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Encyclopedia > Automatic teller machine
Outdoor ATMs may be free-standing, like this kiosk, or built into the side of banks or other buildings
Outdoor ATMs may be free-standing, like this kiosk, or built into the side of banks or other buildings

An automatic teller machine, automated teller machine (ATM) or cash machine is an electronic device that allows a bank's customers to make cash withdrawals and check their account balances without the need for a human teller. Many ATMs also allow people to deposit cash or cheques, transfer money between their bank accounts, top up their mobile phones' pre-paid accounts or even buy postage stamps. Wells Fargo ATM Kiosk File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Wells Fargo ATM Kiosk File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... a pagoda-like kiosk in Lausanne. ... A bank is an institution that provides financial service, particularly taking deposits and extending credit. ... A bank is an institution that provides financial service, particularly taking deposits and extending credit. ... This 1974 stamp from Japan depicts a Class 8620 steam locomotive. ...

Contents


History

The world's first ATM was developed by De La Rue and installed in Enfield Town in North London on June 27, 1967 by Barclays Bank. This instance of the invention is credited to John Shepherd-Barron, although Luther George Simjian registered patents in New York, USA in the 1930s and Donald Wetzel and two other engineers from Docutel registered a patent on June 4, 1973. Shepherd-Barron was awarded an OBE in the 2005 New Year's Honours. De La Rue is a British commercial printer and papermaker. ... Enfield Town is a town in the London Borough of Enfield. ... London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England. ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Barclays plc (LSE: BARC, NYSE: BCS, TYO: 8642 ) is the fourth largest bank in the United Kingdom. ... In general terms, an invention is an object, process or technique which displays an element of novelty. ... John Shepherd-Barron from Tain, Ross-shire, Scotland. ... Luther George Simjian (January 28, 1905 in Turkey - October 23, 1997 probably in Fort Lauderdale) was an inventor of numerous devices and owner of over 200 patents. ... // Events and trends A public speech by Benito Mussolini, founder of the Fascist movement The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the global depression. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Commanders Badge of the Order of the British Empire The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is an order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions, in decreasing order of seniority: Knight or Dame Grand... The British honours system is a means of rewarding individuals personal bravery, achievement or service to the United Kingdom. ...


The first ATMs accepted only a single-use token or voucher, which was retained by the machine. These worked on various principles including radiation and low-coercivity magnetism that was wiped by the card reader to make fraud more difficult. Radiation has a variety of different meanings. ... In physics, magnetism is one of the phenomena by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ...


The idea of a personal identification number (PIN) stored on a physical card being compared with the PIN entered when retrieving the money was developed by the British engineer James Goodfellow in 1965, who also holds international patents regarding this technology. A personal identification number (PIN) is a numeric value (sometimes expressed as text using the standard telephone dial mapping) that is used in certain systems to gain access, and authenticate. ...


The first Talking ATMs -- ATMS with private audible instructions for blind people -- were installed in Canada in 1999. The first Talking ATM in the United States was installed in San Francisco in October of that same year. By 2005 there were approximately 30,000 Talking ATMs in the United States.


Usage

In most modern ATMs, the customer identifies him or herself by inserting a plastic card with a magnetic stripe or a plastic smartcard with a chip, that contains his or her account number. The customer then verifies his or her identity by entering a passcode (PIN) of four or more digits. If the number is entered incorrectly several times in a row (usually three), most ATMs will retain the card as a security precaution to prevent an unauthorised user from discovering the PIN by guesswork (these cards are often destroyed if the ATM owner is not the card issuing bank as non customer's identities cannot be checked). In some cases, the customer's PIN may be changed using the machine. Marcus Boltonas (Mark Boltan) Marcus Boltonas Brief history The magnetic stripe which is often reffered to as the Bolton is derived from the Marcus Boltonas from the Jurassic period. ... A smart card, or integrated circuit(s) card (ICC), is defined as any integrated circuitry embedded into a flat, plastic body. ... For information on the game Password, see Password (game). ...


Networking

Most ATMs are connected to interbank networks, enabling people to withdraw and deposit money from machines not belonging to the bank where they have their account. This is a convenience, especially for people who are travelling: it is possible to make withdrawals in places where one's bank has no branches, and even to withdraw local currency in a foreign country, often at a better exchange rate than would be available by changing cash. Some examples of interbank networks include Hong Kong's JETCO and the Philippines' Expressnet. Logo of JETCO JETCO (Traditional Chinese: 銀通) (full name: Joint Electronic Teller Services Limited, Traditional Chinese: 銀聯通寶有限公司) is the biggest network of automatic teller machines in Hong Kong and Macau, with nearly 1,700 cash machines. ... Expressnet is an interbank network connecting the ATM networks of seven major banks in the Philippines. ...


ATMs rely on authorization of a transaction by the card issuer or other authorizing institution via the communications network. In security engineering and computer security, authorization, is a part of the operating system that protects computer resources by only allowing those resources to be used by resource consumers that have been granted authority to use them. ... A financial transaction involves a change in the status of the finances of two or more businesses or individuals. ...


Usage fees

Many banks in the United States charge fees for the use of their ATMs. In some cases, these fees are assessed solely for non-bank members, in other cases they apply to all users. Many oppose these fees because ATMs are actually less costly for banks than withdrawals from human tellers. Two charges exist in the consumer world of ATM usage, the surcharge, and the foreign fee. The surcharge fee may be imposed by the ATM deployer and will be charged to the consumer using the machine, this fee has been on the rise as ATM deployment continues to rise and ATM transaction volumes remain stagnant. The foreign fee or transaction fee is a fee charged by the card issuer (financial institution, stored value provider) to the consumer for conducting a transaction outside of their network of machines in the case of a financial institution, this fee is also on the rise as financial institutions seek more fee based income.


When the ATM surcharges emerged in the 1980s, they usually were on the order of $0.25. Quickly, however, they climbed. ATM fees now commonly reach $1.50, and can be as high as $5.00, especially around bars and casinos. In cases where fees are paid both to the bank and the ATM owner withdrawal fees could potentially reach $10. This would be an example of a foreign fee and a surcharge coming together. The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...


ATMs are placed not only near banks, but also in locations such as shopping centres/malls, grocery stores, and restaurants. These represent two types of ATMs, on and off premise. On premise ATMs are usually more advanced machines and thus more expensive machines, off premise machines are deployed by financial instutions and ISO's or independent sales organizations. ISO's are the driving force in ATM deployment in the U.S. today representing over 60% of the 396,000 ATMs nationwide. Sometimes, ATMs are advertised for their fees. This is more of a cautionary statement. ATMs are required by law to inform you of the fees that the machine will charge you, this may come in the push through menu or it may be on a sticker on the machine. Your foreign fee, however, will not be listed as the ATM and its owner are not charging you that fee, your bank is!


In the United Kingdom, public reaction to proposed increases in fees was so strong that fees were removed altogether for using ATMs at banks, regardless of whether the user is a customer of that bank. However, each time a bank's customer uses a rival bank's ATM, the customer's bank has to pay a fee to the rival bank, which the customer's bank absorbs. As a result, First Direct wrote to its customers in December 2005 asking its customers wherever possible to use ATMs of HSBC, its parent bank, in order to keep First Direct's costs down. There are a growing number of machines in locations such as garages, nightclubs and other venues which do charge. The fee is usually between £1.50 and £2.00, but occasionally they have been known to charge up to £5 and in one central London club £10. There has been some debate in recent years about the location of machines which charge in deprived areas, where the larger banks which would have provided free ATMs have closed branches. Logo First Direct is a telephone and internet based commercial bank in the United Kingdom, a division of HSBC Bank. ... HSBC Holdings PLC (匯豐控股有限公司) (NYSE: HBC, LSE: HSBA, HKEx: 005, Euronext: HSBC) is one of the largest banking groups in the world. ... Logo First Direct is a telephone and internet based commercial bank in the United Kingdom, a division of HSBC Bank. ... GBP may be: short for Game Boy Player the ISO currency code for the British Pound Sterling. ... London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England. ...


In many places, one can circumvent ATM fees by using debit cards at retailers by adding cash to a POS or point of sale transaction. Many stores allow a debit card user to receive "cashback" with an order; that is, one can make a withdrawal by adding an additional amount of money onto the charge, with the retailer providing the difference in cash. The downside to this is that charging for these transactions is on the rise by financial institutions which treat the transaction as a foreign withdrawal. There are other drawbacks as well, namely the limitations on transaction types and the amount of the withdrawal. Most retailers limit the cash element of a POS transaction to $40 (£50 in the UK). This is for a variety of reasons, mainly to limit fraud with stolen cards, but also because carrying abundant sums of cash in convenience stores is a risky proposition due to theft issues internally and externally. A debit card is an ISO 7810 card which physically resembles a credit card, and, like a credit card, is used as an alternative to cash when making purchases. ... A debit card is an ISO 7810 card which physically resembles a credit card, and, like a credit card, is used as an alternative to cash when making purchases. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Loyalty program. ...


Hardware and software

Interior of a freestanding ATM, during servicing.
Interior of a freestanding ATM, during servicing.

ATMs contain secure cryptoprocessors, generally within an IBM PC compatible host computer in a secure enclosure. The security of the machine relies mostly on the integrity of the secure cryptoprocessor: the host software often runs on a commodity operating system. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (892x1274, 221 KB) A free standing ATM machine, opened during maintainance and refilling by a security guard. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (892x1274, 221 KB) A free standing ATM machine, opened during maintainance and refilling by a security guard. ... A secure cryptoprocessor is a dedicated computer for carrying out cryptographic operations, embedded in a packaging with multiple physical security measures, which give it a degree of tamper resistance. ... One of the first PCs from IBM - the IBM PC model 5150. ...


ATMs typically connect directly to their ATM Transaction Processor via either a dial-up modem over a telephone line or directly via a leased line. The latter is preferable as the time required to establish the connection is much less. Such connections are rather expensive, though, meaning less-trafficked machines will usually rely on a dial-up modem. That dilemma may be solved as more ATMs use dedicated high-speed Internet connections, which are much cheaper than leased lines. Encryption, required by law in the United States, is used to prevent theft of personal or financial information. A modem (a portmanteau word constructed from modulator and demodulator) is a device that modulates a carrier signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. ... The telephone or phone (Greek: tele = far away and phone = voice) is a telecommunications device which is used to transmit and receive sound (most commonly voice and speech) across distance. ...


In addition, ATMs are moving away from custom circuit boards (most of which are based on Intel 8086 architecture) and into full-fledged PCs with standard operating systems such as Windows 2000 and Linux. An example of this is Banrisul, the largest bank in the south of Brazil, which has replaced the MS-DOS operating systems in its ATMs with Linux. Other platforms include RMX 86, OS/2 and Windows 98 bundled with Java. The newest ATMs with Microsoft technology use Windows XP or Windows XP embedded. Close-up photo of one side of a motherboard PCB, showing conductive traces, vias and solder points for through-hole components on the opposite side. ... An Intel 8086 Microprocessor The 8086 is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel in 1978, which gave rise to the x86 architecture. ... One of the first PCs from IBM - the IBM PC model 5150. ... In computing, an operating system (OS) is the system software responsible for the direct control and management of hardware and basic system operations. ... Windows 2000 (also referred to as Win2K, W2K or Windows NT 5. ... Tux is the official Linux mascot. ... Banrisul is the largest bank in Southern Brazil and operates primarily in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), over a network that serves 364 cities (73% of RS cities). ... OS/2 is an operating system created by Microsoft and IBM and later developed by IBM exclusively. ... Windows 98 (codename Memphis) is a graphical operating system released on June 25, 1998 by Microsoft. ... Java is an object-oriented programming language developed by James Gosling and colleagues at Sun Microsystems in the early 1990s. ... Microsoft Corporation (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKEx: 4338) is the worlds largest software company, with 2005 global annual sales of $40 billion and nearly 60,000 employees in 85 countries and regions. ... Windows XP is a major revision of the Microsoft Windows operating system created for use on desktop and business computer systems. ...

As ATMs migrate to using more off-the-shelf parts, they increasingly display familiar error messages like this one found in France.
As ATMs migrate to using more off-the-shelf parts, they increasingly display familiar error messages like this one found in France.
Swiss Postomat booting.
Enlarge
Swiss Postomat booting.

Crédit Agricole ATM in Hendaye, France The error dialog boxs content: System Process - Lost Delayed-Write Data Taken by User:Leland on 29 May 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Crédit Agricole ATM in Hendaye, France The error dialog boxs content: System Process - Lost Delayed-Write Data Taken by User:Leland on 29 May 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 650 KB) Work by Rama File links The following pages link to this file: Automatic teller machine ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 650 KB) Work by Rama File links The following pages link to this file: Automatic teller machine ...

Reliability

ATMs are generally reliable, but if they do go wrong customers will be left without cash until the following morning or whenever they can get to the bank during opening hours. Of course, not all errors are to the detriment of customers; there have been cases of machines giving out money without debiting the account, or giving out higher value notes as a result of incorrect denomination of banknote being loaded in the money cassettes. Errors that can occur may be mechanical (such as card transport mechanisms; keypads; hard disk failures); software (such as operating system; device driver; application); communications; or purely down to operator error. A denomination is a unit of currency. ... A £20 Ulster Bank banknote. ... The word mechanical can mean one of several things: A device or principle described as mechanical relates to a mechanism or machine, or the realm of Newtonian mechanics. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... In computing, an operating system (OS) is the system software responsible for the direct control and management of hardware and basic system operations. ... A device driver, often called a driver for short, is a computer program that enables another program, typically, an operating system (OS) (e. ... Application software is a loosely defined subclass of computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly to a task that the user wishes to perform. ... The term communications is used in a number of disciplines: Communications, also known as communication studies is the academic discipline which studies communication, generally seen as a mixture between media studies and linguistics. ...


Many ATMs usually print each transaction in a paper journal that is rolled into a roll of paper stored inside the ATMs, which allows both the users of the ATMs and the related financial institutions to settle things based on the records in the journal in case there is a dispute. In some cases, transactions are posted to an electronic journal to reduce the need for paper trails.


Security

Early ATM security focused on making the ATMs invulnerable to physical attack; they were effectively safes with dispenser mechanisms. A number of attacks on ATMs resulted, with thieves attempting to steal entire ATMs by ram-raiding. Ram-raiding is the act of using a vehicle to break into a building (usually a store) by smashing the windows or door at the buildings entrance. ...


Modern ATM physical security, per other modern money-handling security, concentrates on denying the use of the money inside the machine to a thief, by means of techniques such as dye markers and smoke canisters. This change in emphasis has meant that ATMs are now frequently found free-standing in places like shops, rather than mounted into walls.


Another trend in ATM security leverages the existing security of a retail establishment. In this scenario, the fortified cash dispenser is replaced with nothing more than a paper-tape printer. The customer requests a withdrawal from the machine, which dispenses no money, but merely prints a receipt. The customer then takes this receipt to a nearby sales clerk, who then exchanges it for cash from the till.


ATM transactions are usually encrypted with DES but most transaction processors will require the use of the more secure Triple DES by 2005. In cryptography, encryption is the process of obscuring information to make it unreadable without special knowledge. ... General Designer(s) IBM First published 1975 (January 1977 as the standard) Derived from Lucifer (cipher) Cipher(s) based on this design Triple DES, G-DES, DES-X, LOKI89, ICE Algorithm detail Block size(s) 64 bits Key size(s) 56 bits Structure Feistel network Number of rounds 16 Best... In cryptography, Triple DES (also 3DES) is a block cipher formed from the Data Encryption Standard (DES) cipher. ...


There are also many "phantom withdrawals" from ATMs, which banks often claim are the result of fraud by customers. Many experts ascribe phantom withdrawals to the criminal activity of dishonest insiders. Ross Anderson, a leading cryptography researcher, has been involved in investigating many cases of phantom withdrawals, and has been responsible for exposing several errors in bank security. In short, a phantom withdrawal is a cash withdrawal from an ATM where money has been withdrawn, and neither the customer nor the bank admit liability. ... Ross J. Anderson is a researcher, writer, and industry consultant in security engineering. ...


There have also been a number of incidents of fraud where criminals have used fake machines or have attached fake keypads or card readers to existing machines. These have then been used to record customers' PINs and bank account details in order to gain unauthorised access to their accounts.


A bank is always liable when a customer's money is stolen from an ATM, but there have been complaints that banks have made it difficult to recover money lost in this way.


In some cases, bank fraud occurs at ATMs whereby the bank accidentally stocks the ATM with bills in the wrong denomination, therefore giving the customer more money than should be dispensed. Individuals who unknowingly use such ATMs are probably never tried, but those who withdraw a second time are usually prosecuted.


In some areas, multiple security cameras and watch guards are an ubiquitous ATM feature. Closed-circuit cameras are often used to discourage crime Closed-circuit television (CCTV), as a collection surveillance cameras doing video surveillance, is the use of television cameras for surveillance. ...


The issue of customer security appears to have been abandoned by the banking industry; efforts are now more concentrated on deterring legislation than on solving the problem of forced withdrawals. This may be reflective of the industry's greater concern with the image of safety as opposed to actual safety. At least as far back as July 30, 1986, critics of the industry have called for the adoption of an emergency PIN system for ATM users (See comments of Representative Mario Biaggi, Congressional Record, July 30, 1986, Page 18232 et seq.) Legislative efforts to require an emergency PIN system have appeared in Illinois, Kansas and Georgia, but none have succeeded as of yet.


Fraud

In the early 2000s, ATM-specific crimes became common. These had two common forms. In the low-tech form, the user's PIN is observed by someone watching as they use the machine; they are then mugged for their card by a second person, who has taken care to stay out of range of the ATM's surveillance cameras. However, this offers little advantage compared to simply mugging the victim for their money, and carries the same risks to the offender as other violent crimes. By contrast, the most common high-tech modus operandi involves the installation of a magnetic card reader over the real ATM's card slot, and the use of a wireless surveillance camera to observe the user's PIN. Although the latter fraud would have seemed like something from a spy novel until recently, the availability of low-cost commodity wireless cameras and card readers has made it a relatively simple form of fraud, with comparatively low risk to the fraudsters. Saddam Hussein shortly after his capture Major controversy over U. S. presidential election (November 7-December 13, 2000) September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on New Yorks World Trade Center and Virginias Pentagon killing almost 3000 people. ...


As of 2005, banks are working hard to develop countermeasures for this latter kind of fraud, in particular by the use of smart cards which cannot easily be read by un-authenticated devices, and by attempting to make the outside of their ATMs tamper evident. 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Smart card used for health insurance in France. ... Tamper-evident devices are ones designed to make it easy to see whether they have been altered. ...


Alternate uses

Although ATMs were originally developed as cash dispensers, they have evolved to include many other bank-related functions. In some countries, especially those which benefit from a fully integrated cross-bank ATM network (e.g.: Multibanco in Portugal [1]) ATMs include many functions which are not directly related to the management of one's own bank account, such as:

  • Paying routine bills, fees, and taxes (utilities, phone bills, social security, legal fees, taxes, etc.)
  • Loading monetary value into pre-paid cards (cell phones, tolls, multi purpose stored value cards, etc.)
  • Ticket purchases (train, concert, etc.).

Many ATMs in the United States also allow users to purchase stamps.


In Japan, where banks charge for cash withdrawals, ATMs are not very popular. In the hopes of attracting more users, new Ogaki Kyoritsu Bank ATMs will include games of chance that allow users to waive these fees or win 1000 yen, while Bank of Tokyo Mitsubishi ATMs include biometric security technology.[2] Japanese 10 yen coin (obverse) showing Phoenix Hall of Byodoin Yen is the currency used in Japan. ... The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi, Ltd. ... At Disney World, biometric measurements are taken of the fingers of multi-day pass users to ensure that the pass is used by the same person from day to day. ...


Talking ATM

A Talking ATM is a type of ATM that provides audible instructions so that persons who cannot read an ATM screen can independently use the machine. All audible information is delivered privately through a standard jack on the face of the machine. A user plugs a standard headset into the jack, and can hear instructions such as "press 1 for withdrawal", "press 2 for deposit." There is an audible orientation for first time users, and audible information describing the location of features such as the number keypad, deposit slot, and card slot. The first Talking ATMs were installed in Canada in 1999, and the first U.S. Talking ATM was installed in October of that year in San Francisco. By 2005, there were over 30,000 Talking ATMs in the United States, and audible machines installed in other countries as well. The blind community in the United States advocated heavily for development and installation of Talking ATMs, supported by the federal Americans with Disabilities Act.


Names

ATMs are known by a wide variety of names, some of which are more common in certain countries than others. While some names in use are generic, others are trademarks identifying certain ATM networks. Examples include: The Bass Red Triangle, was the first trademark registered in Britain in 1876. ...

Smaller indoor ATMs dispense money inside convenience stores and other busy areas.
Smaller indoor ATMs dispense money inside convenience stores and other busy areas.

Download high resolution version (744x1298, 596 KB)Large image of an ATM File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (744x1298, 596 KB)Large image of an ATM File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A convenience store is a small store or shop, generally accessible or local. ... Pleonasm is the use of more words than necessary to express an idea. ... Bancomat is the term used to refer to automatic teller machines in continental Europe. ... Continental Europe refers to the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and peninsulae. ... UBS AG NYSE: UBS, (SWX: CH0012032030) TYO: 8657 is a financial services company, headquartered in Basel and Zürich, Switzerland. ... Allied Irish Banks plc (AIB),(ISEQ: ALBK), (LSE: ALBK), (NYSE: AIB), (Xetra: AIB) is a commercial bank based in Ireland not to be mistaken for Anglo Irish Bank. ... Hebrew (עִבְרִית ‘Ivrit) is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than 7 million people, mainly in Israel, the West Bank, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ... Official language(s) Hawaiian and English Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 43rd 28,337 km² n/a km 2,450 km 41. ... Bank of Hawaii is a regional commercial bank headquarted in Honolulu, Hawaii, owned by Bank of Hawaii Corporation (NYSE: BOH). ... ASB Bank is one of New Zealands largest banks, with branches throughout the country. ... The National Bank of New Zealand (NBNZ) is one of New Zealands largest banks. ... Lloyds TSB Group plc is a group of financial services companies, based in the United Kingdom, which was created in 1995 following the merger of the TSB Group and the Lloyds Bank Group. ... Lloyds TSB Group plc is a group of financial services companies, based in the United Kingdom, which was created in 1995 following the merger of the TSB Group and the Lloyds Bank Group. ... Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Official website: http://egov. ... Official language(s) English Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 25th 149,998 km² 340 km 629 km 4. ... Official language(s) English de-facto Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 11th 96,889 mi² / 250,941 km² 239 miles / 385 km 491 miles / 790 km 41. ... The Metropolitan Bank and Trust Company (PSE: MBT), commonly known as Metrobank, is the largest bank in the Philippines in terms of assets and is also the largest Philippine bank in terms of overseas presence. ... The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited (香港上海滙豐銀行), based in Hong Kong, is a wholly-owned subsidiary and the founding member of the HSBC Group, which is traded on several stock exchanges as HSBC Holdings PLC. It was established by the Scot Thomas Sutherland to finance trade in the Far East... Bank of the Philippine Islands or BPI (PSE: BPI) is the oldest bank in the Philippines still in operation and is the second-largest bank in the country in terms of assets, second only to Metrobank. ... Equitable PCI Bank (PSE: EPCI ) is one of the largest banks in the Philippines, being the third-largest bank in terms of assets. ... A personal identification number (PIN) is a numeric value (sometimes expressed as text using the standard telephone dial mapping) that is used in certain systems to gain access, and authenticate. ... TD Canada Trust is the personal, small business and commercial banking operation of The Toronto-Dominion Bank. ... Bank of Montreal TSX: BMO NYSE: BMO is Canadas fifth largest and the oldest chartered bank. ... Persian (فارسی = Fârsi . ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Official language(s) None defined, English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 47th 22,608 km² 110 km 240 km 14. ... Official language(s) None Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 33rd 119,283 km² 255 km 455 km 2. ... A trademark (Commonwealth English: trade mark) is a distinctive sign of some kind which is used by a business to uniquely identify itself and its products and services to consumers, and to distinguish the business and its products or services from those of other businesses. ... ANZ Banking Group (New Zealand) is one of New Zealands leading banking and financial groups. ... Banco de Oro Universal Bank (PSE: BDO ), commonly known as Banco de Oro, BDO, or BDO Unibank to a lesser extent, is one of the largest banks in the Philippines, ranking sixth in terms of assets. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 23rd 169,790 km² 420 km 500 km 17 42°30N to 47°3N 86°49W to 92°54W Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 18th 5,453,896 38. ... Union Bank of the Philippines, more commonly known as UnionBank, is one of the largest banks in the Philippines. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 3rd 410,000 km² 402. ... Bank of America (BofA) NYSE: BAC TYO: 8648 , based in Charlotte, North Carolina is the third largest commercial bank in the United States of America, measured in assets. ...

See also

Financial cryptography (FC) is the use of cryptography in applications with strong financial motivation. ... A personal identification number (PIN) is a numeric value (sometimes expressed as text using the standard telephone dial mapping) that is used in certain systems to gain access, and authenticate. ... RAS syndrome (Redundant Acronym Syndrome syndrome) is a humorous term referring to the common tendency to use one of the words which make up an acronym or initialism as well as the abbreviation itself, thus in effect repeating that word. ...

External links

General

Categories: Magazines stubs | Time Warner subsidiaries | Business magazines ...

Some ATM manufacturers

  • Perto S.A.
  • KEBA
  • HATEF
  • Diebold
  • NCR
  • IBM (Wincor Nixdorf partner)
  • Wincor Nixdorf
  • Tidel
  • Triton

ATM Software Companies

  • KAL


  Results from FactBites:
 
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Automated teller machine Summary (3526 words)
Most ATMs are connected to interbank networks, such as Visa and Mastercard, enabling people to withdraw and deposit money from machines not belonging to the bank where they have their account or in the country where their accounts are held.
ATMs are required by law to inform you of the fees that the machine will charge you, this may come in the push through menu or it may be on a sticker on the machine.
ATMs typically connect directly to their ATM Transaction Processor via either a dial-up modem over a telephone line or directly via a leased line.
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