FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Autobahn" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Autobahn
The German Autobahn sign
The German Autobahn sign
The Austrian Autobahn sign
The Austrian Autobahn sign
The Swiss Autobahn and Italian autostrada sign

Autobahn  (English: /ˈɔːtəʊbɑːn/; German: IPA: [ˈaʊtoːbaːn], plural Autobahnen) is the German word for a major high-speed road restricted to motor vehicles capable of driving at least 60 km/h (37 mph) and having full control of access, similar to a motorway or freeway in English-speaking countries. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... The autobahn sign All Autobahns The Autobahns are the nationally coordinated motorway system in Germany. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Kraftwerk (pronounced , German for power station) is a Grammy award nominated, electronic music band from Düsseldorf, Germany. ... Autobahn (German for motorway) is an album by Kraftwerk, released in 1974. ... Places named Audubon: Audubon, Minnesota Audubon, New Jersey Audubon County, Iowa The National Audubon Society John James Audubon This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Image File history File links Zeichen_330. ... Image File history File links Zeichen_330. ... Image File history File links Hinweiszeichen_8a. ... Image File history File links Hinweiszeichen_8a. ... Image File history File links AutobahnCH.svg Summary Motorway mark in Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland and Italy. ... Image File history File links AutobahnCH.svg Summary Motorway mark in Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland and Italy. ... Autostrada sign Autostrada is the Italian word for motorways/freeways, but is used in several countries including Belgium, Switzerland, Lithuania, Poland, Egypt, Israel, Albania and Romania. ... Image File history File links DE_Autobahn. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Road (disambiguation). ... A limited-access road or controlled-access road is a road to which access from adjacent properties is limited in some way. ... Motorway symbol in UK, Australia, Spain, France and Ireland. ... For specific systems, such as the Autobahns of Germany, see list of highway systems with full control of access and no cross traffic. ...


In most countries, it usually refers to the German autobahn specifically. The recommended speed of the German autobahn is 130 km/h (81 mph), but there is no speed limit. Austrian and Swiss autobahns have general speed limits of 130 km/h (81 mph) and 120 km/h (75 mph), respectively. In German, the word is pronounced as described above, and its plural is Autobahnen; in English, however, the segment "auto" is typically pronounced as in other English words such as "automobile". The official name of the autobahn in Germany is Bundesautobahn (BAB) (Federal Motorway). Autobahns are built and maintained by the federal government (as are the federal highways), thus the name "Federal Motorway". The first were built in the 1920s, and in the 1930s the official name was "Reichsautobahn" (Motorways of the Reich). Zeichen 380: Richtgeschwindigkeit (Beginn) in this case: 80 km/h Zeichen 381: Richtgeschwindigkeit (Ende) The Richtgeschwindigkeit (German for recommended speed) is a legal term in Germany describing a recommended speed for roads without a speed limit that should not be exceeded even with fine road, traffic, view and weather conditions. ... The autobahn sign The Autobahns, Autoroutes or Autostrade are the national freeway system in Switzerland. ...

Contents

Construction

Germany

Just like all European motorways, autobahns have multiple lanes of traffic in each direction, separated by a central barrier with grade-separated junctions and access restricted to certain types of motor vehicles only. The first road of this kind was completed in 1931 between Cologne and Bonn and opened by Konrad Adenauer (Lord Mayor of Cologne and future Chancellor of West Germany) on 6 August 1932.[1] This road was not yet called Autobahn, but instead was known as a Kraftfahrtstraße (lit. automobile road). The idea was a street which had no crossings and was only to be used by cars and motorcycles and not by pedestrians or the common horse drawn carts. Since Adolf Hitler did not become Chancellor until January 1933, the claim that the idea of the Autobahn was conceived by the Nazis is a myth.[2] An example of a four-level stack interchange in the Netherlands. ... Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. ... For other uses, see Konrad Adenauer (disambiguation). ... Councillor Patrick (Pat) John Stannard, Lord Mayor of Oxford (2004). ... Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than... The head of government in Germany has traditionally been called Kanzler (Chancellor). ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... National Socialism redirects here. ...


Nevertheless the Nazi regime pressed ahead with the construction of the Autobahn system. It was primarily an act to create jobs for the people and consequently lower the unemployment rate.


Each Reichsautobahn carriageway was flanked by banquettes about 60 cm in width, constructed of varying materials; right-hand banquettes on many autobahns were later retrofitted to 120 cm in width when it was realized cars needed the additional space to pull off the autobahn safely. In the postwar years, a thicker asphalt concrete cross-section with full paved hard shoulders came into general use. The maximum design speed was approximately 80 km/h in flat country but lower design speeds could be used in hilly or mountainous terrain. A flat-country autobahn constructed to published design standards in use during the Nazi period could support hands-off (banking of the roadway where the car would track straight, despite the curvature of the road) speeds on curves of about 40 km/h.

The number signet for the A 8 as it appears on all traffic signs
The number signet for the A 8 as it appears on all traffic signs

The current Bundesautobahn numbering system was introduced in West Germany in 1974. After the reunification of East and West Germany in 1990, the Deutsche Einheit Fernstraßenplanungs- und -bau GmbH (DEGES) was founded to coordinate necessary construction work in the new Länder. All Autobahns are named by using the capital letter A followed by a space and a number (for example A 8). The "main autobahns" going all across Germany have a single digit number usually even-numbered for east-west routes and odd-numbered for north-south routes. Shorter autobahns that are of regional importance (e.g. connecting two major cities or regions within Germany) have a double digit number (e.g. A 24, connecting Berlin and Hamburg). The system is as follows: Image File history File links Bundesautobahn_8_number. ... Image File history File links Bundesautobahn_8_number. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Autobahn. ... This article is about the 1990 German reunification. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The New Länder (German: Neue Länder) are collectively the states (Länder) of the former German Democratic Republic (East Germany) that joined the Federal Republic of Germany upon German reunification in 1990. ... Bundesautobahn 8 (BAB 8 or A 8) is an Autobahn that runs from Luxemburg border through southern Germany to Austrian border near Salzburg. ... Bundesautobahn 24 (translates from German as Federal Motorway 24, short form Autobahn 24, abbreviated as BAB 24 or A 24) is an autobahn in Germany. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). ...

Pattern of autobahns 10 to 999
Pattern of autobahns 10 to 999

There are also very short autobahns, of local importance (such as beltways, or the A 555 from Cologne to Bonn). These usually have three numbers, the first one of which is similar to the system above, depending on the region. Download high resolution version (1122x1515, 183 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1122x1515, 183 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Eastern Germany refers to: East Germany (communist state) Historical Eastern Germany Eastern provinces of Imperial Germany: East Prussia West Prussia Provinz Posen Silesia (Prussian province) Lower Silesia (Prussian province) Upper Silesia (Prussian province) Pomerania (Prussian province) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... With an area of 20,447 km² and a population of 2. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... For the similarly spelled Brandenberg, see Brandenberg (Austria) or Brandenburg (disambiguation) Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE4 Capital Potsdam Minister-President Matthias Platzeck (SPD) Governing parties SPD / CDU Votes in Bundesrat 4 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  29,479 km² (11,382... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... With eighteen million inhabitants inhabiting 34,080 km² in western-northwestern Germany, North Rhine-Westphalia (German Nordrhein-Westfalen) is largest in population though only fourth in area among Germanys sixteen federal states. ... The Rhine-Ruhr Area in Germany ranks among the large metropolitan areas in the world, with 11,233,678 people. ... The Rhine-Ruhr Area in Germany ranks among the large metropolitan areas in the world, with 11,233,678 people. ... The Rhenish Palatinate (Rheinpfalz, sometimes Lower Palatinate or Niederpfalz) occupies rather more than a quarter of the German Bundesland (federal state) of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) and contains the towns of Ludwigshafen, Kaiserslautern, Neustadt an der Weinstrasse, Pirmasens, Landau and Speyer. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEC Capital Saarbrücken Minister-President Peter Müller (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  2,569 km² (992 sq mi) Population 1,044,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 406 /km... Hesse is also the name of the German writer Hermann Hesse, as well as the German mathematician Otto Hesse. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE1 Capital Stuttgart Minister-President Günther Oettinger (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  35,752 km² (13,804 sq mi) Population 10,741,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... For the American political term, see Inside the Beltway and Beltway bandits. ... Bundesautobahn 555 (abbreviated BAB 555, short form Autobahn 555, abbreviated A555), connecting the cities of Köln (Cologne) and Bonn, was constructed in the years 1929 to 1932 and opened for traffic on August 6, 1932. ... Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. ...


Switzerland

In Switzerland, it is impractical to navigate using the autobahn numbers; instead it is useful to steer toward the largest city that lies in the intended target region; this is because traffic signs display the city names much more prominently than in Germany. In Switzerland, exits occur with greater frequency than in the other two.


History

Germany

Main article: German Autobahns
A German autobahn in the 1930s
A German autobahn in the 1930s
The original, two-lane autobahn, with no emergency lane (Germany)
The original, two-lane autobahn, with no emergency lane (Germany)
Swiss autobahn signs have a green background instead of a blue one (Germany, Austria)
Swiss autobahn signs have a green background instead of a blue one (Germany, Austria)
Typical section of modern autobahn near an exchange, with overhead direction signs.
Typical section of modern autobahn near an exchange, with overhead direction signs.

The idea for the construction of the autobahn was first conceived during the days of the Weimar Republic, but apart from the AVUS in Berlin, construction was slow, and most projected sections did not progress much beyond the planning stage due to economic problems and a lack of political support. One project was the private initiative HaFraBa which planned a "car-only road" (the name autobahn was created in 1929) crossing Germany from Hamburg in the North via central Frankfurt am Main to Basel in Switzerland. Parts of the HaFraBa were completed in the 1930s and early 1940s, but construction eventually was halted by World War II. The autobahn sign All Autobahns The Autobahns are the nationally coordinated motorway system in Germany. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3782x2742, 2242 KB) An automobile on the sweeping curves of the Autobahn with view of the countryside. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3782x2742, 2242 KB) An automobile on the sweeping curves of the Autobahn with view of the countryside. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Old_Autobahn_DE.jpg Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Old_Autobahn_DE.jpg Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Swiss Autobahn Sign. ... Swiss Autobahn Sign. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Autobahn_Overhead_Sign. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Autobahn_Overhead_Sign. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... The Automobil Verkehrs und Ãœbungs-Straße, better known as AVUS, was a motor racing circuit on the south-western outskirts of Berlin, Germany, between Charlottenburg and Nikolassee. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). ... Frankfurt am Main [ˈfraŋkfʊrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hessen and the fifth largest city of Germany. ... For other uses, see Basel (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Upon assuming power in January 1933, Adolf Hitler enthusiastically embraced an ambitious autobahn construction project. On 27 June 1933, the Reich government (Reichsregierung) enacted the "Law on the Establishment of a 'Reichsautobahn' Enterprise" (Gesetz über die Errichtung eines Unternehmens "Reichsautobahnen").[3] In accordance with Section 5 of this law, Hitler appointed Fritz Todt as Inspector General of German Roads (Generalinspektor für das deutsche Straßenwesen). Soon, over 100,000 laborers worked at construction sites all over Germany. Sections 1 and 5 of the same law assigned responsibility for the oversight of the "Reichsautobahn" enterprise to the German railway company, the Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft (DRG). However, this arrangement was terminated on 23 January 1935 by a decree transferring control of the enterprise to Todt, on the grounds that the DRG had not given the necessary priority to the project.[4] Hitler redirects here. ... Fritz Todt in the uniform of a major general of the Luftwaffe Fritz Todt (September 4, 1891 – February 8, 1942) was an German engineer and senior Nazi figure, the founder of Organisation Todt. ... The Deutsche Reichsbahn (DR, literally German Imperial Railway) was the name of the German national railway created from the railways of the individual states of the German Empire following the end of World War I. It was founded in 1920 as the Deutsche Reichseisenbahnen when the Weimar Republic (formally Deutsches...


As well as providing employment and improved infrastructure, necessary for economic recovery efforts, the project was also a great success for propaganda purposes. It has been said that another aim of the autobahn project, beyond creating national unity and strengthening centralized rule, was to provide mobility for the movement of military forces. This, however, overlooks the fact that gradients on autobahns built before the war were far too steep for the goods vehicles of the time[citation needed]. The autobahn's main purpose, then, was to enable a large proportion of the population to drive long distances in their own cars, enjoying the countryside along the way. This explains some of the autobahn's routing (as at Irschenberg on the A 8 from Munich to Salzburg) which offers spectacular views but is impractical for today's heavy goods traffic (see Nazi architecture). Many countries around the world have job creation programs to help people find work. ... Bundesautobahn 8 (BAB 8 or A 8) is an Autobahn that runs from Luxemburg border through southern Germany to Austrian border near Salzburg. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of the Austrian state of Salzburg. ... Germany pavilion at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne in Paris, 1937. ...


The autobahns formed the first limited-access, high-speed road network in the world, with the first section from Frankfurt am Main to Darmstadt opening in 1935. This straight section was used for high speed record attempts by the Grand Prix racing teams of Mercedes-Benz and Auto Union until a fatal accident involving popular German race driver Bernd Rosemeyer in early 1938. A similar high speed section was built between Dessau and Halle. Frankfurt am Main [ˈfraŋkfʊrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hessen and the fifth largest city of Germany. ... For other uses, see Darmstadt (disambiguation). ... Grand Prix motor racing has its roots in organised automobile racing that began in France as far back as 1894. ... This page is about the Mercedes-Benz brand of automobiles and trucks from the DaimlerChrysler automobile manufacturer. ... Auto Union Logo 1936 Auto Union Wanderer Auto Union was a joint venture of four German automobile manufacturers, established in 1932 in Zwickau, Saxony, during the Great Depression. ... Bernd Rosemeyer (born October 14, 1909 in Lingen, Lower Saxony, Germany – died January 28, 1938 on the Frankfurt/Darmstadt Autobahn) was a German racing driver. ... Dessau is a town in Germany on the junction of the rivers Mulde and Elbe, in the Bundesland (Federal State) of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Halle (also called Halle an der Saale (literally Halle on the Saale, and in some historic references is not uncommonly called Saale after the river) in order to distinguish it from Halle in North Rhine-Westphalia) is the largest city in the German State of Saxony-Anhalt. ...


During World War II, the central reservation of some autobahns were paved to allow their conversion into auxiliary airports. Aircraft were either concealed in numerous tunnels or camouflaged in nearby woods. However, for the most part, the autobahns were not militarily significant. Motor vehicles could not carry goods as quickly or in as much bulk as trains could, and the autobahns could not be used by tanks as their weight and caterpillar tracks tore up the roads' delicate surfaces. Furthermore, the general shortage of gasoline which Germany experienced during much of the war, as well as the relatively low number of trucks and motor vehicles badly needed for direct support of military operations, further decreased the attractiveness of autobahns for significant transport. As a result, most military and economic freight continued to be carried by rail. After the war, numerous sections of the autobahns were in bad shape, severely damaged by heavy Allied bombing and military demolition. As well, thousands of kilometers of autobahns remained unfinished, their construction brought to a halt by 1943 due to the increasing demands of the war effort. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... </nowiki> Rear sprocket of a Leclerc tank Track of a Leclerc tank U.S. M60 Patton tank. ...


In West Germany, following the war, most existing autobahns were soon repaired. During the 1950s, the West German government restarted the construction program; it continuously invested in new sections and in improvements to older ones. The finishing of the incomplete sections took longer, with some stretches being opened to traffic only in the 1980s. Some sections cut by the Iron Curtain in 1945 were only completed after German reunification in 1990. Finally, certain sections were never completed, as more advantageous routes were found. Some of these sections stretch across the landscape forming a unique type of modern ruin, often easily visible on satellite photographs.[citation needed] Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... This article is about the 1990 German reunification. ... Industrial archaeology, like other branches of archeology, is the study of the past, but with a focus on industry or industrial heritage. ...


The autobahns in East Germany (GDR) and the former German provinces of East Prussia, eastern Pomerania and Silesia in Poland and the Soviet Union after 1945 were grossly neglected in comparison to those in West Germany and Western Europe in general. They received minimal maintenance during the years of the Cold War. In many places only one side of the carriageway is driveable, while the other had never received any maintenance since 1943. The speed limit on the GDR autobahns was 100 km/h, however lower speed limits were frequently encountered due to the poor condition of the road surface, changing quickly in some instances. The speed limits on the GDR autobahns were rigorously enforced by the Volkspolizei, whose patrol cars were frequently encountered hiding under camouflage waiting for speeders. In the 1970s and 80s, the West German government paid millions of Deutsche Marks to the GDR for construction and maintenance of the transit autobahns between West Germany and West Berlin, although there were indications that the GDR diverted some of the earmarked maintenance funds for other purposes. This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Pommern redirects here. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The Volkspolizei (German for Peoples Police) was the national police of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), whose officers were commonly nicknamed VoPos. ... The Deutsche Mark (DM, DEM) was the official currency of West and, from 1990, unified Germany. ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ...


Switzerland

A short stretch of autobahn around the Lucerne area in 1955 created Switzerland's first autobahn. For Expo 1964, an autobahn was built between Lausanne and Geneva. The Bern-Lenzburg route was inaugurated in 1967. For other uses, see Lucerne (disambiguation). ... Look up expo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lausanne (pronounced ) is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, situated on the shores of Lake Geneva (French: Lac Léman), and facing Évian-les-Bains (France) and with the Jura mountains to its north. ... For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... Location within Switzerland The city of Bern, English traditionally Berne (Bernese German Bärn , German Bern , French Berne , Italian Berna , Romansh Berna ), is the Bundesstadt (administrative capital) of Switzerland, and is the fourth most populous Swiss city (after Zürich, Geneva and Basel). ... Lenzburg is a town in the central regions of the Swiss canton of Aargau and is the capital of the district of the same name. ...


Current density

Map of the German autobahn network
Map of the German autobahn network
Map of the Swiss autobahn network
Map of the Swiss autobahn network

Today, Germany's autobahn network has a total length of about 12,200 km (in 2005), which ranks as the third-longest in the world behind the Interstate Highway System of the United States and the National Trunk Highway System (NTHS) of the People's Republic of China. Image File history File links Autobahnen_in_Deutschland. ... Image File history File links Autobahnen_in_Deutschland. ... Autobahn network of Switzerland, self drawn File links The following pages link to this file: Transportation in Switzerland Autobahn Categories: GFDL images ... Autobahn network of Switzerland, self drawn File links The following pages link to this file: Transportation in Switzerland Autobahn Categories: GFDL images ... Interstate Highways in the lower 48 states. ... The National Trunk Highway System (NTHS) is a system of freeways currently under construction in the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The Swiss autobahn network has a total length of 1,638 km (as of 2000) and has, by an area of 41,290 km², also the one of the highest motorway densities in the world. The Swiss autobahn network has not yet been completed; priority has been given to the most important routes, especially the north-south and the east-west axes. The gaps in the autobahn network are apparent in the graphic. Motorway symbol in UK, Australia, Spain, France and Ireland. ...


Germany

Many sections of Germany's autobahns are modern, containing three lanes in addition to an emergency lane. Some other sections remain in their original state, with two lanes, no emergency lane, short ramps, etc. Such a combination of the two types of autobahn can be seen on the A 9 autobahn (Munich-Berlin). Heading out from Munich, the autobahn starts off as a modern, five lane in each direction + emergency lane autobahn. However, after heading into Thuringia, which was formerly part of East Germany, parts of the autobahn are no wider than two lanes and no emergency lane exists (only rare emergency bays with a telephone post in orange-yellow). Ongoing roadworks will eventually bring the entire A 9 to three-lane standard. Bundesautobahn 9 (translates from German as Federal Motorway 9, short form Autobahn 9, abbreviated as BAB 9 or A 9) is an autobahn in Germany, connecting Berlin and Munich. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ...


Switzerland

Swiss autobahns usually have an emergency lane, except in tunnels. Some newly built autobahn sections, like the lone section crossing the Jura region in the north-western part of Switzerland, only have emergency bays. This may be due to the improved reliability of automobiles. Looking towards Lelex from near to Crêt de la Neige The Jura folds are located north of the main Alpine orogenic front and are being continually deformed, accommodating the northwards compression from Alpine folding. ...


Speed limits

A hard limit is imposed on some vehicles:

60 km/h
  • Buses carrying standing passengers (except in Switzerland)
  • Motorcycles pulling trailers (in Switzerland: 80 km/h)
80 km/h
  • Vehicles with a gross weight rating (GWR) exceeding 3.5 t (except passenger cars)
  • Passenger cars and trucks with trailers
  • Buses or Coaches (in Switzerland: 120 km/h)
100 km/h
  • Vehicles with a gross weight rating (GWR) not exceeding 3.5 t pulling trailers certified for 100 km/h
  • Buses or Coaches certified for 100 km/h not pulling trailers
  • Passenger cars and trucks with trailers specially certified for 100 km/h

Germany

The "derestriction" sign lifts all restrictions (on passing, speed limits, etc.) except blanket ones. These include speed limits of 120 km/h in Switzerland and 130 km/h in Austria; Germany is the only European country with no speed limit.
The "derestriction" sign lifts all restrictions (on passing, speed limits, etc.) except blanket ones. These include speed limits of 120 km/h in Switzerland and 130 km/h in Austria; Germany is the only European country with no speed limit.

The German autobahns are famous for being some of the few public roads in the world without blanket speed limits for cars and motorcycles. Certainly, speed limits do apply at junctions and other danger points, like sections under construction or in need of repair. Speed limits at non-construction sites are typically 100 km/h, 120 km/h, or 130 km/h, on the A2 are also parts with a 140 km/h speed limit. Construction sites have a usual speed limit of 80 km/h but may be as low as 60 km/h or even 40 km/h. Certain stretches have separate, and lower, speed limits used in cases of wet lanes. These stretches often feature an electronic speed limit signal that utilises monitors mounted above the roadway. For example, if weather conditions worsen on a stretch of autobahn, the monitors above the roadway may signal a temporary speed limit. Image File history File links Zeichen_282. ... Image File history File links Zeichen_282. ... A road speed limit is the maximum speed as allowed by law for road vehicles. ...


Some limits were imposed to reduce pollution and noise. Limits can also be put into place temporarily through dynamic traffic guidance systems that display the according traffic signs. If there is no speed limit, the recommended speed limit is 130 km/h, referred to in German as the Richtgeschwindigkeit; this speed is not a binding limit, but being involved in an accident at higher speeds can lead to being deemed at least partially responsible due to "increased operating danger" (Erhöhte Betriebsgefahr). The average speed traveled on the autobahn in unregulated areas by automobiles not regulated by other laws is about 150 km/h.[citation needed] On average, about three quarters of the total length of the German autobahn network has no speed limit, about one quarter has a permanent limit, and the remaining parts have a temporary limit for a number of reasons. Zeichen 380: Richtgeschwindigkeit (Beginn) in this case: 80 km/h Zeichen 381: Richtgeschwindigkeit (Ende) The Richtgeschwindigkeit (German for recommended speed) is a legal term in Germany describing a recommended speed for roads without a speed limit that should not be exceeded even with fine road, traffic, view and weather conditions. ...


Effective April 9, 2008, Bremen (Germany's northernmost city-state) begans enforcing a general 120 kilometers per hour speed limit, citing environmental concerns. However, Bremen's new limit will only impact an additional 11 kilometers of Bremen's 60 kilometers of highway [5]; most Bremen autobahn already had some speed restriction due to congestion and noise [6]. This article is about the city in Germany. ...


In places without a general limit, there are mostly also no restrictions on overtaking, except for the Rechtsfahrgebot, a rule that requires drivers to use the right lane if possible and only pass other cars on their left, except when heavy traffic does not permit this. Therefore, those traveling at high speeds may regularly encounter trucks running side-by-side at only about 80 km/h. In theory, trucks are not allowed to overtake others unless they drive 20 km/h faster than whomever they are overtaking, but truck drivers are generally under pressure to arrive in time, and such laws are rarely enforced for economic and political reasons, as many trucks are from foreign countries. The right lane of a typical autobahn is often crowded with trucks, and often, trucks pull out to overtake. Due to size and speed this is often referred to as 'Elefantenrennen' (Elephant Race). In some zones with only two lanes in both directions there is no speed limit, but a special overtaking restriction for trucks and/or cars pulling trailers. (An exception is Sundays, on which trucks usually are not allowed to drive, except for trucks with perishable goods and certain other exceptions.)


Many modern cars are capable of speeds of over 200 km/h, and most large manufacturers of luxury cars follow a gentlemen's agreement by technically limiting the top speed of their cars to 250 km/h for safety reasons (inexperienced drivers and risk of tire failing, especially when underinflated). Yet, these limiters can easily be defeated on request at the relevant manufacturer's dealership (with an electronic diagnosis device), so speeds exceeding 300 km/h are not unheard of, although due to common speed limits and other traffic, such speeds are rarely attainable. Especially in rural areas excessively speeding cars may pose a threat at night, as other drivers may not anticipate the real speed of overtaking traffic, which may approach more than 100 km/h faster compared to the remaining traffic. A Gentlemens agreement is an informal agreement between two or more parties. ... Firestone tire This article is about pneumatic tires. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Vehicles unable to attain speeds in excess of 60 km/h are not allowed to use the autobahn. Though this limit is not high for most modern vehicles, it prevents very small cars (e.g. Quads) and motor-scooters (e.g. Mofas) from using autobahns. To comply with this limit, several heavy-duty trucks (e.g. for carrying heavy equipment) have a design speed of 62 km/h (usually denoted by a round black-on-white sign with "62" on it). The ATV is commonly called a quad (quad-bike) in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. ...


Accident record

The overall safety record of German autobahns is generally better than other European motorways. German autobahn fatality rates are lower than Austria's and higher than Switzerland's rates. Motorways are safer than other road types, as documented below. Road-traffic safety aims to reduce the harm (deaths, injuries, and property damage) resulting from crashes of road vehicles traveling on public roads. ...

Rate = Killed per 1 Billion Veh·km [7]
Autobahn Other Roads Total Autobahn Other Roads Total Autobahn
YEAR Fatalities[3] Fatalities Fatalities Death Rate[4] Death Rate Death Rate (% of Road Travel)
1970 945 18,248 19,193 27.0 84.5 76.5 14
1980 804 12,237 13,041 10.0 42.6 35.4 22
1985 669 7,731 8,400 7.1 26.7 21.9 25
1990[8] 936 6,970 7,906 6.9 19.8 16.2 28
1995 978 8,476 9,454 5.5 19.0 15.1 29
2000 907 6,596 7,503 4.5 14.3 11.3 31
2005 662 4,699 5,361 3.0 10.0 7.8 31

A 2005 study by the German Federal Interior Ministry (Bundesministerium des Innern) indicated that motorway sections with unrestricted speed have the same accident record as sections with speed limits. The only identifiable source of traffic risks in connection with speeding have been high-powered, light trucks that came up within the last 15 years and as they are used by courier services (e.g. Mercedes-Benz Sprinter and trucks alike). Over the years they were only capable of speeds comparable to heavy duty trucks, but since manufacturers began to build in significantly more powerful engines they attain speeds of up to 180 km/h. This led to a significant portion of fatal accidents being caused by such vehicles [9] due to the driver overestimating his or the cars ability to cope with sudden and heavy braking, side-winds, etc. Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the year. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Mercedes-Benz Sprinter is a big delivery van, chassis cab and minibus built by DaimlerChrysler by Düsseldorf and sold under its Mercedes-Benz, Dodge, and Freightliner brands. ...


Public debate

Since the mid-1980s, when environmental issues gained importance and recognition among lawmakers, interest groups and the general public, there has been an ongoing debate on whether or not a general speed limit should be imposed for all motorways. A car's fuel consumption increases with speed, and fuel conservation is a key factor in reducing air pollution. Safety issues have been cited as well with regards to speed-related fatalities. Those opposed to a general speed limit maintain that such regulation is unnecessary because only two percent of all roads in Germany would be affected and because better fuel economy even at high speeds has been achieved in most modern cars. Moreover, international accident statistics demonstrate that Autobahn-like roads have a superior safety record, regardless of speed limit. Another reason is that the German cars have a high speed image and so the car lobby (VDA, ADAC, Porsche, Mercedes, Audi, BMW, etc.) is against a speed limit. The field of road safety is concerned with reducing the numbers or the consequences of vehicle crashes, by developing and implementing management systems based in a multidisciplinary and holistic approach, with interrelated activities in a number of fields. ...


In the discussion about such plans during his political term of office, the former Bundeskanzler Gerhard Schröder called Germany an "Autofahrernation" (a nation of drivers) to point out the fact that a speed limit would not be generally accepted by the public. Bundeskanzler (Federal Chancellor) is the formal title in German for: The head of the German federal government: Chancellor of Germany The head of the Austrian federal government: Chancellor of Austria A Swiss federal government official: List of Federal Chancellors of Switzerland The female version of the title is Bundeskanzlerin. ...   [] (born April 7, 1944), German politician, was Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005. ...


Twenty-odd years after the beginning of this debate, there are still no definite plans by the German government concerning such a speed limit. In October of 2007, at a party congress held by the SPD, one of Germany's governing parties, delegates narrowly approved a proposal to introduce a blanket speed limit of 130 km/h (80 mph) on all German Autobahns. While this initiative is primarily a part of the SPD's general strategic outline for the near future and according to practices not necessarily meant to affect immediate government policy, the proposal stirred up a renewed debate about the pros and cons of such a measure. Germany's chancellor Angela Merkel and leading cabinet members have expressed outspoken disapproval; polls conducted in the wake of the proposal, however, showed the country deeply divided on the issue, with figures either putting approval or rejection scantly above the 50 percent mark. In a subsequent vote on the issue in the German Bundestag, however, the speed limit bill was thrown out and at present it is as unlikely as before that German Autobahns will see a general speed limit being imposed anytime soon. Social Democratic Party of Germany Spectral Power Density ...   (IPA: ) (born Angela Dorothea Kasner, 17 July 1954, in Hamburg, Germany), is the Chancellor of Germany. ... Type Lower house President of the Bundestag Dr. Norbert Lammert, CDU since October 18, 2005 Members 614 Political groups Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union of Bavaria Bloc (226) Social Democratic Party of Germany (222) Free Democratic Party (61) The Left. ...


Toll requirements

Germany

A recent development involves the introduction of mandatory tolls (Mautpflicht) for heavy trucks (weighing 12 t or more) on 1 January 2005. The German government contracted a private company, Toll Collect GmbH to operate the toll collection system, which involves the use of vehicle-mounted transponders and roadway-mounted sensors installed throughout Germany. The introduction of this system experienced several technical delays resulting in the loss of millions of Euros in potential revenue to the government. One result of the new toll policy has been an increase in heavy truck traffic on regular highways (Bundesstraßen and Landstraßen) in order to avoid paying tolls. There have been recent discussions about extending the toll requirement to include passenger cars, however this has proven so far to be very unpopular with a majority of the public and politicians of the major parties have denied they are considering such measures. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Truckers without electronic billing units use a Toll Collect terminal to select a route and pay the appropriate toll Toll Collect GmbH is a German company that has developed and is running the toll billing system for trucks on German motorways. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...


Austria and Switzerland

Both the Swiss and Austrian autobahn systems require the purchase of a vignette (toll sticker) for passenger cars in order to use their respective roadways. But there is also the possibility of some routes where you have to pay an extra toll in case of more expensive cost of preservation by the autobahn-company (e.g. tunnels or high alpine autobahns). The Swiss vignette is offered only as an annual toll sticker, while the Austrians offer their vignettes in varying lengths of validity (10 days, 2 months or a year). Vignettes are small, coloured stickers affixed to motor vehicles passing through motorways and motorroads in some European nations, such as Switzerland, Austria, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Hungary and several others. ...


Since 2005 trucks travelling on Austrian autobahns are required to have a Go-Box, a small white box which counts the length of the used autobahn with electrical control points. The Go-Box is queried by overhead DSRC microwave radio transceivers at each exit. As only trucks need to carry a Go-Box, overhead 3-D infrared laser scanners are used to detect and photograph trucks without Go-Box. DSRC or Dedicated Short Range Communications is a short to medium range wireless protocol specifically designed for automotive use. ...


In Switzerland a similar system is in use, using a box called "Tripon". Different from Austria and Germany, trucks are obligated to pay toll (Leistungsabhängige Schwerverkehrsabgabe (LSVA) (Power-dependent heavy traffic toll)) for every use of Swiss roads (also on regular highways and local roads).


Traffic laws and enforcement

The German autobahn network is patrolled by the Autobahnpolizei (Autobahn police) in marked and unmarked police vehicles, some equipped with video cameras. This practice allows the enforcement of laws (tailgating, for example) which are often viewed in other countries as difficult to prove in court. Notable laws include the following: Autobahnpolizei is the term in Germany, Austria and the German-speaking parts of Switzerland for the highway police. ... For socializing before a sporting event, see Tailgate party. ...

  • Autobahns in Austria and Germany may only be used by powered vehicles that are designed to achieve a maximum speed exceeding 60 km/h (Switzerland: 80 km/h).
  • The right lane must be used when it is free, (Rechtsfahrgebot) and the left lane is generally intended for passing maneuvers only. Drivers using the left lane when the other lanes are free may be fined by autobahn police.
  • Overtaking on the right (Undertaking) is forbidden, except in traffic jams where it may be practiced with caution. The fact that the car overtaken is illegally occupying the left-hand lane is not an acceptable excuse. In these cases the police will routinely stop and fine both drivers.
  • Not allowing faster cars to overtake one's own car if the traffic situation allows it (e.g. by occupying the left-hand lane for a longer period of time) may be considered coercion[10].
  • In case of a traffic jam, the drivers must form an emergency lane to ensure emergency services can reach the scene of an possible accident. This lane must be formed between the left lane and the lane next to the left lane (i.e., between the two leftmost lanes).
  • It is unlawful for a driver to stop his or her vehicle on the road for any reason except in an emergency or situations where stopping is unavoidable, such as being involved in a collision. This includes stopping on emergency lanes. Running out of fuel is considered preventable and is consequently fined.
  • It is also unlawful to turn around or back up on the Autobahn under any circumstances. Doing so is punishable under criminal law.
  • The distance between vehicles (in metres) should be at least half the speed (in km/h) at all times (e.g. at least 60 meters at 120 km/h). This corresponds to a "lead time" of just under 2 seconds. Again, the fact that the car in front is illegally occupying the left-hand lane when the right-hand lane is free does not excuse following too closely.
    Fines for tailgating were increased in May 2006. At speeds of over 100 km/h, keeping less than 30 percent of the recommended distance now results in the suspension of one's driver's license for one to three months.
  • The legal regulations (Straßenverkehrsordnung) explicitly allow drivers to honk or flash headlights (Lichthupe) shortly in order to indicate intention of overtaking.[11]. Obtrusive behavior of the potentially overtaking car, such as constantly flashing headlights or driving at insufficient distances for a longer period of time is illegal and may be prosecuted as coercion. This may also apply to drivers not allowing faster cars to overtake their car if the traffic situation allows it (e.g. by occupying the left-hand lane for a longer period of time)[12].
  • Tires must be approved for the vehicle's top speed. Tires for lower speeds (i.e., cheaper than high-speed tires) are only allowed if they are marked as Winter tires (M+S or M/S). In this case the driver must have a sticker in the cockpit reminding of the maximum speed.

For other uses, see Coercion (disambiguation). ... For socializing before a sporting event, see Tailgate party. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other uses, see Coercion (disambiguation). ...

Rest areas on the autobahn

Along the Autobahn, the drivers can stop at rest areas for fuel, food and beverages. In Germany, they are called Raststätte(n), while in Austria they are known as Raststation(en). These rest areas have restaurants serving breakfast, lunch and dinner. The restaurants may legally serve alcoholic beverages. Many of the rest stops also have motels. In Germany, the rest areas were operated by a government-owned company until 1998, when it was privatized.


References

  1. ^ Europas erste Autobahn wird 75 (German). Spiegel Online (2007-08-04).
  2. ^ German Myth 8 Hitler and the autobahn German.about.com
  3. ^ Gesetz über die Errichtung eines Unternehmens "Reichsautobahnen" (German). www.verfassungen.de.
  4. ^ Richard Vahrenkamp (2006-09-06). Roads without Cars: The HAFRABA Association and the Autobahn Project 1933-1943 in Germany.
  5. ^ cite web|url=http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/apr2008/gb2008049_403792.htm?chan=globalbiz_europe+index+page_top+stories | title="Speed Limits Come to the Autobahn" | publisher=Business Week | date=2008-04-09 | accessdate=2008-04-11
  6. ^ cite web|url=http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,347388,00.html | title="German State Becomes First to Set General Autobahn Speed Limit" | publisher=Associated Press | date=2008-04-07 | accessdate=2008-04-07
  7. ^ Traffic and Accident Data - Germany (Summary Statistics). Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen (BASt) [1] [2]
  8. ^ The Berlin Wall opened in 1989, and German reunification was effective in 3 October 1990, but statistics for 1990 and prior are for the former West Germany states only.
  9. ^ Article from "Abendblatt" concerning so called "Sprinter-Unfälle"(Sprinter-accidents)
  10. ^ Noetigung
  11. ^ § 5 (5) StVO
  12. ^ Noetigung

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... This article is about the 1990 German reunification. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Autobahn

All autobahns This is a list of all autobahns in Germany. ... Transport in Switzerland // Railways Main article: Rail transport in Switzerland total: 5063 km standard gauge: 3652 km 1. ... The autobahn sign The Autobahn is the national freeway system of Austria. ... For other uses, see Highway (disambiguation). ... For specific systems, such as the Autobahns of Germany, see list of highway systems with full control of access and no cross traffic. ... Motorway symbol in UK, Australia, Spain, France and Ireland. ... Disruptions in organized traffic flow can create delays lasting hours. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This is an incomplete list, which may never be able to satisfy certain standards for completeness. ... An autoroute. ... Autostrada sign Autostrada is the Italian word for motorways/freeways, but is used in several countries including Belgium, Switzerland, Lithuania, Poland, Egypt, Israel, Albania and Romania. ... Main article: Transport in Poland Polish motorway network as of September, 2006. ... Romanias Road Network Public roads in Romania are ranked according to importance and traffic as follows: motorways (autostradă - pl. ...

Film

  • Reichsautobahn (documentary/b&w) by Hartmut Bitomsky (West Germany, 1986)

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Autobahn - The Best Online Video Experiences (131 words)
Autobahn is a lightweight application that provides accelerated downloads and more reliable streaming video for popular applications and websites.
Autobahn handles download requests from your web browser and applications and automatically improves downloads and streaming video.
Autobahn does not contain any malware, adware or spyware.
Autobahn - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3334 words)
All autobahns are named by using the capital letter "A" followed by a blank and a number (for example "A 8").
The idea for the construction of the Autobahn was first conceived during the days of the Weimar Republic, but apart from the AVUS in Berlin, construction was slow, and most projected sections did not progress much beyond the planning stage due to economic problems and a lack of political support.
The autobahns in East Germany (GDR) and the former German provinces of East Prussia, eastern Pomerania and Silesia in Poland and the Soviet Union after 1945 were grossly neglected in comparison to those in West Germany and Western Europe in general.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m