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Encyclopedia > Autoclave
Stovetop autoclaves need to be monitored carefully and are the simplest of all autoclaves
Multiple large autoclaves are used for processing substantial quantities of laboratory equipment prior to reuse, and infectious material prior to disposal.

Under ordinary circumstances (at standard pressure), liquid water cannot be heated above 100 °C in an open vessel. Further heating results in boiling, but does not raise the temperature of the liquid water. However, when water is heated in a sealed vessel such as an autoclave, it is possible to heat liquid water to a much higher temperature. As the container is heated the pressure rises due to the constant volume of the container (see the ideal gas law). The boiling point of the water is raised because the amount of energy needed to form steam against the higher pressure is increased. This works well on solid objects; when autoclaving hollow objects, however, (hypodermic needles, tools, etc.), it is important to ensure that all of the trapped air inside the hollow compartments is vacuumed out. Temperature and air pressure can vary from one place to another on the Earth, and can also vary in the same place with time. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Boiling, a type of phase transition, is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which typically occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmospheric pressure. ... The use of water pressure - the Captain Cook Memorial Jet in Lake Burley Griffin, Canberra. ... The volume of a solid object is the three-dimensional concept of how much space it occupies, often quantified numerically. ... Isotherms of an ideal gas The ideal gas law is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas, first stated by BenoÃ®t Paul Ã‰mile Clapeyron in 1834. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled steam and water vapor, accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Different bevels on hypodermic needles Syringe on left, hypodermic needle with attached color-coded luer lock on right. ... A modern hammer is directly descended from ancient hand tools A tool or device is a piece of equipment which typically provides a mechanical advantage in accomplishing a physical task. ... Layers of Atmosphere (NOAA) Air redirects here. ...

Simple autoclaves use a single pulse pre-vacuum, while a modern day autoclave has fractioned pre-vacuum that pulls the air out in several stages to achieve 100% steam penetration in the sterilization process. Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture of compounds by their boiling point, by heating to high enough temperatures. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled steam and water vapor, accessible from a disambiguation page. ...

Autoclaves are widely used in microbiology, medicine, veterinary science, dentistry and metallurgy. The large carbon-fiber composite parts for the Boeing 787, such as wing and fuselage parts, are cured in large autoclaves.[2] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... medicines, see medication and pharmacology. ... Veterinary medicine is the application of medical diagnostic and therapeutic principles to companion, domestic, exotic, wildlife, and production animals. ... A Dentist and Dental Assistant perform surgery on a patient. ... Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and of materials engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. ... A cloth of woven carbon filaments Carbon fiber or carbon fibre (See spelling differences) can refer to carbon filament thread, or to felt or woven cloth made from those carbon filaments. ... Composite materials (or composites for short) are engineered materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties and which remain separate and distinct within the finished structure. ... The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661 ) is an aerospace and defense corporation headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. ... The Boeing 787 Dreamliner is a mid-sized, wide body, twin engined jet airliner currently under development by Boeings Commercial Airplanes unit and scheduled to enter service in May 2008. ... A Laughing Gull with its wings extended in a gull wing profile Aircraft wing planform shapes: a swept wing KC-10 Extender (top) refuels a trapezoid-wing F/A-22 Raptor A wing is a surface used to produce lift and therefore flight, for travel in the air or another... The fuselage can be short, and seemingly unaerodynamic, as in this Christen Eagle 2 The fuselage (from the French fuselÃ© spindle-shaped) is an aircrafts main body section that holds crew and passengers or cargo. ...

## Autoclaves in medicine

A medical autoclave is a device that uses steam to sterilize equipment and other objects. This means that all bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores are inactivated. However, in 2003 scientists discovered a single-celled organism, Strain 121, that survives traditional autoclave temperatures.[2] Prions, like those associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, also may not be destroyed by autoclaving. It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled steam and water vapor, accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Sterilization (or Sterilisation) is the elimination of all transmissible agents (such as bacteria, prions and viruses) from a surface or piece of equipment. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus (from the Latin noun virus, meaning toxin or poison) is a microscopic particle (ranging in size from 20 - 300 nm) that can infect the... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... This article is about a biological reproductive structure; for the video game, see Spore (video game). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms, sometimes called the building blocks of life. ... Strain 121 is a single-celled microbe, of the domain Archaea. ... For the theoretical subatomic particle, see Preon. ... Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a very rare and incurable degenerative neurological disorder (brain disease) that is ultimately fatal. ...

Autoclaves are found in many medical settings and other places that need to ensure sterility of an object. They were once more common, but many procedures today use single-use items rather than sterilized, reusable items. This first happened with hypodermic needles, but today many surgical instruments (such as forceps, needle holders, and scalpel handles) are commonly single-use items rather than reusable. Different bevels on hypodermic needles Syringe on left, hypodermic needle with attached color-coded luer lock on right. ... A surgical instrument is a specially designed tool or device for performing specific actions of carrying out desired effects during a surgery or operation, such as modifying biological tissue, or to provide access or viewing it. ... Forceps are a hand-held instrument used for grasping and holding objects, similar in concept to tongs, tweezers or pincers. ... Different bevels on hypodermic needles. ... A scalpel is a very sharp knife used for surgery, anatomical dissection, and various arts and crafts. ...

Because damp heat is used, heat-labile products (such as some plastics) cannot be sterilised this way or they will melt. Some paper or other products that may be damaged by the steam must also be sterilised another way. In stovetop autoclaves, items should always be separated to allow the steam to penetrate the load evenly. This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Lability is constantly undergoing change or something that is likely to undergo change. ... The term plastics covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic condensation or polymerization products that can be molded or extruded into objects or films or fibers. ... A blank sheet of paper Paper is a commodity of thin material produced by the amalgamation of fibers, typically vegetable fibers composed of cellulose, which are subsequently held together by hydrogen bonding. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled steam and water vapor, accessible from a disambiguation page. ...

## Chemiclave

Unlike the humid environment produced by conventional steam, the unsaturated chemical vapor method is a low-humidity process. No time-consuming drying phase is needed, because nothing gets wet. The heat-up time is shorter than for most steam sterilizers, and the heaters stay on between cycles to minimize warm-up time and increase the instrument turnover. Humidity is the quantity of moisture in the air. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled steam and water vapor, accessible from a disambiguation page. ... In chemistry, saturation has four different meanings: In physical chemistry, saturation is the point at which a solution of a substance can dissolve no more of that substance and additional amounts of that substance will appear as a precipitate. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... Vapor (US English) or vapour (British English) is the gaseous state of matter. ... Sterilization (or sterilisation) is the elimination of all transmissible agents (such as bacteria, prions and viruses) from a surface, a piece of equipment, food or biological culture medium. ...

## Autoclave quality assurance

Sterilization bags often have a “sterilization indicator mark” that typically darkens when sterilization temperatures have been reached. Comparing the mark on an unprocessed bag to a bag that has been properly cycled will show an obvious visual difference.

There are physical, chemical, and biological indicators that can be used to ensure an autoclave reaches the correct temperature for the correct amount of time. sterilization indicator mark File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... sterilization indicator mark File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Physics (Greek: (phÃºsis), nature and (phusikÃ©), knowledge of nature) is the branch of science concerned with the fundamental laws of the universe. ... Chemistry - the study of atoms, made of nuclei (conglomeration of center particles) and electrons (outer particles), and the structures they form. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... pH measurement with indicator paper. ... Fig. ... A pocket watch, a device used to tell time Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Chemical indicators can be found on medical packaging and autoclave tape, and these change color once the correct conditions have been met. This color change indicates that the object inside the package, or under the tape, has been autoclaved sufficiently. Biological indicators include Attest devices. These contain spores of a heat-resistant bacterium, Bacillus stearothermophillus. If the autoclave does not reach the right temperature, the spores will germinate, and their metabolism will change the color of a pH-sensitive chemical. Physical indicators often consist of an alloy designed to melt only after being subjected to 121 °C for 15 minutes. If the alloy melts, the change will be visible. A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... In chemistry, indicators are chemical substances added to reaction mixtures when performing titrations. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. ... Packaging is the enclosing of a physical object, typically a product that will be offered for sale. ... Autoclave tape is used when autoclaving to indicate whether the correct temperature has been reached for the elimination of practically all living organisms (typically 121 degrees celcius for 15 minutes). ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... The term spore has several different meanings in biology. ... It has been suggested that Germination rate be merged into this article or section. ... A few of the metabolic pathways in a cell. ... The correct title of this article is . ... An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ...

In addition to these indicators, autoclaves have temperature and pressure gauges that can be viewed from the outside. Many techniques have been developed for the measurement of reduced or increased pressures. ...

There are certain plastics that can withstand repeated temperature cycling greater than the 121 °C required for the autoclaving process. PFA is an example. The term plastics covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic condensation or polymerization products that can be molded or extruded into objects or films or fibers. ... Teflon is polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), a polymer of fluorinated ethylene. ...

Some computer-controlled autoclaves use an F0 (F-naught) value to control the sterilization cycle. F0 values are set as the number of minutes of equivalent sterilization at 121 °C (e.g: F0 = 15 min.). Since exact temperature control is difficult, the temperature is monitored, and the sterilization time adjusted accordingly. Sterilization (or sterilisation) is the elimination of all transmissible agents (such as bacteria, prions and viruses) from a surface, a piece of equipment, food or biological culture medium. ...

(These directions are for a typical front loading autoclave, but apply to most autoclaves)

1. Clean and inspect the autoclave regularly. Check the autoclave door gasket, drum, and steam return filter for corroded pipes.
2. Use distilled De-ionized water, or other clean neutral pH water.
3. Autoclave dissimilar metals (aluminum, brass, steel) in different loads as electroplating may occur which will permanently stain the tool.
4. Use towels to separate instruments and absorb moisture if needed.
5. Autoclave hinged instruments in the non locked open position, if locked the tool may become damaged (usually at the hinge).
6. No sharp instruments should be allowed to touch other instruments.
7. Do not over pack the autoclave, steam should be able to get to all sides of all pouches.

## AutoClave in Popular Culture

On the televison show MASH an episode named “Operation Friendship” features an autoclave accident that injures BJ Hunnicutt and Maxwell Klinger when an electrical disturbance causes the autoclave to break Look up Mash in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Mash may refer to: Mobile Army Surgical Hospital. ... Captain B.J. Hunnicutt (played by Mike Farrell) is a fictional character in the TV show M*A*S*H, which ran from 1972-1983 on CBS. Captain Hunnicutt resided in Mill Valley, California before he was recruited to join the US Army to fight in the War. ... Maxwell Q. Klinger is a fictional character from the M*A*S*H television series played by American actor Jamie Farr. ...

Autoclaved Aerated concrete (AAC), or otherwise known as Autoclave Cellular Concrete (ACC), is a lightweight, precast building material. ... a pressure cooker Pressure cooker redirects here. ... Sterilization (or sterilisation) is the elimination of all transmissible agents (such as bacteria, prions and viruses) from a surface, a piece of equipment, food or biological culture medium. ... A waste autoclave is a form of solid waste treatment that utilises heat, steam and pressure of an industrial autoclave in the processing of waste. ...

## References

1. ^ Chronological reference marks - Charles Chamberland (1851-1908). Pasteur Institute. Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
2. ^ a b Kageyama, Yuri (2007-04-29). Up to Speed. heraldnet.com. Retrieved on 2007-04-30.

2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ...

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