimler seem to have been unaware of each other's early work and worked independently. Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft (Daimler Motor Company or DMG) was a German engine and later automobile manufacturer that operated from 1890 until 1926. ... ...


Daimler died in 1900 and later that year, Maybach designed a model named Daimler-Mercedes, special-ordered by Emil Jellinek. Two years later, a new model DMG automobile was produced and named Mercedes after the engine. Maybach quit DMG shortly thereafter and opened a business of his own. Rights to the Daimler brand name were sold to other manufacturers. Emil Jellinek Emil Jellinek, known after 1903 as Emil Jellinek-Mercedes (6 April 1853 – 1 January 1918) was a wealthy European entrepreneur who sat on the board of Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (DMG) between 1900 and 1909. ...


Karl Benz proposed co-operation between DMG and Benz & Cie. when economic conditions began to deteriorate in Germany following the First World War, but the directors of DMG refused to consider it initially. Negotiations between the two companies resumed several years later and in 1924 they signed an Agreement of Mutual Interest valid until the year 2000. Both enterprises standardized design, production, purchasing, sales, and advertising—marketing their automobile models jointly—although keeping their respective brands. On June 28, 1926, Benz & Cie. and DMG finally merged as the Daimler-Benz company, baptizing all of its automobiles Mercedes Benz honoring the most important model of the DMG automobiles, the Maybach design later referred to as the 1902 Mercedes-35hp, along with the Benz name. Karl Benz remained a member of the board of directors of Daimler-Benz until his death in 1929.


In 1890, Emile Levassor and Armand Peugeot of France began producing vehicles with Daimler engines, and so laid the foundation of the motor industry in France. The first American car with a gasoline internal combustion engine supposedly was designed in 1877 by George Selden of Rochester, New York, who applied for a patent on an automobile in 1879. In Britain there had been several attempts to build steam cars with varying degrees of success with Thomas Rickett even attempting a production run in 1860.[7] Santler from Malvern is recognized by the Veteran Car Club of Great Britain as having made the first petrol-powered car in the country in 1894[8] followed by Frederick William Lanchester in 1895 but these were both one-offs.[8] The first production vehicles came from the Daimler Motor Company, founded by Harry J. Lawson in 1896, and making their first cars in 1897.[8] Armand Peugeot (March 26, 1849—January 2, 1915) was an industrialist, pioneer of the automobile industry and the founder of the French firm Peugeot. ... George B. Selden, born September 14, 1846 in Clarkson, New York, died January 17, 1922 in Rochester, New York, was a lawyer and inventor who was granted the first U.S. patent for an automobile. ... This article is about the city of Rochester in Monroe County. ... Thomas Rickett from Buckingham, England, made a steam powered car in 1860. ... The Santler was a British car built in Malvern Link, Worcestershire, England, between 1889 and 1922. ... Frederick William Lanchester (October 23, 1868 - March 8, 1946) was an English polymath and engineer who made important contributions to automotive engineering, aerodynamics and co-invented the field of operations research. ... Logo of Daimler Daimler (pronounced Dame-ler) has, since 1896, been the motor car marque of the former British Daimler Motor Company, based in Coventry. ... Harry John Lawson was a British engineer and motor industry pioneer. ...


In 1892, German engineer Rudolf Diesel got a patent for a "New Rational Combustion Engine". In 1897 he built the first Diesel Engine.[5] In 1895, Selden was granted a United States patent (U.S. Patent 549,160 ) for a two-stroke automobile engine, which hindered more than encouraged development of autos in the United States. Steam, electric, and gasoline powered autos competed for decades, with gasoline internal combustion engines achieving dominance in the 1910s. This article is about Rudolf Diesel, the German inventor. ... Diesel engines in a museum Diesel generator on an oil tanker A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. ... The two-stroke cycle of an internal combustion engine differs from the more common four-stroke cycle by completing the same four processes (intake, compression, power, exhaust) in only two strokes of the piston rather than four. ...


Although various pistonless rotary engine designs have attempted to compete with the conventional piston and crankshaft design, only Mazda's version of the Wankel engine has had more than very limited success. A pistonless rotary engine is an internal combustion engine that does not use pistons in the way a reciprocating engine does, but instead uses one or more rotors, sometimes called rotary pistons. ... For the American composer, see Walter Piston. ... Crankshaft (red), pistons (gray) in their cylinders (blue), and flywheel (black) Continental engine marine crankshafts, 1942 Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... 12A redirects here. ... Wankel Engine in Deutsches Museum Munich, Germany The Wankel rotary engine is a type of internal combustion engine, invented by German engineer Felix Wankel, which uses a rotor instead of reciprocating pistons. ...


Production

The large-scale, production-line manufacturing of affordable automobiles was debuted by Ransom Olds at his Oldsmobile factory in 1902. This concept was then greatly expanded by Henry Ford, beginning in 1914. Image File history File links Olds2. ... Image File history File links Olds2. ... Ransom E. Olds Ransom Eli Olds (June 3, 1864–August 26, 1950) was a pioneer of the American automobile industry, for whom both the Oldsmobile and Reo brands were named. ... A production line is a set of sequential operations established in a factory whereby materials are put through a refining process to produce an end-product that is suitable for onward consumption; or components are assembled to make a finished article. ... Ransom Eli Olds (June 3, 1864–August 26, 1950) was a pioneer of American automobile industry. ... Oldsmobile is a brand of automobile produced for most of its existence by General Motors. ... Henry Ford (1919) Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. ...


As a result, Ford's cars came off the line in fifteen minute intervals, much faster than previous methods, increasing production by seven to one (requiring 12.5 man-hours before, 1 hour 33 minutes after), while using less manpower.[9] It was so successful, paint became a bottleneck. Only Japan black would dry fast enough, forcing the company to drop the variety of colors available before 1914, until fast-drying Duco lacquer was developed in 1926.[10] In 1914, an assembly line worker could buy a Model T with four months' pay.[11] For other uses, see Paint (disambiguation). ... Duco was a trade name assigned to a product line of automotive lacquer developed by the DuPont Company in the 1920s. ... In a general sense, lacquer is a clear or coloured coating, that dries by solvent evaporation only and that produces a hard, durable finish that can be polished to a very high gloss, and gives the illusion of depth. ...

Portrait of Henry Ford (ca. 1919)
Portrait of Henry Ford (ca. 1919)

Ford's complex safety procedures—especially assigning each worker to a specific location instead of allowing them to roam about—dramatically reduced the rate of injury. The combination of high wages and high efficiency is called "Fordism," and was copied by most major industries. The efficiency gains from the assembly line also coincided with the take off of the United States. The assembly line forced workers to work at a certain pace with very repetitive motions which led to more output per worker while other countries were using less productive methods. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Henry Ford (1919) Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. ... Fordism, named after Henry Ford, has different meanings in the United States and Europe. ...


In the automotive industry, its success was dominating, and quickly spread worldwide. Ford France and Ford Britain in 1911, Ford Denmark 1923, Ford Germany 1925; in 1921, Citroen was the first native European manufacturer to adopt it. Soon, companies had to have assembly lines, or risk going broke; by 1930, 250 companies which did not had disappeared.[12] The automotive industry is the industry involved in the design, development, manufacture, marketing, and sale of motor vehicles. ... Citro n is a French automobile manufacturer started in 1919 by Andr Citro n. ...


Development of automotive technology was rapid, due in part to the hundreds of small manufacturers competing to gain the world's attention. Key developments included electric ignition and the electric self-starter (both by Charles Kettering, for the Cadillac Motor Company in 1910-1911), independent suspension, and four-wheel brakes. The ignition system of an internal-combustion engine is an important part of the overall engine system that provides for the timely burning of the fuel mixture within the engine. ... Charles Kettering, on a Time cover, 1933 Charles Franklin Kettering (August 29, 1876 – November 24 or November 25, 1958), also known as Boss Kettering, was born in northern Ohio, USA. He was a farmer, school teacher, mechanic, engineer, scientist, inventor and social philosopher. ... Cadillac is a brand of luxury automobile, part of the General Motors corporation, produced and mostly sold in the USA; outside of North America, they have been less successful. ... The front suspension components of a Ford Model T. Suspension is the term given to the system of springs, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels. ...

Ford Model T, 1927, regarded as the first affordable automobile
Ford Model T, 1927, regarded as the first affordable automobile

Since the 1920s, nearly all cars have been mass-produced to meet market needs, so marketing plans have often heavily influenced automobile design. It was Alfred P. Sloan who established the idea of different makes of cars produced by one company, so buyers could "move up" as their fortunes improved. Image File history File links Picture of non-black 1927 Model T at Greenfield Village, photo by rmhermen File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Picture of non-black 1927 Model T at Greenfield Village, photo by rmhermen File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Ford Model T (colloquially known as the Tin Lizzie and the Flivver) was an automobile produced by Henry Fords Ford Motor Company from 1908 through 1927. ... Cover of Time Magazine (December 27, 1926) Alfred Pritchard Sloan, Jr. ...


Reflecting the rapid pace of change, makes shared parts with one another so larger production volume resulted in lower costs for each price range. For example, in the 1930s, LaSalles, sold by Cadillac, used cheaper mechanical parts made by Oldsmobile; in the 1950s, Chevrolet shared hood, doors, roof, and windows with Pontiac; by the 1990s, corporate drivetrains and shared platforms (with interchangeable brakes, suspension, and other parts) were common. Even so, only major makers could afford high costs, and even companies with decades of production, such as Apperson, Cole, Dorris, Haynes, or Premier, could not manage: of some two hundred carmakers in existence in 1920, only 43 survived in 1930, and with the Great Depression, by 1940, only 17 of those were left.[13] 1936 LaSalle 5019 - see additional photos below For other uses of the name, see the LaSalle/La Salle disambiguation page. ... For other uses, see Cadillac (disambiguation). ... Oldsmobile is a brand of automobile produced for most of its existence by General Motors. ... Chevrolet (IPA: - French origin) (colloquially Chevy) is a brand of automobile, produced by General Motors (GM). ... This article is about Pontiac automobiles; for the Native American leader, see Chief Pontiac, for other uses see the Pontiac (disambiguation). ... Drivetrain is the twelfth studio album by southern rock band . ... An automobile platform is a shared set of components common to a number of different automobiles. ... This article is about the vehicle component. ... 1916 Apperson Jack Rabbit Touring Car The Apperson was a brand of American automobile manufactured from 1902 to 1926 in Kokomo, Indiana. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ...


In Europe, much the same would happen. Morris set up its production line at Cowley in 1924, and soon outsold Ford, while beginning in 1923 to follow Ford's practise of vertical integration, buying Hotchkiss (engines), Wrigley (gearboxes), and Osberton (radiators), for instance, as well as competitors, such as Wolseley: in 1925, Morris had 41% of total British car production. Most British small-car assemblers, from Autocrat to Meteorite to Seabrook, to name only three, had gone under.[14] Citroen did the same in France, coming to cars in 1919; between them and the cheap cars in reply, Renault's 10CV and Peugeot's 5CV, they produced 550000 cars in 1925, and Mors, Hurtu, and others could not compete.[15] Germany's first mass-manufactured car, the Opel 4PS Laubfrosch (Tree Frog), came off the line at Russelsheim in 1924, soon making Opel the top car builder in Germany, with 37.5% of the market.[16] Morris Motor logo, from a UK Royal Mail van 1927 Morris Cowley 1928 Morris Minor Saloon 1946 Morris Ten Series M 1953 Morris Minor Series 2 1971 Morris 1000 Traveller The Morris Motor Company was a former British car manufacturing company. ... Map sources for Cowley at grid reference SP5504 Cowley in Oxfordshire is a residential and industrial area within the city of Oxford, originating with the former villages of Cowley, Temple Cowley and Cowley St John (Also occasionally referred to as Church Cowley). The Cowley area underwent massive transformation from 1912... It has been suggested that Vertical expansion be merged into this article or section. ... Hotchkiss cars were made between 1903 and 1955 by the French company Hotchkiss et Cie in Saint-Denis, Paris. ... The Wolseley Motor Company was an automobile manufacturer in the United Kingdom from 1905. ... An autocrat is generally speaking any ruler with absolute power; the term is now usually used in a negative sense (cf. ... Willamette Meteorite A meteorite is a natural object originating in outer space that survives an impact with the Earths surface without being destroyed. ... Seabrook is the name of several places in the United States of America: Seabrook, Maryland Seabrook, Massachusetts Seabrook, New Hampshire Seabrook Farms, New Jersey Seabrook, Texas It may also refer to the Seabrook Nuclear Power Station in Seabrook, New Hampshire. ... For the author, see Mary Renault. ... Peugeot is a major French car brand, part of PSA Peugeot Citroën. ... Central Automobile Company was a manufacturer of Brass Era automobiles in New York, New York. ... This article is about the European car manufacturer. ... Rüsselsheim is the largest city in the Groß-Gerau district in the Rhein-Main region of Germany. ...

See also: Automotive industry

The automotive industry is the industry involved in the design, development, manufacture, marketing, and sale of motor vehicles. ...

Fuel and propulsion technologies

See also: Alternative fuel vehicle

Most automobiles in use today are propelled by gasoline (also known as petrol) or diesel internal combustion engines, which are known to cause air pollution and are also blamed for contributing to climate change and global warming.[17] Increasing costs of oil-based fuels, tightening environmental laws and restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions are propelling work on alternative power systems for automobiles. Efforts to improve or replace existing technologies include the development of hybrid vehicles, and electric and hydrogen vehicles which do not release pollution into the air. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 2583 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Auto rickshaw Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 2583 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Auto rickshaw Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Passengers and drivers meet at this auto rickshaw stand in Chennai. ... This article is about the capital city of India. ... Typical North America vehicles carry this diamond shape symbol, meaning it is running on compressed natural gas fuel. ... Alternative Fuel Vehicle refers to a vehicle that runs on a fuel other than traditional gasoline or diesel; any method of powering an engine that does not involve petroleum. ... Look up gasoline in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the fuel. ... Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... For other types of hybrid transportation, see Hybrid vehicle (disambiguation). ... For battery powered passenger automobiles, see battery electric vehicle. ... Sequel, a fuel cell-powered vehicle from General Motors Filler neck for hydrogen of a BMW, Museum Autovision, Altlußheim, Germany Tank for liquid hydrogen of Linde, Museum Autovision, Altlußheim, Germany A hydrogen vehicle is a vehicle that uses hydrogen as its on-board fuel for motive power. ...


Diesel

Main article: Diesel engine

Diesel-engined cars have long been popular in Europe with the first models being introduced in the 1930s by Mercedes Benz and Citroen. The main benefit of diesel engines is a 50% fuel burn efficiency compared with 27%[18] in the best gasoline engines. A down-side of the diesel is the presence in the exhaust gases of fine soot particulates and manufacturers are now starting to fit filters to remove these. Many diesel-powered cars can also run with little or no modifications on 100% biodiesel. Diesel engines in a museum Diesel generator on an oil tanker A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. ... Mercedes-Benz Cars is a German brand of automobiles, buses, coaches, and trucks owned by Daimler AG, previously Daimler-Benz (1926–1998). ... Citro n is a French automobile manufacturer started in 1919 by Andr Citro n. ... This article is about transesterified lipids. ...


Gasoline

Main article: Petrol engine

Gasoline engines have the advantage over diesel in being lighter and able to work at higher rotational speeds and they are the usual choice for fitting in high-performance sports cars. Continuous development of gasoline engines for over a hundred years has produced improvements in efficiency and reduced pollution. The carburetor was used on nearly all road car engines until the 1980s but it was long realised better control of the fuel/air mixture could be achieved with fuel injection. Indirect fuel injection was first used in aircraft engines from 1909, in racing car engines from the 1930s, and road cars from the late 1950s.[18] Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) is now starting to appear in production vehicles such as the 2007 BMW MINI. Exhaust gases are also cleaned up by fitting a catalytic converter into the exhaust system. Clean air legislation in many of the car industries most important markets has made both catalysts and fuel injection virtually universal fittings. Most modern gasoline engines are also capable of running with up to 15% ethanol mixed into the gasoline - older vehicles may have seals and hoses that can be harmed by ethanol. With a small amount of redesign, gasoline-powered vehicles can run on ethanol concentrations as high as 85%. 100% ethanol is used in some parts of the world (such as Brazil), but vehicles must be started on pure gasoline and switched over to ethanol once the engine is running. Most gasoline engined cars can also run on LPG with the addition of an LPG tank for fuel storage and carburetion modifications to add an LPG mixer. LPG produces fewer toxic emissions and is a popular fuel for fork lift trucks that have to operate inside buildings. A Petrol engine or Gasoline engine is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition designed to run on petrol (gasoline) and similar volatile fuels. ... Bendix-Technico (Stromberg) 1-barrel downdraft carburetor model BXUV-3, with nomenclature A carburetor (North American spelling) or carburettor (Commonwealth spelling), is a device that blends air and fuel for an internal combustion engine. ... // Fuel injection is a system of fuel delivery for mixture with air in an internal combustion engine. ... Gasoline Direct injection or GDi is a variant of fuel injection employed in modern two- and four- stroke petrol engines. ... MINI is the name of a Cowley, England-based subsidiary of BMW as well as that of a car produced by that subsidiary since April 2001. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Autogas is the common name for liquified petroleum gas when it is used as a fuel in internal combustion engines in vehicles. ... Industrial compressed gas cylinders used for oxy-fuel welding and cutting of steel. ...

The hydrogen powered FCHV (Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle) was developed by Toyota in 2005
The hydrogen powered FCHV (Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle) was developed by Toyota in 2005

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 1389 KB) en: TOYOTA FCHV(Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 1389 KB) en: TOYOTA FCHV(Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle). ... This article is about the automaker. ...

Bioalcohols and biogasoline

Ethanol, other alcohol fuels (biobutanol) and biogasoline have widespread use an automotive fuel. Most alcohols have less energy per liter than gasoline and are usually blended with gasoline. Alcohols are used for a variety of reasons - to increase octane, to improve emissions, and as an alternative to petroleum based fuel, since they can be made from agricultural crops. Brazil's ethanol program provides about 20% of the nations automotive fuel needs, including several million cars that operate on pure ethanol. Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Gasoline on the left, alcohol on the right at a filling station in Brazil Rising energy prices and global warming have led to increased interest in alternative fuels. ... Butanol (butyl alcohol) is a higher alcohol with a 4 carbon atom structure and a general formula of C4H10O. There are 4 different isomeric structures for butanol (refer to box). ... Gasoline on the left, alcohol on the right at a filling station in Brazil Brazil’s 29-year-old ethanol fuel program uses cheap sugar cane, mainly bagasse (cane-waste) for process heat and power, and modern equipment, and provides a ~22% ethanol blend used nationwide, plus 100% hydrous ethanol...


Electric

Main articles: Battery electric vehicle, Hybrid vehicle, and Plug-in hybrid
The Henney Kilowatt, the first modern (transistor-controlled) electric car.
The Henney Kilowatt, the first modern (transistor-controlled) electric car.

The first electric cars were built around 1832, well before internal combustion powered cars appeared.[19] For a period of time electrics were considered superior due to the silent nature of electric motors compared to the very loud noise of the gasoline engine. This advantage was removed with Hiram Percy Maxim's invention of the muffler in 1897. Thereafter internal combustion powered cars had two critical advantages: 1) long range and 2) high specific energy (far lower weight of petrol fuel versus weight of batteries). The building of battery electric vehicles that could rival internal combustion models had to wait for the introduction of modern semiconductor controls and improved batteries. Because they can deliver a high torque at low revolutions electric cars do not require such a complex drive train and transmission as internal combustion powered cars. Some post-2000 electric car designs such as the Venturi Fétish are able to accelerate from 0-60 mph (96 km/h) in 4.0 seconds with a top speed around 130 mph (210 km/h). Others have a range of 250 miles (400 km) on the EPA highway cycle requiring 3-1/2 hours to completely charge[20]. Equivalent fuel efficiency to internal combustion is not well defined but some press reports give it at around 135 mpg–U.S. (1.74 L/100 km / 162.1 mpg–imp). For electric vehicles other than battery powered passenger automobiles, see electric vehicle. ... For other types of hybrid transportation, see Hybrid vehicle (disambiguation). ... Hybrids Plus plug-in hybrid Toyota Prius conversion with PHEV-30 (30 mile or 48 km all-electric range) battery packs A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting a plug to an electric power source. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (889x630, 149 KB) Summary 1960 Henney Kilowatt Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (889x630, 149 KB) Summary 1960 Henney Kilowatt Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 2539 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Automobile Tesla Roadster Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 2539 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Automobile Tesla Roadster Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... The Tesla Roadster is a fully electric sports car, and is the first car produced by electric car firm Tesla Motors. ... The Toyota RAV4 EV was powered by twenty-four 12 volt batteries, with an operational cost equivalent of over 165 miles per gallon at 2005 US gasoline prices. ... Hiram Percy Maxim, Sr. ... This article is about the engine piece. ... For electric vehicles other than battery powered passenger automobiles, see electric vehicle. ... A semiconductor is a solid material that has electrical conductivity in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator; it can vary over that wide range either permanently or dynamically. ... For other senses of this word, see torque (disambiguation). ... The Venturi Fétish is the worlds first production two-seater electric sports car. ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... Kilometre per hour (American spelling: kilometer per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... “Miles” redirects here. ... EPA redirects here. ... Miles per gallon (MPG, or mpg) is a measure of fuel efficiency - the number of miles the car can run on one gallon of fuel. ... Fuel efficiency sometimes means the same as thermal efficiency, that is, the efficiency of converting energy contained in a carrier fuel to kinetic energy or work. ... Imperial MPG are Miles per gallon where the gallon is an imperial unit. ...


Steam

Main article: steam car

Steam power, usually using an oil or gas heated boiler, was also in use until the 1930s but had the major disadvantage of being unable to power the car until boiler pressure was available. It has the advantage of being able to produce very low emissions as the combustion process can be carefully controlled. Its disadvantages include poor heat efficiency and extensive requirements for electric auxiliaries.[21] The 1923 Stanley Steam Car A steam car is a car (automobile) powered by a steam engine. ...


Gas turbine

In the 1950s there was a brief interest in using gas turbine (jet) engines and several makers including Rover and Chrysler produced prototypes. In spite of the power units being very compact, high fuel consumption, severe delay in throttle response, and lack of engine braking meant no cars reached production. This machine has a single-stage centrifugal compressor and turbine, a recuperator, and foil bearings. ... // Rover was a British automobile manufacturer and later a marque based at the former Austin Longbridge plant in Birmingham. ... For other uses, including the Chrysler Brand, see Chrysler (disambiguation). ...


Rotary (Wankel) engines

Rotary Wankel engines were introduced into road cars by NSU with the Ro 80 and later were seen in the Citroën GS Birotor and several Mazda models. In spite of their impressive smoothness, poor reliability and fuel economy led to them largely disappearing. Mazda, beginning with the R100 then RX-2, has continued research on these engines, overcoming most of the earlier problems with the RX-7 and RX-8. Wankel Engine in Deutsches Museum Munich, Germany The Wankel rotary engine is a type of internal combustion engine, invented by German engineer Felix Wankel, which uses a rotor instead of reciprocating pistons. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... NSU Ro 80 The NSU Ro 80 was a technologically advanced large sedan-type automobile produced by the German firm of NSU from 1967 until 1977. ... 1970s GS Service Van The Citroën GS/GSA is a small family car produced by the French automaker Citroën between 1970 and 1986. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Mazda R100 used the chassis from the Familia and the rotary 0820 engine similar to the one used in the Cosmo Sport Series II. It was a 2 door 2+2 coupe and was produced from 1968 to 1973. ... The Mazda RX-2 was a midsize car introduced in 1970 and sold through 1978. ... The Mazda RX-7 (also called the Ẽfini RX-7) is a sports car produced by the Japanese automaker Mazda from 1978 to 2002. ... The Mazda RX-8 is a sports car manufactured by Mazda Motor Corporation. ...


Rocket and jet cars

A rocket car holds the record in drag racing. However, the fastest of those cars are used to set the Land Speed Record, and are propelled by propulsive jets emitted from rocket, turbojet, or more recently and most successfully turbofan engines. The ThrustSSC car using two Rolls-Royce Spey turbofans with reheat was able to exceed the speed of sound at ground level in 1997. A rocket car is a land vehicle powered by a rocket engine. ... Top Fuel dragster Drag racing is a sport in which cars race down a track with a set distance as fast as possible. ... Ralph DePalma in his Packard 905 Special at Daytona Beach in 1919, courtesy Florida Photographic Collection For the album Land Speed Record by the band Hüsker Dü, see Land Speed Record (album). ... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ... Turbojets are the simplest and oldest kind of general purpose jet engines. ... Schematic diagram of high-bypass turbofan engine CFM56-3 turbofan, lower half, side view. ... ThrustSSC at Black Rock Desert, Nevada, USA. The ThrustSSC is built with highly protected aluminium wheels The team with ThrustSSC. ThrustSSC (SuperSonic Car) is a British designed and built jet propelled car developed by Richard Noble and Ron Ayers, which holds the world land speed record. ... The Spey is a low-bypass turbofan engine from Rolls-Royce that has been in widespread service for over 30 years. ... For other uses of afterburner, see Afterburner (disambiguation). ... This page is about the physical speed of sound waves in a medium. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...


Safety

Main articles: Car safety and Automobile accident
Result of a serious automobile accident.
Result of a serious automobile accident.

Road traffic injuries represent about 25% of worldwide injury-related deaths (the leading cause) with an estimated 1.2 million deaths (2004) each year.[22] Car safety is the avoidance of car accidents or the minimization of harmful effects of accidents, in particular as pertaining to human life and health. ... A car accident in Yate, near Bristol, England, in July 2004. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A car accident in Yate, near Bristol, England, in July 2004. ...


Automobile accidents are almost as old as automobiles themselves. Early examples include Mary Ward, who became one of the first documented automobile fatalities in 1869 in Parsonstown, Ireland,[23] and Henry Bliss, one of the United State's first pedestrian automobile casualties in 1899 in New York.[24] A car accident in Yate, near Bristol, England, in July 2004. ... Scientist Mary Ward Mary Ward (b. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... Henry Bliss in 1873 Whilst Mary Ward was one of the first people in the world to be killed in an automobile accident (on August 31, 1869), Henry Hale Bliss (1831?-September 14, 1899) was the first person killed in such an accident in the United States. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... Look up Pedestrian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the United States, the most densely populated major city in North America, and is at the center of international finance, politics, entertainment, and culture. ...


Cars have many basic safety problems - for example, they have human drivers who can make mistakes, wheels that can lose traction when braking, turning or acceleration forces are too high, and mechanical systems subject to failure. Collisions can have very serious or fatal consequences. Some vehicles have a high center of gravity and therefore an increased tendency to roll over. This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ...


Early safety research focused on increasing the reliability of brakes and reducing the flammability of fuel systems. For example, modern engine compartments are open at the bottom so that fuel vapors, which are heavier than air, vent to the open air. Brakes are hydraulic and dual circuit so that a total braking failure is very rare. Systematic research on crash safety started[citation needed] in 1958 at Ford Motor Company. Since then, most research has focused on absorbing external crash energy with crushable panels and reducing the motion of human bodies in the passenger compartment. This is reflected in most cars produced today. “Ford” redirects here. ...

Airbags, a modern component of automobile safety

Significant reductions in death and injury have come from the addition of Safety belts and laws in many countries to require vehicle occupants to wear them. Airbags and specialised child restraint systems have improved on that. Structural changes such as side-impact protection bars in the doors and side panels of the car mitigate the effect of impacts to the side of the vehicle. Many cars now include radar or sonar detectors mounted to the rear of the car to warn the driver if he or she is about to reverse into an obstacle or a pedestrian. Some vehicle manufacturers are producing cars with devices that also measure the proximity to obstacles and other vehicles in front of the car and are using these to apply the brakes when a collision is inevitable. There have also been limited efforts to use heads up displays and thermal imaging technologies similar to those used in military aircraft to provide the driver with a better view of the road at night. Image File history File links Airbag_system. ... Image File history File links Airbag_system. ... An airbag is a flexible membrane or envelope, inflatable to contain air or some other gas. ... Passive safety redirects here. ... A three-point seat belt. ... An airbag is a flexible membrane or envelope, inflatable to contain air or some other gas. ... For other meanings of Hud, see this article A Rafale fighter of the FS Charles de Gaulle, seen through the HUD of another Rafale. ... Thermography can refer to a printing process and a imaging process. ...


There are standard tests for safety in new automobiles, like the EuroNCAP and the US NCAP tests.[25] There are also tests run by organizations such as IIHS and backed by the insurance industry.[26] EuroNCAP, the European New Car Assessment Programme, is a safety assessment programme for automobiles supported by several European governments, many major manufacturers and motoring organisations across the world. ... The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety is a U.S. non-profit organization funded by auto insurers. ...


Despite technological advances, there is still significant loss of life from car accidents: About 40,000 people die every year in the United States, with similar figures in European nations. This figure increases annually in step with rising population and increasing travel if no measures are taken, but the rate per capita and per mile traveled decreases steadily. The death toll is expected to nearly double worldwide by 2020. A much higher number of accidents result in injury or permanent disability. The highest accident figures are reported in China and India. The European Union has a rigid program to cut the death toll in half by 2010, and member states have started implementing measures. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Look up disability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Automated control has been seriously proposed and successfully prototyped. Shoulder-belted passengers could tolerate a 32 g emergency stop (reducing the safe inter-vehicle gap 64-fold) if high-speed roads incorporated a steel rail for emergency braking. Both safety modifications of the roadway are thought to be too expensive by most funding authorities, although these modifications could dramatically increase the number of vehicles able to safely use a high-speed highway. This makes clear the often-ignored fact road design and traffic control also play a part in car wrecks; unclear traffic signs, inadequate signal light placing, and poor planning (curved bridge approaches which become icy in winter, for example), also contribute. An automated highway system (AHS) or Smart Roads, is an advanced Intelligent transportation system technology designed to provide for driverless cars on specific rights-of-way. ... The term g force or gee force refers to the symbol g, the force of acceleration due to gravity at the earths surface. ... For other uses, see Highway (disambiguation). ... Road traffic control involves directing vehicular and pedestrian traffic around a construction zone, accident or other road disruption, thus ensuring the safety of emergency response teams, construction workers and the general public. ...


Economics and impacts

Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ...

Cost and benefits of ownership

The costs of automobile ownership, which may include the cost of: acquiring the vehicle, repairs, maintenance, fuel, depreciation, parking fees, tire replacement, taxes and insurance,[27] are weighed against the cost of the alternatives, and the value of the benefits - perceived and real - of vehicle ownership. The benefits may include personal freedom, mobility, independence and convenience.[28] One of the costs of vehicle ownership. ... Repair and Maintenance is fixing any sort of mechanical or electrical device should it get out of order or broken (repair) as well as performing the routine actions which keep the device in working order (maintenance) or prevent trouble from arising (preventive maintenance). ... A vehicle breakdown is a mechanical failure. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... Declining-balance depreciation of a $50,000 asset with $6,500 salvage value over 20 years. ... Underground parking garage at the University of Minnesota. ... Firestone tire This article is about pneumatic tires. ... “Taxes” redirects here. ... Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ...


Cost and benefits to society

Similarly the costs to society of encompassing automobile use, which may include those of: maintaining roads, land use, pollution, public health, health care, and of disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life, can be balanced against the value of the benefits to society that automobile use generates. The societal benefits may include: economy benefits, such as job and wealth creation, of automobile production and maintenance, transportation provision, society wellbeing derived from leisure and travel opportunities, and revenue generation from the tax opportunities. The ability for humans to move flexibly from place to place has far reaching implications for the nature of societies. [29] Urban land use is often dominated by automobile usage. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Land use is the pattern of construction and activity land is used for. ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... Public health is the study and practice of addressing threats to the health of a community. ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ...


Impacts on society and environment

Further information: Global warming

Transportation is a major contributor to air pollution in most industrialised nations. According to the American Surface Transportation Policy Project nearly half of all Americans are breathing unhealthy air. Their study showed air quality in dozens of metropolitan areas has got worse over the last decade.[30] In the United States the average passenger car emits 11,450 lbs (5 tonnes) of carbon dioxide, along with smaller amounts of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen.[31] Residents of low-density, residential-only sprawling communities are also more likely to die in car collisions, which kill 1.2 million people worldwide each year, and injure about forty times this number.[32] Sprawl is more broadly a factor in inactivity and obesity, which in turn can lead to increased risk of a variety of diseases.[33] Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. ... This article is about the metric tonne. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


Improving the positive and reducing the negative impacts

Fuel taxes may act as an incentive for the production of more efficient, hence less polluting, car designs (e.g. hybrid vehicles) and the development of alternative fuels. High fuel taxes may provide a strong incentive for consumers to purchase lighter, smaller, more fuel-efficient cars, or to not drive. On average, today's automobiles are about 75 percent recyclable, and using recycled steel helps reduce energy use and pollution.[34] In the United States Congress, federally mandated fuel efficiency standards have been debated regularly, passenger car standards have not risen above the 27.5 mpg–U.S. (8.55 L/100 km / 33 mpg–imp) standard set in 1985. Light truck standards have changed more frequently, and were set at 22.2 mpg–U.S. (10.6 L/100 km / 26.7 mpg–imp) in 2007.[35] Alternative fuel vehicles are another option that is less polluting than conventional petroleum powered vehicles. Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        A fuel tax (also known as a petrol tax, gasoline tax... See: Hybrid Vehicle ... The definition of alternative fuel varies according to the context of its usage. ... Alternative fuel refers to methods of powering an engine that do not involve petroleum (oil). ... It has been suggested that Pollutant be merged into this article or section. ... Petro redirects here. ...


Future car technologies

Automobile propulsion technology under development include gasoline/electric and plug-in hybrids, battery electric vehicles, hydrogen cars, biofuels, and various alternative fuels. Future car technologies include new energy sources and materials, which are being developed in order to make automobiles more sustainable, safer, more energy efficient, or less polluting. ... Honda Insight, a hybrid gas-electric vehicle 2004 Toyota Prius, a hybrid gas-electric vehicle A hybrid vehicle uses multiple energy sources or propulsion systems to provide motive power. ... Hybrids Plus plug-in hybrid Toyota Prius conversion with PHEV-30 (30 mile or 48 km all-electric range) battery packs A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting a plug to an electric power source. ... For electric vehicles other than battery powered passenger automobiles, see electric vehicle. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Hydrogen vehicle. ... For articles on specific fuels used in vehicles, see Biogas, Bioethanol, Biobutanol, Biodiesel, and Straight vegetable oil. ... The definition of alternative fuel varies according to the context of its usage. ...


Research into future alternative forms of power include the development of fuel cells, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), stirling engines[36], and even using the stored energy of compressed air or liquid nitrogen. A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition, or HCCI, is a form of internal combustion in which well mixed fuel and oxidizer (typically air) are compressed to the point of auto-ignition. ... Cut away diagram of a Rhombic Drive Beta Stirling Engine Design Pink - Hot cylinder wall Dark Grey - Cold cylinder wall (with coolant inlet and outlet pipes in Yellow) Dark Green - Thermal insulation separating the two cylinder ends Light Green - Displacer piston Dark Blue - Power piston Light Blue - Flywheels Not Shown... A liquid nitrogen (LN2) economy is a hypothetical proposal for a future economy in which the primary form of energy storage and transport is liquid nitrogen. ...


New materials which may replace steel car bodies include duraluminum, fiberglass, carbon fiber, and carbon nanotubes. Duralumin (or duraluminum) is an alloy of aluminium (about 95%), copper (about 4%), and small amounts of magnesium (0. ... Bundle of fiberglass Fiberglass (also called fibreglass and glass fibre) is material made from extremely fine fibers of glass. ... Carbon fiber composite is a strong, light and very expensive material. ... 3D model of three types of single-walled carbon nanotubes. ...


Telematics technology is allowing more and more people to share cars, on a pay-as-you-go basis, through such schemes as City Car Club in the UK, Mobility in mainland Europe, and Zipcar in the US. The term telematics is used in a number of ways: The integrated use of telecommunications and informatics, also known as ICT (Information and Communications Technology). ... City Car Club is the leading carshare operator in the UK. Established in 2000 and with over 350 vehicles[1], it is the oldest and largest Car Club in the country. ... City Car Club is the leading carshare operator in the UK. Established in 2000 and with over 350 vehicles[1], it is the oldest and largest Car Club in the country. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Mobility CarSharing [1] is a swiss carsharing cooperative, operated nationwide in Switzerland with approximately 1850 cars in 1000 locations (as of 2006). ... Continental Europe refers to the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and peninsulae. ... Zipcar is a for-profit, membership-based carsharing company providing automobile rental to its members, billable by the hour or day. ...


Alternatives to the automobile

Established alternatives for some aspects of automobile use include public transit (buses, trolleybuses, trains, subways, monorails, tramways), cycling, walking, rollerblading and skateboarding. Car-share arrangements are also increasingly popular–the U.S. market leader has experienced double-digit growth in revenue and membership growth between 2006 and 2007, offering a service that enables urban residents to "share" a vehicle rather than own a car in already congested neighborhoods.[37] Bike-share systems have been tried in some European cities, including Copenhagen and Amsterdam. Similar programs have been experimented with in a number of U.S. Cities.[38] Additional individual modes of transport, such as personal rapid transit could serve as an alternative to automobiles if they prove to be socially accepted.[39] Established alternatives for some aspects of automobile use include public transit (buses, trolleybuses, trains, subways, monorails, tramways), cycling, walking, rollerblading and skateboarding. ... A taxi serving as a bus Public transport comprises all transport systems in which the passengers do not travel in their own vehicles. ... Autobus redirects here. ... A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram or simply trolley) is an electric bus powered by two overhead wires, from which it draws electricity using two trolley poles. ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ... “Mass Transit” redirects here. ... The KL Monorail in Kuala Lumpur, a colorful straddle-beam monorail A monorail is a single rail serving as a track for a wheeled vehicle; also, a vehicle traveling on such a track. ... A tram system, tramway, or street railway is a railway on which trams (streetcars, trolleys) run. ... Police officer on a bicycle Cycling is a means of transport, a form of recreation and a sport. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Roller skating girl in Rome, Italy (soul grind) Roller skating is travelling on smooth terrain with roller skates. ... Skateboarders Skateboarding is the act of riding on and performing tricks with a skateboard. ... Carsharing is a system where a fleet of cars (or other vehicles) is owned and operated/overseen by a company, public agency, cooperative, ad hoc grouping, or even a single individual, and made available for use by members of the carshare group in a wide variety of ways. ... White bicycles for free use, in Hoge Veluwe national park, the Netherlands Community bicycle programs (also known as Yellow bicycle programs or White bicycle programs) are one variation on an international movement to provide environmentally friendly transportation options to citizens. ... Personal rapid transit (PRT), also called personal automated transport (PAT) or podcar is a public transportation concept that offers automated on-demand non-stop transportation, on a network of specially-built guideways. ...


See also

Cars can come in a large variety of different body styles. ... Car classification is subjective since many vehicles fall into multiple categories. ... 2 plus 2 (2+2) The term 2 plus 2 (or 2+2) is a semi-slang phrase used to describe a car with seating for two passengers up front, plus two for occasional passengers in the rear. ... An antique car is generally defined as a car over 25 years of age, this being the definition used by the Antique Automobile Club of America and many other organisations worldwide. ... A Citroën 2CV with the roof up. ... A cabriolet was a light, two-wheeled horse-drawn carriage with a folding calash top, seating two persons facing forwards, one of whom was the driver. ... The Fiat Panda, a 1980s city car A current model Toyota Aygo city car A city car (or urban car) is a small, moderately powered automobile intended for use in urban areas. ... Ford Model A Four-door 1948 Buick Eight convertible 1959 Chevrolet Impala A yank tank or maquina in Havana, Cuba Another yank tank in Havana 1967 Ford Mustang Coupe Classic car is a term frequently used to describe an older car, but the exact meaning is subject to differences in... The Rambler American introduced in the late 1950s was an early compact car. ... Alfa Romeo 159, a compact executive car mainly sold in Europe Infiniti G35, an entry-level luxury car for sale in North America and Japan Compact executive car (British English, Mittelklasse in German) or entry-level luxury car (American English) is a car classification which respectively describes large family cars... Renault Mégane Scénic, the first car to be marketed as a compact MPV Opel Zafira, a seven-seater compact MPV A compact MPV is a car classification used in Europe to describe multi-purpose vehicle versions of small family cars (sometimes also referred to as compact cars), fitting... Subaru Forester, one of the first vehicles to be named a compact SUV Suzuki Grand Vitara, a modern compact SUV Compact SUV is a class of small sport utility vehicles with a length between 4. ... Saab 900 Convertible 1962 Rambler American 1981 AMC Eagle 4-WD convertible Convertible can also refer to a convertible security A convertible (sometimes called cabriolet in British English) is a car body style with a folding or retracting roof (aka soft top or top in USA, hood in UK). ... The Peugeot 406 Coupé, designed by Pininfarina 1990 Mercedes-Benz 560SEC coupé, noted for its large, angular design 1997 Rover Vitesse Coupe, club coupé Rover P5 Coupe, a traditional four-door coupé Mercedes CLS, a modern four-door coupé Gala-Coupé of Leopold II, Brussels 1970s Sunbeam Alpine fastback coup... The coupé convertible (in French coupé cabriolet) or retractable hardtop (more common US usage) is an evolution of car body style that involves the flexibility of a mobile roof (from the convertible) and of the rigid roof of a coupé. In the first years of the 2000s, car manufacturers started... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pickup. ... A crossover SUV (also called CUV for Crossover Utility Vehicle) or XUV (not to be confused with GMCs Envoy XUV) is an automobile with a sport utility vehicle appearance but is built upon a more economical and fuel-efficient unibody construction. ... A custom 1974 Ford Taunus 2000 GXL. The car has had a roof chop, been shaved of all trim, with vents cut into the rear quarter panels and an all steel body kit moulded into the body. ... Saab 900 Convertible Convertible can also refer to a convertible (security) A convertible is an automobile with a folding or retracting roof. ... Executive car is a British term used generally to describe an automobile larger than a large family car, but which is not a high-end or ultra luxury car, a multi-purpose vehicle or a sport utility vehicle. ... This 1968 Ford Mustang has a fastback body style. ... 2001 BMW 750iL The Ford Falcon, a popular Australian full-size car A full-size car is a marketing term used in North America for an automobile larger than a mid-size car. ... A grand tourer (Italian: Gran Turismo), (initialised GT), is a high-performance automobile designed for long-distance driving. ... A hardtop is a term for a rigid, rather than canvas, automobile roof. ... Renault Megane hatchback, a proper hatchback which has shown huge success in Europe Peugeot 306 hatchback, with the hatch lifted and the parcel shelf tilted for access Hatchback is a term designating an automobile design, containing a passenger cabin with an integrated cargo space, accessed from behind the vehicle by... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Sport compact. ... T-Bucket hot rod Hot rods are older, often historical, cars. ... A Ford Mondeo, a large family car. ... A leisure activity vehicle is a small van, generally related to a supermini, with a second or even a third seat row, and a large, tall boot. ... A fastback liftback - Ford Mondeo Despite its three-box silhouette, the Daihatsu Applause is a notchback liftback A liftback is a car body style in which the cargo space (trunk or boot) is accessed through a tailgate that extends up to the higher end of the C-pillar and includes... For the song from the band: Brand New, see Limousine (MS Rebridge). ... A luxury car is a relatively expensive car. ... This article is about a category of small automobile. ... A mid-size car, frequently referred to as an intermediate, is an automobile with a size between that of a compact and a full-size or standard-size car. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Minivan. ... Mini SUV is a class of small sport utility vehicles which are more or less under 4,15 m long. ... It has been suggested that Mini MPV be merged into this article or section. ... An MPV or multi-purpose vehicle is a passenger-carrying vehicle based on a car platform, and is generally a one box design—neither a distinct bonnet (US: hood) nor boot (US: trunk), but rather a maximised interior space. ... The Pontiac GTO is a classic example of the muscle car. ... Notchback is a form of automobile body that is characterized by a sharp vertical drop-off from roof to trunk, as opposed to hatchback or fastback. ... An Australian Ford panel van, based on a 1990 Ford Falcon. ... Ford Thunderbird A personal luxury car is a highly styled, luxurious automobile intended for the comfort and satisfaction of its owner/driver, sacrificing passenger space, cargo capacity, and other practical concerns for the sake of style. ... The best selling North American pickup truck, the Ford F-Series. ... 2003 Mercedes-Benz SL 500 A Retractable Hardtop (also known as a coupé convertible and coupé cabriolet) refers to a car with a movable roof for a convertible that is made of plastic, metal or glass. ... 1950 Jaguar XK120 Roadster This article is about the car body style. ... A notchback full-size luxury sedan. ... A notchback full-size luxury sedan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Hot hatch. ... 1963 Jaguar E-Type, a classic sports car 1963 Chevrolet Corvette was based upon European sports cars A sports car is an automobile designed for performance driving. ... A fourth-generation (2006-) Ford Explorer, the best-selling mid-size SUV in the United States. ... Spyder or Spider is a term for a convertible car body style. ... Estate car body style (Saab 95) A station wagon (United States usage), wagon (Australian usage, though station wagon is widely used) or estate car (United Kingdom usage) is a car body style similar to a sedan car but with an extended rear cargo area. ... Estate car body style (Saab 95) A station wagon (United States usage), wagon (Australian usage, though station wagon is widely used) or estate car (United Kingdom usage) is a car body style similar to a sedan car but with an extended rear cargo area. ... For other uses, see Supercar (disambiguation). ... 1996 Volkswagen Polo, a popular modern European supermini A supermini is a European hatchback car category. ... Targa top body style on a Porsche 914 Targa top, targa for short, is a semi-convertible car body style with a removable roof section and a full width roll bar behind the seats. ... For specific countries see Taxicabs around the world. ... Horatio Nelson Jackson in his 2-seat Winton touring car, The Vermont, drives across America A touring car was a popular car body style in the early 20th century, being a larger alternative to the runabout. ... ... Open sunroof in a Peugeot 206. ... Heavy Tow truck A tow truck (also called a wrecker, a breakdown truck or a breakdown lorry), is a vehicle used to take disabled motor vehicles off a roadway to another location in case of breakdown or collision, or to impound illegally parked vehicles on public or (more commonly) private... The best selling North American pickup truck, the Ford F-Series. ... This article is about the road vehicle. ... Voiturettes are small three-wheeled cars produced in France, most notably in the years following World War II. Categories: Stub | Automobiles ... An amphibious vehicle is a vehicle or craft, that is a means of transport, viable on land as well as on water - just like an amphibian. ... The driverless car is an emerging family of technologies, ultimately aimed at a full taxi-like experience for car users, but without a driver. ... A gyrocar is a two-wheeled automobile. ... For the Kevin Smith film, see The Flying Car. ... Vehicle propulsion refers to the act of moving an artificial carrier of people or goods over a distance. ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... For battery powered passenger automobiles, see battery electric vehicle. ... A Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) is an American term for a speed limited battery electric vehicle (usually 25 miles per hour in the U.S.A.) restricted by law to operation on roads with speed limits not exceeding 35 MPH. Often such vehicles are not built from scratch but instead... For other types of hybrid transportation, see Hybrid vehicle (disambiguation). ... For electric vehicles other than battery powered passenger automobiles, see electric vehicle. ... Sequel, a fuel cell-powered vehicle from General Motors Filler neck for hydrogen of a BMW, Museum Autovision, Altlußheim, Germany Tank for liquid hydrogen of Linde, Museum Autovision, Altlußheim, Germany A hydrogen vehicle is a vehicle that uses hydrogen as its on-board fuel for motive power. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... The number of US survey respondents willing to pay $4,000 more for a plug-in hybrid car increased from 17% in 2005 to 26% in 2006. ... The 1923 Stanley Steam Car A steam car is a car (automobile) powered by a steam engine. ... Alternative Fuel Cars refers to cars that run on Alternative fuel; any method of powering an engine that does not involve petroleum. ... This article is about transesterified lipids. ... E10 or E-10 may refer to multiple things, including: The Northrop Grumman E-10 MC2A military aircraft based on the Boeing 767-400ER airframe E10 fuel, a common gasohol mixture of 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline The European route E10 E10 is the ESRB symbol for Everyone 10+ This... Logo used in the United States for E85 fuel Not to be confused with European route E85, a motorway in Europe. ... Autogas is the common name for liquified petroleum gas when it is used as a fuel in internal combustion engines in vehicles. ... Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition, or HCCI, is a form of internal combustion in which well mixed fuel and oxidizer (typically air) are compressed to the point of auto-ignition. ... A liquid nitrogen (LN2) economy is a hypothetical proposal for a future economy in which the primary form of energy storage and transport is liquid nitrogen. ... Gasoline Direct injection or GDi is a variant of fuel injection employed in modern two- and four- stroke petrol engines. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Drive wheel. ... Two wheel drive or 2WD are terms used to describe vehicles with a drivetrain that allows two wheels to receive power from the engine simultaneously. ... This article is about the class of vehicles. ... Front-wheel drive is the most common form of engine/transmission layout used in modern passenger cars, where the engine drives the front wheels. ... Rear-wheel drive (or RWD for short) is a common engine/transmission layout used in automobiles. ... Four wheel drive or 4x4, is a type of four wheeled vehicle drivetrain configuration that enables all four wheels to receive power from the engine simultaneously in order to provide maximum traction. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Automobile layout. ... In Automobile design, an FF, or Front-engine, Front wheel drive, layout places both the engine and drive wheels at the front of the vehicle. ... In Automobile design, an RR, or Rear-engine, Rear wheel drive, layout places both the engine and drive wheels at the rear of the vehicle. ... In Automobile design, an MR or Mid-engine, Rear wheel drive layout drives the rear wheels with an engine placed just in front of them, behind the passenger compartment. ... In automobile design layout is the place where both the engine and driven wheels are. ... Sketch of FF layout In automotive design, a FF, or Front-engine, Front-wheel drive layout places both the engine and driven wheels at the front of the vehicle. ... Sketch of FR layout In automobile design, an FR, or front-engine, rear wheel drive means a layout where the engine is in the front of the vehicle and drive wheels at the rear. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Mid-engine design . ... In automobile design, an MF or Mid-engine, Front wheel drive layout is one in which the front wheels are driven by an engine placed just behind them, in front of the passenger compartment. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Engine configuration is an engineering term for the layout of the major components of an internal combustion engine. ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... The Boxer engine, first patented by German engineer Karl Benz A flat engine is an internal combustion engine with pistons that are all relatively horizontal. ... Ford flathead V8 engine, modified for power, depicted on cover of Hot Rod magazine. ... Today Internal combustion engines in cars, trucks, motorcycles, construction machinery and many others, most commonly use a four-stroke cycle. ... An H engine (or H-block) is an engine configuration in which the cylinders are aligned so that if viewed from the front appear to be in a horizontal letter H. An H engine can be viewed as two flat engines, one atop the other. ... An inline engine is an internal-combustion engine with cylinders aligned in one or several rows. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Cam-in-block. ... Internal combustion piston engine Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, internal combustion piston engine. ... Four-stroke cycle (or Otto cycle) A single cylinder engine, colloquially known as a one-lunger or thumper, is an engine configuration consisting of just one cylinder, the simplest arrangement possible for an Otto or Diesel engine. ... Usually found in 4 and 6 cylinder configurations, the straight engine (often designed as inline engine) is an internal-combustion engine with all cylinders aligned in one row, with no or only minimal offset. ... The straight-6 (also inline 6, I-6, or I6) is an internal combustion engine with six cylinders aligned in a single row. ... The two-stroke cycle of an internal combustion engine differs from the more common four-stroke cycle by completing the same four processes (intake, compression, power, exhaust) in only two strokes of the piston rather than four. ... A V engine is a common configuration for an internal combustion engine. ... The W engine is an engine configuration in which the cylinder banks resemble the letter W in the same way a V engine resembles the letter V. There have been three entirely different implementations of this concept: one with three banks of cylinders, one with four and one with two... Wankel Engine in Deutsches Museum Munich, Germany The Wankel rotary engine is a type of internal combustion engine, invented by German engineer Felix Wankel, which uses a rotor instead of reciprocating pistons. ... Diesel engines in a museum Diesel generator on an oil tanker A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. ... The Toyota RAV4 EV was powered by twenty-four 12 volt batteries, with an operational cost equivalent of over 165 miles per gallon at 2005 US gasoline prices. ... Gasoline engine (also referred to as petrol engine or Otto engine) invented at the end of the 19th century by German engineer Nikolaus Otto is a type of internal combustion engine which is often used for automobiles, aircraft, small mobile vehicles such as lawnmowers or motorcycles, and outboard motors for... For other types of hybrid transportation, see Hybrid vehicle (disambiguation). ... Sequel, a fuel cell-powered vehicle from General Motors Filler neck for hydrogen of a BMW, Museum Autovision, Altlußheim, Germany Tank for liquid hydrogen of Linde, Museum Autovision, Altlußheim, Germany A hydrogen vehicle is a vehicle that uses hydrogen as its on-board fuel for motive power. ... The 1923 Stanley Steam Car A steam car is a car (automobile) powered by a steam engine. ... Designers at work in 1961. ... The body of a motor vehicle which is built around a chassis, rather than being of monocoque construction. ... Look up Chassis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Body-on-frame is an automobile construction technology. ... The bumper of a BMW M5, highlighted in red A bumper is a part of an automobile designed to allow one vehicle to impact with another and to withstand that collision without severe damage to the vehicles frame. ... A Citroën 2CV with the roof up. ... Look up Chassis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1956 Nash four-door sedan with factory color matched Continental tire. ... Mercedes-Benz Fintail, an early example of a car with crumple zones The crumple zone on the front of these cars absorbed the impact of a head-on collision Activated rear crumple zone The crumple zone of a vehicle such as a train or an automobile is a structural feature... 1958 promotional image of the Cadillac Eldorado Brougham also illustrates its bumper/grille design, also known as Dagmar bumpers Television personality Dagmar in one of her famous low cut gowns Dagmar bumpers, also known simply as Dagmars (D-HAG-mar) is a slang term for the artillery shell shaped styling... The decklid (or deck lid) is the cover over the trunk/boot of motor vehicles that allows access to the main storage or luggage compartment. ... Choppers often have stylized fenders Fender is the US English term for the part of an automobile, motorcycle or other vehicle body that frames a wheel well. ... 1962 Cadillac Series 62 with rear wheels covered by detachable Fender Skirts 1986 Citroën CX Fender skirts are pieces of bodywork that cover the upper portions of the rear tires of an automobile. ... BMWs distinctive kidney-shaped grille on an E34 M5 Audis single frame grille, here on a second generation TT Grille is also the name of a German self-propelled artillery vehicle. ... This article is about a part of a vehicle. ... A hood scoop is an air vent on a car hood which usually sends air over an intercooler. ... Monocoque (French for single shell) is a construction technique that uses the external skin of an object to support some or most of the load on the structure. ... An SUV with four pillars A pillarless hardtop vehicle, considered to have two total pillars A stretch limo with five pillars An A pillar is a name applied by car stylists and enthusiasts to the shaft of material that supports the windshield (windscreen) on either of the windshield frame sides. ... Pontoon fenders are a type of fender for an automobile. ... On an automobile, a quarter panel is a body panel that covers the section between the door and the hood (for the front quarter panels), or the door and the trunk (for the rear quarter panels). ... A shaker scoop (sometimes, inaccurately, called a shaker hood scoop or a shaker hood) is an automobile term for an air intake scoop for combustion air that is mounted directly on top of the engines air cleaner and protrudes through a hole in the hood. ... This Ford F-150 pickup truck has two spoilers one on the roof and another on the tailgate. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sub frame. ... 1903 Ford Model A rear-door Tonneau Tonneau is an archaic term for an open rear passenger compartment on an automobile and, by extension, a body style incorporating such a compartment. ... This 1931 Ford Model A features a separate trunk on its rear trunk rack. ... This article is about a part of a vehicle. ... A car door is generally an opening to enter to the car (or their compartments or partition), often equipped with a hinged or sliding panel which can be moved to leave the opening accessible, or to close it more or less securely. ... 1996 McLaren F1 with butterfly doors Butterfly doors, also called vertical doors or dihedral doors, are a type of door often seen on high-performance automobiles. ... A De Lorean DMC-12 with its doors open A Bricklin SV-1 with its doors open The term gull-wing door is used to describe automobile doors which are hinged at the roof. ... Scissor doors, also called Jackknife doors, are automobile doors that rotate up and forward on a hinge near the front of the door. ... Rear suicide door on a 1967 Ford Thunderbird Front suicide door on a Fiat Multipla 600 Lloyd LT 600 van with front suicide door Suicide doors are automobile doors that are hinged on the trailing edge; the edge closer to the rear of the vehicle. ... Power windows or electric windows are automobile windows which can be raised and lowered by depressing a button or switch, as opposed to using a hand-turned crank handle. ... The greenhouse (or glasshouse) of a car comprises the windscreen, rear and side windows, the more or less vertical pillars separating them (designated A-pillar, B-pillar and so on, starting from the cars front), and the cars roof. ... Open sunroof in a Peugeot 206. ... Sun visor inside a 1993 Jeep Grand Cherokee. ... Panoramic (wrap-around) windshield on a 1959 Edsel Corsair. ... windscreen wiper on a parked car. ... Windshield washer fluid being poured into a vehicle Windshield washer fluid is a fluid for motor vehicles that is used in cleaning the windshield while the vehicle is being driven. ... Curb feeler mounted behind the front wheel of a 1950s Rambler American. ... Bumper stickers are often used on commercial vehicles so that employers can receive feedback about the driving habits of their employees A bumper sticker is an adhesive label or sticker with a message, intended to be attached to the bumper of an automobile and to be read by the occupants... A hood ornament is the name given to a specially crafted model of something which symbolises a car company like a badge. ... Japan Black is the name of a lacquer used extensively in the production of automobiles in the early 20th century in the United States. ... A monsoonshield is mounted above the doors of some automobiles, to protect the inside of the car from rain or other precipitation in case of slightly opened windows. ... A 2002 Ford Explorer Sport Trac with black nerf bars A nerf bar is a tubular device fitted to the side of a Pickup truck or a Sport utility vehicle to act as a step to ease entry and exit from the vehicle. ... Firestone tire This article is about pneumatic tires. ... The various pieces of a tow hitch (also known as a tow bar) are as follows (as seen on cars and non-industrial trucks). ... A Truck Accessory is an aftermarket part that is used to enhance the style or function of the original OEM pickup truck. ... Exterior equipment of a vehicle consist of the automotive lighting, distance sensor, vanity plates, vehicle registration plate, windscreen wiper and windshield washer fluid. ... Blinker redirects here. ... Daytime Running Lamps (DRL, also Daylight Running Lamps, Daytime Running Lights) are lighting devices on the front of roadgoing motor vehicles, automatically switched on when the vehicle is moving forward, and intended to increase the conspicuity of the vehicle during daylight conditions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 1937 Cord 812 with hidden headlights Promotional art for the 1942 DeSoto, the first mass produced American car with hidden headlights 1967 Ford Thunderbird with hidden headlights Pop-up headlights on a 1973 SAAB Sonett III. Hidden headlamps are an automotive styling feature that conceals an automobiles headlights when... 15 kW Xenon short-arc lamp used in IMAX projectors High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps include these types of electrical lamps: mercury vapor, metal halide (also HQI), high-pressure sodium (Son), low-pressure sodium (Sox) and less common, xenon short-arc lamps. ... Retroreflectors are clearly visible in a pair of bicycle shoes. ... A burnt-out sealed beam, broken open to show internals. ... Trafficators are the internally lit semaphores springing out from the door pillars on some older (pre 1950s) motor vehicles to signal left and right turns. ... A vehicle registration plate is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. ... A vanity plate (US), prestige plate, private number plate, personalised registration (UK) or personalised plate (Australia and New Zealand) is a special type of vehicle registration plate on an automobile or other vehicle. ... Parktronic, also called Acoustic Parking System (APS), is a parking-assistence system installed on some Audi vehicles. ... Motor vehicle theft is a crime of theft. ... Automobile interior equipment generally includes passive safety, dashboard, shifter for selecting gear ratios and ancillary. ... Vehicle instrument is an instrument that measures some parameters in the vehicle, often found on its control panel or dashboard. ... A backup camera is a special type of video camera that is produced specifically for the purpose of being attached to the rear of a vehicle to aid in backing up. ... Boost gauge on a Ford Focus RS (left) A boost gauge is a pressure gauge that indicates manifold air pressure or turbocharger or supercharger boost pressure in an internal combustion engine. ... A buzzer or beeper is a signaling device, usually electronic, typically used in automobiles, household appliances such as a microwave oven, or game shows. ... Carputer is a term sometimes used to refer to a computer installed in a car. ... A fuel gauge (or gas gauge) is an instrument used to indicate the level of fuel contained in a tank. ... GPS redirects here. ... A taxi in Kyoto, equipped with GPS navigation system An automotive navigation system is a satellite navigation system designed for use in automobiles. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An idiot light is a method of displaying information about a system (e. ... A Malfunction Indicator Lamp, this one labeled Service Engine Soon. A Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) is an indicator of the internal status of a car engine. ... Night-vision is seeing in the dark. ... A modern non-digital odometer A Smiths speedometer from the 1920s showing odometer and trip meter An odometer is a device used for indicating distance traveled by an automobile or other vehicle. ... An early radar detector A radar detector, sometimes called a fuzz buster, is an electronic device used by motorists to determine if their speed is being monitored by a radar unit. ... Speedometer gauge on a car, showing the speed of the vehicle in miles and kilometres per hour on the out– and inside respectively. ... Tachometer showing engine RPM (revolutions per minute), and a redline from 6000 and 7000 RPM. A tachometer is an instrument that measures the speed of rotation of a shaft or disk, as in a motor or other machine. ... A trip computer is an onboard computer device fitted to cars which can generally record distance travelled, average speed, average fuel consumption, and display real time fuel consumption information. ... Invented by Frank Bowden, a bowden cable is a type of flexible cable used to transmit mechanical force or energy by the movement of an inner cable (most commonly of steel or stainless steel) relative to a hollow outer cable housing. ... Cruise control (sometimes known as speed control or Autocruise) is a system to automatically control the speed of an automobile. ... Electronic throttle control (ETC) is an automobile technology which severs the direct link between the accelerator pedal and the throttle. ... A gear stick (also gearstick, gear lever and gear shifter) is the lever used to change gear in a vehicle, such as an automobile, with manual transmission or automatic transmission. ... In cars, the hand brake (also known as the emergency brake, e-brake, park brake, or parking brake) is a supplementary system that can be used if the vehicles primary brake system (usually hydraulic brakes) has a failure. ... Manettino dials are part of modern super cars (like the new Ferrari 599 GTB and Ferrari Enzo). ... A modern road cars steering wheel Steering wheels from different periods A steering wheel is a type of steering control used in most modern land vehicles, including all mass-production automobiles. ... In an engine, the throttle is the mechanism by which the engines power is increased or decreased. ... Motor vehicle theft is a crime of theft. ... Power door locks (aka electric door locks or central locking) allow the driver or front passenger to simultaneously lock or unlock all the doors of an automobile or truck, by pressing a button or flipping a switch. ... A car alarm is an electronic device installed in a vehicle in an attempt to discourage theft. ... An immobiliser or immobilizer is an electronic device fitted to an automobile which prevents the engine from running unless the correct key (or other token) is present. ... For the English band, see Klaxons. ... Automatic vehicle location or AVL is a means for determining the geographic location of a vehicle and transmitting this information to a point where it can be used. ... VIN etching is a countermeasure to motor vehicle theft. ... Passive safety redirects here. ... A car seat usually refers to a small seat secured to the seat of an automobile equipped with safety harnesses to hold children in the event of a crash. ... For the Mozilla crash reporting software previously called Airbag, see Breakpad. ... The armrest in the backseat of a Lincoln Town Car, featuring cupholders. ... Automatic seat belt in a Chevrolet Corsica Automatic seat belts are seat belts that automatically close over riders in a car. ... The traditional seat installed in American automobiles was the bench seat. ... A bucket seat is an upholstered seat in a car, truck, or motorboat that seats one person. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This 1931 Ford Model A sport roadster features a rumble seat A rumble seat, dicky seat, dickie seat or dickey seat is an upholstered exterior seat which hinges or otherwise opens out from the rear deck of a pre-World War II automobile, and seats one or more passengers. ... This article is about the safety device. ... Note: in the broadest sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. ... Automobile accessory power can be produced by several different means. ... It has been suggested that In car entertainment be merged into this article or section. ... ... The center console (British English: centre console) in an automobile refers to the control-bearing surfaces in the center of the front of the vehicles interior. ... A dashboard from a 1940s car The dashboard of a modern car, a Bentley Continental GT A Hayabusas dash A modern Formula 1 car has all its gauges mounted on the steering wheel A dashboard or dash board in an automobile is a panel located under the windscreen and... A flat tire means the motorist must use the spare tire In a motor vehicle, a flat tire occurs when a tire becomes deflated and the metal of the wheel comes in contact with the ground below (or ground level). ... The glovebox of a Cadillac Eldorado Brougham For the sealed container for handling hazardous materials, see glovebox. ... Typical Motorola plug found on consumer auto accessory antenna coaxial cables A common coaxial cable connector used primarily in the automotive industry for connecting the coaxial feedline from the antenna to the radio receiver. ... Electric window controls between the front seats, including lockout switch (2005 Saab 9-5). ... The rear-view mirror of a Mazda 626. ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... Air filter in an Opel Astra car, top side=clean side Air filter in an Opel Astra car, bottom side=dust side Automotive air filter clogged with dust and debris. ... An air-fuel ratio meter is a meter that monitors the air-fuel ratio of an internal combustion engine. ... Automatic Performance Control (APC) is a system that was introduced on turbo charged Saab H engines in 1982. ... A blowoff valve is a pressure release system present in turbocharged engines, its purpose is to prevent compressor surge and reduce wear on the engine. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Manifold_absolute_pressure. ... A boost controller is a device in a turbocharged or supercharged car that regulates boost pressure. ... A butterfly valve is a type of flow control device, typically used to regulate a fluid flowing through a section of pipe. ... Bendix-Technico (Stromberg) 1-barrel downdraft carburetor model BXUV-3, with nomenclature A carburetor (North American spelling) or carburettor (Commonwealth spelling), is a device that blends air and fuel for an internal combustion engine. ... A charge cooler system is a type of intercooler where the cooler uses a form of heat exchanger in line with the turbo, this cools the charge air temperature before entering the engine. ... Cover of Hot Rod magazine showing Ford Flathead V8 engine with centrifugal supercharger (on top) The centrifugal type supercharger is practically identical in operation to a turbocharger, with the exception that instead of exhaust gases driving an impeller, there is only a compressor housing, and that is driven from the... A cold air intake is a system used to bring down the temperature of the air going into a car for the purpose of increasing the power of the internal-combustion engine. ... In automotive electronics, an electronic control unit (ECU) is an embedded microcomputer that controls one or more of the electrical subsystems in a vehicle. ... An engine control unit (ECU) is an electronic control unit which controls various aspects of an internal combustion engines operation. ... Forced induction is a term used to describe internal combustion engines that are not naturally aspirated. ... Front mounted intercooler, an IC mount position, which involves mounting the intercooler at the front of the engine, usually in the bumper. ... Found in most internal combustion engines, a fuel filter is a filter in the fuel line that screens out dirt and rust particles from the fuel. ... // Fuel injection is a system of fuel delivery for mixture with air in an internal combustion engine. ... mechanical fuel pump, fitted to cylinder head Electric fuel pump Petro-Canada Fuel Pump used to transfer fuel at a gas station. ... For other uses, see Tank (disambiguation). ... Gasoline Direct injection or GDi is a variant of fuel injection employed in modern two- and four- stroke petrol engines. ... In an internal combustion engine, the term indirect injection refers to a fuel injection where fuel is not directly injected into the combustion chamber. ... An intake is an air intake for an engine. ... An intercooler, or charge air cooler, is an air-to-air or air-to-liquid heat exchange device used on turbocharged and supercharged internal combustion engines to improve their volumetric efficiency by increasing intake air charge density through isochoric cooling. ... Left side of a Ford Cologne V6 engine, clearly showing a (rusty) cast iron exhaust manifold - three exhaust ports into one pipe. ... Manifold vacuum, or engine vacuum in an internal combustion engine is the difference in air pressure between the engines intake manifold and Earths atmosphere. ... A mass flow sensor responds to the amount of a fluid (usually a gas) flowing through a chamber containing the sensor. ... A naturally-aspirated engine or normally-aspirated engine (NA - aspiration meaning breathing) refers to an internal combustion engine (normally petrol or diesel powered) that is neither turbocharged nor supercharged. ... For the American composer, see Walter Piston. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The scroll-type supercharger is a positive displacement supercharger, first invented by L. Creux of France in 1905 for aircraft use. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... A supercharger (also known as a blower) is an air compressor used to force more air (and hence more oxygen) into the combustion chamber(s) of an internal combustion engine than can be achieved at ambient atmospheric pressure (natural aspiration). ... Throttle body showing throttle position sensor The throttle body is usually located between the air filter box and the intake manifold, and usually attached to, or near, the mass airflow sensor. ... A top mounted intercooler (TMIC) is an automotive intercooler mounted within the engine bay, above the engine. ... Turbo redirects here. ... Turbo Direct Injection (TDI) is the technology used for modern Diesel engines produced by Volkswagen Group, and is widely used in passenger cars produced by the company (especially those sold in Europe). ... Twin-Turbo, also called bi-turbo by some, refers to a turbocharged engine on which two turbochargers compress the intake charge. ... Variable Length Intake Manifold (VLIM) is an automobile engine manifold technology. ... The Variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) exists in several forms, usually designed to allow the effective A/R ratio of the turbo to be altered as the conditions change. ... A warm air intake, or WAI, is a system to decrease the amount of air going into a car for the purpose of decreasing the fuel efficiency of the internal-combustion engine. ... Automobile exhaust Exhaust gas is flue gas which occurs as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline/petrol, diesel, fuel oil or coal. ... Catalytic converter on a Dodge Ram Van. ... Vehicle emissions inspection station Automobile emissions control covers all the technologies that are employed to reduce the air pollution-causing emissions produced by automobiles. ... An exhaust pipe is usually a pipe used to guide waste exhaust gases away from a controlled combustion inside an engine or stove. ... Exhaust pipe of a car An exhaust pipe is usually tubing used to guide waste exhaust gases away from a controlled combustion inside an engine or stove. ... A glasspack is a kind of automobile muffler in which the exhaust gas passes straight through the center of the muffler. ... This article is about the engine piece. ... // An oxygen sensor is an electronic device that measures the proportion of oxygen (O2) in the gas or liquid being analyzed. ... Aircooling (also: air cooling) is one method of dissipating heat. ... For other uses, see Antifreeze (disambiguation). ... Ethylene glycol (monoethylene glycol (MEG), IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an alcohol with two -OH groups (a diol), a chemical compound widely used as an automotive antifreeze. ... Not to be confused with radiata. ... Bi-metallic thermostat for buildings A thermostat is a device for regulating the temperature of a system so that the systems temperature is maintained near a desired setpoint temperature. ... The ignition system of an internal-combustion engine is an important part of the overall engine system that provides for the timely burning of the fuel mixture within the engine. ... An automobile self-starter is an electric motor that initiates piston motion in a cars internal combustion engine before it can power itself. ... Lead-acid car battery A car battery is a type of rechargeable battery that supplies electric energy to an automobile[1]. Usually this refers to a SLI battery (Starting - Lighting - Ignition) to power the starter motor, the lights and the ignition system of a vehicle’s engine. ... Breaker arm with contact points at the left. ... Distributor cap. ... An automotive (ignition system) ballast resistor An electrical ballast (sometimes called control gear) is a device intended to limit the amount of current flowing in an electric circuit. ... An ignition coil (also called a spark coil) is an electrical device in a automobiles ignition system which transforms a storage batterys 12 volts to the thousands of volts needed to spark the spark plugs. ... A valve-regulated, sometimes called sealed, lead acid battery Lead-acid batteries, invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté, are the oldest type of rechargeable battery. ... This article is about the engine component. ... The term spark-ignition is normally used to refer to internal combustion engines where the fuel-air mixture is ignited with a spark. ... This article or section should include material from Spark gap A spark plug is an electrical device that fits into the cylinder head of some internal combustion engines and ignites compressed aerosol gasoline by means of an electric spark. ... Balance shaft in Ford Taunus V4 engine. ... A block heater is an electric heater that heats the engine of a car. ... A crank is a bent portion of an axle, or shaft, or an arm keyed at right angles to the end of a shaft, by which motion is imparted to or received from it; also used to change circular into reciprocating motion, or reciprocating into circular motion. ... For other uses, see CAM. Animation showing rotating cams and cam followers producing reciprocating motion. ... For the fictional characters of the same name, see Camshaft (Transformers). ... piston (top) and connecting rod from typical automotive engine (scale is in centimetres) Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... A combustion chamber is part of an engine in which fuel is burned. ... Piston and connecting rod from an automobile engine, showing the big end bearing at the bottom. ... Crankshaft (red), pistons (gray) in their cylinders (blue), and flywheel (black) Continental engine marine crankshafts, 1942 Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... A crossflow cylinder head is a cylinder head that features the intake and exhaust ports on opposite sides. ... The crossplane or cross-plane is a crankshaft design for V8 engines with a 90° angle between the cylinder banks. ... Desmodromic poppet valve // Desmodromic valves are those which are positively closed by a cam and leverage system, rather than relying on the more conventional valve springs to close them. ... Knocking (also called pinking or pinging)— colloquially detonation—in internal combustion engines occurs when air/fuel mixture in the cylinder detonates or ignites prior to the timed pre-set conditions in the engines cylinder(s). ... Bold text The compression ratio is a single number that can be used to predict the performance of any engine (such as an internal-combustion engine or a Stirling Engine). ... A crank sensor is a component used in an engine (or occasionally on a bicycle) to monitor crank position and/or rotational speed. ... Cylinder with piston in a steam engine A cylinder in the central working part of a reciprocating engine, the space in which a piston travels. ... Piston engines are typically arranged with their pistons in rows, moving inside individual cylinders. ... The cylinder block of a Ford I4 DOHC engine The cylinder block or engine block is a machined casting (or sometimes an assembly of modules) containing cylindrically bored holes for the pistons of a multi-cylinder reciprocating internal combustion engine, or for a similarly constructed device such as a pump. ... The cylinder head from a GMC van. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Dump valves are fitted to the engines of (usually older) turbo charged cars and sit between the turbo outlet and the throttle body. ... Engine balance is the design, construction and tuning of an engine to run smoothly. ... Spin-on oil filter beneath the engine of a Saab 9-5 (2005) Cartridge oil filter for use on a 2006 Volvo S40 An oil filter is a device used to decontaminate oil that contains suspended impurities. ... The firing order is the sequence of sparking of the spark plugs in a reciprocating engine, or the sequence of fuel injection in each cylinder in a Diesel engine. ... Freeze plug is a misnomer for core plug or expansion plug. ... Some seals and gaskets 1. ... Different kinds of gaskets, #4 indicating a V4 head gasket. ... Hypereutectic pistons are cast internal combustion engine pistons made from aluminum with over 16% silicon content for strength and durability. ... In automotive terminology, a hydrolock (short for hydraulic lock) is the immobilization of an engines pistons by a liquid (usually water, hence the prefix hydro-). Hydrolocking occurs when liquid fills a cylinder on the intake stroke and, due to the incompressibility of a liquid, makes the compression stroke impossible. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In a piston engine, the main bearings are the bearings on which the crankshaft rotates. ... // A typical container of motor oil, with some in a glass. ... In automotive engineering, an engine is referred to as multi-valve (or multivalve) when each cylinder has more than two valves. ... Numerous late-model piston engines from many manufacturers have suffered from failures due to oil sludge contamination. ... A cylinder head sliced in half shows two overhead camshafts—one above each of the two valves. ... OHV redirects here. ... The Positive Crankcase Ventilation valve, or PCV Valve, is a one-way valve that ensures continual refreshment of the air inside a gasoline internal combustion engines crankcase. ... For the American composer, see Walter Piston. ... Spring-loaded piston rings. ... Pneumatic Valve Gear uses compressed air to spring valves closed in high-revving types of internal combustion engine. ... A poppet valve is a valve consisting of a hole, usually round or oval, and a tapered plug, usually a disk shape on the end of a shaft also called a valve stem. ... The power band of an engine refers to the range of operating speeds under which the engine is able to operate efficiently. ... Tachometer showing red lines above 14,000 rpm. ... A reverse-flow cylinder head is a cylinder head that locates the intake and exhaust ports on the same side of the engine. ... rocker arm This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Compression seal example A mechanical seal is a device which helps join systems or mechanisms together by preventing leakage (e. ... piston engine Bristol Perseus The sleeve valve is a type of valve mechanism for piston engines which have traditionally relied on the more common poppet valve. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Mobil 1 synthetic motor oil Synthetic oil is oil consisting of chemical compounds which were not originally present in crude oil (petroleum) but were artificially made (synthesized) from other compounds. ... In mechanical engineering, a tappet is a projection which imparts a linear motion to some other component within an assembly. ... Timing belt A timing belt, timing chain or cam belt is a part of an internal combustion engine that controls the timing of the engines valves. ... Timing mark on pulley at 6° before TDC. A timing mark is a mark used for setting the timing of the ignition system of an engine, typically found on the crankshaft pulley (as pictured) or the flywheel, being the largest radius rotating at crankshaft speed and therefore the place where... Look up top dead center in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An Underdrive pulley refers to an aftermarket crankshaft or accessory pulley (such as an alternator pulley) that is designed to drive a vehicles accessories at a slower rate than stock. ... Valve float is a condition which occurs when the valves on an internal combustion engine do not return to the fully closed position under high rpms due to valve springs incapable of overcoming the momentum of the valvetrain. ... Variable valve timing, or VVT, is a generic term for an automobile piston engine technology. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Petroleum electric hybrid vehicles make use of both an on-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and a fueled power source for vehicle propulsion. ... For other uses, see Wheel (disambiguation). ... Firestone tire This article is about pneumatic tires. ... All-terrain tyre An All-terrain tyre is a type of automotive tyre most commonly found on Four wheel drive vehicles. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Contact patch is the name applied to the area of a vehicles tire that is in contact with the road surface. ... The term Custom wheel is used refer to the wheels of a vehicle which have either been modified from the vehicle manufacturers standard, or have replaced the manufacturers standard. ... A drive wheel is a wheel in an automotive vehicle that receives power from the power train. ... A reflective hubcap A hubcap or wheel cover is a decorative disk on an automobile wheel that covers at least a central portion of the wheel. ... Magnesium alloy wheels, or mag wheels, are sometimes used on racing cars, in place of heavier steel or aluminium wheels, for better performance. ... A Mud Terrain Tyre is a type of automotive tyre which may be fitted as an aftermarket option to four wheel drive vehicles. ... Paddle tires are off road vehicle tires specifically designed for use in sand. ... A radial tire (more properly, a radial-ply tire) is a particular design of automotive tire (in British English, tyre). ... Rostyle wheels are a particular design of wheels for cars made by the British firm of Rubery Owen, a diversified industrial company which made many car parts. ... // A run flat tire is a pneumatic vehicle tire that is designed to resist the effects of deflation and to enable the vehicle to continue to be driven — albeit at reduced speeds (i. ... A schrader valve on a bicycle tire. ... A wheel with a slick tire. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Automobile tires are described by an alphanumeric code which is generally molded into the side-wall of the tire. ... A tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS) is an electronic system to monitor the air pressure inside a pneumatic tire. ... The tread of a tire or caterpillar track refers to the pattern visible on its circumference that makes contact with the road. ... The Treadwear Grade of a tire is the numeric portion of the Uniform Tire Quality Grade Standards (UTQG) that are printed on the sidewall of a tire. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with tire. ... Wire wheels, (wire spoked wheels), today are still used on many motorcycles and most bicycles. ... “Gearbox” redirects here. ... The automatic gear selector in a Ford Five Hundred vehicle An automatic transmission (commonly abbreviated as AT) is an automobile gearbox that can change gear ratios automatically as the vehicle moves, thus freeing the driver from having to shift gears manually (similar but larger devices are also used for railroad... For other uses, see Clutch (disambiguation). ... The continuously variable transmission (CVT) is a transmission in which the ratio of the rotational speeds of two shafts, as the input shaft and output shaft of a vehicle or other machine, can be varied continuously within a given range, providing an infinite number of possible ratios. ... In an automobile and other four-wheeled vehicles, a differential is a device, usually consisting of gears, for allowing each of the driving wheels to rotate at different speeds, while supplying equal torque to each of them. ... The Direct-Shift Gearbox (Direktschaltgetriebe) is a dual-clutch gearbox designed by BorgWarner and initially licensed to Volkswagen Group (which owns the Volkswagen, Audi, SEAT, Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, and Å koda brands). ... This article is about the mechanical device. ... A clutch is a mechanism for transmitting rotation, which can be both engaged and disengaged. ... Epicyclic gearing is used here to increase output speed. ... A fluid coupling is a hydraulic device used for trasmitting mechanical shaft power from a rotating driver to a rotating driven load. ... An automatic transmission is an automobile gearbox that can change gear ratios automatically as the car moves, thus freeing the driver from having to shift gears manually. ... A gear stick (also gearstick, gear lever and gear shifter) is the lever used to change gear in a vehicle, such as an automobile, with manual transmission or automatic transmission. ... A gearbox is an assembly of gears allowing the rotational speed of an input shaft to be changed to a different speed. ... Hydramatic (also known as Hydra-Matic) was an automatic transmission developed by General Motorss Oldsmobile division. ... In automotive applications, a limited slip differential (LSD) is a modified or derived type of differential gear arrangement that allows for some difference in rotational velocity of the output shafts, but does not allow the difference in speed to increase beyond a preset amount. ... A locking differential or locker is a modified type of automotive differential. ... A manual transmission (also known as a stick shift, straight drive, or standard transmission) is a type of transmission used in automotive applications. ... Audi developed a new stepless transmission named Multitronic. ... Roto Hydramatic (sometimes spelled Roto Hydra-Matic or Roto-Hydramatic) was an automatic transmission built by General Motors and used on some Oldsmobile and Pontiac models from 1961 to 1964. ... Saxomat was a type of automatic clutch available as an option on Saab 93, Volkswagen Beetle, Borgward, DKW, BMW, Opel, NSU and Glas. ... Semi-automatic transmission, or also known as clutchless manual transmission, automated manual transmission, e-gear, or paddle shift gearbox is a system which uses electronic sensors, processors and actuators to do gear shifts on the command of the driver. ... The Super Turbine 300 (abbreviated ST-300) was a two-speed automatic transmission built by General Motors. ... Tiptronic is a type of discrete automatic transmission developed by Porsche and used in its vehicles and those of its licensees. ... ZF torque converter A cut-away model of a torque converter A torque converter is a modified form of a hydrodynamic fluid coupling, and like the fluid coupling, is used to transfer rotating power from a prime mover, such as an internal combustion engine or electric motor, to a rotating... A transaxle, in the automotive field, is a component that combines the functionality of the transmission, the differential and the drive axle into one integrated assembly. ... “Gearbox” redirects here. ... A Transmission Control Unit is a device that controls modern electronic automatic transmissions. ... Turbo-Hydramatic is the registered tradename of an automatic transmission developed and produced by General Motors. ... A universal joint A universal joint, U joint, Cardan joint or Hardy-Spicer joint is a joint in a rigid rod that allows the rod to bend in any direction. ... Steering is the term applied to the collection of components, linkages, etc. ... Ackermann steering geometry is a geometric arrangement of linkages in the steering of a car or other vehicle designed to solve the problem of wheels on the inside and outside of a turn needing to trace out circles of different radii. ... A wheel with a negative camber angle Camber angle is the angle made by the wheel of an automobile; specifically, it is the angle between the vertical axis of the wheel and the vertical axis of the vehicle when viewed from the front or rear. ... Car handling and vehicle handling is a description of the way wheeled vehicles perform transverse to their direction of motion, particularly during cornering and swerving. ... θ is the caster angle, red line is the pivot line, grey area is the tire Caster (or castor) angle is the angular displacement from the vertical axis of the suspension of a steered wheel in a car or other vehicle, measured in the longitudinal direction. ... Ideally, when the car reaches the turn, the driver will steer it along the line marked with green dots. ... Power steering is a system for reducing the steering effort on cars by using an external power source to assist in turning the wheels. ... Rack and pinion animation A rack and pinion is a pair of gears which convert rotational motion into linear motion. ... Toe is the symmetric angle that each wheel makes with the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, as a function of static geometry, and kinematic and compliant effects. ... Torque steering is an effect in front wheel drive cars caused by large amounts of torque affecting steering in such a way as to make the front wheels squirm (oscillate) from side to side under heavy acceleration, noticeable to the driver by the steering wheel being tugged back and forth... Ideally, when the car reaches the turn, the driver will steer it along the line marked with green dots. ... The front suspension components of a Ford Model T. Suspension is the term given to the system of springs, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels. ... An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. ... Solid axle and Panhard rod on a 2002 Mazda MPV A beam axle is a suspension system, also called a solid axle, in which one set of wheels is connected laterally by a single beam or shaft. ... A compression coil spring A tension coil spring A selection of conical coil springs A Coil spring, also known as a helical spring, is a mechanical device, which is typically used to store energy and subsequently release it, to absorb shock, or to maintain a force between contacting surfaces. ... A de Dion tube is an automobile suspension technology. ... A double wishbone suspension is an automobile independent suspension design using two parallel wishbone-shaped arms to locate the wheel. ... Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is a computerized system designed to improve a vehicles handling by intervening at the limits of traction and helping the driver maintain control of the vehicle. ... Hydragas is a type of automotive suspension system used in many cars produced by British Leyland and its successor companies. ... Hydrolastic is a type of automotive suspension system used in many cars produced by British Motor Corporation (BMC) and its successor companies. ... Hydropneumatic is the name given to a suspension system invented by Citroën and fitted to Citroën cars, as well as being adapted by other car manufacturers, notably Rolls-Royce, Mercedes-Benz and Peugeot. ... Independent suspension is broad term for any automobile suspension system that allows each wheel on the same axle to move vertically (i. ... Suspension, showing tie rod, steering arm, king pin (axis) ball joints The kingpin is the main pivot in the steering mechanism of a car or other vehicle. ... A traditional leaf spring arrangement. ... A live axle is a type of beam axle suspension system that uses the driveshafts that transmit power to the wheels to connect the wheels laterally so that they move together as a unit. ... A simple MacPherson strut suspension on the left front wheel of a rear-wheel drive vehicle. ... A multi-link suspension is a type of vehicle suspension design typically used in independent suspensions, using three or more lateral arms, and one or more longitudinal arms. ... A Panhard rod is a component of a car suspension system that provides lateral location of the axle. ... A trailing-arm suspension is an automobile suspension design in which one or more arms (or links) are connected between (and perpendicular to) the axle and the chassis. ... Gasfilled Shock absorber. ... sway bar (also stabilizer bar, anti-sway bar, roll bar, or anti-roll bar, ARB) is an automobile suspension device. ... A swing axle is a simple type of independent suspension first used in early 20C. aircraft, Sopwith, Fokker et al, 1910 or earlier usually with rubber bungee and no damping. ... Torsion beam suspension, also known as a torsion bar or torsion spring suspension, is a vehicle suspension system. ... A trailing-arm suspension is an automobile suspension design in which one or more arms (or links) are connected between (and perpendicular to and forward of) the axle and the chassis. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Watts Linkage The Watts linkage was invented by James Watt (1736--1819) to constrain the movement of a piston in a steam engine to move in a straight line. ... A double wishbone suspension is an automobile independent suspension design using two parallel wishbone-shaped arms to locate the wheel. ... It has been suggested that Drum brake and Disc brake be merged into this article or section. ... An anti-lock braking system (ABS) (translated from German, Antiblockiersystem) is a system on motor vehicles which prevents the wheels from locking while braking. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Vehicle brake. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Vehicle brake. ... Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is a computerized system designed to improve a vehicles handling by intervening at the limits of traction and helping the driver maintain control of the vehicle. ... In cars, the hand brake (also known as the emergency brake, e-brake, park brake, or parking brake) is a supplementary system that can be used if the vehicles primary brake system (usually hydraulic brakes) has a failure. ... The hydraulic brake is an arrangement of braking mechanism which uses hydraulic fluid, typically some type of light-viscosity petroleum oil, to transfer pressure from the controlling unit, which is usually near the operator of the vehicle, to the actual brake mechanism, which is usually at or near the wheel... An inboard braking system is an automobile technology where the brakes are not located in the wheels, as is common today, but instead near the differential. ... Brake linings are the consumable surfaces in braking systems, especially those used in vehicles. ... Vehicle braking system fade, or brake fade is the reduction in stopping power that can occur after repeated application of the brakes, especially in high load or high speed conditions. ... Brake fluid is a type of hydraulic fluid used in brake applications in automobiles and light trucks. ... Hydraulic fluids are a large group of mineral oils, water-based or water used as the medium in hydraulic systems. ... Close-up of a disc brake on a car Brake bleeding is the procedure performed on hydraulic brake systems whereby the brake lines (the pipes and hoses containing the brake fluid) are purged of any air bubbles. ... It has been suggested that Exhaust brake be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A regenerative brake is an apparatus, a device or system which allows a vehicle to recapture and store part of the kinetic energy that would otherwise be lost to heat when braking. ... Car donation is the practice of giving away no-longer-wanted automobiles to charity organizations. ... For other uses, see Driving (disambiguation). ... SAE International (SAE) is a professional organization for mobility engineering professionals in aerospace, automotive and the commercial vehicle industries. ... Girl on a bicycle in a car free area in Frankfurt Sustainable transport is a phrase which was coined in the late 20th century to describe all forms of transport which minimise emissions of carbon dioxide and pollutants. ... // Production Figures for 1899-1900 Columbia - 1500 Locomobile - 750 Winton - 100 Packard - 49 Stanley automobile - 30 Stearns - 20 Knox - 15 Oldsmobile - 11 Production Figures for 1901 Locomobile - 1500 Winton - 700 Oldsmobile - 425 White - 193 Autocar - 140 Knox - 100 Packard - 81 Stanley automobile - 80 Production Figures for 1902 Locomobile - 2750 Oldsmobile... Vehicle to Grid (V2G) technology is a bi-directional grid interface for gridable Electric vehicles such as Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). ... V2V (short for vehicle to vehicle) is an automobile technology designed to allow automobiles to talk to each other. ... Here is a structured list of automobiles: // Military List of vehicle models used in the military List of M series military vehicles Slangs List of slang terms for automobiles List of slang terms for police vehicles Uncategorized List of automobile manufacturers List of automobile model and marque oddities List of...

References

  1. ^ (1976) Pocket Oxford Dictionary. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-861113-7. 
  2. ^ WorldMapper - passenger cars.
  3. ^ SA MOTORING HISTORY - TIME LINE. Government of South Australia.
  4. ^ Setright, L. J. K. (2004). Drive On!: A Social History of the Motor Car. Granta Books. ISBN 1-86207-698-7. 
  5. ^ a b c Ralph Stein (1967). The Automobile Book. Paul Hamlyn Ltd. 
  6. ^ Wakefield, Ernest H. (1994). History of the Electric Automobile. Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 2-3. ISBN 1-56091-299-5. 
  7. ^ Burgess Wise, D. (1970). Veteran and Vintage Cars. London: Hamlyn. ISBN 0-600-00283-7. 
  8. ^ a b c Georgano, N. (2000). Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile. London: HMSO. ISBN 1-57958-293-1. 
  9. ^ Georgano.
  10. ^ Georgano. This is the source of Ford's apocryphal remark, "any color as long as it's black".
  11. ^ Georgano.
  12. ^ Georgano.
  13. ^ Georgano.
  14. ^ Georgano.
  15. ^ Georgano.
  16. ^ Georgano.
  17. ^ Global Climate Change. U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved on 2007-03-03.
  18. ^ a b Norbye, Jan (1988). Automotive fuel injection Systems. Haynes Publishing. ISBN 0-85429-755-3. 
  19. ^ Bellis, M. (2006) "The History of Electric Vehicles: The Early Years" About.com article at inventors.about.com accessed on 5 September 2007
  20. ^ Mitchell, T. (2003) "AC Propulsion Debuts tzero with LiIon Battery" AC Propulsion, Inc. press release at acpropulsion.com accessed 5 September 2007
  21. ^ Setright, L.J.K. "Steam: The Romantic Illusion", in Ward, Ian, ed., World of Automobiles (London: Orbis Publishing, 1974), pp.2168-2173.)
  22. ^ World report on road traffic injury prevention.
  23. ^ www.universityscience.ie/pages/scientists/sci_mary_ward.php. Retrieved on 2007-04-10.
  24. ^ CityStreets - Bliss plaque.
  25. ^ SaferCar.gov - NHTSA.
  26. ^ Insurance Institute for Highway Safety.
  27. ^ car operating costs. my car. RACV. Retrieved on 2006-12-01.
  28. ^ Setright, L. J. K. (2004). Drive On!: A Social History of the Motor Car. Granta Books. ISBN 1-86207-698-7. 
  29. ^ John A. Jakle, Keith A. Sculle. (2004). Lots of Parking: Land Use in a Car Culture. ISBN 0813922666. 
  30. ^ Clearing the Air. The Surface Transportation Policy Project (2003-08-19). Retrieved on [[2007-04-26]].
  31. ^ Emission Facts. United States Environmental Protection Agency.
  32. ^ World report on road traffic injury prevention. World Health Organization.
  33. ^ Our Ailing Communities. Metropolis Magazine.
  34. ^ Automobiles and the Environment. Greenercars.com.
  35. ^ ;CAFE Overview - Frequently Asked Questions. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
  36. ^ Paul Werbos. www.werbos.com/E/WhoKilledElecPJW.htm. Retrieved on 2007-04-10.
  37. ^ Flexcar Expands to Philadelphia. Green Car Congress (2007-04-02).
  38. ^ About Bike Share Programs. Tech Bikes MIT.
  39. ^ Jane Holtz Kay (1998). Asphalt Nation: how the automobile took over America, and how we can take it back. ISBN 0520216202. 

In Judeo-Christian theologies, apocrypha refers to religious Sacred text that have questionable authenticity or are otherwise disputed. ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Paul Werbos is an scientist best known for his 1974 Harvard University Ph. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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