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Encyclopedia > Autoantibody

An autoantibody is an antibody (a type of protein) manufactured by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the individual's own proteins. Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ...


Many autoimmune diseases in humans, most notably lupus erythematosus, are caused by such autoantibodies. Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ...

Contents

Production

Antibodies are normally produced in response to a foreign protein or substance within the body, typically a pathogen (infectious organism). Normally, the immune system is able to recognize and ignore the body's own cells and to not overreact to non-threatening substances in the environment, such as foods. A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Sometimes, however, the immune system ceases to recognize one or more of the body's normal constituents as "self," leading to production of autoantibodies. These autoantibodies attack the body's own cells, tissues, and/or organs, causing inflammation and damage.


Cause

The causes of autoantibody production are varied and not well understood. It is thought that some autoantibody production is due to a genetic predisposition combined with an environmental trigger (such as a viral illness or a prolonged exposure to certain toxic chemicals). There is generally not a direct genetic link however. While families may be prone to develop autoimmune conditions, individual family members may have different autoimmune disorders, or may never develop an autoimmune condition. Researchers believe that there may also be a hormonal component as many of the autoimmune conditions are much more prevalent in women of childbearing age.


Types

Many autoantibodies are recognized. These are some medically important autoantibodies: - medicines, see medication and pharmacology. ...

  • Antinuclear antibody
  • Rheumatoid factor
  • Anti-ds DNA antibody
  • Anti-gastric parietal cell antibody
  • Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)
  • Anti-smooth muscle antibody
  • Anti-mitochondrial antibody
  • Anti-SM antibody
  • Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody (Anti-GBM antibody)
  • Anti-extractable nuclear antigen antibodies (Anti-ENA antibodies)
    • Anti-Ro antibody
    • Anti-La antibody
  • Anti-Scl 70 antibody
  • Anti-Jo 1 antibody
  • Anti-liver/kidney microsomal 1 antibody (anti-LKM 1 antibody)
  • Anti-Hu antibody

The type of autoimmune disorder or disease that occurs and the amount of destruction done to the body depends on which systems or organs are targeted by the autoantibodies, and how strongly. Disorders caused by organ specific autoantibodies, those that primarily target a single organ, such as the thyroid in Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, are often the easiest to diagnose as they frequently present with organ related symptoms. Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs, also known as antinuclear factor or ANF) are detected in a large group of autoimmune disorders. ... Rheumatoid factor (RF) is a blood test performed in patients with suspected rheumatoid arthritis (RA). ... For other uses, including the Australian company, ANCA Pty Ltd, see ANCA (disambiguation) Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) are a group of mainly IgG antibodies against antigens in the cytoplasm of neutrophil granulocytes (the most common type of white blood cell) and monocytes. ... Anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are antibodies (immunoglobulins) formed against mitochondria,[1] primarily mitochondria in cells of the liver. ...


Diseases

Disorders due to systemic autoantibodies can be much more elusive. Although the associated autoimmune disorders are rare, the signs and symptoms they cause are relatively common. Symptoms may include: arthritis-type joint pain, fatigue, fever, rashes, cold or allergy-type symptoms, weight loss, and muscular weakness. Associated conditions include vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels) and anemia. Even if they are due to a particular systemic autoimmune condition, the symptoms will vary from person to person, vary over time, vary with organ involvement, and they may taper off or flare unexpectedly. Add to this the fact that a person may have more than one autoantibody, have more than one autoimmune disorder, and/or have an autoimmune disorder without a detectable level of an autoantibody and you have a complex maze that your doctor must often take you through to arrive at a diagnosis.


The diagnosis of disorders associated with systemic autoantibodies starts with a complete medical history and a thorough physical exam. Based on your signs and symptoms, the doctor may request one or more diagnostic studies that will help to identify a specific disease. These studies include:

  • blood tests to detect inflammation, autoantibodies, and organ involvement
  • x-rays and other imaging scans to detect changes in bones, joints, and organs
  • biopsies to look for pathologic changes in tissue specimens

As a rule, information is required from multiple sources (rather than a single laboratory test) to accurately diagnose disorders associated with systemic autoantibodies. Some of the most common systemic autoimmune disorders include:

Scleroderma is a rare, chronic disease characterized by excessive deposits of collagen in the skin or other organs. ... Sjögrens syndrome is an autoimmune disorder in which immune cells attack and destroy the glands that produce tears and saliva. ... X-Ray of the knee in a patient with dermatomyositis. ... {{ }} Polymyositis is a type of inflammatory myopathy, related to dermatomyositis and inclusion body myositis. ... Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) or Sharps syndrome is a human autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the body. ... Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is traditionally considered a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the joints. ...

Why are they done?

Autoantibody tests may be ordered as part of an investigation of chronic progressive arthritis type symptoms and/or unexplained fevers, fatigue, muscle weakness and rashes. The Antinuclear antibody (ANA) test is often ordered first. ANA is a marker of the autoimmune process – it is positive with a variety of different autoimmune diseases but not specific. Consequently, if an ANA test is positive, it is often followed up with other tests associated with arthritis and inflammation, such as a rheumatoid factor (RF), an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) , a C-Reactive Protein (CRP), and/or complement levels. Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ...


A single autoantibody test is not diagnostic, but may give clues as to whether a particular disorder is likely or unlikely to be present. Each autoantibody result should be considered individually and as part of the group. Some disorders, such as SLE may be more likely if several autoantibodies are present, while others, such as MCTD (mixed connective tissue disease) may be more likely if a single autoantibody (RNP - ribonucleic protein) is the only one present. Those who have more than one autoimmune disorder may have several detectable autoantibodies.


Whether a particular autoantibody will be present is both very individual and a matter of statistics. Each will be present in a certain percentage of people who have a particular autoimmune disorder. For instance, up to 80% of those with SLE will have a positive double strand anti-DNA (anti-dsDNA) autoantibody test, but only about 25-30% will have a positive RNP. Some individuals who do have an autoimmune disorder will have negative autoantibody test results, but at a later date – as the disorder progresses - the autoantibodies may develop.


Systemic autoantibody tests are used to:

  • Help diagnose systemic autoimmune disorders.
  • Help determine the degree of organ or system involvement and damage (Along with other tests such as a CBC or CMP)
  • Monitor the course of the disorder and the effectiveness of treatments. There is no prevention or cure for autoimmune disorders at this time. Treatment is used to alleviate symptoms and to help maintain body function.
  • Monitor remissions, flares, and relapses

List of some autoantibodies and commonly associated diseases

vs. Condition
vs. double-stranded-DNA Systemic lupus erythematosus
vs. Ro or La Systemic lupus erythematosus and neonatal heart block, primary Sjogren's syndrome
vs. Sm Systemic lupus erythematosus
vs. phospholipid Antiphospholipid syndrome
vs. SSA or SSB Sjogren's syndrome
vs. neutrophil cytoplasmic (c-ANCA) Wegener's granulomatosis
vs. neutrophil perinuclear (p-ANCA) Systemic vasculitides (non-specific)
vs. IgG (Rheumatoid factor) Rheumatoid arthritis
vs. neutrophil perinuclear (pANCA) Polyarteritis nodosa
vs. centromere CREST syndrome
vs. Scl70 Systemic sclerosis
vs. smooth muscle chronic autoimmune hepatitis
vs. mitochondria primary biliary cirrhosis
vs. nicotinic acetylcholine receptor myasthenia gravis
vs. voltage-gated calcium channel Lambert-Eaton syndrome
vs. thyroid peroxidase (microsmal) Hashimoto's thyroiditis
vs. TSH receptor Graves' disease
vs. Hu Paraneoplastic cerebellar syndrome
vs. voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) Limbic encephalitis

Note: the sensitivity and specificity of various autoantibodies for a particular disease is different for different diseases. The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... Look up ro, RO in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up la, LA, La in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sjögrens syndrome is an autoimmune disorder in which immune cells attack and destroy the glands that produce tears and saliva. ... SM may refer to: Stephen Malkmus, member of indie-rock band Pavement Stepmania, a game much like DDR Sadism and masochism, sometimes also written as S&M. Sales and Marketing Sam & Max, cartoon characters that have appeared in various media Sailor Moon, a popular Japanese cartoon. ... Phospholipid Two schematic representations of a phospholipid. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... Single-strand binding protein, or SSB, binds single stranded regions of DNA to prevent premature reannealing. ... Sjögrens syndrome is an autoimmune disorder in which immune cells attack and destroy the glands that produce tears and saliva. ... Neutrophil granulocytes (commonly referred to as neutrophils) are a class of white blood cells and are part of the immune system. ... Cytoplasm is the viscid, semi-fluid matter contained within the plasma membrane of a cell that helps to hold the cell together. ... Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) are antibodies against antigens in the cytoplasm of neutrophil granulocytes (the most common type of white blood cell). ... In medicine (rheumatology), Wegeners granulomatosis is a form of vasculitis that affects the lungs, kidneys and other organs. ... Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) are a group of mainly IgG antibodies against antigens in the cytoplasm of neutrophil granulocytes (the most common type of white blood cell) and monocytes. ... Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody is a protein complex used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ... Rheumatoid factor (RF) is a blood test performed in patients with suspected rheumatoid arthritis (RA). ... Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is traditionally considered a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the joints. ... Polyarteritis nodosa (or periarteritis nodosa) is a serious blood vessel disease. ... The centromere is a region of chromosomes with a special sequence and structure. ... Scleroderma is a rare, chronic disease characterized by excessive deposits of collagen. ... Cultured Smooth muscle of the aorta. ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are ionotropic receptors that form ion channels in cells plasma membranes. ... Myasthenia gravis (sometimes abbreviated MG; from the Greek myastheneia, lit. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is a rare disorder of nerve-muscle (neuromuscular) junction. ... This disease was discovered by Mr. ... The thyrotropin receptor (or TSH receptor) is a gene (and associated protein) which responds to thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as thyrotropin, and stimulates the production of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). ... Graves-Basedow disease is a form of thyroiditis, an autoimmune disorder that stimulates the thyroid gland, being the most common cause of hyperthyroidism (overactivity of the thyroid). ... Hu or hu may refer to: Hu (mythology), the deification of the first word, in the Egyptian mythology of the Ennead Huh (god), the deification of eternity in the Egyptian mythology of the Ogdoad Hu (surname), a Chinese family name represented by the character 胡. Hù is also an abbreviation for... Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration is a paraneoplastic phenomenon associated with lung, ovarian, breast, and other cancers. ... Voltage-gated potassium channel are a family of voltage gated potassium channels. ... Limbic encephalitis is a form of encephalitis. ...


External links

  • MeSH Autoantibodies
  • Detection of autoantibodies with self-assembling radiolabeled antigen tetramers (a protocol)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Previous Autoantibody Targets of the Month (3111 words)
Autoantibodies may develop to these molecules as well; however, there is less clarity about the role that these autoantibodies may play in exacerbating atherosclerosis.
Autoantibodies to the small proteins associated with this molecule are often measured together and one of them is a specific marker for an important disease.
Autoantibodies to the other ribonucleoproteins (colored yellow and which vary, depending on the type of complex) are associated with SLE as well as other autoimmune disorders.
Autoantibody - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (111 words)
An autoantibody is a protein manufactured by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the host's own proteins.
Many autoimmune diseases in humans, most notably lupus erythematosus, are caused by such autoantibodies.
Note: the sensitivity and specificity of various autoantibodies for a particular disease is different for different diseases.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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