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Encyclopedia > Autologous

In biology, autologous refers to cells, tissues or even proteins that are reimplanted in the same individual as they come from. Main articles: Life The most salient example of biological universality is that all living things share a common carbon-based biochemistry and in particular pass on their characteristics via genetic material, which is based on nucleic acids such as DNA and which uses a common genetic code with only minor... Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms, and are sometimes called the building blocks of life. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ...


For instance, bone marrow or cartilage may be donated autologously. Bone marrow (or medulla ossea) is the tissue comprising the center of large bones. ...


Autologous blood donation

In blood banking terminology, autologous refers to a blood donation marked for use by the donor, often in an upcoming scheduled surgery. A blood bank is a cache or bank of blood or blood components, gathered as a result of blood donation, stored and preserved for later use in blood transfusions. ...


Advantages are:

  • Blood type will always match, even with a rare blood type or antibody type
  • The risk of infectious disease such as hepatitis or HIV is reduced
  • Donations made in this way need not be tested for blood borne diseases
  • The risk of allergic reactions or incompatibility is reduced

The primary disadvantages are the significantly higher cost and the need to make all necessary arrangements well in advance. Autologous blood is stored at one specific hospital clearly labelled for use by one specific patient; if it is not used by that patient, it is discarded. A blood type is a description of an individuals characteristics of red blood cells due to substances (carbohydrates and proteins) on the cell membrane. ... Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody is a protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ... Hepatitis is a gastroenterological disease, featuring inflammation of the liver. ... The human immunodeficiency virus, commonly called HIV, is a retrovirus that primarily infects vital components of the human immune system such as CD4+ T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. ... An allergy or Type I hypersensitivity is an immune malfunction whereby a persons body is hypersensitised to react immunologically to typically nonimmunogenic substances. ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ...


There is also the risk that, in an emergency or if more blood is required than has been set aside in advance, the patient could still be exposed to donor blood instead of autologous blood. Autologous donation is also not suitable for patients who are medically unable to or not advised to give blood, such as cardiac patients or small children and infants. This page is about the muscular organ, the Heart. ... A male toddler A child (plural: children) is a young human. ...


Directed blood donation

Directed donations are blood from donors chosen by the patient or family, usually a friend or relative with the same blood type.


Directed blood donors must meet the same criteria as regular blood donors.


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Autologous definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms easily defined on MedTerms (218 words)
Autologous: In blood transfusion and transplantation, a situation in which the donor and recipient are the same person.
Patients scheduled for non-emergency surgery may be autologous donors by donating blood for themselves that will be stored until the surgery.
An autologous graft is providing a graft, for example of skin, to yourself.
Umbilical cord blood banks for autologous use or for research (1779 words)
In 50% of autologous grafts, patients are over the age of 50, and patients under the age of 20 represent 10% of that population.
Although organising the preservation of cord blood for autologous purposes must of necessity compare favourably with allogenic bank procedures as regards stringency and safety, autologous therapeutic indications are not at all comparable to those of allogenic procedures, and in the present state of scientific progress, are very nearly virtual.
Autologous transplant indications are more frequent for adults than for children : the International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry (IBMTR/ABMTR http://www.ibmtr.org/newsletter/newsletter.asp) reports that between 1997 and 2000 ~5% of autografts concerned patients under the age of 20, whereas more than 50% were performed on patients over the age of 50.
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