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Encyclopedia > Autistic spectrum

Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), also called autistic spectrum conditions (ASC) or the autistic spectrum, with the word autism sometimes replacing autistic, are a spectrum of psychological conditions characterized by widespread abnormalities of social interactions and communication, as well as severely restricted interests and highly repetitive behavior.[1] A spectrum disorder in psychiatry is hard to define precisely but is a mental disorder having something to do with a spectrum of subtypes or closely related disorders. ...


Autism is one of the five autism spectrum disorders. Of the other four autism spectrum disorders, Asperger's syndrome is closest to autism in signs and likely causes; Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder share several signs with autism but may have unrelated causes; finally, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) is diagnosed when the criteria are not met for a more specific disorder.[2] Unlike autism, Asperger's has no significant delay in language development.[3] Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior, all exhibited before a child is three years old. ... Asperger described his patients as little professors. Aspergers syndrome (AS, or the more common shorthand Aspergers), is characterized as one of the five pervasive developmental disorders, and is commonly referred to as a form of high functioning autism. ... A woman with Retts Syndrome Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is classified as a pervasive developmental disorder by the DSM-IV. Many [1] argue that this is a mis-classification just as it would be to include such disorders as fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, or Down... Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD), also known as Hellers syndrome and disintegrative psychosis, is a rare condition characterized by late onset (>3 years of age) of developmental delays in language, social function, and motor skills. ... PDD not otherwise specified or PDD-NOS is a pervasive developmental disorder. ... Childrens language development moves from simplicity to complexity. ...


The terminology of autism can be bewildering, with autism, Asperger's, and PDD-NOS sometimes called the autistic disorders,[4] whereas autism itself is often called autistic disorder, childhood autism, or infantile autism. ASD in turn is a subset of the broader autism phenotype (BAP), which describes individuals who may not have ASD but do have some autistic-like traits, such as avoiding eye contact.[5] Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ... In biology, a trait or character is a feature of an organism. ...


One review estimated a prevalence of at least 1.3 per 1,000 for autism and 6.0–6.5 per 1,000 for ASD; PDD-NOS was the vast majority of ASD, Asperger's was about 0.3 per 1,000 and the atypical forms childhood disintegrative disorder and Rett syndrome were much rarer.[6] Look up Review in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... PDD not otherwise specified or PDD-NOS is a pervasive developmental disorder. ... Asperger described his patients as little professors. Aspergers syndrome (AS), is a pervasive developmental disorder commonly referred to as a form of high-functioning autism. ... Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD), also known as Hellers syndrome and disintegrative psychosis, is a rare condition characterized by late onset (>3 years of age) of developmental delays in language, social function, and motor skills. ... A woman with Retts Syndrome Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is classified as a pervasive developmental disorder by the DSM-IV. Many [1] argue that this is a mis-classification just as it would be to include such disorders as fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, or Down...

Contents

Autistic traits

Behaviorally, certain characteristics identify the autism spectrum. The type, severity and/or number of autistic traits present determines the severity of autism in the individual. These autistic traits may be beneficial for some disciplines like science, mathematics, engineering and computer programming. Some autistic individuals might show a marked proficiency in rote memorization which may help learn the foundation of these subjects; however, the exceptionally good aptitude (in these subjects) of high functioning autistic spectrum persons may be due to their ability to readily identify patterns and apply them consistently to new situations outside of established knowledge or teaching. These savant skills, although popularly considered to be a major part of autistic disorders, are evident only in a small fraction of autistic individuals, with estimates of the fraction ranging from 0.5% to 10%.[7] Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior, all exhibited before a child is three years old. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Engineering is the applied science of acquiring and applying knowledge to design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... “Programming” redirects here. ... Look up savant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Diagnostic criteria and techniques

When the rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorders sparked research in the late 1990s, medical opinion initially attributed the increase to improved diagnostic screening or changes in the definition of autism. In 1994, the fourth major revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) was published[8] with updated criteria for the diagnosis of autism and autism spectrum disorders.[9] Professional medical associations, including the American Academy of Pediatrics, say that this revision was an important factor in increasing the apparent prevalence of autism and a 2005 study by Mayo Clinic researchers found increases in autistic spectrum disorder diagnoses followed the revisions in DSM criteria and changes in funding for special education programs.[10] In epidemiology, the prevalence of a disease in a statistical population is defined as the total number of cases of the disease in the population at a given time, or the total number of cases in the population, divided by the number of individuals in the population. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a handbook for mental health professionals that lists different categories of mental disorder and the criteria for diagnosing them, according to the publishing organization the American Psychiatric Association. ... The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is an organization of pediatricians, physicians trained to deal with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. ... Main campus in downtown Rochester, Minnesota. ...


An increased awareness of autistic spectrum disorders by parents and pediatricians may have also led to increased reporting of Autism due to 'case substitution', which occurs when children with other disorders are identified as autistic.[11] This misdiagnosis may occur for several reasons including an increase in government funding for care of children diagnosed as autistic, but not for children with a similar degree of disability and need. If this is occurring, it means that children who in the past would probably have been diagnosed as having a different condition, or not diagnosed at all are recorded as new cases of autistic spectrum disorder. Possible alternate diagnoses include mental retardation, learning disability and childhood schizophrenia.[12] High-functioning autistic children are sometimes misdiagnosed ADHD.[13] Children who are not primarily autistic, e.g. those with Fragile-X Syndrome (with characteristics that fit the criteria for autism) and even Down's Syndrome may have the diagnostic group with the best funding assigned.[14] Mental retardation is a term for a pattern of persistently slow learning of basic motor and language skills (milestones) during childhood, and a significantly below-normal global intellectual capacity as an adult. ... This article is about the use of the term in the United States and Canada. ... DISCLAIMER Please remember that Wikipedia is offered for informational use only. ... Fragile X Syndrome is the most common inherited cause of mental impairment, and the most common known cause of autism. ...


ADHD and autism

Some research suggests a possible genetic and behavioral connection between ADHD and autism. [5] DISCLAIMER Please remember that Wikipedia is offered for informational use only. ...


References

  1. ^ World Health Organization (2006). "F84. Pervasive developmental disorders", International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th ed. (ICD-10). 
  2. ^ Lord C, Cook EH, Leventhal BL, Amaral DG (2000). "Autism spectrum disorders" (PDF). Neuron 28 (2): 355–63. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(00)00115-X. PMID 11144346. 
  3. ^ American Psychiatric Association (2000). "Diagnostic criteria for 299.80 Asperger's Disorder (AD)", Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., text revision (DSM-IV-TR). ISBN 0890420254. 
  4. ^ Freitag CM (2007). "The genetics of autistic disorders and its clinical relevance: a review of the literature". Mol Psychiatry 12 (1): 2–22. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4001896. PMID 17033636. 
  5. ^ Piven J, Palmer P, Jacobi D, Childress D, Arndt S (1997). "Broader autism phenotype: evidence from a family history study of multiple-incidence autism families" (PDF). Am J Psychiatry 154 (2): 185–90. PMID 9016266. 
  6. ^ Fombonne E (2005). "Epidemiology of autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders". J Clin Psychiatry 66 (Suppl 10): 3–8. PMID 16401144. 
  7. ^ Treffert DA (2007). Savant syndrome: an extraordinary condition—a synopsis: past, present, future. Wisconsin Medical Society. Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ [2]
  10. ^ Barbaresi WJ, Katusic SK, Colligan RC, Weaver AL, Jacobsen SJ (2005). "The incidence of autism in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1976-1997: results from a population-based study". Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine 159 (1): 37-44. doi:10.1001/archpedi.159.1.37. PMID 15630056. 
  11. ^ Am. Assoc. paed. Case substitution accounts for some of the increase in reported incidence
  12. ^ [3]
  13. ^ [4]
  14. ^ CNN report Dr Fred Volkmar, an autism researcher from Yale said "Autism is a kind of fashionable diagnosis".

“WHO” redirects here. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) is a detailed description of known diseases and injuries. ... David G. Amaral, Ph. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Due to the epidemic of medical errors, readers are cautioned to be aware that the American Psychiatric Association isnt immune to this. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association, is the handbook used most often in diagnosing mental disorders in the United States and other countries. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Eric Fombonne, MD, FRCP, (b. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links


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